• Mark Robinson added an answer:
    Hi. I am looking for primary and secondary material on 12th and 13th century Navarre? Can anyone point me in the right direction?

    At the moment I am looking at the role of Iberian mercenaries in the twelfth and thirteenth century. I am principally looking for reasons for their prevalence in southern France during the period of the Albigensian crusades, but I am also looking for some background info on the Basque region and the kingdom of Navarre during the period. The primary sources I have are all Anglo-Norman and French in origin.

    Mark Robinson

    Thank you all, plenty for me to get stuck into.

  • Tamer Elgebali added an answer:
    Is there any articles about the relevance of the crusades in the post-modern era?

    Is there any article about the relevance of the crusades in post-modern era?

    Tamer Elgebali

    Thank you so much..
    I am waiting

  • Dune Simpson added an answer:
    Why if the Crusaders were so devoted and practiced moral values, they killed christians and other persons in Maarrat al-Nu'man?
    I'm teaching this part of the first crusade but I want to know why there were two faces of the Europeans about morality, religion and human sense.
    Dune Simpson

    I agree with Darius, it is dangerous to generalise about motives. But at the time it was believed that nothing happened without divine approval, everything was under the control of God's will.  Crusaders, or 'pilgrims'  as they referred to themselves were acting out God's will on his behalf and apparently God wanted Jerusalem liberated from infidels who were abusing holy shrines.  Being so close to the end of the millenium there was an interest, bordering on hyseria, in the End of Days, the Last Judgement, the Second Coming, the care of the soul was imperitive. With the exposure to different versions of Christianity, Byzantium, Armenian, the 'heretic' developed which was key in later crusades. it was not unusual in siege situations where negotiations could not  reach a settlement, to attack and slaughter everyone. Another consideration is  the psychological state of mind, the majority of crusaders were suffering from hunger and malnutrition when they got to Maarrat al-Nu'man and it iis here where the reports of cannibalism arose.  Many issues at play here.

Topic followers (65) See all