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Hi All I have a student working on the enumeration and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria following these publications: ,
The oil in the agar plates separates and is partially removed during the spread plate of the diluted sample, and partially removed. See the attachments, any advice is highly appreciated since we have little experience in this topic.
Thank you in advance
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Why not have your student also inoculate a "crude oil'-free control?
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actually, I am trying to dissolve nickel acetate tetrahydrate in crude oil with a concentration of nickel in oil 100ppm, but they do not dissolve in crude oil any suggestions, please?
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Thank you so much Dr Atul, can you explain more what i will do , with regards
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This is the instruments and software that are used.
Nicolet™ iS™ 10 FTIR Spectrometer
Smart OMNI-Transmission™ Accessories
PIKE's demountable liquid cell with KBr windows
OMNIC software
On the figure, the blue spectra is the background sampled without cell and the red spectra is the air sampled with the cell. The problem seems to come from eighter the cell or the data analysis configuration. All my samples got thoses bands. The samples are crude oil in dichloromethane.
Does anyone ever seen this kind of issue ?
Thanks for sharing!
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If you use ATR, the title of your y-axis should read "reflectance" (and not "transmittance"). Now we need to know how the reference measurement was performed - this is absolutely essential, since quite often this is the problem!
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Though it has been a few decades since Chaos Theory made its way into Economics and Finance through the works of Baumol & Benhabib, Alison Butler, David Levy, Philip Mirowski, Michael McKenzie, Robert Gilmore and Blake LeBaron
(among others), it is observed that most of the mainstream economics and finance journals are reserved towards publishing empirical papers on chaos in financial markets. Publications to this end are very few and most of them are published in a handful of journals.
As I am looking forward to write empirical papers examining the evidence of chaos in commodity markets, I wish to know the odds of my work seeing the light of the day. Any useful suggestion/information in this regard would be highly appreciated.
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Using chaos theory, a change in price is determined through mathematical predictions of the following factors: a trader's personal motivations (such as doubt, desire, or hope, all of which are nonlinear and complex), changes in volume, the acceleration of changes, and momentum behind the changes.
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Can chemicals ( demulsifier or fast dropper) be used to separate water from Heavy crude oil to prepare for the following tests (viscosity, asphaltene deposition, SARA test and flash point)? Is this ASTM compliant?
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Solvents+ Surfactant
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Cosolvents, reactive membrane, chelants, complexing agents, or surfactants usage?
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You should always do what the RG recommends. You need to click on "mention". I accidentally saw an appeal to me.
The method suggested earlier will not work for you.
You must definitely remove the soil, then extract the oil with a solvent from the soil. The kerosene fraction is best suited as a solvent.
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For sake of validation, I would like to compare one of the simulated streams with the experimental TBP curve. Is it possible somehow to generate a TBP curve in ChemCAD having only a CC-steady state license?
Best regards,
Marcin
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I am answering myself, but still, it may be useful as a reference. Menu Drawing\StreamBox and tick Petroleum Assay in Properties.
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There are many factors, apart from the price of crude oil, that also affect the price of retail gasoline. These include, but are not limited to: transportation costs incurred to deliver gasoline to retail outlets, refining and marketing costs and margins, inventory levels and local supply problems
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Ok@Arunaditya Sahay ,I will do that, thank you sir.
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I am doing research on sand erosion experiment. What are the chemicals or additives that can be added to water to simulate the fluid properties of crude oil ( e.g viscosity and density of crude oil) ? Other than glycerin water mixture, what else i can add to water to simulate the viscosity and density of crude oil ?
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you can increase the viscosity by decreasing the temperature
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Global Peak Oil: Are we running out of ‘applied technology’ or ‘basic science’?
1. Whether the decline in the discovery of oil reservoirs at the global-scale – would necessarily mean that – we are running out of oil?
2. Whether oil a finite resource - in order to have a beginning, middle and end of production – at the global-scale (and not locally) – with reference to geological time levels?
3. Do we have any standard time-frame, by which peak oil remains - purely based on - the observed rise, peak, fall and depletion of aggregate production rate in oil?
If not, with geological time scale, how do we deduce the point in time, when the maximum rate of extraction of crude oil reaches?
4. Does the concept of global peak oil production reflect our technological limitations; or real resource exhaustion – at the global-scale?
5. With 75 million bpd of crude oil in 2000 (as against King Hubbert’s prediction of 34 million bpd), whether 110 million bpd (approximately equaling 200 exajoules of global annual energy consumption) can be considered to be the global peak in crude oil production (possibly around 2025);
OR
Do we still have a long way to go to reach the global peak – associated with the complex unconventional oil/gas resources and reservoirs; and with technological advancements?
6. Whether the advancements in alternative energy technologies – which is supposed to have the ability to replace ‘oil as the resource of choice for transportation’ – have really contributed significantly and accelerated the global peak oil concept?
OR
Are they going as a parallel line?
7. Whether the current dependence on crude oil towards world’s (ever) growing energy needs – can afford to ignore crude oil – at any point of time – in the near future (say, for next 50 years)?
8. Feasible to dream a global economy – in the absence of fossil fuels – in the near future?
9. Whether the pandemic has really forced us to rethink about our energy policy?
10. With 1.5 billion vehicles on the world’s roads – which consume nearly half of the world’s oil – is all set to become electric vehicles?
Whether electric vehicles have really started to make a serious dent in oil use – at the global-scale?
[For example, in the next 10 years, only 10% of vehicles in the US might be electric; and probably, Electric Vehicles adoption might take decades to catch up to gasoline and diesel cars.]
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We certainly need new and creative ideas along with changes in behavior if we are to effectively move into the future and avoid crises, as energy is such a large part of modern civilization. This requires constructive dialog and facing difficult facts. Sadly, Western Society is increasingly less able to discuss anything intelligently, let alone constructively. Much of what we see today (especially on social media) could be described as: state your position in three words or less that will preclude any meaningful discussion and also vilify everyone else in the room. The pandemic has only made it worse, when it should have been a wake up call to remind us how much we need to pull together.
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I designed a visible light photocatalyst for the degradation of crude oil in water. The catalyst in the presence of light degraded the crude oil to 78% but when the catalyst was used without light degraded to 95% which was not what I was expecting. I was expecting the synergestic effect of adsorption and light to work better but that was not the case. Can anyone with understanding in this area of adsorption and photocatalysis of crude oil help me with explanation please!
Thanks
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without the interaction of light, a more physical removal process (via contact and deposition) was more possible due to stability of the adsorbate, even though your adsorbent is a photocatalyst, under low or less exposure to light, the catalyst may still be activated by the little available intensity, except you have an efficiently dark enclosed system, your 95% removal efficiency could be attributed to adsorption in combination with a low degradation. i believe adsorption was achieved in the absence of light.
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Considering the US negative Oil Price and Also the Global Average Oil Production Cost that Range between $30 to $40 a Barrel, Please Share your Perspective Regarding the Future of the Oil Prices, Oil Production and Oil Firms.
"US oil prices crashed into negative territory for the first time in history as the evaporation of demand caused by the coronavirus pandemic left the world awash with oil and not enough storage capacity — meaning producers are paying buyers to take it off their hands. West Texas Intermediate, the US benchmark, traded as low as -$40.32 a barrel in a day of chaos in oil markets." , reported by FINANCIAL TIMES on April 20, 2020.
Now the most common questions that might be raised in all people's mind is that " Will Oil Price Recover and Oil Industry Survive?? If Yes, When and How this will Occur?? "
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I am having 5 countries aviation fuel cost of individual airline and like to assess the impact of crude oil price change on the cost. Therefore, how could I use crude oil in my panel data set because crude oil price is common for all countries?
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We should never include a static variable in panel data which does not change. You have mentioned that you wish to measure the impact of crude oil price change on the cost. The change can be taken in form of first differences stored in a variable when the data is arranged company wise with years.
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I'm making a research on how to distill pyrolysis oil to produce diesel. Is simply heating the pyrolysis oil at the temperature that diesel from crude oil ussually evaporates at, or treating the pyrolysis oil like crude oil and using the same process (fractional distillation) to seperate the different fractions of crude oil on pyrolysis oil enough or do I need to do other process to seperate the diesel-like fraction out of the pyrolysis oil?
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In order to obtain fractions as components for diesel, you may conduct distillation at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum (for diesel components), but I think maybe it's better to carry out a hydrotreating step, to eliminate the olefins formed during the pyrolysis. In that way, you can have a higher yield in C15-C18.
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I am interested in understanding the impact on corrosivity of crude oils containing these two components. Specifically in Distillation Units equipment and piping (atmospheric and vacuum).
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In the file that I attached below there is a line upon the theta(1) coefficient and another one exactly below C(9). In addition, what is this number below C(9)? There is no description
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I asked that question to the person who code that package, and he said C(9) coefficient does not have any meaning here, just ignore. It comes up because the package is written for the old version of Eviews and has not been updated that is why.
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What is the method for calculate the sulfur in crude oil for production sulfur
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check the file
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My research is focused on assessing the effect of nano particles on the remediation of crude oil contaminated soils in a changing climate and I'm expected to take ~10 kg consoil to Germany. How do I go about it? Thank you.
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I want to quantify the amount of oil in the oil-water mixture using laboratory analysis.
Can you please suggest some suitable techniques for that?
Thank You.
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Do you need to define oil in water or water in oil, and in which range.
I see that the three answers focused on determining the amount of water on oil but I understand from your question that you are looking for technics for measuring oil in water. For that you can use oil&grease, TOC, COD or similar methods.
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I used 20 geochemical parameters of seven crude oils chromatograms to construct agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) in XLSTAT (Addinsoft, 2012), but the issue is that the similarity line crossed the zero and in NEGATIVE. Is it okay to divide them in genetic groups?Please find the attached screenshot.Thanks in advance
.
XLSTAT CRUDE OIL GEOCHEMISTRY GCMS CHROMATOGRAMS DENDROGRAM
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How can I decrease the percentage of sulfur present in crude oil?
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Dear Ahmed,
Kindly explain clearly the context of your question.
The simple answer to your question is "by adding the desulphrization units/columns" in the process schematics. The more the no. of desulpharization units the better the sulphur removal will be, hence the optimization of 2,3 or 4 stages of desulphrization is another aspect that needs to be studied. The aspen HYSYS simulations can be used on Claus's process for optimization study.
Thanks
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Actually the spectrophotometer can't read the optical density of crude oil in 420 nm. Even I diluted it 10 times with DCM but it didn't work. Any body could help me please?
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Dear Sara Shokranian,
Raman spectroscopy is usually used to study different crude oils in the (1200—2000) wavenumber range. Moreover, crude petroleum oils are typically excited using ultraviolet wavelengths (300–400 nm) and fluoresce in the visible wavelength range from 400 to 600 nm.
I syggest you to use UV quartz cuvette, as well as scan the sample from (200-700 nm) to obtain the max or the best wavelength of absorbance for your sample.
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We are looking for crude oil samples for some bioremediation experiments. We can't seem to find any from scientific chemical suppliers like Sigma. If anyone knows of any suppliers that would be great!
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Use above link to purchase the crude oil
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I have been convinced by the concept of direct desulfurization of crudes. The commercial development in this technology will help ridding off the require the of mutilpe reactors with different ranges of Catalytic beds in the modern petroleum refinery.
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Ahh Bugs replacing refinery process again. A 50+ year old dream that will probably come true some day - but probably not in my lifetime.
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I have been dealing with rapeseed oil extraction by soxtec. sometime when oil content is high, over 40%, there would be oil residue on the thimble, leading inconsistency of the data. Has anyone running into the same problem? What factors may contribute to this? I’m suspecting the extraction time is not long enough and the solvent to sample ratio is not high enough.
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Based on your descriptions, it is likely that the extraction time is insufficient for the extraction to be completed. However, it would be difficult to conclude based on color observations. You can try several steps:
(1) Increase the extraction time
(2) Reduce the physical size and / or amount of samples used for extraction
(3) Spike surrogate / internal standards into your samples and cross-check for recovery
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Since mid-2020, when we see a renewed increase in the popularity of cryptocurrencies as a source of easy profit, avoiding transaction costs and escaping from fiat money inflation, the energy costs associated with "mining" Bitcoin were revealed in the media. Energy experts began to carefully assess the functioning of the cryptocurrency market in terms of electricity consumption in relation to the amount of electricity consumed by the economy. It turned out that bitcoin mining costs annually at least as much electricity as a medium-sized country like Finland consumes. If Bitcoin were a country, it would rank in the top 30 worldwide for energy use. I enclose the research results in charts and links to the publication. Meanwhile, in 2021 we are witnessing the emergence of an energy crisis all over the world and an incredible increase in the prices of natural gas and crude oil as a result of climate disturbances, disruptions in the supply chain and broken cooperative ties between international companies. Therefore, what are the prospects for such a phenomenon as cryptocurrencies or other energy-intensive technologies, the use of which is completely against the policy of reducing greenhouse gases and switching to renewable energy on a global scale? Is the true thesis that the growth rate of the BTC market price to USD is comparable to the growth rate of electricity consumption by cryptocurrency miners?
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In this article we look at these issues, I hope you find it of interest.
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Respected Delegates,
I want to study SEM and XRD analysis of Crude oil. But as you know, we can't dry it in normal vacuum oven or even dedicator. So what's the procedure I want to follow so that I can perform this experiment?
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After Impregnation, dry sample at 100 oC for 24 - 48 hours (you can also reduce in a muffle oven at say 250 oC). Then spatter coat sample and perform your SEM analysis.
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The setup include a round bottom flask, a column with packings and a condenser, inclined at 75 degrees.
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The cut temperature is taken from the probe is placed on the top of the jacketed column connected over the Distilling Flask. You can refer to the picture here. https://brinstrument.com/blog/crude-oil-distillation/true-boiling-point-distillation-astm-d2892-distillation-of-crude-oil/
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Suppose there is a leak in a crude oil pipeline, after which the inlet valve of the line will be closed. However, depending on the length of the pipeline, it may take some time for the current in the ruptured section of the pipeline to be completely cut off. I am trying to calculate the flow rate change at the rupture location of the pipeline. (in my case pipe line length from leak to valve in about 25 km)
Different sources such as "OCS Study MMS 2002 - 033" have presented different equations to calculate the amount of leakage, but the results obtained from these equations in the best conditions calculate the amount of leakage after closing the valve equal to half the volume of the pipeline. It should be noted that none of these equations take into account the slope of the pipeline, which is also based on the events that have been recorded. It should be much less than half the volume of the pipeline. Does anyone have more information on how to accurately calculate the amount of leakage? It should also be noted that due to the very long length of the pipeline, it seems impossible to use CFD model. (I tried fluent)?
Thanks
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Hello.
Although the equations you mention can help outline the approximate extreme leakage, the scenario you have laid out is quite complex and depends on many factors such as: the pipe diameter, length and slope of the flowline, as well as the initial flowrate (velocity and momentum of the fluid), fluid PVT and ambient conditions (temperature and pressure of the system outside of the pipe compared to inside).
You are correct that CFD software is not designed for this type of analysis, in industry I would recommend a transient pipeline flow simulation software such as OLGA or Ledaflow.
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Note that Salinity (NaCl) has been able to potentially reduce the IFT between non-ionic natural surfactant and crude oil. What factors are effective ?
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Depends where you are on the HLD scale. All salts, including NaCl effect the HLD, and thus the interfacial tension of surfactant-oil-water systems. At HLD=0 (phase inversion point) the system undergoes lowest IFT and as you move away from it, the IFT increases.
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My research experiment comprised 8 treatments replicated thrice.The first treatment cell was unpolluted control while the remaining 7 treatment cells measuring 0.9m square each were polluted with 500ml of escravous light crude oil with specific gravity of 0.866.Please what is the percent pollution for this study.
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Dear Dr Olubukola
Please kindly follow the references, hope they can be useful for your study;
Best wishes
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Gas Formation Volume Factor (GFVF) as a function of Reservoir Pressure:
Isothermal Compressibility below Bubble-Point (BP) Pressure:
Since the conventional isothermal compressibility on crude oil ‘below BP pressure’ would lead to negative compressibility (as the volume of crude oil mitigates with pressure decline), the shrinkage effect of saturated-oil (variation of oil formation volume factor as a function of reservoir pressure) and the expansion effect of the gas coming out of solution (variation of solution GOR & GVFV as a function of reservoir pressure) needs to be considered explicitly.
If so, can we comfortably estimate the isothermal compressibility of a saturated crude-oil with ‘changing liquid oil composition’, below BP pressure?
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نتائج بحث الويب
COEFFICIENT OF ISOTHERMAL OIL COMPRESSIBILITY FOR ...
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What is the content of MOSH/MOAH in food grade lubricants? Does the use of food grade lubricants have an impact on the analysis results for MOSH/MOAH in refined edible oils?
We added several ppm of Food Grade lubricants into samples of crude oil. We were shocked at the results obtained when comparing oil without Food Grade lubricant, and that wijth small amounts added. WOuld this occur? If yes, why does it happen? Why would the MOAH levels rise?
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Food Grade LUbricants contain greater than 90% MOSH and it may contain high levelos of MOAH too. Hence usage of FG lubricants is not the way to achieve low levels of MOSH and MOAH in rfefined oils.
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why in research papers people are always expressing the acidity of crude oil by total acid number and total base number instead of measuring the pH of the crude oil ?
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because it is more convenient and more indicative
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Looking for some reference to understand or learn numerical modeling for compressible fluids (such as crude oil) - flow through the fracture or space between parallel plates. Thank you.
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non to my knowledge
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Hello, I am interested in understanding the methods behind the characterization of the crude oils. However, I have been searching on different methods and found out that there are TLC, HPLC methods that are available for crude oil fractionation. However, seems like there are issues with accuracy and precision in any of these methods. Additionally, it is known that there is a NMR method for crude oil characterization. I guess, my goal would be to increase the accuracy and precision of the crude oil characterization in order to provide a better insight into the molecular structure of a given crude oil. I would like to ask people who have an experience with these methods and maybe share what are the limitations and advantages of these methods?
Thank you very much!
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Nurbol Bekbossinov you are exactly right on some of the key challenges. Due to the supercomplex nature of petroleum, there are limitations in every method. the most effective way is probably the divide-and-conquer strategy, i.e., chromatographic separation followed by characterization techniques. The well known and popular average structure strategy (use one or few representative structures to represent any petroleum fraction) based on NMR, MS etc. is obviously very limited because so many molecules. The high res MS can reveal up to a quarter million ion peaks easily, and probably the closest to understand the reality of petroleum species. However, we still don’t know exactly how many molecules in petroleum since each MS peak can represent many molecules and each formula has a gazillion of possible structures. so, we really don’t know about exactly the structures unless there is a method to isolate individua molecule and characterize them, which is probably impossible. Most of the structures in papers or textbooks so far are still “cartoons“ or schematics, i.e. they represent numerous structures. The only approach to provide real and specific structures had been the recent non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy technique in the last few years which allows us to take a “look“ at individual molecules directly. You can take a look at this paper to start with.
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Recently encountered such a situation in the lab. What could be the reason for this type of behavior? looking for answers.
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In basis of my experience, as much as HLB of surfactant is less, the potential of foam generation and foam stability is higher. CMC is a function of HLB, but even high HLB surfactants can provide ultra-low IFT conditions at usually high concentrations. For example: SDBS is an anionic surfactant with HLB ~ 21, however, it can provide the IFT values less than 1 mN/m (0.82 mN/m) at 5000 ppm (CMC) [10.1021/acsomega.0c04464].
In other words, the topic of foam is not as dependent on IFT as it is on HLB.
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What are the stationary and mobile phases normally for gas chromatography performed on a crude oil sample ? and why those ? can I have an answer please
and in the final result when we c7-c110 boiling points do we mean that we only detected the paraffin components in the sample ranging from c7 to c110? we don't detect any aromatic rings that has 7 carbon atoms or anything else, we only detect the parrafins with those carbon numbers ?
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You should start researching such basic questions by first doing a keyword search on Google (or any search engine). Many free review papers, journal articles and application notes can be found in this way. Learning how to research a question is one of the most important skills you can learn as a student.
Many types of useful crude oil analysis methods for GC have been published starting in the 1960's by the EPA and many other groups, such as the AOCS to name a few. Improvements and variations are plentiful. Depending on the exact area of crude oil analysis or the type of comparison needed, different columns and methods are used.
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Future of Oil & Gas Industry: Are we equipped to change our daily routine?
Knowing the fact that the world will not run out of oil (at least for the next few decades) along with the new discoveries and efficiency gains at existing oil fields, when are we expecting the ‘peak demand’? Whether the prediction on ‘peak-demand’ would replicate the ‘peak-oil’ forecast by King Hubbert? Are we prepared to face post-hydrocarbon age following peak-demand?
Are we going to be away from Olefins and Aromatics? That means, are we going to find a substitute for soaps, detergents, plastics, fertilisers, synthetic fibers, adhesives, foams, gels, tires, paints, digital devices, medical equipments, explosives,…………………. health care, furniture, electronics, clothing, packaging, pharmaceuticals, manufacturing of electric cars and batteries……?
With the increment of 15% between 2010 and 2020, when will the over-all demand for crude oil (is expected to) come down?
With the increment of 50% between 2010 and 2020, when will the demand for crude oil (is expected to) come down in the petro-chemical industry? Are there enough practical options available at present that could possibly reduce the demand for petro-chemicals in the next few decades? (In fact, the current demand of 10 million-barrels/day by petrochemical industry is expected to grow continuously/linearly in the next few decades). How effective the ‘recycling of plastic’ will be (that can potentially reduce the dependency on crude oil)?
Whether reducing dependency on crude oil for heating and power – will really make an impact (as both together contribute to just 10% of the total crude oil consumption)? Whether Decarbonization, Decentralization and Digitalization will really aid in shifting towards renewable energy?
Nearly 60% dependency on crude oil towards transport (cars/trucks/aviation/marine): Whether alternative energy sources could really make an impact in the near future (ex: rapid rise of electric carmakers such as Tesla Inc. and China’s BYD)?
Are we on the right track in limiting the global warming to well below 2 degress Celcius – following COVID19?
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An initial solution of 10000ppm of demulsifier was made using toluene and demulsifier. I wish to make a variety of from 100ppm dosage of a 50ml waxy crude oil and want to know an effective method to determine the volume required to make a 100 ppm dosage of a 50ml oil
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Is the dilution equation required in this situation?
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I just have a question that's how aromatics like toluene and xylene can dissolve asphaltene, also the aromatics fraction in crude oil are playing a significant role in stabilizing asphaltene ( and in CII) by considering them a solvent for asphaltene, while the asphaltene is POLAR and aromatics are NON-POLAR ???
A lot of researchers are considering aromatics polar and on the other hand lots of them also considering aromatics as a non-polar component
1- if I considered aromatics in crude as a polar components, then how they're linked to the non-polar head of the resin ?
2- If I considered aromatics in crude as non-polar components, then how they're interacting with asphaltene, dissolving and dispersing asphaltene in the crude ?
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I think, this question is more interesting. I can say, that asphaltenes are soluble in aromatics solvent, because they have unical colloidal properties. Aromatic solvents may dissolve polyaromatic molecules because p-p interactions, and delocalization electronic structure of this colloidal structure. Symmetrical molecules of solvent have equally dipole moment and don't displace or dislocate electronic balance of asphaltenes. There are a lot of papers about fractionation and solvatation of asphaltenes in different solvents. The nature of asphaltenes are related with their electronic structure.
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Blending of butane into gasoline without affecting the specs of gasoline in all environments
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Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics Fourth Edition. James H. Gary. Chapter 12.
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I am working on volatility of crude oil prices on economic growth using panel data. Knowing that the global crude oil prices are same for all countries, would it be valid to have same volatility for all countries? If not, how do such issues get resolved? Thanks
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There is possibility that the volatility of the crude price will remain the same.
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Hi everyone, I would like to find some documents that summarize the methods of removing impurities (sulfur, nitrogen, metals, ...) in petroleum products (products of fractional distillation of crude oil) such as HDS, HDN, caustic scrubber, sulfuric acid scrubber... for my essay. But the documents I found did not present the above methods as a common item, so it was difficult for me to find the document because of the breadth of the methods. Can you recommend to me some related documents?
Thanks for your help!
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Nam Nhat you can find it in books (a lot of ebooks are available). Secondly check the patents they are available free of charge (for example google patents).
regards,
GB
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How much solvent (n-hexane or dichloromethane) can I use to extract 1ml of crude oil from 50ml broth culture?
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Depending on the method used for extraction
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We need to analyze bio-crude/bio-oil samples for their quality assessment. I am thinking to use GC-FID to characterize the crude/oil samples to identify the different fractions of carbon (C6/C10 - C35>). Could you advise if we do GC-FID analysis instead of GC-MS for quality assessment of crude/oil samples?
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In this respect you are planing GC. The difference is just in detection way after the chromatography column. In case of FID you may apply it since you have your system calibrated for each compound with chromatopghaphic standards. If is for quality control I suggest it since after calibration it is quite easy to check retention times and peak areas with the GC software.
In case of using GC coupled to MS you avoid calibration and therefore the spend of standards, and then compare with MS catalogue. It is therefore more accurate than using FID.
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The ASTM D86 test provides a distribution of normal boiling points (Tb) on the commutative volume fraction distilled.
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Here is the TBP (15/5) distillation procedure. It is not usually used on naphtha
https://www.astm.org/Standards/D2892.htm. A"Sim-Dist" D2887 is typically used instead.
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For a non-isothermal compressible flow (highly viscous fluid) through a channel, I am getting spatial temperature values almost up to 10% elevated from the maximum value of temperature which has been set in the domain at the initial stage as boundary condition. Is this because of viscous dissipation which adds to the temperature or is this simply a wrong result? I am not using Boussinesq approximation in the code.
#Convection
#Thermal_Convection
#Heat_Transfer
#Viscous_Disspation
#Numerical_Methods
#Computational Fluid Dynamics
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Ahmad K. Sleiti yes the grid part is well resolved and it is independent of grid setup!
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Biggest strange is that secondary fuels are also energy currencies but they are not primary energy sources. How?
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Dear Ashish Thakur, the electricity is produced mostly based on carbon fuels (coal, gas and oil) combustion, therefore, these are considered as a primary source of energy. I once have read that diesel engine was a revolution because on the glass of oil you can drive about 2 km...
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I ma trying to download data for oil and gas import volume from Pakistan's crude oil and petroleum products import partners using UNcomtrade data source but unable to find the relevant HS codes for crude oil and petroleum products.
Can anyone guide me regarding the HS codes of crude oil and petroleum products?
Or is there any other source of downloading the data for the above mentioned subject?
Thanks in advance.Pakistan's oil and petroleunm products.Pakistan's oil and petroleunm products.
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We need nigerian local substrates apart from spent mushroom for the bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil.
We want organic based substrates with high nutrient levels.
Thanks
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My findings is not just limited to SMS, fish wastes etc, palm oil mill effluent has been used effectively for bioremediation studies because of the consortium of microbes capable of degrading spilled oils on soils as energy sources...so much more
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I was trying to find out whether my bacteria can degrade crude oil or not using DCPIP method that changes color after oxidizing hydrocarbons. But, I happen to order the crude oil containing 5% sulfur and I have not found any article that uses crude oil with high sulfur that kept me in confusion. I look forward for the ideas and suggestions.
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Thank you researcher Binod Timalsina for your suggestion. This paper gave me lots of ideas about DCPIP test.
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Dear Scholars
I was wondering if anyone can recommend a publication on crude oil chemistry - particularly on SARA (Saturates, Aromatics, Resins, and Asphaltenes) classifications.
Thanks.
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We can obtain high environmental significance throughout microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants which depends on the indigenous microorganisms to convert or mineralize the organic contaminants. So, how can quantitatively determine crude oil degradation by fungi?
Thank you
Jawad
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Dear Jawad,
The accuracy of your results will depend on the method or methods used to determine the oil content. Simple, cheap and fast methods are usually more sensitive for interferences resulting in strange or incorrect results than more elaborate complicated and time consuming methods. Do spent time in validating methods before applying them.
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The affinity between soil particles and organic matter (oil) can increased water residual in soil after drainage gravimetric water or it may caused a reduction in WHC of the soils because of the oil lubricating and hydrophobic characteristics.
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follow
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Am working on a research which requires the purification of a river that was polluted by a broken pipe conveying crude oil....how do I purify this water so that the local people can get their drinking source back and better?
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Well,
On the issue of pollution treatment, the golden rule says (treat the source of pollution) means cutting the source of leakage from the pipe.
Regards
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I am interested in wax and hydrate formation in pipelines. Are you covering multiphase behaviour of live crude oils in this project? Is it experimental, numerical or a combination of both approaches?
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The line required for corrosion protection while the nature of multiphase pipelines is such that the combined use of protective coatings with cathodic protection is necessary to achieve the effective protection. In fact, protective coatings help control pipeline corrosion by providing a barrier against reactants such as oxygen and water. But, because all organic coatings are semipermeable to oxygen and water, coatings alone cannot prevent corrosion and so a combination of cathodic protection is often used.
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gypsum layer
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Zhang Shiming, for the reason that you are talking about “reservoir”, and we use geophysics methods to characterize the reservoirs, please, let me share from the geophysicists´ point of view some aspect of the salt influence on oil reservoirs such as you are asking at the RG community.
The existence of evaporite deposits, follow the meaning of “salt” explain before by Ashkna Vafadar, has too much influence, such as:
First, the salt bodies behave in a different way than more typical sedimentary rock types. One of the key factors is that salt is much weaker than other lithologies: Salt deforms as a viscous material that effectively flows.
Also, salt has a nearly constant density irrespective of burial depth. This contrasts with sediment that becomes denser upon burial. Salt compactation trend, and compactation effects are different of the other sedimentary rocks.
Salt rocks have a great range of compressional P-wave velocity: e.g., 5800 to 6200 m/s for anhydrite and 3000 m/s for silvinite (Mavko et al., 2009).
Porosity on salt rock is almost irrelevant. In fact, through well log analysis, changes in salt velocity may be associated to proportional of salt rock type and its composition within limits of well log tool detection than to stress effect.
As salt rocks as halite, carnalite, tachyhydrite and silvinite have plastic behavior under deviatoric stress. Identifying these salt rock would avoid trapped and collapse in the operations.
Sub-salt seismic imaging demand PSDM (prestack depth migration) since salt plays such a velocity inversion, for example.
Due that the salt has a higher thermal conductivity in comparison with the average conductivity of the most of sedimentary rocks, the existence of salt plays a critical role in the maturation of the source-rocks, in function of the relative position of the sedimentary rocks around the salt: below the salt, the source rocks maturation can be retarded, whereas above the salt, the source rocks maturation could be enhanced.
Due that the existence of an exceptional geophysical set of relative contrast properties on the presence of salt bodies (magnetic and gravity signature) a low-cost tool such as aeromagnetic / aero gravimetric survey can help you to predict the existence and thickness of salt bodies, a crucial component to defining oil and gas prospects.
The changing geometry of salt also plays a key-role in regulatory the evolution of fluid migration pathways through time. Another influence relative to the geometry of salt bodies are related with the migration pathways, seals to trap in a petroleum system.
I hope this answer help you to understand the role of "salt" evaporite bodies in reservoir characterization.
Best wishes, Mario
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Questioning the Economic Rationality behind the US WTI price slipping into Negative Territory!!!
It was recently reported through all mass media platforms that WTI price, which is the US crude oil benchmark price (futures) slipped into negative territory. Ever since the news broke, I copiously challenge myself & other colleagues on the economic rationality behind a negative price for a physical commodity such as the US crude oil. My submissions are as follows:
From the demand side perspective, the economics of rational preferences as reflected in the transitivity property states that if an individual prefers commodity bundle B to commodity bundle A, and commodity bundle C to commodity bundle B, economic rationality dictates that the individual should prefer C to A. But some individuals would rather prefer A to C. Here is why??? Assume that we have just three oil producers in the US selling different grades of crude oil (A, B & C). Also assume that B is of higher grade than A, and consequently a buyer prefers B to A. Similarly, assume that C has a higher quality content relative to B, then economic rationality requires that the consumer prefers C to B. Ultimately, the transitivity property of preferences assumes that a rational consumer should prefer oil grade C to oil grade A. But it is also possible for the reverse case to occur in real life; here is why!
Given the subsisting oil supply glut on the US & global oil markets and the fact that the US oil producers are running out of storage space, let’s assume that oil traders sell their crude for free (implying a redistribution of welfare from sellers to buyers). Which of the two oil grades between A and C will the so-called rational consumer choose??? Someone would easily say oil grade C…but if say the seller of oil grade A offers prospective buyers $100pb while others settle for $30pb (According to Aljazeera News, oil traders being sceptical about tepid demand for their crude offered every prospective buyer $30 per barrel (pb) so as to evacuate excess supplies from their reach). Now, how do you evaluate the consumer's preference position??? A consumer that is suffering from poverty of economic rationality & ideas will prefer the oil type with lower grade (A) to C with high quality content just because he gets a net returns of $70pb by choosing oil grade A over oil grade C.
From the supply-side perspective, the Economics discipline teaches us that where there is excess supply of a product, producers or sellers will have to price down their products in order to find buyers. Meanwhile, the US oil traders are doing this indirectly by paying interested buyers per barrel of oil taken away from them. Is the approach of selling your products at zero price and paying off prospective buyers not counter intuitive??? In Economics, quantity supplied of a commodity (not services such as labour supply) is said to be positively related to its price. Here is why, in a perfectly competitive market where each seller faces a common price, if we tri-sect the U-shaped marginal cost curve into three portions – decreasing marginal cost (equivalent to rising marginal returns to a factor input); minimum (or turning) point on the MC curve (equivalent to a point on the short-run product curve where marginal returns to a factor input is at its peak) & the upward sloping portion of the MC curve (which equally mirrors the portion of the MC curve where the law of diminishing returns has started to set in). The question is on which portion of the MC curve should a producer or trader supply its products to the market???
An answer will be that for a profit maximizing firm operating under perfect competition, the supply curve it faces is that portion of the MC curve that is above the minimum average variable cost curve (which is to the right of the shut-down position of Price = Average Variable Cost = Rising portion of the MC curve). Let’s think through this…if the US oil producers are rational enough, they should give their crude for free & nothing else…or help ask if they are ready to lose their mark-up & start-up capital as well? This is not sustainable though. The good news is now that the market has returned to a positive price trajectory after the US President Donald Trump allayed the fears of investors in the US oil futures market that a number of policy pronouncements are likely in coming weeks. According to Aljazeera News, the US government is planning to extend financial aids to the so-called high cost oil producers, has promised to buy at least 75 million barrels to shore up the country’s strategic petroleum reserves & is considering plans to curb more oil shipments from Saudi Arabia into the US market.
###I rest my case here###
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The price of oil is shaped by supply and demand. Due to the coroner's crisis, the demand for oil internationally has collapsed and with it the prices. Small and large businesses order less oil, airline fleets remain stuck on the ground and consumers stay home and do not use their vehicles.
These are the so-called May contracts, which expired on April 21. Which means that whoever owns such a contract that day, also owned the agreed amount of oil. However, oil reserves are high, so the cost of additional storage increases. For this reason, investors turned their backs on fixed-term contracts, which not only lost their value, but their prices fell to negative levels.
Speculators may be interested in time contracts because they are essentially betting on future price formation. They can therefore make or lose money. There are many speculators who have been lost these days. Many companies want to secure their transactions in the fossil fuel market so that they know in advance how much they will have to calculate. Only at this time no one wants oil, the delivery of which is guaranteed by the deadlines.
WTI (West Texas Intermediate) crude oil has limited storage capacity, as the pipelines end up in Oklahoma, where the world's largest storage facility is located in the city of Cushing. But there the spaces are already full and extra space costs about ten dollars per barrel. And it is not ruled out that their price will increase further. It should be noted that for the European type of Brent oil there are more storage possibilities.
Oil companies will face problems if prices remain so low. This could have an impact on loan service as well as employment. Low prices are pushing the sluggish production sector to the brink of bankruptcy. Observers estimate that these companies need a barrel of $ 50 to cover their costs.
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Dear Colleagues
1) In the not very far future the transport fleet (and in fact the economy as a whole) is expected to move gradually to using gasoline to greener modes of transport – such as gas or electricity.
2) One of the outcomes of this change could possibly be sharp reduction in the use of gasoline, diesel fuel and as a result shut down or severe reduction in the activity of crude oil refineries.
3) Bitumen Binder is a residue of the refining of crude oil and as a result, sharp reduction in the refining process may result in severe shortage or probably even disappearance of this product.
4) In that respect we would like to have your answers on the following questions: a. Is the scenario described in 1-3 above relevant to your organization /country? b. If the answer to (a) above is positive – what are the actions taken by your country /organization to solve this problem? Thanks for your kind reply and cooperation
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Yes I accept the background information you provided but much of developing world an example of Nigeria has less than adequate road infrastructure and yet to have fully developed bituminous roads. So , I see this reality happening in developing countries in a distant future however, this may not be so for the first world countries as they already posses the technology and know how especially from recyled polyethylene waste materials as a replacement for bitumen and also concrete pavement technology which both adress the shortages that may occur as the world go green.
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I hope and pray that you and your families are safe from corona pandemic. please take precautions its dangerous- Further related to question I meant problems like low temperature or high viscosity or water production that inhibits oil to flow as oil is viscous, what other problems can a light crude oil transportation have? can the lighter composition with high flow rate be a problem? as we can have issues in heavy crude oil of paraffins and wax,
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Deposition of solids that might lead to very high pressure drops, initiation of corrosion in those locations where deposition has occurred are then possible. Lighter crudes carrying capacity tends to be lower resulting in solid's dropping from the main stream. I hope it helps
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The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is made by detection by RT-PCR of viral genetic material; however, some countries (especially in the Latin American region), may be limited in the ability to carry out a certain diagnosis, as well as follow-up of cases, due to the limitation of access to reagents, which can be added to economic resources (countries dependent on crude oil prices, for example).
We know that we could be under-diagnosed?
So which do you think colleagues?
What should be the action from public health?
Do we limit testing to patients with severe or severe COVID-19?
How to establish measures to contain the infection?
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Under-diagnosis will definitely create a false impression of actual incidence rate. Resource poor countries are already facing this problem. But when there is actual shortage of diagnostic facilities, some proxy indicators of disease surveillance should be identified and used for planning of prevention and control strategies.
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I want to calculate cloud point temperature and pour point temperature for crude oil samples based on black oil properties of crude oil like density, viscosity, bubble point pressure etc. and system pressure. Is there a correlation to calculate these available in the literature?
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Has anyone ever used the above attached paper? I seem to get negative values in the bracketed terms, such that cube and square roots cannot be done. What am I doing wrong?
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Greetings,
I'm doing my master thesis, and I have an issue with zeta potential test.
I prepare the emulsion using some surfactants and I use Zetasizer from Malvern to do this experiment.
The issue that I have that count rate is too low so I get many peaks instead of a single one. I tried to find some methods to preform the experiment such as dilution of the sample. However, the result is not good. Is there any way to preform this test?
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I doubt that you can perform meaningful measurements with crude oil emulsions. Would assume that you have contamination issues, also after dilution.
You could measure stability as function of pH, which should give you the point of zero charge and the pH range were you have positive or negative charges.
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happy new year fellow researchers,
I'm working on treating synthetic oily wastewater made from mixing distilled water, crude oil and surfactant.
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My question is straight, what is estimation formula or way to estimate Light Alkanes after crude oil distillation. what are the process to be used from transforming this light Alkanes into light olefins. does anybody have any idea about Dehydrogenation process PDH/BDH unit.
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Check gas chromatography technique.
chack also a term RGA (refinery gas analyzer)
regards,
GB
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I have prepared a GO and wants to study its possible adsorption capacity towards crude oil from an oil spill site.
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It can extract the oil drops using a suitable solvent like n-hexane then evaporate the solvent to mesure the volume of residual oil.
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Enhanced oil recovery
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I am trying to search some literature on genes involved in degradation of classical naphthenic acids (NA). I have previously worked with CYP and ALK gene family but they are mostly studied for n-alkanes degradation, i.e. hydroxylases. Here, my question is that what is the scope of these genes being involved in the degradation of NAs. The substrate range for these genes is mostly up to C22, and they generally target straigh chain compounds; however, NA are often higher than C18 and are cyclic carboxylic acids. Can someone comment on it based on her/his experience? I would love to hear speculative answers/suggestions too. And if some knows that which genes are specifically involved in NA degradaton, or similar model compounds, I would appreciate to know that as well.
Thank you very much!
Arslan
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Maurice Ekpenyong I have already read this paper. I am looking for very specific and expert opinion on my question. This paper doesn't address my question at all.
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I am studying the impact of Geopolitical risk (independent variable) on WTI crude oil prices (dependent variable) over the monthly period 1985-2019. Since, i am studying how much GPR causes oil prices changes, i was wondering what kind of statistical test or method can I deploy to study whether the relationship between the two is deteriorating or not.
So, I'd like to find out whether the impact of GPR on oil prices is stronger in the period 2000-2019 compared to 1985-2000. or even small time periods.
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Hi,
As for methodological approach, I am dealing with the similar kind of research, so I would like to advise you using either 1) interrupted time series (ITS) analysis (described i.e. at “Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference” by W. R. Shadish et al., 2002), or, if you prefer qualitative methods, 2) Longitudinal case selection strategy, which is kind of ITS analysis (from “Selecting Cases for Intensive Analysis: A Diversity of Goals and Methods by John Gerring and Lee Cojocaru, 2016).
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I have oil samples which contain trace quantity of water. I have tried rotavapor but it could not help me out.
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use lyophilsator
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Middle east countries with crude oil resources have been at the forefront of the attention of the other countries, which it has brought them advantages and disadvantages and has deeply affected the lives of their citizens.
Suppose there are infinite capacity of crude oil. Is the day of the oil era and the world needs to crude oil coming to an end? This may be resulted in mentioned countries adjust their relations with other countries regardless of owning of crude oil resources?
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maybe we are able to replace fossil-fuel-run industries with alternative energies, but what about all the other compounds made from Oil? Change is eventually inevitable as mankind progresses, but I think the actual question is what will happen to the financial dependency of all mankind as a whole to it and if we are able to produce the infrastructures required for that change to occur in the extend necessary. From the smallest jobs to the bigger ones that will be lost, are we ready?
So, I think while oil is a curse in the case of a county such a Iran, it has been a source for development and power in case of many others, and while the smart countries are injecting the money they make from O&G into renewable sources and R&D, it will be the ignorant ones who at the end of the day will remain dependent on their natural resources as they will have to become the customer of the smart countries to buy their technologies which they will not be able to afford on various capacities.
At the end, we all are fighting against time, as the resources lower, infrastructures become old and technologies advance...
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We all knew the technical ways of sulfur treatment,but are there any chemicals additives can reduce the sulfur in crude oil and fuel oil?
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Dear Augustine Ifelebuegu ,
Many thanks for your answer. I will check your link.
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Hello,
I am a beginner with Ansys Fluent and I am trying to carryout simulations that will determine wax appearance and deposition in a storage tank. I have so far activated Energy, viscous and solidification & melting models in Ansys Fluent.
Is it a correct approach to add two fluids (crude oil and wax) and specifying solidification properties of wax? if it is correct, how do i add two miscible fluids (oil+wax) in fluent so solidification can only happen with wax at WAT? which other models can i activate to be able to simulate wax deposition?
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What about using ANSYS to model wax deposition in oil and gas condensate pipelines? Can anyone give some leads?
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As DME-partitioning coefficient decreases as DME-mole fraction in oil phase increases.
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You should use salting out effect, i.e. add salt to water phase.
Regards
GB
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Please tell me how much Humic acid can be there in crude oil or oily wastewater?
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Peat contains up to 50% humic acids, there are a lot of them in coal. Oil does not contain humic acid.
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Separation by emulsion liquid membrane
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Sir, in what basis, carrier is chosen for emulsion liquid membrane. How can i find new carrier
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