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I did a cross-cultural study between Spain and Chile. The reviewers ask me to justify this selection. How would you do to justify it?
Thank you very much
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All depends on the purpose of the study. However, just because you have access to data from that country is also a valid justification, in some cases.
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Each cultural dimension of the Hofstede's culture require to assign a constant value [C(pd) for Power Distance Index, C(ic) for Individualism Index and etc). The manual says the constant values are chosen by the user to shift her/his PDI scores to values between 0 and 100. But how to determine what to assign and how to assign are not explained. Can anyone suggest me a procedure..
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Whereas, My two specific points of confusion would be:
  • Do I need to calculate the constant of each country versus himself, or should I pick just one (either USA or Chile) and use that as reference to get my constant for both countries?
  • To see the direction of the constant (- or +), do I need to subtract my score to Hofstede’s score or Hofstede’s score to my result?
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I have a project to work on interdisciplinary studies concerning literature and cross-cultural studies combined with feminism and the representation of influential female figures. Thus, I am twinning anthropology and literature. Many suggestions for books or the critical concept of cross-cultural studies concerning issues of feminism. Also, who are the most influential theorists or critics in this domain?
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You may look at these;
1. Adu-Poku, S. (2001). Envisioning (black) male feminism: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Gender Studies, 10(2), 157-167.
2. Rosaldo, M. Z. (1980). The use and abuse of anthropology: reflections on feminism and cross-cultural understanding. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 5(3), 389-417.
3. Harper-Dorton, K. V., & Lantz, J. (2007). Cross-cultural practice: Social work with diverse populations. Lyceum Books.
4.Schueller, M. J. (2011). Cross-cultural identification, neoliberal feminism, and Afghan women. Genders, (53).
5.Chen, C. N., Lai, M., & Tarn, D. D. (1999). Feminism orientation, product attributes and husband-wife decision dominance: A Taiwan-Japan cross-cultural study. Journal of Global Marketing, 12(3), 23-39.
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Please suggest some variables through which I can easily find the effectiveness of Cross Cultural Training and it impact on work performance of expatriates
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Extensive training
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Please suggest some variables through which I can easily find the effectiveness of Cross Cultural Training and it impact on work performance of expatriates.
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I need a tool to explore cultural identity and hoping there is a widely used tool or scale for different cultures.
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The measure is more about how people see their culture and how they identify their cultural identity. This is what we are measuring.
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Hello there!
I am looking for a researcher or an academician to help me collect data in France for an international comparison study.
My research is about basic psychological needs and resilience. I will collect data from university students. I would be glad if interested people contact me.
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Fatema Miah Thank you for your interest. However, it is very important for me to collaborate with someone working at the university. An important detail for solving ethical processes. Thank you again for your interest. All the best
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Hi RG colleagues,
I am looking for resources and activities for my class on cross-cultural studies. In particular, I am looking for resources for a module on the intersection of race and gender and how that impacts intercultural anxiety. Any leads would be super helpful.
Warm regards,
Gulnaz
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Hi Gulnaz, I think this could help you more:
Nusbbaum, M. (2000). Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Hope you do well!
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Need your valuable suggestions and guidelines
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Here are some studies that may help guide you to the answer:
J. Stewart Black and Mark Mendenhall, 1990: Cross-Cultural Training Effectiveness: A Review and a Theoretical Framework for Future Research. AMR, 15, 113–136,https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1990.11591834
Daniel J. Kealey, David R. Protheroe, The effectiveness of cross-cultural training for expatriates: An assessment of the literature on the issue, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Volume 20, Issue 2, 1996, Pages 141-165, ISSN 0147-1767, https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(96)00001-6.
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Hello,
I am currently preparing a preregistered report for experiments in different countries. I am studying motivations/values of students; therefore, I want to conduct several same experiments (containing mixed subject designs) in different countries.
I have no hypotheses regarding country differences. I just want to expand my sample size to be more representative in (in my case) western European countries.
My analyses are planned for each country separately and results should be presented for each country separately.
I have read somewhere that in this case, I should check if the factor country really has no influence on students’ performance, i.e., that my results are independent of the factor country.
I don’t think that I could just conduct an ANOVA using country as an IV to examine non-differences on students’ performance because then I would have to test if I can actually compare the data sets at all (measurement invariance; either ways my sample sizes for testing measurement invariance would be too small).
How are researchers usually facing this problem in cross-country/cross-cultural research? Especially when they don’t have any hypotheses regarding country differences and are not planning to conduct analyses to compare countries?
What could I state in my preregistered report?
Thank you very much.
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To expand on Jochen Wilhelm 's point.
If you do not have any prediction or model that incorporates "country" then you simply want to account for the variance on your estimates that it may produce. This is the same as when we account for the auto-correlational nature of data from the same person (i.e. more similar) than between persons (i.e. more different) by using a person random-effect in our model.
Thus, you can code the variable country (e.g, just have a nominal variable with each country name). And then when you run a mixed-effects model on your data, you have Country as one of the random-effects.
Small note, the number of level of a random-effects variable should exceed the number of variables in your model and levels of your fixed-effects (e.g, if you only have data from 4 countries in the end, but your analysis is conducted on 5 factors, then it is not appropriate as there will not be enough data to make stable estimates).
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What are the good techniques for evaluating moderating impact of certain variables in cross cultural studies?
What techniques should be used to measure the construct that is moderating the direct impact of an antecedent on impulse buying behavior in a cross cultural settings.
Kindly enumerate the possible techniques that may be used for above said analysis.
Many thanks in adavnce.
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It is on undertaking research across nations and cultures presents several unique challenges. Important substantive questions for researchers and managers include the following:
Are the constructs or theories investigated relevant in each research context? How should the instrument used to collect the data (for example, a questionnaire) be translated?
What samples should be selected?
How should the data be collected?
Are the measures used in the study invariant in each unit of analysis investigated?
The answers to these and other similar questions share a common denominator: the comparability or equivalence.
The main aim when conducting research across different cultures and/or countries is to establish comparability or equivalence at each stage of the research process, as so many critics believe.
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What is the best way to define and decide sample size in the case of cross cultural studies? I want to decide the number of respondent in two countries which I am considering for my study. One of the country is comparatively small from other. Please suggest me the best way ahead.
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I agree that a power analysis may be a good approach but there are certain other aspects I would like to raise:
- it might be a good idea to look into the published literature. Depending on the methods you are planning to use different sample sizes may be deemed necessary or acceptable in the scientific sommunity. For instance if you use more in-depth or qualitative methods you generally need a smaller sample size. On the other hand some statistical methods require large sample sizes
- depending on the population/s you are working with, there might be limitations in the population size. Let's say you are looking at people with a cerrtain profession or disease. These might be very rare in one of your populations. If they are very relevant for your research question a small sample might be acceptable.
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I have just completed my PhD thesis - Adapting Photovoice to Visualise and Influence Environmental Behaviour across Australia, Bangladesh, and China (Monash University - Design), exploring using photovoice methods across multiple geographic sites to facilitate dialog between and amongst these communities using various participatory techniques, specifically with innovation in audience engagement.
The journey has taken me across 17 discrete participatory-action-research cycles
spanning 4 years, where I partnered with 19 local organisations to run 80 workshops, 8 community exhibitions, and 3 community interview events across 4 separate sites spanning Australia, Bangladesh, and China. Over 700 participants attended workshops and collectively created over 500 photo-stories. I focussed on environmental behaviour, but these methods - like photovoice generally - are applicable to a wide range of themes.
Now I have finally emerged from the tunnel of my PhD, I am looking for future opportunities to use these learnings in other projects and connect with like-minded peers.
Thus I am interested to see who else / what other current and future projects are working on similar methodological adaptations in photovoice or related visual methods?
I have attached the full thesis text here if it is useful to others. I am also happy to receive feedback.
thanks and all the best,
Michael Chew
Monash University
Melbourne, Australia
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This is really interesting. I do photovoice research with non-binary young adults. I am currently preparing a study that will have small groups in various locations. Small groups will regularly connect with and report back to the larger collective group. We hope that this allows us to explore region specific issues, along with more broad ones. I'm definitely going to dig into your work!
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A cross cultural study for example.
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Uno de mis ámbitos de trabajo es el pensamiento estratégico, estudio de casos en ecuador. Puedo estar interesado.
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Dear collegues,
I performed a cross-cultural study using two questionnaires (66 and 12 items). The original version of these questionnaires was used in the first country, and these tools were also translated into the second country´s language to be administered here. It was the first time the translated version was used for research purposes. The number of participants in the first country was 216, in the second 265. Is it required to perform confirmatory factor analyisis (for the two lignuistical versions separatedly), or is it enough to report internal consistency coefficients in this particular publication? What I am actually supposed to do to fulfill the required standards of reporting psychometric properties of translated questionnaires?
Thank you for your suggestions in advance.
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It would be advisable to do one for each country and then a general one with multi-group invariance to evaluate the differences.
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Since Williams and Best 1990, there have been a limited number of studies that included the measurement of gender stereotypes on the African continent. Can anyone advise on how to gather data in Africa or collaborators for a large study?
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Your question starts by acknowledging a research gap in literature related to measurement of gender stereotypes on the African continent since Williams & Best (1990). From that statement, I'll assume that your "data collection" question refers to (1) "the data collection instrument" (i.e., a suitable measurement scale for gender stereotype to be included in your questionnaire), rather than (2) the logistics associated with sampling. I'll however try to provide some advice on both:
(1) The data collection instrument
If there is a gap in literature regarding a suitable measurement scale, you may either "develop" a new one, or "adapt" an existing one. Please note that the instrument you cited (Williams & Best, 1990) is nearly 30 years old. Hence, some dimensions might be outdated (e.g., the gender binary male-female classification is not considered inclusive today). In that case, I wouldn't recommend scale "adoption". Also, bear in mind that you need to validate the construct in the study area/context where you wish to apply it. [Please note: if you have a multidimensional scale, test for internal consistency (i.e., Cronbach alpha) at sub-scale level]. Since Africa is a culturally diverse continent, language alone might imply translations which don't distort the original meaning of the item.
(2) Sampling issues
I agree with the advice provided by Dennis Alvarez . You might want to pick a country whose perceptions may be generalized over an entire region. For instance, if you select Gabon as a country, you should know that the ethnic group (Fang) predominantly residing in the northern province of Gabon (Weuleu Ntem) is also found in Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. They share the same culture and might be hypothesized to to share similar perceptions as far as gender stereotyping is concerned. The same scenario can take place with the Shangane ethnic group found in South Africa, Mozambic, and Zimbabwe; or even the Hausa people who are the second largest ethnic group in Africa. They can be found in about 14 African countries. The point is ethnicity is a trans-frontier construct which might improve your odds in generalizing your results.
If you seek a data collection company in South Africa, I would recommend the
Inter African Research Consultancy (IARC). Search for it on LinkedIn. It's flexible and cost effective. I used them for 3 rounds of data collection for my ongoing PhD dissertation.
I hope my answer was helpful.
All the best,
Kimo
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Dear Colleague,
It would be your generosity to respond to the questionnaires and also distribute it among your colleagues, students, and networks.
We would like to ask you if you would be so kind as to complete the following online questionnaires of a cross-cultural research study designed to investigate the relationship between CALL literacy and the attitudes of language teachers and students towards Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL).
Teachers and students who have previously answered the questionnaire say that it took about 10-20 minutes to do so. Your help would be very much appreciated.
Be sure that all the personal data provided from the questionnaire will be kept strictly confidential in our reports. Your personal data will not be disclosed nor used for any other purpose than educational research.
As a cross-cultural study, I need a good number of data from different countries. Please circulate this post through your networks.
Your input is really important for our study.
If you are both a teacher and a student please respond to both questionnaires.
Thank you in advance for your help and cooperation.
Regards,
Dara Tafazoli
Mª Elena Gómez Parra
Cristina A. Huertas Abril
University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain
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Gladly! And I'll convey your questionnaire to my students as well.
Interesting questionnaire although quite long, but I hope your project will benefit from that.
I wish you good luck with your research!
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I am working on an internship where I need to identify and help solve issues that may arise during cross-cultural post merger integrations. First step at hand for my team is problem identification, which will then lead to questions about how to solve them. Looking for any guidance around the same! :)
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i guess we can find this kind of book in traditional libraries especially in countries that has ancient civilization as Egypt , Iraq and so on
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I am currently working on my dissertation of understanding intercultural challenges in Key Account Management (Global Account Management). Is there any literature in KAM available integrating intercultural challenges. Any recommendations for a quantitative method to analyze intercultural challenges in GAM.
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Not that I am aware of. Do not forget that KAM has been unfortunately interrupted few years ago for obscure reasons
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Hello!
I am planning cross-cultural study in psychology.
I've read various articles, but I can’t understand what are the requirements for translators? I’m at the stage one - translating the original instrument. Let’s say, my translator 1 is fluent in target language with a good understanding of original language and works in translation agency + has a university degree in some field (not in philology) Translator 2- the same. Translator 3 (for a synthesized translated version) is fluent in target language, with a good understanding of original language + has a higher education in Philology!
My question: is it ok? I mean “translator” doesn’t automatically mean that he/she has a bachelor, master or PhD degree in Philology.
What do you think about it?
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I'm glad my comments were useful. You will also find that if a question is shaped primarily by analytical concerns, you will likely not be able to translate the question into everyday language that will be easily understood. If we ask a survey question in any language, and we get a puzzled look, then we have failed to do our job. A good survey question is one for which you know in advance more or less what answers people will give; you just don't know how many will give which of the 3-5 likely answers.
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India is a diverse nation and the social, economic and cultural differences in all the regions (North India, South India, East India, and West India) of India implied to miscellaneous cultural differences. Is there any research conducted to study internal cultural differences in India?
P.S I'm also interested to take a glance at how other countries argue the intercultural challenges that they faced while working with India firms based in India.
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I am not in position to response to your question -1.
However, all companies conduct cultural sensitivity awareness training for their employees when they go to other country to minimize the conduct error due to cultural difference.
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The world-famous Hofstede 6 dimensional model consisting of dimensions such as individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity-femininity, and long term orientations. Hofstede developed his original model to examine a worldwide survey of employees of IBM between 1967 and 1973. What are the limitations of cultural dimensional model? How it can be eliminated?
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Hofstede does not take into account cultural diversity, migration and women empowerment and ascribes culture to the geographical place of residence. Which does not hold today.
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Hi everyone!
I would like to select countries for a cross-cultural study (it's my PhD project) based on the level of ethnolinguistic/cultural fractionalization/polarization, but cannot find a good index for that. Alesina's (2003) index is commonly used, but it is based on data from very different time points. Fearon's (2003) index looks a bit better, but the data that is used there is from the beginning of 90's. I wasn't able to find any index that would be based on newer data and would cover not only Europe, but also the rest of the world. Did anyone come across something like that?
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Hi Lusine,
I am not sure it is still relevant for you, but I have published an ethnic fractionalization index that covers 162 countries annually for the time period 1945-2013. You can fin it on Harvard Dataverse here:
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MTurk seems to be difficult to user for cross-cultural studies. I was suggested Qualtrics - which is comparingly very expensive, but seems to be useful. Do you have any other suggestions and want to share your experience?
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Hi,
Want to share my experience up to now.
I sent two requests to Qualtrics - weeks ago and a lot of weeks ago, but haven't received an answer yet. It seems that the only way to get in contact with them is through their online form which does not allow for many words to explain the study in the small box (upper limit up characters). Yet, they promise to get in touch with you... well...
I am in contact with Kantar (new name for Lightspeed). I can confirm that it is pricey. My only reference for high data quality is the message by Timo Mandler (see above), so I haven't decided yet.
I am moving forward with Prolific, see what they can offer.
Best,
Christine
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Does anyone know which size needs each sample to have when we conduct a cross-cultural study and analyse these differences using SEM?
Could you please advice me about the size of the samples when we conduct a cross-cultural study comparing behaviours and decision making between two cultures?.
Does the sample size have to be similar?
For instance, if I have a sample with 240 participants and the other sample has 240 participants, do you think that these number should be fine if we want to analyse the differences between sample using SEM?
Many thanks in advance for your help.
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Dear Razaz,
This is a good question. I suggest you that contemplate the possibility to apply the so calling multi-group invariance analyzes. This SEM approach can tell you if the model it's invariant across groups; and, if it's not, were are these noninvariant results. It is a very powerful but not usually applicated method.
If you decide to apply this, you have to considerer wich specifics statistical SEM methods it´s more valid and robust for your sample size and type of data. I recommend that you utilize R ore M-plus fos such propose.
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Hello fellow scholars,
I am writing my mixed-method Ph.D. thesis on Subsaharan migrant stereotypes and its impact on career progression in Germany. I would like to publish some papers from it and broaden it into a cross-cultural study with time.
I am looking to widen my network and collaborate on some of the articles. I would also be very interested in collaborating on something you are working on too. I believe the world of research is symbiotic, and we should all help each other develop, advance and create new knowledge.
Please write me a message or leave a comment if this is of any interest to you.
Best wishes,
Faith
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Hello Faith! What an awesome and bold move you have made! I have a Ph.D. in Communication and Culture from Howard University. I like your topic. Would you be interested in doing something specifically with women--and black women maybe?? I currently teach at Princeton Theological Seminary in the USA. I teach Speech Communication and Intercultural Communication. Let me know what you think?
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Please state its steps or introduce a good article if you know
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I have been doing research on social entrepreneurs, and among them very accomplished physicians. I found in those excellent medical doctors very strong soft skills like empathy, and also, a strong sense of willingness to understand and appreciate the patient's culture. There is a lot to be done in 1. Teaching Empathy , 2. Teaching cultural sensitivity.
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It amazes me that this is accepted politically-correct terminology with wide academic usage. It is such a poor construct because it leaves out the necessary core semantics which are about "cross-cultural" interaction. In some ways it's an elitist term -- because it "belongs" to a special discourse community.
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Cultural competency is an OLD term amongst those beginning to working in cross cultural health care contexts - medicine in particular. As clearly noted by Tervalon and Murray-Garcia. One cannot be competent in all ~ and 1 or 2 is insufficient in a multicultural world. In addition, competence seems to reinforce a one way hierarchy. Other, more process focused and INTERPERSONAL terms are: cultural literacy, intercultural competence or, another I use, is cross-culturally, informed or responsive. BOTH descriptors lend at least an essential two way process - and where one is on the process is determined through listening and the acknowledgement by all parties of the need to learn about each other. I and a team of researchers defined culture for health research ~ a suggested read re: the complexity that is lost in the concept of "cultural competence" ( ). Lawrence Kirmayer wrote an article in 2012 in Transcultural Psychiatry outlining underlying power dynamics of the use of the concept of cultural competency from a social political stance. "Rethinking Cultural Competence"
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Is factor analysis a MUST when adopting or adapting research instruments in different cultures?
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Hi Ryan,
that's a difficult question. Most importantly would be to consider/evaluate whether the original set of questions truely imply a true common factor structure. Most questionnaires are either developed by using a principal component analysis which is simply computing a variance-remaining summative composite. A factor model implies that the factor represents an existing entity which is the cause of the item reponses. The essential testable implication of the factor model is conditional independence of the items given the factor (local independence). Most scales violate these assumptions - hence you do not know whether the reason is only some slight and unimportant violations or a fundamental problem with the structure (which is a problem for its validity).
IF the model holds it has some advantages when undertaking cross cultural research as you can test for "measurement invariance". I post some papers for your interest.
The other possibility is that the set of items simply form a "collective set" - which means that each/ or some items measure different things but the the "construct" is simply a set of these things (like an index or umbrella term). Actually, I do not know how to evaluate cross-cultural equivalence of such a composite. I could imagine, placing the set of items in a network together with validation criteria. The problem is how to evaluate the overall match. A topic for future research :)
Best,
Holger
References about invariance testing:
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Schaffer, B. S., & Riordan, C. M. (2003). A Review of cross-cultural methodologies for organizational research: A best-practices approach. Organizational Research Methods, 6, 169-215. doi:10.1177/1094428103251542
Taras, V., Rowney, J., & Steel, P. (2009). Half a century of measuring culture: Review of approaches, challenges, and limitations based on the analysis of 121 instruments for quantifying culture. Journal of International Management, 15(4), 357-373. doi:10.1016/j.intman.2008.08.005
Steenkamp, J.-B. E. M., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25, 78-90.
Vandenberg, R. J. (2002). Toward a further understanding of and improvement in measurement invariance methods and procedures. Organizational Research Methods, 5(2), 139-158.
References about forms of constructs
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Edwards, J. R. (2001). Multidimensional constructs in organizational behavior research: Towards an integrative and analytical framework. Organizational Research Methods, 4(2), 144-192.
Edwards, J. R. (2011). The fallacy of formative measurement. Organizational Research Methods, 14(2), 370-388.
Edwards, J. R., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2000). On the nature and direction of relationships between constructs and measures. Psychological Methods, 5(2), 155-174.
And the difference between factor models and composites
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Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, N. P., & Lee, J.-Y. (2003). The mismeasure of man(agement) and its implications for leadership research. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 615-656.
Bandalos, D. L., & Boehm-Kaufman, M. R. (2009). Four common misconceptions in exploratory factor analysis. In C. E. Lance & R. J. Vandenberg (Eds.), (pp. 61-87). New York: Routledge.
Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., Strahan, E. J., MacCllum, R., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4(3), 272-299. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.4.3.272
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It is said that language and culture are inseparable and learning language is void without achieving an awareness of its culture. Language is the carrier of culture and without culture languageis of nonsense. On the other hand, many communities consider learning a foreign culture as a kind of cultural invasion and prefer to expose their children to foreign language but not to its culture… What do you think we as EFL teachers should do in our classes? And should our teaching of English be culture-free or culture oriented??
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I teach English and language awareness i.e., not only one English but Englishes especially the varieties they speak and/or need to learn, so not necessarily British or American English but International English, the one spoken and understood by the nonnative speakers (EFL/ESL). World Englishes proponents & supporters respect all varieties.
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I am doing research on involves cultural countertransference and wanted to find out if there are any cross-cultural theories that I can use for my theoretical framework.
Thank you - Lilian
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I guess that the following three could constitute basic principles for multiculturalism:
1. Mutual respect for any difference in colour, ethnicity, religion, language and sexual orientation
2. Secular education
3 Cultivation of universal human rights.
For more details see Education in a Multicultural Cyprus
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Migration, Acculturation and Consumer Behaviour
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I’m starting a research on the forms of resilience and reaction to Western culture and specifically the role of religious schemes in identity process of African migrants. The results will be ready in late summer.
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Hi all,
For my research, I would like to group my participants according to the culture they belong to, which brings about the question of what is culture, and whether you can actually create cultural groups.
So far, I have looked into Hofstede's work as well as the more recent GLOBE project (House et al. 2004, Chokkar et al. 2007). Do you know of any other model which would be worth considering?
Thank you!
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Dear Tobias, Many thanks for your reaction. This is indeed a very puzzling aspect which I am not sure how to treat. Originating from Belgium (the north of the country is monolingual Dutch, hence more influenced by the Dutch culture, while the south of the country is monolingual French, hence more influenced by the French culture), I am myself convinced that country boundaries might not always offer the best delineation for cultural groups. I guess that we need to start with some sort of clustering, hence some sort of "(over)generalisation" to be able to unveil broad, ''gross'' patterns (with a quantitative approach), which can then be refined in future research (probably with a more qualitative approach or by looking quantitatively at smaller geographical areas). If you know of any names of researchers which might help further my reflection on this, I would be glad to hear it. Thank you for sharing your thoughts on this, Pernelle
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I am at present pursuing a research on happiness among nurses in India. Would like to carry out a cross cultural study on the same. can you suggest me some options
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It sounds interesting. I'd love to hear more details.
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I want to use it in my cross-cultural research on relation between supersitions and religiosity/spirituality
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Hi,
Maybe this article will interest you.
Article Costly Superstitious Beliefs: Experimental Evidence
Best regards,
Ya'akov B
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Dear Colleague,
It would be your generosity to respond to the questionnaires and also distribute it among your colleagues, students, and networks.
We would like to ask you if you would be so kind as to complete the following online questionnaires of a cross-cultural research study designed to investigate the relationship between CALL literacy and the attitudes of language teachers and students towards Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL).
Be sure that all the personal data provided from the questionnaire will be kept strictly confidential in our reports. Your personal data will not be disclosed nor used for any other purpose than educational research.
As a cross-cultural study, I need a good number of data from different countries. Please circulate this post through your networks.
Your input is really important for our study.
Thank you in advance for your help and cooperation.
Regards,
Dara Tafazoli
Mª Elena Gómez Parra
Cristina A. Huertas Abril
University of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain
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I will forward along ....
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I am doing a research on students values
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A couple of comments. With the PVQ-RR, there are 3 items per value for 19 values. When used to measure the 10 values, there are from 3 to 6 and 9 for universalism. The PVQ-RR has shown quite good reliability for all or almost all 19 and 10 values in every country studied thus far (30). It is available in 46 languages. The average time for completion is approximately 6-8 minutes. Reducing the number of items has very little effect on the time required because it takes about 3-4 minutes to respond to 20 items because respondents take more time until they get used to the format.
Whenever possible, I recommend measuring all values. Some reasons are:
1. Attitudes and behaviors are influenced by the trade-off between opposing values. Measuring only those values expected to either promote or to inhibit an attitude or behavior is likely to miss a significant part of the causal/explanatory association.
2. The scales are all balanced so that values expected to receive similar ratings are separated to reduce automatic responding. Changing the order by dropping items can affect the levels of response to the other items.
3. Value responses are quite sensitive to framing by other questions. The full value scales cover the full range (circle) of motivational goals so they have little or no biasing effect on other questions. Hence it is desirable to administer the value scales first. However, if values not of interest to the researcher are drop from a value scale, that scale may bias subsequent responses.
Contrary to what Dante ... writes above, in my article on Basic Personal Values and the Meaning of Left‐Right , values were good predictors of political orientations. As we and some later work have found, the meaning of left-right in former communist countries differed from its meaning in the West. For some respondents in those countries, the meaning of this distinction is reversed, for others it is ambiguous. Consequently, value orientations do not predict left-right because it is not a meaningfully clear concept.
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"... be supportive of its autonomy (rather than controlling). Sadly it is too often the case that so-called participatory or collaborative approaches are perceived by local people as just another way to control them, rather than as genuine efforts to support their autonomy. " My own research in different contexts would bear out his very interesting finding.Are you, perhaps, planning to conduct cross-cultural studies, longitudinally, to find out whether these results are replicable across time and space ?[see for example the works by Edward Soja, etc
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Extremely interesting question, and it’s a shame that I hav noticed earlier: it might be that the thread is now closed. Anyhow, historical intercultural research has been part of my academic interest, and I would be grateful, John, if you could further elaborate on this. It seems to me that historical and cross-|intercultural research are very close, in thar they both serve as testing grounds for more general theories, and also in the sense that they can be used to cross-test each other. But then my uptake on this reflect my background as a linguist, and it might be that the original question referred to another area?
cheers,
Daniel
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I have recently done the Hofstede Value Survey Module 2013 in some businesses in Slovakia. As Slovakia was not an original country where his survey was done, it is difficult to find reliable data. I'd be willing to share my results with anybody interested if I can get some results from a recent (perhaps yet unpublished) survey. I have about 70 results from the US, but it isn't a big enough sample for me to use. So I'm looking for anybody else who might be willing to help. Thanks.
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Hello,
It is an old source that you have used. You can find a copy of the original article here: https://www0.gsb.columbia.edu/faculty/bkogut/files/1988_JIBS_Kogut_Singh.pdf
There were using the data for a different purpose and their procedure probably would not be applicable now as there are now six dimensions. Look at page 12 of the link I just pasted. It briefly explains how they used their formula.
Good luck you!
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I used the World Values Survey longitudinal data file merged with the European Values Survey file as instructed. From this data, I tried to recreate the cultural dimensions, and plotted the cultural map but I got different coordinates in my recreated cultural map from the one in their website. I used SPSS and followed the instructions to the letter in their website http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSContents.jsp. How can I resolve this problem? Thank you!
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See also this other book. I quote something from it as a possible point of departure for your question:
"This problem of “spatial mismatch” can be addressed with GIS tools, but this approach introduces an inevitable level of uncertainty. These problems of spatial mismatch and uncertainty could be reduced for NASS Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Improving Crop Estimates by Integrating Multiple Data Sources A VISION OF NASS IN 2025 43 if a basic spatial unit could be adopted, and all data could be expressed as attributes of one or more basic spatial units."
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In my own work on cultural crossing, I have tried to offer a detailed analysis of how readers experience descriptions of cultures that are not their own. Once you think about it, "culture" is an intangible and fuzzy term. Cultural studies has argued this for a long time, of course. But when we as postcolonial critics talk about cross-cultural or trans-cultural experiences, are we not tacitly simplifying the concept of culture to a point of distortion? Can we argue about any aspect of cross-cultural studies without assuming that it is possible to arrive at a definition of culture consisting of a list of characteristics? I have the impression that the only unambiguous comment about culture that can be made is that it appears to be a universal. 
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When human begins live together, as a society, in a particular area, they form several key habits and norms by which they live their life. Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs, belief, food, attitudes, religion, morals that are passed from person to person and one generation to the next. Dominant culture consists of several sub cultures. Each sub culture provides its members with a different set of values and expectations. They share these norms with one another and collectively, this is called a culture. Culture is a collective phenomenon. Culture is a way of acting, a way of behaving; It is continually changing and dynamic. Culture is not inherited, it is learned
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The act of Censorship is obsessed with labeling, deleting and removing; the act of Selection concentrates on advising, educating and adding options. What are social and cultural factors that influence the selection of texts to be translated and published?
What are the relations between censorship and selection in the context of literary translation?
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As regards the relatonship between translation and censorship, you could take a look, first, at the discussion in Translation Studies in 2011 and 2012. The discussion started with the article ‘‘Translation and Censorship’’, by Piotr Kuhiwczak, Translation Studies
4, 2011, no. 3, and was commented on by Brian James Baer, Beate Müller and Paul St-Pierre & Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin in 2012 (attached).
Secondly, you might wish to read Samantha Sherry's (2012) PhD dissertation Censorship in Translation in the Soviet Union in the Stalin and Khrushchev Eras (attached) especially for its references section even if the topic itself is outside your sphere of interests..
Finally, as regards text selection for purposes of translation, you might wish to read a few articles on retranslation as such texts often discuss the issue of selecting texts for (re)translation. See e.g. Paloposki, Outi, and Kaisa Koskinen. "A thousand and one translations: Revisiting retranslation." BENJAMINS TRANSLATION LIBRARY 50 (2004): 27-38, available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.468.4623&rep=rep1&type=pdf#page=42.
Hope the above references will help you move forward...
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Dear colleagues
I am planning a research project in the area of consumer behavior that will take place in two countries (cross cultural study). The fundamental technique will be in-depth interviews. There is a great deal of literature on how to analyze this type of qualitative data in one population. However, the literature on how to analyze qualitative data in cross cultural studies is very scarce. Any suggestions are welcome.
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Thank you very much dear David. I will consider your suggestion.
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If you want to evaluate you project as a cross cultural study, I could work for turkish sample. I am associate professor of marketing in baskent university, Ankara,Turkey. Looking hearing from you
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Dear Midori
I am researcher entrepreneurship action on Iran and i am studying experiences of Iranian entrepreneurial at present and i will be happy that you corporate to me.
Best Regards
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If you want to evaluate you project as a cross cultural study, I could work for turkish sample. I am associate professor of marketing in baskent university, Ankara,Turkey. Looking hearing from you
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We have several cross-cultural  research projects some ongoing, and other in the planning phase. If you are interested to collaborate,  e-mail me directly  kiraaref@aol.com or send me your e-mail
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I am planning to do my next research on “Uniforms and its psychological impact”. I would like to know there any standard procedure or instruments to measure the impact of uniforms on public. Interested researchers can contact me so that we can do a better cross-culture study on this topic.
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Thank you, Prof. Nikhilesh Dholakia
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I am currently working on a cross-cultural study about emotion. 
is there any demonstrated emotion episodes? 
Shorter is better. 
I found that Ekman created some stories for six emotions
(e.g. Your friend has com, and you are happy). 
But this is not proper to our research since:
(a) It only presents  few emotions with only one episode and (b) we should not directly state the emotion. 
it is hard to find :-D....
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Thank you in advance!
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What are the most important cross-cultural characteristics of the decision-making process in the international companies?
These can include:
  1. the decision-making process is aligned with the international company's corporate goals / objectives
  2. solicit maximum feedback from various stakeholders in different countries / business units / departments
  3. perform rigorous cost-benefit impact analyses including multiple scenarios
  4. objectivity of the decision-making process
  5. prompt to action / execution after decision is made (because outcome / performance will be measured)
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we are doing a research on application of Hofstede model on students' career preferences in Croatia and Germany. It seems that the results are different in a few aspects of cultural context in both cases when we compare the results to total population Hofstede results. has anyone run into something similar?
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Dear Mirna, please find the article attached. It contains valuable info on the comparison of the results compiled based on the Hofstede database, contrasted with the results of Varga, a Hungarian researcher. It shows some remarkable differences (distortions of the Hofstede material in my opinion). The author of the article is one of the leading experts of Hofstede studies in Hungary. 
Article's full reference format: Falkné Bánó Klára 2014. Identifying Hungarian cultural characteristics in Europe's cultural diversity in the 21st century: a controversial issue. In: Solt Katalin (szerk.) Alkalmazott tudományok I. fóruma: konferenciakötet. Budapest: Budapesti Gazdasági Főiskola. 195-206.
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Hello everyone! I am currently conducting research on cross-country differences in entrepreneurial activities and my developed model includes cultural values. In order to test the model, I would operationalize culture either by Hofstede's 6 Cultural Dimensions or Schwartz' 7 Values. However, I found the paper by Imm Ng et al. (2006), which tests whether both frameworks are congruent. In order to test this, they used Cultural Distance Scores (with a "base-line" country), where they "merge" all dimensions of Hofstede and Schwartz respectively. They also list a number of studies that use such distance scores.
My question now is, when should one use the distance scores instead of the indices?
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Hi Charlott,
If you are comparing countries/societies without having any preconceived idea about the entrepreneurial characteristics of a particular country/society, then cultural dimensions are appropriate. 
However, if there is reason to believe that one society in particular has demonstrated stronger characteristics than others, then you may want to use that country as your "base" and compare the others' relative positions to it.  In this case, cultural distance is better. For example, you can refer to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and identify which country has the highest rate of new venture formation.  Let's say, Germany.  Using Germany as the base, you can then compare the cultural values of other countries in relation to it.  In other words, you are using the cultural distance between those countries and Germany.
Hope this helps.
Aida Idris PhD, University of Malaya, Malaysia
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I've been working with the impoliteness theory, researching the Brazilian community in Boston area and I'd like some suggestions that could be helpful to comprehend better what methods of the theory to investigate my datas would be best. Also some advice about bibliography. 
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I am not in Politness studies but search for Ahmad Izadi articles. he is working in this area.
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Hello,
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It helps a lot. Thanks!
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Could you please advice me about the size of the samples when we conduct a cross-cultural study for comparing behaviours between two cultures? Does the sample size has to be similar? For instance, if I have a sample with 532 participants and the other sample has 699 participants, do you think that these number should be fine if we want to analyse the differences between sample using SEM?
Many thanks in advance for your help
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Dear Filipa
I don't have experience with Mplus, I prefer SAS and SPSS for statistical analysis, this software effective and widely used.
Good Luck
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HI i am doing a cross cultural research with parents of children diagnosed with developmental disability, i am doing this as part of my honors project, it is between Pakistani parents living in Pakistan and lining in Australia. Any suggesions and tips are welcome
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The Caregiver Strain Questionnaire paper is available on ResearchGate 
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Indigenous communities have their own definitions of tastes and flavors. They have a name for a full well cooked meal, or a mature, ripe seed. Is there anyone out there with knowledge of these time-tested community sciences?
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Dear Monica Opole
The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists. It includes many "sub-communities" working on particular scientific fields, and within particular institutions; interdisciplinary and cross-institutional activities are also significant. Objectivity is expected to be achieved by the scientific method. Peer review, through discussion and debate within journals and conferences, assists in this objectivity by maintaining the quality of research methodology and interpretation of results.
History of scientific communities
The eighteenth century had some societies made up of men who studied nature, also known as natural philosophers and natural historians, which included even amateurs. As such these societies were more like local clubs and groups with diverse interests than actual scientific communities, which usually had interests on specialized disciplines.Though there were a few older societies of men who studied nature such as the Royal Society of London, the concept of scientific communities emerged in the second half of the 19th century, not before, because it was in this century that the language of modern science emerged, the professionalization of science occurred, specialized institutions were created, and the specialization of scientific disciplines and fields occurred.For instance, the term scientist was first coined by the naturalist-theologian William Whewell in 1834 and the wider acceptance of the term along with the growth of specialized societies allowed for researchers to see themselves as a part of a wider imagined community, similar to the concept of nationhood.
Membership, status and interactions
Membership of the community is generally, but not exclusively, a function of education, employment status, and institutional affiliation. Status within the community is highly correlated with publication record. Scientists are usually trained in academia through universities. As such, degrees in the relevant scientific sub-disciplines are often considered prerequisites for membership in the relevant community. In particular, the PhD with its research requirements functions as a marker of being an important integrator into the community, though continued membership is dependent on maintaining connections to other researchers through publication, technical contributions, and conferences. After obtaining a PhD an academic scientist may continue through post-doctoral fellowships and onto professorships. Other scientists make contributions to the scientific community in alternate ways such as in industry, education, think tanks, or the government.
Members of the same community do not need to work together.Communication between the members is established by disseminating research work and hypotheses through articles in peer reviewed journals, or by attending conferences where new research is presented and ideas exchanged and discussed. There are also many informal methods of communication of scientific work and results as well. And many in a coherent community may actually not communicate all of their work with one another, for various professional reasons.
Speaking for the scientific community
Unlike in previous centuries when the community of scholars were all members of few learned societies and similar institutions, there are no singular bodies or individuals which can be said today to speak for all science or all scientists. This is partly due to the specialized training most scientists receive in very few fields. As a result, many would lack expertise in all the other fields of the sciences. For instance, due to the increasing complexity of information and specialization of scientists, most of the cutting-edge research today is done by well funded groups of scientists, rather than individuals.However, there are still multiple societies and academies in many countries which help consolidate some opinions and research to help guide public discussions on matters of policy and government-funded research. For example, the United States' National Academy of Science (NAS) and United Kingdom's Royal Society sometimes act as surrogates when the opinions of the scientific community need to be ascertained by policy makers or the national government, but the statements of the National Academy of Science or the Royal Society are not binding on scientists nor do they necessarily reflect the opinions of every scientist in a given community since membership is often exclusive, their commissions are explicitly focused on serving their governments, and they have never "shown systematic interest in what rank-and file scientists think about scientific matters". Exclusivity of membership in these types of organizations can be seen in their election processes in which only existing members can officially nominate others for candidacy of membership. It is very unusual for organizations like the National Academy of Science to engage in external research projects since they normally focus on preparing scientific reports for government agencies.[8] An example of how rarely the NAS engages in external and active research can be seen in its struggle to prepare and overcome hurdles, due to its lack of experience in coordinating research grants and major research programs on the environment and health.
Nevertheless, general scientific consensus is a concept which is often referred to when dealing with questions that can be subject to scientific methodology. While the consensus opinion of the community is not always easy to ascertain or fix due to paradigm shifting, generally the standards and utility of the scientific methodhave tended to ensure, to some degree, that scientists agree on some general corpus of facts explicated by scientific theory while rejecting some ideas which run counter to this realization. The concept of scientific consensus is very important to science pedagogy, the evaluation of new ideas, and research funding. Sometimes it is argued that there is a closed shop bias within the scientific community toward new ideas. Protoscience, fringe science, and pseudoscience have been topics that discuss demarcation problems. In response to this some non-consensus claims skeptical organizations, not research institutions, have devoted considerable amounts of time and money contesting ideas which run counter to general agreement on a particular topic.
Philosophers of science argue over the epistemological limits of such a consensus and some, including Thomas Kuhn, have pointed to the existence of scientific revolutions in the history of science as being an important indication that scientific consensus can, at times, be wrong. Nevertheless, the sheer explanatory power of science in its ability to make accurate and precise predictions and aid in the design and engineering of new technology has ensconced "science" and, by proxy, the opinions of the scientific community as a highly respected form of knowledge both in the academy and in popular culture.
Political controversies
The high regard with which scientific results are held in Western society has caused a number of political controversies over scientific subjects to arise. An allegedconflict thesis proposed in the 19th century between religion and science has been cited by some as representative of a struggle between tradition and substantial change and faith and reason.[citation needed]. A popular example used to support this thesis is when Galileo was tried before the Inquisition concerning the heliocentric model.[9] The persecution began after Pope Urban VIII permitted Galileo to write about the Copernican model. Galileo had used arguments from the Pope and put them in the voice of the simpleton in the work "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" which caused great offense to him.Even though many historians of science have discredited the conflict thesis it still remains a popular belief among many including some scientists. In more recent times, thecreation-evolution controversy has resulted in many religious believers in a supernatural creation to challenge some naturalistic assumptions that have been proposed in some of the branches of scientific fields such as evolutionary biology, geology, and astronomy. Although the dichotomy seems to be of a different outlook from a Continental European perspective, it does exist. The Vienna Circle, for instance, had a paramount (i.e. symbolic) influence on the semiotic regimerepresented by the Scientific Community in Europe.
In the decades following World War II, some were convinced that nuclear power would solve the pending energy crisis by providing energy at low cost. This advocacy led to the construction of many nuclear power plants, but was also accompanied by a global political movement opposed to nuclear power due to safety concerns and associations of the technology with nuclear weapons. Mass protests in the United States and Europe during the 1970s and 1980s along with the disasters of Chernobyl and Three Mile Island led to a decline in nuclear power plant construction.
In the last decades or so, both global warming and stem cells have placed the opinions of the scientific community in the forefront of political debate.
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I want to check if the sample size he used is valid for his model.
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Didier, see “Culture’s Consequences”, 2001, exhibit A2.1. GH
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Our thesis topic is about the relationship between corporate governance disclosure and asset size, profitability, leverage etc.
1. The country of interest is the Philippines. Is it a good idea to expand to other countries in our research?
2. Does culture and company tradition also affect the disclosure practices in a specific country? If yes,is its safe to say that we should no expand out research to other countries as Philippines has its own "disclosure practices" compared to other countries assuming that the Philippines do have a different disclosure practice.
Thank you!! 
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Thank you for your inputs. But what if our professor asks us why we limited our study to only one country? Can our answer be "we followed two of our literatures which compels us to study only one country as the two literatures only studied one country each"? Thank you again!
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One Indian Lecture teaches the course intercultural communication, mainly introduces Landeskund of southeast Asian countries and its neighboring countries. The aim is to improve students' cultural communication competence and their speaking skills. The other lecture from Canada teaches the course Culture Around the daily life, using a course book "People like us". The aim of the course is to improve students' speaking skills and have students know more and understand more about culture. Both small c culture and Big C culture are introduced in the lesson.These two courses are English language courses. I would like to probe into the effects of the teaching of two lectures on developing students' cultural awareness or cultural sensitivity. Could any research help me sharpen my idea to have some research questions? Thanks a million!
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Hope attached one is useful for your investigation. 
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I want to know how he got the numbers for the dimensions for each country. Thank you
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Yes. I found an article on how Inglehart mapped culture using two bipolar dimensions. Thank you.
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It will be used in the selection process for a Market Research Director - International.  Thanks in advance!
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I might be able to help. Can you be a bit clearer about what you are looking for when you say "recommend a cross-cultural assessment"?
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I am conducting a cross-cultural analysis, using the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (Murdock & White 2006), in order to determine how common is the use of inebriating plants, mushrooms, and/or beverages in human societies. I have not been able to find information on the use of mind-altering substances (hallucinogens, stimulants, narcotics) among the next African peoples: Lozi, Suku, Tiv, Fon, Tallensi, Luguru, Nkundo Mongo, Banen, Ibo, Ashanti, Wolof, Songhai, Shilluk, Mao, Bogo, Teda. Does anyone know if the traditional use (for religious, medical or secular purposes) of any kind of psychoactive material was ever present in any of these cultures?  And if it is, can you direct me to the corresponding references?
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Hola Jose,  if  you have a personal email, I can send you some papers (PDF) of some lists of Old World Hallucinogens by a late colleague, anthropologist, Weston LaBarre.  Dr, LaBarre is author of the Peyote Cult (the definitive book on the peyote religion, used by Native Americans to help set up new charter church groups across the USA).  He also authored the book, The Ghost Dance" which is about the origins of religion, and in that tomb, Dr. LaBarre discusses the theory that most religions began with primitive humankind accidentally consuming plants of an entheogenic nature allowing one to see things they had never seen before and considered the reactions as coming from a deity.  I also have three great short papers by Dr. LaBarre form the late 1970s which lists other cultures that used such plants as sacraments, etc.  
I can also provide you with a list of references to mushroom use in Africa from my CD-ROM, Teonanacatl: A Bibliography of Entheogenic Fungi.  which covers their history from 5,000 years bp through December 2012.  At that time I ran out of funds to update the data and my bibliography has more than 3,000 references, more than 10,000 cross-references all linked to author-date citations, over 2306 annotations, Over 360 references on Soma featuring mainly, Amanita muscaria, and more than 1680 screen sized photographs pertaining to every aspect of psilocybian and other entheogenic Fungi.  Also included in that CD-ROM are several articles and a complete listing of the Wasson/Archives linked form Harvard University.
Other papers include my colleague and co-author of 7 academic papers with me on entheogenic fungi, he published a paper on Old World Hallucinogens.  In my library I have close to over 90 % of every book, journal and magazine articles on psilocybian producing mushrooms as well as papers and books on many other drugs.  One of my mentors over the years was the late Dr. Richard Evans Schultes,  He is known as the Father of Ethnobotany.    Please send me an email and I can supply you with several well written papers on some of the plants of Africa and on shrooms as well.
Happy New year to you and your loved ones, From Seattle and in symbiosis of our interest in this subject matter.
Best Regards,
John W. Allen
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Dear Colleagues
What do you suggest to measure cross cultural differences? Do you suggest a questionnaire?
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May be first it depend on what differences we are targeting? for example are we interested in cross cultural difference in eating habbit, in methods of treatment, ..etc...
Next, the data collection method could be questionnaires, interviews, qualitative approach. It could happen that people from different cultures are living in the same area, or one can use Internet to collect data from different countries.
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How much weight should be placed on ethnographic analogy?
Direct interpretation of subject matter?
Cross cultural studies of rock art?
Cognitive neuroscience?
Semiotics?
Comparative religion?
Other?
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While Colson and others have valid points, Brassard's suggestion also has merit. As I just noted in another of Alan's questions, native peoples who still live or feel connected to the land might relate to the "rock art". And, not necessarily natives to that specific area. We know that prehistoric pottery designs were replicated throughout the eastern U.S. Were these by independent invention or dissemination, as in this means that?
As mentioned, I noted that pottery designs from a late prehistoric site in south Louisiana were shown to a local Chitimacha Indian basket maker. Come to find out, the pottery motifs matched traditional basket weaving designs that had been passed down from generation to generation. Each design had a name and meaning/lore, some of which have been lost in tribal memory.
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How we can decide to consider the variables to be independent or moderator as in the case of Hofstede's cultural dimensions?
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Hello
Most of the work I came across used them as moderators. An excellent PhD thesis which discussed these dimensions is 'Culture, Demography and Individuals’ Technology Acceptance Behaviour: A PLS Based Structural Evaluation of an Extended
Model of Technology Acceptance in South-Asian Country Context'. Try to have a look at it, I think it will be helpful. 
Regards
Nisreen 
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Dear Colleague,
We would like to invite you to our new, large-scale cross-cultural research project.
Our previous research projects, conducted in 53 study sites, turned out to be a great success. One of our manuscripts (from a first project) was published in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, other from the new project is currently under review in the same journal, one will soon be submitted to the Journal of Marriage and Family, and three more papers are in the final stages of preparations. Thanks to our efficient team work we now collaborate with, e.g., David Buss.
We would like to continue the research in the area of cross-cultural/evolutionary psychology. This time, we plan to conduct six studies.
a) Sexual Morality Project
b) Comparison of daily life touch between countries
c) Creativity study
d) Love study
e) Mate study
f) Facebook study
Now, we have collaborators from 60 countries.  Algieria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Rep, Estonia, Etiopia, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hong Kong, Hugary, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Salvador, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,  UK, Ukraine, Uruguay, USA.
New collaborators from other countries are WELCOME!
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We completed recruitment, thank you for all answers,
Piotr
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We are doing a study related to perception of visitors on the level of crowdedness of coastal and marine sites. We found different levels based on the visitors’ country of origin. 
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See Doug Wilkinson's 1966 study of the Baffin Eskimos' perception of crowding (LAND OF THE LONG DAY, 1966, Toronto: Clarke Irwin & Co).  Wilkinson's friend Idlouk wanted to know how Wilkinson's people lived, and when told of the cities, Idlouk shook his head in disbelief/disapproval; he couldn't understand how people lived like that (p. 12):  "His mind could not accept the fact that so many people could live and work in such a confined space" as Manhattan--and he had bad dreams about it.  He said he kept waking up, thinking of all those people in such a small space: "...pushing and shoving, fighting to breathe.  I see people stacked up one atop the other and I become one of them striving to climb upward to reach open air.  I awake in a sweat...and for a long time I cannot sleep."  To Idlouk, his camp of 31 people was uncomfortably crowded.  He was always happy to return to his camp, but after a few days, he grew "tired of many people so close to me.  I want to get away..., out into the open spaces of ice-covered sea where I can look out and see no other soul.  Then I breathe deeply; I am happy; I feel like a man again...." (p. 13)  IN SHORT, the perception of crowding is very much relative to one's cultural perspectives.  See my "Discussion" (pp. 431-452) of these matters in LONG-TERM SUBSISTENCE CHANGE IN PREHISTORIC NORTH AMERICA (eds. Dale R. Croes, Rebecca A. Hawkins, and Barry L. Isaac, 1992, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press [Supplement 6, Research in Economic Anthropology]).  [Also note, therein, the material I cite from Dominique Legros' study of the Tutchone Athapaskans of Yukon Territory--who are so overpopulated at a density of 0.7/100 sq. km that the group is divided into sleek "haves" and starving "have-nots".]
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I am undertaking a research on mottos of educational institutions in Ghana. as part of this, i intend doing a cross-cultural study of mottos across countries. Mottos are the watchwords that express the philosophy and principles of institutions. They are usually provided at the bottom of the institutional logo. For example the motto of University of Cape Coast in Ghana is 'Veritas Nobis Lumen'
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The study of mottos is interesting as these reflects the aim and objects of that particular institutes or organization. In India many mottos are taken form ancient Sanskrit literature.  Many ideal examples such as "Satyamevajayte" means victory is always of  truth, "Savidyayavimuktaye" means Knowledge which liberates, " Nahigyanensadrashampavitramihvidyate" means nothing pious like knowledge, etc.
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Donald E. Brown's book, "Human Universals", explores and describes physical and behavioral characteristics that can be considered universal among all cultures, all people. I have not been able to get my hands on a copy of that work. Can someone who has read the book tell me if Brown employed a systematic cross-cultural analysis? Or did he employed a different methodology? If so, what was the procedure he used to determine which traits are ubiquitous in human societies? Are his findings robust and reliable? Or are they based on a somewhat haphazard survey of regionally isolated studies?
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Methodology is not normally a term applied to writing a book (as opposed, say, to doing field or laboratory research), or at least not that sort of a book. 
In a sense the book 'Human Universals' is a "review" of the literature.  They are written all the time in many fields (n psychology, sociology, and of course anthropology). But there is no standard methodology for writing a book about cultural or biological universals. Brown did search the term 'universals' to go through various published journal indexes that listed references for further investigation.  
 In particular, aside from the anthropological evidence for cultural and biological universals, Brown paid attention to the evidence in psychology and evolutionary psychology.  
He also drew on his own field experiences in Brunei, Bali, Mexico, and of course the US--hence he relied on the comparative method.  That in turn was much supplemented by a long interest in world ethnography.  He had prepared for field work in Latin America.  He studied with Africanists (Leo Kuper, M.G. Smith, Victor Turner) to learn British Social Anthro, and thereby read a lot of African ethnography.  All this adds up to the comparative method.
 There is a section of my book where Brown discusses how he assessed the universality of problematic cases for universals and he dealt with the quantitative issue of absolute vs near universals. Much of this is not dignified with the term methodology but is standard method across many fields as part of what constitutes objective or scientific writing.
Brown followed in the footsteps of Murdock and others who had focused on the study of universals, but produced a more nuanced account of universals that had been neglected by the majority of anthropologists who tended to focus on cultural differences.  
Of course Brown does not deny tremendous cultural variation and differences throughout the world.   But the neglect of cultural and biological universals often led anthropologists to 'exoticize' humans in various regions of the world, reducing the ability to empathize with the so-called 'other.'   Anthropologists must emphasize both the similarities and differences of people and societies they investigate to produce a more comprehensive understanding of humanity.  
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I would like to use it to assess the participant´s acculturative attitudes in my study. But I am having problems finding it.
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Dear Srividya, can you provide me the Ward and Kennedy scale
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Regarding identity construction in the European expansion.
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Dear Dr. Luengo
Your problem is related to the old concept of "ethnogenesis," the way a group of people acquire an ethnic identity. See the wikipedia article for an introduction to this literature.  For the formation of local identies is Latin America in the wake of the Iberian conquest, see George Foster's classic book.He argued that Iberia was rife with petty local religious heresies reflecting local identities. The Catholic Church went to some trouble to select settlers that we orthodox in their beliefs so as to keep the Americas free of such heresies. But the Indian and Mestizo communities in the Americas preserved pre-Hispanic beliefs or reinvented new ones reflecting local identities. Foster's work more generally will provide you an introduction to the large anthropological literature on Latin America. Cultural evolutionists like myself have paid some attention to making a formal evolutionary theory of these processes. Social psychologists have a useful literature called social identity theory.
Best, Pete
Foster, G. M. (1960). Culture and conquest: America's Spanish heritage. New York: Werner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.
McElreath, R., Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. (2003). Shared norms can lead to the evolution of ethnic markers. Current Anthropology, 44(1), 123-129.
Haslam, S. A. (2001). Psychology in Organizations: The Social Identity Approach. London: Sage Publications.
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The contemporary European model of nation-state is based on the ideology of one state, one nation and one language, so we can follow many conflicts involving nationalism and multiculturalism. How can we overcome this contradiction and to ensure equal rights for all? After all, multicultural environments, today and in the past (before the European model of nation-state), are a reality.
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My answer may seem to be unusual since I'll approach the subject from a chemist's bird's eyes. In chemistry, we used to classify catalysts into (2) types: (i) Homogeneous (which means that the catalyst exists in the same phase as reactants). (ii) Heterogeneous (which indicates that the catalyst exists in a phase different from the phases of the reactants). This classification went on for years & is still adopted in general introductory courses.
Recently, progress in the field of catalysis increased the types to (4). The two additional types are: (iii) Homogeneously heterogenized catalysts. (iv) Heterogeneously homogenized catalysts.
Now, apply types (iii & iv) to answer the question about co-existence between nationalism and multiculturalism within a national state setting and there ought to be a way out from what appears to be a paradox. Human intelligence can work out a satisfactory resolution which is good for all provided that earnest intentions prevail.  
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Does anyone have a good measurement tool/method for measuring Confucianism? Any references and/or survey questions are appreciated! Thanks very much!
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Hello Dr Baumann,
If you're still looking for this question, you should check out the following recent paper by some very good colleagues of mine:
W. Yao (*) • C. Baumann • L.P. Tan (2015), Wine Brand Category Choice and Confucianism: A Purchase Motivation Comparison of Caucasian, Chinese and Korean Consumer, in F.J. Martı´nez-Lo´pez et al. (eds.), Advances in National Brand and Private Label Marketing, Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-20182-5_3
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For the past few decades, post-colonial studies has been found to be followed by another trend of diaspora literature studies.
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Post-colonial and diaspora literature studies has become significant in the realm of socio-cultural and political discourse due to the ongoing colonization through globalization of the world. The once ruled nations under the realm of colonial expansion. After the colonization the world has developed new culture from the influence of colonial empire. This new culture has been a centre of attraction to the literature studies. For works i wud go with Rahimi ali but suggesting not to forget Gayatri chakraborty Spivak
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I need a survey tool based on Trompenaars cultural dimensions
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I need examples that show differences of connotation from one culture to another.
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We are all knowlegable, I'm sure, of denotative and connotative meanngs and differences.  It is unclear what it is you are meaning of trying to say. 
Cultural connotations are quite  different than myths.  What do you meanr by "color terms?"  Be very specific.  I don't thikn that ed, blue, green, yellow differ in cultures (altough theymay among artists).  Culture do differe  in their clothing, concepte of beuaty and beliefs about nature.  But how are you relation ghtis to "color terms" and denotative and connotative meaning.  Again, cultural connotton is NOT myth.
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Anyone doing cross cultural test adaptations for children who speak languages other than English?
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Dear Sheila,
we are doing some cross-cultural validation studies from english language to german language. For
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I'm searching for papers, bibliography about intercural acitivities in which the stress is on similitarities and not on differences.
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Some critical researchers address the problem that intercultural education often focuses to much on cultural differences. Mecheril f.ex. presents different approaches to difference in social work: neglect of the other, recognition of the other (by emphasizing the necessity of identity) and the deconstruction of differences.
Mecheril, P. & Plößer, M. (2012). Neglect – recognition – deconstruction: Approaches to otherness in social work. In: International Social Work, Heft 55(6)/ 2012, S.794–808.