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My colleagues and I have been conducting research related to cosmopolitan academic competitions among students in East Asia - China and South Korea as examples. Previously, we argued with reviewers regarding the definition of 'elite education, elite students, and elite positions'. We acknowledge the term, 'Elite Education', entails numerous meanings. Especially within the context of Western capitalist society, some of the prominent meanings involve power, honor, and privilege as symbolic forms of power. Namely, students from relatively wealthy families may have better opportunities to have quality education, obtain college admissions from high-profile universities, and further seek competitive occupational opportunities in the social hierarchy. However, there are also multiple ways to see elite education, elite university, and elite positions. Not every individual/student is from wealthy families but some non-Western nations, whether capitalist or socialist regimes such Asian nations as China, South Korea, Japan, and Singapore, have different ways to view elite education. Students' intellectual levels regardless of socio-economic status can be viewed as elite (smart) students. As we have seen, there are numerous ways to define elite education.
At this point, I would like to learn about more diverse worldviews how global scholars perceive the meanings of 'Elite Education' in their own national or cultural contexts beyond the lexicon definition.
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This debate is interesting. Elite universities have been compared to designer labels, a valuable credential in the job market, and an entryway into top jobs or graduate schools. There is a certain level of academic nepotism in many countries (i.e., USA) related to social class and the traditional paradigm related to some families and not to the quality of candidates.
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Suggestions or explanation how can I apply Critical Theory of Technology in my thesis.
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Instrumental Theory Instrumental theory offers the most widely accepted view of technology. It is based on the commonsense idea that technologies are "tools" standing ready to serve the purposes of their users. Technology is deemed "neutral," without valuative content of its own. But what does the "neutrality" of technology actually mean? The concept usually implies at least four points: 1. The neutrality of technology is merely a special case of the neutrality of instrumental means, which are only contingently related to the substantive values they serve. Technology, as pure instrumentality, is indifferent to the variety of ends it can be employed to achieve. This conception of neutrality is familiar and self-evident.
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we lost a large number of intellectuals, critics and writers during the years from 2003-2020.
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I believe it is imperative to work on a some form of a literary anthology to register all the literary works that depicted the turning point in the history of the country and how the American invasion of Iraq and its aftermath were portrayed in the works of Iraqi writers (dead or still alive). It is a promising and massive project but it is not an impossible task. There is a bad need for volunteers to start working on such project. It is a national obligation!
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What does the text reveal about the problematics of post-colonial identity, including the relationship between personal and cultural identity and such issues as double consciousness and hybridity?
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Try to read "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Spivak discusses the lack of an account of the Sati practice, leading her to reflect on whether the subaltern can even speak. Spivak writes about the process, the focus on the Eurocentric Subject as they disavow the problem of representation; and by invoking the Subject of Europe, these intellectuals constitute the subaltern Other of Europe as anonymous and mute. Reading Edward Said should help critics like you understanding this topic. All the best!
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This is meant, in the first instance, as a discussion forum for this paper by René Buchholz: "Grand Hotel Abyss? - On the Actuality of Theodor W. Adorno's Critical Theory". Please download the paper from here:
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Keith Moser - I think the difference between Baudrillard (and so many from the French side of things) and the Frankfurt group of theorists lies in the word 'dialectic'. It's very difficult to talk about this word without dealing directly with Hegel, with Psychoanalysis, with 'universalgeschichte', all kinds of things. I know them a lot better than I do the French theorists, though I did study both the structuralists and the functionalists for many years. I think, if one were to pursue this, we would have to start talking about the different meanings of the word 'power'. It means something very different in the French and Anglo-Saxon context, than it does in the one formed by German Idealism. (That goes as far back as Leibniz versus Newton, Kant against Descartes and Hume ...) That Buchholz paper is a direct critique of those who think that if one says 'power', surveys the world from this vantage point, that one has gained a great deal...
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We have been discussing a critical review of new materialism by Susanne Lettow: Turning the turn: New materialism, historical materialism and critical theory. Thesis 11 (2016), 1-16. We have also discussed the introduction (by the editors) to the volume "Material Feminisms" ed. Susan Alaimo and Susan Hekman, Indian UP, 2008.
The questions that have come out of this discussion are the following:
1. Do the authors just add a "big we" to previously available to "matter" - understood at best as a boundary object and at worst as a wobbly notion? Is it possible to make the accounts discussed her more concise?
2. Do they open up new conversations - and which ones?
3. Which new types of knowledge are produced?
4. If the apparent lack of conciseness is due to patriarchial exclusions of certain types of thinking that feminism, however, needs, what does feminist episteme / epistemology mean?
5. If new materialism provides a platform for theories that might be different or even (in terms of their basis philosophical presuppositions) incompatible, can feminist inquiry use this platform for common goals / research projects?
6. How could the discussion go on? (How) do we tackle traditional dichotomies like the nature/culture devide?
7. Does feminist materialism allow to (re)position the philosophical backbone of sciences/technologies in a specific historical/regional context?
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Thanks, Alaa Ali for finding this discussion on Research Gate and bringing it to my attention again. Feel free to propose answers to one or more of the questions. As for this one:
5. If new materialism provides a platform for theories that might be different or even (in terms of their basis philosophical presuppositions) incompatible, can feminist inquiry use this platform for common goals / research projects?
- my own attempts at re-thinking are circling around terms like "communities of critters" (using Haraway's terms) and "entanglements". Feminist philosophy should be multi-layered, trying out ways of juggling with different subject-positions. "Nature" and "culture", for example, are not distinct, but they are not "the same" either. "Women" stay subjects, although there are many different ways of living gender. This takes into account that feminist philosophy is not politics, but it is not apolitical either. This is what I like about Haraway.
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I am currently doing research on the implications of African Values vs Western values on managing ethics in business (focus on Public Sector). As a methodological paradigm, I have chosen a critical theory because I aim to challenge the status quo of dominant western philosophy on developing an ethics management framework for business. In doing so, I have adopted a PAR research strategy focusing on qualitative methods of document analysis and interpretation and use of focus groups to encourage the participation of the working class in order to co-research and solve the problem together.
Now I want your assistance in outlining which data analysis method I can use to bring this home because I am stuck between Hermeneutic and Qualitative Content Analysis.
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You can use a structured questionnaire and an interview in addition to qualitative content analysis. You may also rely on structured observation.
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(I mean Positivism, Interpretativism, Critical Theory, Postmodernism or Pragmatism). Is there any article about that?
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Some of the literature on legal positivism might suggest an analogous framework for a business environment.
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Certain critical theories have informed government policy formulation and implementation in higher education. An examination of the appropriateness and limitations of these theories is valuable to education policy makers and education managers who implement the policy.
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This is a good question. While not being able to provide you with clear answer, the nature of higher education as hybrid constellation serving interests of public policy including business interests, students as customers and academic oligarchy provides parallel and sometimes contradictory goals for governments. The notion of hybridity includes all of these aspects.
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Am looking forward to analyzing the contributions as well as the criticisms of the theories if any.
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For my dissertation work, I have been studying Constructivism, Critical Theory, and Computers.
I am curious what people think about this premise:
There is no single software program to use in the learning process, rather it will be that students will program their own software as part of their learning process.
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Do you see this potential in all areas of school K-20? Or do you see it limited to particular slices?
Thanks for thinking about this! -- Bryan
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So glad that what I wrote seems to have made sense to you. I see we are somewhat at similar lines. I do not yet think we have seen any final outcome of the use of digital ICTs. The next big, and somewhat quite disruptive thing I expect is development in the direction of learning analytics and adaptive learning. This will begin to respect that learners need different time and other different resources and relations to learn. Instead of time being the constant and learning variable, learning can be constant and time variable. But this destroys school scheduling and organisation and calls for reconstruction of social learning structures in organised education.
I leave a couple of attachments here to papers on RG, by Floridi, that I think you will like, related to my previous post - and a conference presentation of mine.
You write about constructivism - but I wonder if you are in your thinking closer to constructionism. Papert was a friend of Piaget (constructivist) but became in the end a constructionist. A lot of difference here. Floridi sees it as the difference between knowledge of the user and knowledge of the maker, and blames the knowledge of the user, knowledge as a spectator sport, on Plato. Floridi sees it as a historic mistake - it is the maker of artefacts (which Plato despised) who has deeper knowledge - he or she knows how it works, can take the artefact apart, explain and put it together again. Think of the difference between a car user and a car mechanic. Artefacts can also be non-physical of course. See attached paper ”What the makers knowledge could be”, and ”In defence of constructionism”. I will also send you on RG mail a short text behind a paywall.
However, if you are doing a dissertation under surveillance, deviations from the almost all-dominant constructivism dogma may not be problem-free. Just a heads-up...
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Does qualitative and inductive approach match with following ( All of them together)
1. Grounded theory
2. semi structured interview ( critical interview)
3. Critical theory ( narrative strategy)
Data analysis: thematic or coding and critical theory
My position: critical, subjective, interpretive, emancipating, revealing.
Epistemology: Critical paradigm and interpretive paradigm
Ontology: Historical realism
Thank you for your time!
Regards
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Hello, Colleague deed Dare,
I agree with Anders above. There are differing rhetorical modes for the different arts and sciences. If you can specify for us what acadmic field you are in, then we can go on.
In film study for instance, this would be a cumbersome and unfamiliar framework.
n other words, while the claim--warrant for claim strusture holds for all fields, this isn't a one size fits all kind of writingI
Gloria
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I'm seeking advice on resources for a proposed theoretical dissertation on a radical ecopedagogy. I'm looking to utilize a hermeneutic method that would be informed by ecodiscourse analysis as well as ecolinguistics. At this point, the following are some of the subfields/approaches I'm planning on utilizing: ecopedagogy, ecoliteracy, liberatory pedagogy, critical pedagogy, dialectical development, ecopsychology, ecofeminism, and deep ecology.
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Dear Eric,
I am a Critical Realist and Critical Realism would be helpful for theoretical consideration because it emphasises ontological reality while accepting that knowledge is socially produced. Please have a look at the following attached documents below, they might help. Also the book: Explaining Society by Berth Danermark et al.(2006) and the work of Stephen Sterling including this:
Best wishes,
Dima
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I like this article because it is methodical and systematic in its use of theory and empirical data. But I see a limitation in the discussion section as the authors seem unable or unwilling to connect the problems with this text/class/pedagogy with the larger context of Western power and colonial rule. Interestingly, while the use Pennycooks' earliest book, the did not use his English and the Discourses of Colonialaism, which deals with these issues in great depth.
This omission is important because it would be difficult to correct the shortcomings discovered by the authors unless this larger context is factored in.
In theoretical terms, attempts to address the concerns raised in this study will likely engage in "problem solving theory" not "critical theory" (Cox).
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I agree with you in your liking and enthusiasm for the article. What you argue about the significance of the imperialistic factors is also true. However, I find that the authors set out their terms of reference quite well and economically, and that these are situated in the area of the practical action of teachers and textbook authors, moreso than a more intellectualised consideration of the processes of power. I cannot criticise them, therefore, too much on account of what they do not say.
Thanks for bringing this article and these important issues to my attention.
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If critical theory is a school of thought that focuses on reflective assessments and critique of society and culture by applying the knowledge of Social sciences and Humanities. How does it give rise to critical pedagogy? is the teaching method where one can make students apply reflective thinking will be called as critical pedagogy? if yes it can be applied to all the subjects. Reflective assessments can be made in all subjects including science. But then will it be Critical theory because it says applying the knowledge of social sciences and humanities......
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Dear Ms. Deepika Rajawat,
  • According to Monica McLean (2006) merely the name ‘critical theory’ is associated with the ‘Frankfurt School’. Despite identifiable origins, critical theory is not a theory of society or a homogeneous school of thinkers or a method, yet it is generally seen as building on Marxist theories by revealing hidden oppressions and by being openly directed toward political action. It is also characterized by being against positivism. The critical theory attempts to generate knowledge from speculative attempts to understand the interwoven, interdependent nature of the human subject and the objective world.
  • From the point of view of developing a capacity for critical pedagogy, the two are fused: that is, self-reflection to improve day-to-day classroom practice is bound up with self-reflection aimed at understanding the influence of power in classrooms, institutions and in the world. The right conditions for a critical pedagogy approximate to what Habermas calls ‘ideal speech conditions’ in which teachers and students can explore questions about teaching and learning and come to agreements about practices free of domination and coercion.
If you want to extend your knowledge, I recommend a book Monica McLean (2006) Pedagogy and the University: Critical Theory and Practice. London: Continuum.
I hope I have been of some help.
Yours sincerely,
Andrija
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How can critical theory as a perspective help us understand how parents' involvement as a factor can affect academic performance.
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Perhaps you like to see our point on this issue:
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Several forums dealing with Einstein's special theory of relativity have been openned by RG researchers. Most, if not all, are critical of the theory and its consequences. Among the consequences are time dilation and length contraction that nominally occur as velocities approach that of light. Are these consequences really real? We invite discussion:
For the moment let us suppose that Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR) is an accurate representation of Nature within the theory’s inherent domain of applicability. STR fundamentally is a theory of space, time and the velocity of light c. When we speak of time and space in STR, we find them linked together by c in a four-dimensional manifold labeled “spacetime.” When we speak of clocks and meter sticks in the context of STR, we find ourselves confronted with the issues of time dilation and length contraction. These foundational aspects of STR have stirred considerable debate as well as spawning various interpretations and misunderstandings. We here revisit relativistic time dilation and length contraction with the ambitious hope of showing in a simple, straightforward way how these hallmark consequences of STR arise.
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Time dilation refers to the slowing of time for objects (or living beings) moving at very fast velocities relative to those moving a slower velocities, according to the equation change in time = 1/((1-v^2/c^2)^-2). What happens is that the closer the velocity gets to c (the speed of light) the larger the change or ratio becomes. According to this equation, if the the speed of light was very nearly achieved, the ratio would become close to infinite and time would nearly stand still, relative to objects at rest. The shortening of objects working in an identical manner.
I am a graduate student in English literature, not a physical science, mathematics or engineering student, and I hope I have not mangled to math. An interesting, even important, sidelight to this issue is its use in science fiction literature. With regard to travel at relativistic speeds, there is no room to play around with the concept. With other postualted modes of travel, such as travel through hyperspace, wormholes, stargates, teleportation, interdimensional portals or in the case of time travel the basic relativistic concept of time dilation can be manipulated in various ways according to literary convention, the whims and needs to the author and what may be known about the actual or postulated physics of these phenomena. Some are thought to be actual possibilities, others pure fiction, but in every case the literary treatment of them is influenced by the theories of Special and also General relativity.
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Do you agree that he was writing back to the canon, why? Or do you have any other opinion?
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Okonkwo kills himself. This is a significant personal decision: he does not allow himself to be arrested, arraigned and killed by the colonial (in)justice system. Okonkwo defies the intrusion. The tragic irony is that in killing himself, he shall be thrown into evil forest; he becomes, in death, the efulefu that he has decried all his life. He dies 'a woman's death' and his people, even his closest friend Obierika, cannot touch his body: it is defiled. I do not subscribe to the view that his death signifies the 'death' of traditional native views. What dies in Okonkwo are those uncompromising values that he embodies: quick to anger, beating his wife, a masculinisation of the home/village/Umuofia. His work ethic does not die with him. His stern views on consumerist culture remain a stubborn reminder that productive work is still the acme of (igbo) society. By extension, Obierika, who is his erstwhile friend remains alive at the end of the narrative. The bond between the two enables us to read Obierika's longevity as an extension of that which was good and enduring in Okonkwo to thrive in a contested landscape where the District Commissioner and the Kotma and the school are bringing in new challenges, new vistas and new problems. Remember, it is Obierika who remarks: "The white man has put a knife on the things that held us together...and now we have fallen apart." Perhaps, more than WB Yeats, Obierika understands those 'things' much more clearly, much more personally, much more enigmatically.
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I have been looking for application of critical theory to some Indian English texts
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Surely it would depend on whether what you want to say could be arrived at using structuralist poetics? Too often we think that 'truth' - or what we want to say - is the product of a method, a box of philosophical or literary-theoretical tools, instead of that method being the best, or inevitable or most convenient, way of expressing the insight or inspiration which pushes us to write. We make theory, not the other way round, not so?
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Hello,
for my filmmaking dissertation, I am researching about the topic of the "Culture of Fear" (Glassner, 1999). Would you have any films' suggestions that express the ideology behind it and consequently reacts pro or against it?
Simply put, how do films react to the "Culture of Fear" in which we live today? What films (fiction and documentary) promote it and what are against it?
Many thanks,
Francesco
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agree with Marcelo Ádams
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If you were to design a course to teach Islamic history, (from outside colonial narratives), within the perspective of Islamic culture, what Islamic thinkers, poets, writers, theorists, and artists would you include and why?
Additionally, should you exclude any controversial sources shared among extremist groups, or should they be included, and subject to rigorous critique by Muslim students?
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Wael B. Hallaq’s The Impossible State: Islam, Politics, and Modernity’s Moral Predicament would be a good choice.
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Have you considered also analysing a decidedly anticapitalist utopian organization? Wouldn't that be important for being able to say something about the dialectics of utopias in general? With just the HUB and 100 DAYS as cases, it might be tempting to conclude that hose organizations perhaps are just not radical enough to be more emancipatory?
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One possible case could be the study of a Temporary Autonomous Zone. For an introduction to the concept, see: Hakim Bey (1991) Temporary Autonomous Zones, Autonomedia.
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In the 21st century, the acquisition of knowledge is no longer considered to be a good thing per se. We live in a time when programs in English (or in the humanities more generally) have to prepare their graduates to survive in an increasingly competitive job market. When we are writing student handbooks and information for departmental websites, we usually stress that our programs concentrate on teaching transferable skills. But what exactly are these transferable skills?
Critical theory is a field that offers an immensely important preparation for working in academic and non-academic jobs that require abstract thinking, as well as other complex skills.
So my question is: what are the transferable skills acquired in the context of studying and applying critical theory?
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I teach a MEd course in critical pedagogy with, obviously, in depth exploration of critical theory. Some key transferable skills that can gain and developed in the course include:
1. Reflection about self and one's own status in an educational institution and on an employment market. Many of my students are international students and this quickly becomes very concrete in understanding where they stand in a context of globalization. Mere visitors or true participants?
2. We spend a fair amount of our classes examining links between critical literature and every days news. They gain the ability to dissect media messages and examine/recognize power dynamics in the word that surrounds them. Of significant importance these days as soon as you access media...
2. We also focus on the tension between post-modern thought and critical theory as it guides our immediate actions in the sphere of social justice, i.e. dissecting and eroding social constructs such as race and gender vs. reinforcing them and using them as a vehicle for action. They gain the ability to recognize this tension, as citizens, in every day debates and to situate their own social action.
4. Finally there is the whole 'voice'' and identity piece. Critical theory leads learners to reflect on how to gain a voice, solidify a critical identity, etc. and this represents very tangible and transferable skills in the new media landscape when we have all gained the status of producer of message, rather than mere consumers.
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I am looking for research into digital health that has been conducted from a critical or interpretivist research approach.  By critical I mean critical theory or critical realism,I am particularly interested in research by British academics or research that is looking at the NHS.  Are there specific academics conducing research in this area who's work you particulalry respect.  I am not interested in positivist research in this area.
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Please let me know if these interpretive digital health academic references/sites are helpful to you:
2.  Interpretive research paradigms: Points of difference ...
Academia.edu is a platform for academics to ... Interpretive research paradigms:
3.  Points of ... Interpretative Research Paradigms: Points of Difference Nevan ...
Digital Health Research Subscription | Rock Health | We're ...
Digital Health Research Subscription ... and PDF copies of reports covering digital health trends. ... startup, or academic institution? Email us ...
4.  2011 Standards and Interpretive Guide - April 2017
1 2011 Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE ®) Standards and Interpretive Guide (effective July 31, 2013) April 2017 Interpretive Guide ...
5.  Digital Identity Health Check for Academics - piirus.ac.uk
Digital Identity Health Check for Academics. ... The first step in your digital health check is to review what comes up in the results when someone ...
Dennis 
Dennis Mazur
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I am looking at actors' experience of presenting lost, obscure, or forgotten plays. I am following some suggestions of Clark Moustakas in his Heuristic Research and have done considerable reflection on my own experiences. The qualitative research I intend to undertake with theatre artists needs to be accompanied by a survey of relevant readings. Phenomenology, performance philosophy, and creative writing are all on my horizon. Does anyone have any suggestions for by bibliography? Interviews will be my main resource but the lived experience of my subjects needs to be connected to relevant contexts.
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¿Que tipo de drama familiar?
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I personally feel that the writing part of any research is as much a part of the research meaning making process as any other stage. Has anyone researched this or written about it?
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Dear Jane Burt,
You are absolutely right about  envisaging  research writing as a kind of   meaning making process. Notably, researchers involved in reporting research seek to convey objective and subjective information based on  the patterns structuring world realities and the way such realities are conceived by different people ( see Popper's world three).  More specifically, the researchers employ a personal  lens relying on emic as well as etic sources of evidence in their choice of  an appropriate research  methodology . As such, their underlying ideological/ ontological  assumptions can be reflected through the methods they use for doing research. Therefore, in deciding to use a qualitative rather than a quantitative methodology, the targeted reality ,which the researchers tend to investigate,  plays a pivotal role in understanding the general research design required for exploiting the research topic. For more details, I refer you to the following links, which can hopefully shed light on what you are looking for.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Comparisons stand for similarities and contrasts stand for dissimilarities or opposites or what is not similar. They can be found in the societal norms, genre, form, figures of speech, settings, and vocabulary of the poem. Do you agree? If yes, please tell me some more kinds of comparisons and contrasts in the Rape of the Lock.
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Thank you
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I found Zyngier (2001) 'Towards a cultural approach to stylistics' and Paton (2000) 'Beyond Bakhtin: Towards a cultural stylistics.' I have the Routledge Handbook of Stylistics in front of me too, and note that cultural stylistics is not included. Paton's notion of 'cultural conversations' and Zyngier's frameworks suggest that Historical and Pedagogical stylistics might be the best places to start. If you have other suggestions for students of the ever-expanding field of Stylistics please let me know!
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Dear Paul Sevigny,
Notably, stylistics, as you have very rightly observed,  provides a useful link between literature and linguistics (Birch, 1985; Gupta& Srivastava, 1991).  The Handbook of Linguistics and the Handbook of stylistics are two authoritative sources by prof. Peter Stockwell, which I believe can be very useful in this regard.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Goffman (1967) defines face as " the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact.’’( Goffman 1967, p. 5). Brown and Levinson (1978;1987) believe that ‘face’ is ‘public self-image’ which is invested, maintained , lost or enhanced emotionally and must be paid attention to in everyday interaction constantly. 
According to these definitions of face, how politicians save face.
Your contribution is highly appreciated in advance.
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Hi Masoumeh!
You ask how politicians save face in political interviews, and borrow from Goffman' (1967) definition of face as " the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact.’’( p. 5).
Let me begin by saying that it may be risking to think of politicians in general. There are politicians and politicians. We certainly all agree that N. Mandela and D. Trump as politicians should have little, if any, in common.     
With basis on Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning and development we can think of three types of politicians: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Pre-conventional politicians are those whose thinking and acting is guided by individualistic and egocentric interests, wants and desires.  Because of this, it is likely that when they are interviewed they made everything they can do in order to save their face, that is, to give others an appearance that does not corresponds to what they really are as politicians, individuals, or citizens. As I see it, this type of politicians are even capable of lying when they are interviewed, just to save their face. I would say that Trump is indeed a pre-conventional politician in moral and ethical terms. I guess that pre-conventional politicians would refuse to answer to, as it were, hard moral dilemmas 
Conventional politicians are those whose thinking and acting is guided by existing social rules and moral norms and that they are interested, for example, in the social progress of their own and even other countries. Because of this it is likely they do not need, say, to save their face while being interviewed. As I see it, the great majority of politicians are conventional, in the sense they are aware of their rights and duties qua politicians, individual and citizens.
Post-conventional politicians are those  whose thinking and acting is guided by prescriptive and generalizable moral principles, such as the principle of justice (i.e., not to treat others unfairly), benevolence (i.e., not to turn away someone in need), social utility (i.e., to bring about the greatest good for the greatest number of people), or eudemonia (i.e., to bring about the self-actualization and  self-fulfillment of every citizen). Because of this, it is likely that post-conventional politicians are truly sincere when they are interviewed for they have nothing to hide. Hence, they do not need to save their faces , because they are lovers, say, of the true, the good, and the beautiful. Nelson Mandela, Luther King, just to cite two examples, would certainly belong to this category of politicians.
All that said, I think that would be interesting and telling to analyze politicians' discourses and answers when interviewed from a Kohlbergian point of view. Although we often think that all politicians save their faces, for example, by promising what they are not committed  to doing, smiling, and the like, not all politicians are those bad guys we tend to think they are. As I see it, as far as to save faces is concerned, there are a big difference between what I would call pre-conventional,  conventional or post-conventional politicians.
I hope that I have got your question and that this  helps.
Best regards
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The critical theory can use the human view of the employee, to develop a more accurate process management. What do you think?
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Very interesting viewpoint. Is looking at the performance of the team vs the performance of the individual an issue?
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Critical Theory is the theoretical framework initially developed by the Frankfurt School.
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Absolutely, the Critical Theory gives a broad framework that permit to understand the deep topics behind visible topics. However, when a researcher uses this lens, sometimes your findings could dispute the mainstream. It isn't bad but implies that the researchers have to be braves.
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My research question is: How do young offenders experience and understand case management?  In many ways this lends itself to a phenomenological approach, but I do not share this worldview.  Critical realism is more apt in this regard, but it seems to be used to support studies with an explanatory purpose.  The issue of 'causation' is confusing to me in critical realism.  
At this stage, I am taking a dialectical pragmatist (Johnson 2011, 2012) stance informed by: pragmatism-of-the-middle philosophy (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie 2004; Johnson, Onwuegbuzie and Turner 2007); critical theory; and weak social constructionism (i.e. realist ontology | relativist epistemology).    
Any thoughts?
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Yes you can use critical realism as a theoretical frame - we refer to its uses in this chapters. We don't always explicitly refer to it but we have an orientation to analysis that incorporates its ideas.
“Raising youth voices in community and policy decision-making”. Sanders, J. & Munford, R. In Ungar, M. & Liebenberg, L (Eds.) Resilience in Action: Working with Youth across Cultures and Contexts. Canada, University of Toronto Press.
 “Assessment of families”. Munford, R. & Sanders J.  In Sowers, C. & Dulmus, C.  (Eds.) The Comprehensive Handbook of Social Work and Social Welfare. New Jersey, USA, John Wiley and Sons.
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Can anyone share the literature on the three major Research Paradigm's Positivism, Interpretivism and Critical theory with the concepts of Ontology, Epistemology and Axiology.
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Hi Hina,
You say that you need literature on Three Major Research Paradigm's Positivism, Interpretivism and Critical theory? 
Let me say that in 1942, Stephan Peeper spoke about four paradigms or world's views in Science (Formism, Mechanism, Contextualism, and Organicism), in his famous book titled World Hypotheses: A study of evidence. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Each paradigm appeals to a specific root metaphor.The root metaphor of mechanism is the machine.The root metaphor of formism is similarity.The root metaphor of contextualism is the ongoing act in context. And the root metaphor of organicism is the process of organic development, as in living, growing, organic systems. Mechanism and formism are analytic: The whole is reducible to its parts. The parts are basic, the whole derived. Organicism and contextualism are synthetic: The whole is basic, the parts derived. Formism and contextualism are dispersive: Facts are related when they are found to be so, not by assumption. Chance, therefore, is not denied in these hypotheses. Mechanism and organicism are integrative: Facts are related by assumption and order is categorical. As such, chance is denied. Dispersive world views or hypotheses tend to be higher in scope than in precision; integrative world hypotheses tend to be higher in precision than in scope. Skinner's theory of learning is an example of a mechanistic approach. Piaget's theory of development is an organismic approach. Life-span developmental psychology (see Baltes, 1987) and Bronfennbrener's (1979) ecological approach to human development are only two examples of  a contextualist view of the world. Fodor's  (1983) theory of the modularity of mind is just an example of a formistic paradigm or world's view.   
I think that you can learn a lot with respect to your question from reading that book, and also books to which it gave rise. You can also benefit from reading a chapter (chapter 1) by Willis Overton, published in 1998, in the Handbook of child psychology. New York: John Wiley   
Have I got your point?
Best regards
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What concepts developed by queer "theorists" could be use in the post-colonialism approach studying race.
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Queer  theory  has  developed  as  an interrogation and deconstruction of the multiple discursive productions of sexuality, seeking to denaturalize the assumed connections between sex,  gender  and  desire. The  emerging  body  of  queer  theory  was  demarcating  an  area  of studying  sexuality  without  gender  and  without  feminism,  producing a  sophisticated  body  of  work  on  sex  and  sexuality  that  troubled  heteronormativity  independent  of  feminism‘s  focus  on  male/  female relationships.
postcolonialism includes a vast array of subjects. In fact, the very different geographical, historical, social, religious, and economic concerns of the different ex-colonies dictate a wide variety in the nature and subject of most postcolonial writing.
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As very interested in critical theory, especially in education, but this question is rather general, I first supposed there would be a lot of research and theory on how a critical theory perspective on X opens up doors to new knowledge. That is of course the aim of most scientific methods, but what about critical theory? Does the perspective from the vantage point of a discriminated group open up something new, and how? How fruitful is the underdog perspective, and how? I don´t find very much general reflections on this in the literature - I am not searchinmg for how it works in special fields, as gender, social class, handicap etc, but in general. Gramsci on hegemony is the kind of things I am looking for. Recommendations? Or do you have own ideas? Thanks in advance.
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Gayatri Spivak in "Can A Subaltern Speak?" addresses some of these questions. My own take on it is that there is no necessary heuristic validity to an underdog perspective unless this perspective is genuinely different from the dominant discourse rather than simply being an inversion of it.  In other words, positioning oneself outside a cultural paradigm of knowledge while still being able to speak the language of this paradigm is potentially fruitful. Positioning oneself inside this paradigm as its silenced or marginalized Other simply reproduces (or inverts) the discursive relations of power without unsettling them or opening them up to new knowledge. 
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Poststructuralism (PS) isn't an actor, so this isn't meant literally.
To specify the question a little (but it is quite open beyond that): Could we argue with PS or on a postructural(ist) theoretical basis that work is (in its capacity as praxis/action absolutely good or) relatively better than (the one) spare time which isn't used in a structurally aware/engaged way -> An engagement which we may call "work with, against or to improve structures"?
'Better' meant in two ways:
1) Better for the individual
As while working/acting, it is less subjected to senseless or even somehow harmful things that are aimed at (or sold to) fill the void.
2) Better for society or particular structures within it
As work (formal or informal, paid or non-monetary) may be (or: is) pre-structured and imperfect, but time without work is even more likely to be filled with things and customs which are structurally set/fixed (postructuralist critique) or distracting from emancipatory moves/involvement (critical theory perspective) or inauthentic (existentialist perspective).
There's also the idea of alternative ideas/concepts of work. But I also mean work as such (as human necessity and drive), in all its relatively voluntary (or: not hierarchically—on the actor-level—forced) forms.
Poststructuralism, existentialism, as well as critical theory (among others: the concept of the culture industry) could be saying (directly or indirectly) something about this question.
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In semiotic terms, silence is not the same as absence of meaning, but its counterpoint. Work and leisure seem to function in analogous ways. It is important to consider your question from two separate perspectives, the private and the public ones:
1. Work and leisure as they alternate in counterpoint-pendular movement in one person's life.
2. Work and leisure as pendular moments alternating in the overall economic system.
The fusion of both needs and economic provision for it could 
On the other hand, the question of will and desire (Kristeva) cannot be obviated...
Being out of work for redundancy reasons and leisure are not the same, cf. Thorstein Veblen
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Heutagogy and critical theory in an indigenous context.
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Hello Cheryl
I think that it might be better to reframe your question as follows: Does critical pedagogy have something to offer ....etc?
Critical theory is a wide perspective and includes many strands, not least, critical pedagogy. Paolo Freire is arguably the leading figure in critical pedagogy, which he used in his efforts to emancipate poor, exploited Brazilians back in the 1960s. Inspired by Paolo, I have written a book chapter (you can download it from my ResearchGate Publications) with the title, Meeting the poor at close quarters: street social pedagogy with the Romanian poor in Norway.
Best wishes and good luck. Paul
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I am reading Lincoln and Guba (1994) on the incommensurability of these paradigms until there is a new paradigm. Has a new option arrived?
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Dear All,
Nice discussion...helpful for my own research project.
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Critical paradigm is a sort of emancipatory and transformatory research paradigm. Critical theorists take support from this approach to emancipate marginalized from their race class, gender, and religion (etc.) based flawed social systems (Asghar, 2013). Thus, it can be said that  this critical strategy is used to voice the voiceless for social justice. Following this paradigm, researchers mostly use action research approach to achieve their goals.  (Cohen, et al. 2000).
But if we use ethnographic methodology (which is based on constructivism) with critical paradigm, then how far can we achieve our goal of emancipation and social justice?
Ethnography is a methodology to voice people. Relying on constructivist paradigm, researchers often employ ethnography to understand the participants' culture from their own perspective.. but it also paves a way for researchers to voice the voiceless...  Being an ethnographer, we cannot understand the process of construction of any social action without deconstructing it and when we deconstruct something, automatically we find its positive and negative aspects. Then, by criticizing the negative aspects we can create some space for marginalized...
In that way,  it seems that we can use ethnographic (not purely ethnography) design as a technique to put forward our critical paradigmatic approach to emancipate suppressed people.
 Kindly correct these ideas.
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Pedagogy of the Oppressed - sent to you by Ivo, a great scholar too - is The book to read Before We Die. It strikes me that your question, highly relevant, is too rule bound. Ethnography, Statistical research and other methods can all be applied to emancipatory research.
Have a look at a chapter I wrote on poor Romanian beggars in Norway: on RG. My research background is in statistics, but I used ethnography in this particular study. The aim was, in the spirit of ethnography, to bring the voices of the beggars to the policymakers. These are the voices of human suffering that elusively hide behind the neat and tidy statistics in the bureaucrat´s comfortable office.
For all that, it would have helped me, and more importantly, the beggars, if I could find more statistics in order to support an emancipatory goal. How many Romanianns beggars find work? Do any of them die, and if so, from hypothermia during the Norwegian winter when they do not have a roof over their heads? There are many other questions, including: how many of them are officially poor based the EU poverty level scale (much better than the OECD scale, by the way)? 
Such data might jolt the social services and health care system into more action on behalf of this despraretly poor minority group. But, No, they are invisible, except when they are considered a nuisance and told by racists to move on or get a bus back to Romania.
Finally - and this is my main point- research methods, from whatever stable they might come from, can and are used for emancipatory purposes. In that context, for example, reliable statistical data on how best to tackle bullying in schools - a major field in my current and past research - can help schools to choose interventions that show a  real potential to emancipate the victims of bullying. Best wishes, Paul
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I want to study carefully about position of the criticism in the public sphere theory, according Habermas thought . On the other hand I want to know how the criticism can solve political conflict  and make political structure without any violence.
Please help me with your publication or publication that you know or other you could help me.
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Habermas' work is entirely philosophical in the sense that makes a description on how societes worked and currently work. His best work on the issue of public sphere is "The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (1962, 1989), even though he discusses all three spheres in subsequent works (in Weberian fashion). If I understand your questions correctly, you want to use his tenet as a mechanism to solve conflict and not as a priori discussion.  If that is the case, it falls outside the philosophical discourse, and it enters into the "social work" or sociological realm.  Now, if you are talking about interpretative discourse, please clarify, so that we all can direct you to the appropriate area.
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The aim is to assist in writing a dissertation
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Also see:
Brunel, Pierre. Companion to Literary Myths, Heroes, and Archetypes. London: Routledge, 1993
Douglas, Mary. Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology. London: Barrie and Rockliffe, 1970
Hogan, Patrick Colm. The Mind and Its Stories: Narrative Universals and Human Emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003
Matthews, Jack, ed. Archetypal Themes in the Modern Story. New York: St Martin's Press, 1973
Stevens, Anthony. Archetypes: A Natural History of the Self. New York: William Morrow, 1982
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Pedagogy is the art of teaching and I believe teaching is an art. Has the era of High Stakes Testing affected your teaching craft? Do you find you have had to change your pedagogic style? Is it possible to be truly creative within the confinement of modern day testing? 
Is this approach in assessment helping or hurting you style as a teacher and how has this impacted your students.
Please explain
Thank you
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The art of teaching is affected by "technology changes'' and "tailor made" teaching methods, where teacher is not free to use its own methods.
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I am writing about women in educational leadership positions and I want to build a conceptual framework that takes into account feminist/critical theories. What do people recommend? 
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Dear Mary,
There is one book that I would Highly recommend that being an Ed. book by Garry, A. and Pearsall, M., (1996) Women, Knowledge, and Reality: Explorations in Feminist Philosophy. Second, and just as important would be Collins, P. H. (2000) Black feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Third hooks, B. (2000) All About Love. 
In the Garry and Pearsall's edited book you will find the seminal work and the scholars who blazed a trail for many others to follow.
I hope this helps,
Douglas
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A pertinent topic for discourse
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   Very appropiate comment from Orringer on the issue of medicine.  Actually, it makes us see that such an interrelationship is very old, and that it has been changing through time.  On Kafle's point, one could say that such interface has changed faces many times.  Medicine as an art in ancient times, and ethical considerations back then indicate a relationship very different from that in medieval times to current ones.  It appears to be also an exercise on historic slices of specific moments with completely different sets of values and technologies. 
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I have names such as Brue Boehrer and Erica Fudge, but need earlier writers on this topic.The information will be helpful with a project I'm currently working on.
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There are some other important studies that haven't been mentioned which are excellent resources.  Lucinda Cole's article in Journal of Early Modern Cultural Studies (2010) on Macbeth; Karen Raber's  Animal Bodies, Renaissance Culture. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.  Cole also has a book coming out next year from Michigan, Imperfect Creatures: Vermin, Literature, and the Sciences of Life, 1600-1730.
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My personal background and understandings of belonging and knowledge were informed by the colonization and diaspora of my Celtic ancestors: their displacement from Ireland and Scotland to England made me a 'transnational'. However, more recently through my migration to other countries - and my interest in First Nations and Indigenous peoples' experiences I have acknowledged my personal role in intellectual and economic 'seeding' of culture in physical and spiritual terms - from Europe to Canada and later to Australia (Queensland). As a researcher working in a supposedly 'postcolonial' theoretical context, I accept and welcome feeling uncomfortable in language and efforts to understand and work with colleagues across cultures. As poet Roberta Sykes states, in her work Postcolonial Fictions
Have I missed something?
Have they gone?"
The colonizing influence continues in my and our mindset - and is a challenge. However, the impact of damaging colonialism frames the mindset of colleagues whose families have been and are still destroyed by the fallout of colonization. Linda Tuhiwai Smith (2012) writes with wisdom about the challenges for researchers working across cultures and the need to embrace 'other' (Indigenous) and hitherto 'othered' ways of knowing and representing the world.
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This is an interesting question. I would like to hear what others think. I would think many indigenous societies and intellectuals would be very careful or uncomfortable with the term 'postcolonial' and the theory associated with it, because, in many countries, indigenous groups now form minorities and have been effectively colonised by politically dominant groups (who are/were themselves colonised by (usually European powers), and who appropriate postcolonial terminology for their own usually nationalistic ends).
I suppose this is a form of neo-colonialism or doubly-inscribed colonialism, couple that with traditional practices of gender discrimination in some indigenous societies and you start to approach what Gayatri Spivak has famously called the Subaltern. Of course, Spivak would probably say that postcolonial theory is inadequate to address the concerns of such a group which always requires other, more privileged groups to represent them, being unable to represent themselves.
Then again, perhaps you can still begin to approach the kind of respect for epistemological difference within postcolonial studies. Postcolonialism (being associated with other 'post-' theoretical methods) is reflexive and self-critical enough that you should be able to offer nuanced accounts of its shortcomings while still claiming to operate inside it as a discourse.