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I have a situation where I chose a grade 11 class in a school for my case study. What sampling is this?
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in my opinion; volunteer samples
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I have the feeling that most of the people locate them on Canada and USA. Just trying to have a larger sample. Thanks!
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Hi Pablo,
I agree with Michael's insights. Critical pedagogy is a philosophical and socially practical concept. In general, there are numerous theoretical roots and scholars. As teacher researchers, numerous scholars make collective endeavors to view social justice and advocacy for vulnerable students within their own belonging societies. Bourdieu, Giroux, and Feire are well-known critical pedagoguues. Bourdieu is also considered to be a critical sociologist as well. I recommend some of their works.
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron J. (2000). Reproduction in education, society, and culture. (2nd ed.). London: Sage.
Feire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum.
Giroux, H. (1988). Teachers as intellectuals: Toward a critical pedagogy of learning.
Granby, MA: Bergin & Harvey.
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I think that Cultural Diversity Responsive Education (CDRE) can be considered a more comprehensive approach to transformative education than inclusive education, indigenous perspectives, critical pedagogy, and so forth. As every society of the world becomes a culturally diverse society, we need to position our education through CDRE to ensure equitable learning opportunities to all learners of the classroom.
Give your opinion.
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Multicultural education is predicated on the principle of educational equity for all students, regardless of culture. Culturally responsive teachers should center students' identities in the classroom, they support the development of students' racial and ethnic pride. A trove of studies favorably link racial and ethnic pride and belonging to school engagement, interest in learning, and even better grades.
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Is it for children and young people to limit, limit the use of smartphones?
Should I fully control the use of smartphones by children and adolescents?
If children or adolescents use smartphones for learning, as a tool to support education processes, communication with schoolchildren and friends, and if these devices use new online media from time to time, this may not be positively assessed. However, if divides or young people from smartphones use many hours a day, among other things, viewing advertisements on social media portals and worthless memes and films, then it can have a destructive effect on the intellectual and psychological development of children and adolescents. In this situation, the use of smartphones by children and teenagers should be limited and controlled by parents, guardians and teachers.
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Yes, definitely.
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This is the main inquiry question for my PhD studies. I'm asking it with the geographic particularity because of the need for ecoliteracy to be sensitive to bioregions and cultural differences. Your ideas are welcome!
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Teeka Bhattarai Children do learn from doing. Children love to do real and meaningful things. Children like to do things that might make a difference. John Dewey and Evelyn Dewey mentions Marietta Johnson in their book "Schools of To-morrow". This is a very old book (1915) with great ideas that seem new even today. You will find it free online. Also the book they recommend, "Thirty years with an idea" written by Mariette Johnson, have ideas that would suit your thinking.
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I am interested in reading on any theoretical treatises and empirical studies on the application of critical pedagogy & education / feminist (if any) with with children and/or adults with intellectual disabilities. Reference to critical pedagogy with children and/or adults with physical disabilities is also of interest. Yet, I seem to be drawing a blank on both accounts but especially the former. I would appreciate any suitable directions.
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Marvin Formosa It is an important connection you are searching for. I am a action researcher currently working with people with severe intellectual disability. My PhD is from Roskilde University and my mentor was Kurt Aagaard Nielsen. Nielsen inspired me to work with critical theory and critical pedagogy. Participation and collaboration are very difficult challenges working with people that cannot read, write and struggle with verbal communication. The core ideas of «critical», of «participation», of «collaboration» become deeply ethical and creative challenges. My main co-researcher Sofie Daae Kversøy has a severe intellectual disability. Paying attention and seizing the moment is a methodological focus. Sofie is showing and leading and the rest of us co-researchers are enterpreting and facilitating. Are open access articles here on ResearchGate shows our methodology. Even the thought of having Sofie as a co-researcher has been an ethical challenge. We agree that people with intellectual disabilities have the same right to be credited for their development work as any other reseacher. Even though both feminist and critical theory is not applied explisit, you will see our work is radical, critical, enmancipating and creates change and autonomy. You will find ideas from Freire, Dewey, Habermas, Lewin, Jungk, Müllert, Sennet, Vagle, Møller ...
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Is there such thing as false interpretation in Literature?
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An interpretation is considered admissible if it's not in contradiction with the text, but since the text is open and polysemous, the return to the text is often insufficient to determine the validity of the interpretations, which are diverses and can be contradictory. Literary interpretation is both subjective and in part conditioned by interpretative communities (Fish). We cannot use a criterion of truth (true / false) but an intersubjective validation process (admissible / contestable), in other words to be admissible an interpretation must be recognized as such by other readers. We must then turn to the explanation by the readers of the sources of their interpretations. In my educational research, I have shown that teachers refer more to literary culture and students to the values ​​shared in their communities as well as to their personal experiences of the world. Thank you for the rich discussion!
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Your valuable new information, scientific discourses, and appropriate comments are humbly invited to share about the proceeded question above so that we all ESL teachers can make more presentative, productive, practice, and advanced learning classes of the English language skills for the students of preparatory year.
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There's a plethora of teaching approaches you may utilize. First, I would like you you to consider looking at these elements: student and teacher's access to technology, student and teacher's readiness to use the technology ( platform, software and apps). Some approaches include, collaborative learning by using breakout session available in zoom or Bkackboard, active learning through short polling or short quiz using Multiple Choice Questions. You may also use different applications such as Nearpod, Kahoot, Padlet, Quizlet, and Edmodo among others. You may use gamification to engage students in the lesson avtivities.
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Language Education should prepare learners and teachers to become critical thinkers and agents of change. In the 21st century, Critical cosmopolitan citizenship can serve as the catalyst to empower learners of all ages to fight against climate change, ethnic prejudice and discrimination, and financial inequality. How do you see cosmopolitan citizenship education as an integral part of language education? How would this approach work in at the elementary level (ages 4 to 12)?
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Language education can contribute to the future of humanity if language teachers promote social justice and cosmopolitan citizenship. @H.Starkey (2007) defends that through language learning, learners are able to identify with members of the target language's community, develop a sense of belonging to that community, and consequently a feeling of "shared citizenship". @Bykerej (2013) talks about teaching language through a critical cosmopolitan citizenship approach. He suggests that, for teacher and students to become cosmopolitan citizens they need to: investigate the world, communicate ideas with diverse audiences, take action and accept plurality of perspectives. Language education through critical cosmopolitan citizenship is possible from a very young age. Unfortunately, the curriculum does not motivate teachers to empower language learners to become critical thinkers (de LiraSilva, 2018). Language education will contribute to the future of humanity if language teachers and teacher candidates become committed to helping learners become active cosmopolitan citizens who try to improve life at the local, national and global levels.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Education and pedagogy?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Education and pedagogy.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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I think, in some universities, there is a movement away from a search for the truth through rigorous research. It seems that no matter how well researched or documented a study is, it can be shot down by accusations, political maneuvering, or slandering the researcher. There will come a crisis point, I believe, and the pendulum will swing back to a search for the truth.
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I'm seeking advice on resources for a proposed theoretical dissertation on a radical ecopedagogy. I'm looking to utilize a hermeneutic method that would be informed by ecodiscourse analysis as well as ecolinguistics. At this point, the following are some of the subfields/approaches I'm planning on utilizing: ecopedagogy, ecoliteracy, liberatory pedagogy, critical pedagogy, dialectical development, ecopsychology, ecofeminism, and deep ecology.
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Dear Eric,
I am a Critical Realist and Critical Realism would be helpful for theoretical consideration because it emphasises ontological reality while accepting that knowledge is socially produced. Please have a look at the following attached documents below, they might help. Also the book: Explaining Society by Berth Danermark et al.(2006) and the work of Stephen Sterling including this:
Best wishes,
Dima
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Media education is very important in my country.
It mainly concerns such fields of study as media studies, journalism, new media on the Internet, security of information transfer on the Internet, internet marketing, new media including social media portals, information processing in Big Data database systems, etc.
In my country, the development of services based on teleinformatics and new media is considered an important factor in the development of a modern knowledge-based economy. In addition, the development of services based on teleinformatics and new media is also considered one of the main determinants of the current fourth technological revolution referred to as Industry 4.0.
In view of the above, the current question is: The importance of new online media and education on these media in the modern economy?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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In my opinnion we are beginning of the effect of online media yet. In a close future, will occour many and discuss and many dimension of online media
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Leading inquiry question: How could a pilot project of teaching ecopedagogy at the university level, inform a narrative inquiry into the barriers of normalizing this type of radically critical pedagogy within our institutions of education? This particular inquiry question gets to the heart of a fundamental societal organizing issue: What is the purpose of education? The topic area and context of this inquiry is institutionalized education, and even more specifically, the university education of teachers, leaders, and future citizens of the Earth. It is my intention that this inquiry would lead to a dissertation that would influence the influencers (e.g., teachers and leaders).
This proposed inquiry has emerged within the context of my work as a university adjunct instructor. This particular context is chosen on the premise that a sustainable future is going to require that we ‘teach our teachers to teach’ in an ecologically literate manner, as well as to be ecological. With this inquiry, I’m entering into the vital debate about: Should environmental education (e.g., ‘sustainability’) be taught as a subtopic, an ‘optional’ course of study, or should it be taught as the basis of all other learning?
This developing inquiry also leads to the following sub-questions: What are the barriers to normalizing ecopedagogy within the academy? How can the academy become vested in ecopedagogy and not completely abandon academic freedom? In the face of our ‘wicked problems’ (e.g., ecological crises, mass extinction, climate change, social injustice, etc.), how can the academy fully embrace an ecopedagogy and find a new balance of what academic freedom means in the Anthropocence? In the face of becoming extinct, what constitutes a relevant education?
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Hi Eric,
Interesting subject!
I don't have a straight answer for your question, but I thought of a fourth option to add to your paragraph:
"Should environmental education (e.g., ‘sustainability’) be taught as a subtopic, an ‘optional’ course of study, or should it be taught as the basis of all other learning?"
A good option for educators working together in the same faculty is to pursue the articulation of a certain idea or concept through special assignments for their students. This way, the same subject can be approached from different perspectives. The subject you propose would be a great one for articulation between courses.
Hope this helps!
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If critical theory is a school of thought that focuses on reflective assessments and critique of society and culture by applying the knowledge of Social sciences and Humanities. How does it give rise to critical pedagogy? is the teaching method where one can make students apply reflective thinking will be called as critical pedagogy? if yes it can be applied to all the subjects. Reflective assessments can be made in all subjects including science. But then will it be Critical theory because it says applying the knowledge of social sciences and humanities......
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Dear Ms. Deepika Rajawat,
  • According to Monica McLean (2006) merely the name ‘critical theory’ is associated with the ‘Frankfurt School’. Despite identifiable origins, critical theory is not a theory of society or a homogeneous school of thinkers or a method, yet it is generally seen as building on Marxist theories by revealing hidden oppressions and by being openly directed toward political action. It is also characterized by being against positivism. The critical theory attempts to generate knowledge from speculative attempts to understand the interwoven, interdependent nature of the human subject and the objective world.
  • From the point of view of developing a capacity for critical pedagogy, the two are fused: that is, self-reflection to improve day-to-day classroom practice is bound up with self-reflection aimed at understanding the influence of power in classrooms, institutions and in the world. The right conditions for a critical pedagogy approximate to what Habermas calls ‘ideal speech conditions’ in which teachers and students can explore questions about teaching and learning and come to agreements about practices free of domination and coercion.
If you want to extend your knowledge, I recommend a book Monica McLean (2006) Pedagogy and the University: Critical Theory and Practice. London: Continuum.
I hope I have been of some help.
Yours sincerely,
Andrija
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if there is any research papers related to this issue please sent me
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Jumoke Soyemi thanks for this useful information
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Many teachers think that students' test scores are critical in students' lives and teachers' careers. So, the teachers are busy with improving students' test performance than enhancing critical thinking capability. Can we enhance students' critical thinking capability and improve test scores using critical pedagogy in the classroom using the existing curriculum?
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I am pretty much agree with Anders Norberg. I only want to suggest using the social media commenting instrument as an addition to discussions, which can boost healthy criticism and reflection, helping developing critical thinking and free, informal self-expression.
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I am trying to write a paper about the flipped classroom, and need advice about which theory is best suited to approach FC.
Thanks You!
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I think Piaget's equilibration theory best describes the learning that is happening in a flipped classroom. Watch video, build schema; discuss with group members, schema gets disturb and assimilation occurs. Teacher intervenes disturbing schema again and further assimilation happens which produces learning.
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I have also been working on pilot projects implementing genre pedagogy in EFL contexts in Urugugay.
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Dear Laura,
Absolutely, we would appreciate very much having you in one of our meetings. We are still deciding on the type of methodology, yet I think we would be visiting teachers in September. You're cordially invited to our meeting.
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Booth and Ainscow;s Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning and participation in schools (2002) has been out there for some time now and used in UK schools in particular. http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Index%20English.pdf
Enough time has passed;  What do we think of the 1. definitions, 2. relationships 3. understanding of classrooms as communities and 4. implementation of the index in inclusive education?
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Alright.  So how do they define inclusive classrooms?  How do you use the index in Basrah and Barcelona?
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 I am looking for a theoretical framework to guide analysis of case studies of inclusive classroom practice, with a focus on the teacher.
Criteria to judge effective practice would be helpful.
Any ideas?
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Inclusive teaching strategies refer to teaching approaches that address the needs of students with their own backgrounds, learning styles, and abilities. These strategies contribute to an overall inclusive learning environment, in which students feel equally valued.  
So before teaching, how do you record, analyze, reflect on the individual needs of students?  Does the IFSP and IEP contribute anything to your understanding of a teacher in a classroom designed to homogenize and create obedient subjects and employees and good, non-protesting citizens? (institutional and contexts and cultural norms vary)
When engaged in teaching, how do you observe interactions that set off an ADS student's buttons or become aware of how a deaf student is processing information or whether the one in the wheelchair with CP over in the 3rd row by the door can do a cluster activity or find accommodation for a team assignment?  
Finally, assessment (the holy of hollies in neoliberal capitalist societies) Is about what the teacher learned about a student's learning style and how they produce knowledge. Then passing it on to other teachers working with the student. The narrative of the student about what they learned and how this changes them is key.  Assessment that is individualized cannot at the same time be standardized, in spite of what the yes we canners wish to say on the subject.  Either the students are exploring a field with coaching and lively discussion or they are being fed what the state educational standards people say is necessary and appropriate at an age level.
So when comments above recommend looking at Finish models, I am not surprised.  The Finns gave up on state-mandated standards and they are doing wonderfully.
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According to the CBAM, if you want to study how actually an innovation is implemented, and if you want to depict the variation of the implementation, the best way is to use the IC-map (Innovation Configuration Map). In my case, the creators of an innovation did not develop the related IC map. Also, due to various limitations, my study will not be designed along the action-based research approaches. Thus, there is no way I will involve the designers of an innovation to develop the IC-Map. 
That notwithstanding, the Curriculum (the innovation in this case) that I want to examine has well specified things that the teachers “should” be doing.
What I have decided is to do the following:
1. I want to develop a list of such things and then see if they are adhered or not. It will be a CHECKLIST in this sense
2. I will be observing different teachers to see HOW many of such THINGS they do per each component
3. I will conduct analysis and develop profiles of innovation users (teachers) based on the frequency and cluster of those THINGS/ACTIONS.
Do you think this will be a good alternative approach?
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Yes, but you would have to state your assumptions upfront as it is not clear whether teachers were trained in the innovation and have all the necessary resources to implement this innovation. I did something similar to you in assessing my Research e-Clinics innovation that received a merit award in 2016 for excellence in teaching research methodology. See attached.
Best regards,
Debra
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N/A
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Hello Jimela, 
CPA stands for Certified Public Accountant 
Regards
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I am studying student engagement and my focus is on the school factors that accounts for existing levels of student engagement in learning. It is not my intention to use an intervention as part of my design.
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Hi Miguel,
You're addressing a venerable area, but one that is still developing an understanding of the constructs involved. More to the point: your question is rather HUGE. Probably unmanageably huge until you start sorting out some operational definitions (i.e., context, epistemology, theoretical frame). Engagement can be defined in a variety of ways and from a variety of contexts. From one side, engagement looks a little bit like motivation. From another, it looks more like interest. Ultimately, there are a few people who have dedicated their entire career to the study of motivation and engagement. What is 100% clear, each term is reserved and has a specific meaning in the literature (i.e., motivation, engagement, interest). 
My experience in this area is more closely aligned with interest as it pertains to the Model of Domain Learning (Alexander, 2003). This is a view of developing expertise, but it discusses situational and enduring interest. In terms of school wide influences, there are a few well-established variables that influence learning. Actually, there is no shortage of examples. You could probably break them into categories. For example, external factors have been shown to be important: socio-economic status, food security, etc. These can mitigate engagement. Other factors stem from policies, school culture, and climate. Although you didn't ask this directly, there is similarly no shortage of individual traits, states, and characteristics that influence engagement.
So, you can see, you actually have an interesting question here.. but presently, it's a little vague. You've uncovered one molecule of water in the tip of the iceberg here.
PG 
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I'm looking for a questionnaire for teachers to assess the use of the five basic elements of cooperative learning in the classroom (elementary school). It's for my masterthesis.
Thankyou!
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Dear Gabrielle Hendriks
 I am writing to inform you that I read interesting research article about your topic.
In my opinion a very interesting article. Maybe you could take some useful information from it.
Please find attached an article as a PDF file.
 I hope that I have been of some assistance to you.
Best regards,
Andrija
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Topics for writing tasks
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Dear Mojgan,
   I came across with this writing task double- entry journal which can be used in different genres.
 Please see attached file.
Nery
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Or, alternatively, is there any literature on media education with special reference to power or empowerment?
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hi, you can find your answer in many articles by charles wankel, they are published by emeral publising,
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Does personal culture hinder the implementation of critical pedagogy ideals?
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Dear Ayashe Parvin,
The whole philosophy  behind critical pedagogy views the contextual factors as elements evoking change in classroom interactions between teachers and students considering the value assumptions dominating their interactions. As you have rightly observed, the setting and culture are vital variables that certainly affect critical pedagogy. I refer you to a book titled " Multicultural Education, Critical Pedagogy, and Politics of Differences by Steeler and McLaren (1995) for more details.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Hi, dear colleagues
I'm going to do a grounded work on critical pedagogy in a EFL context on some EFL learners. My final aim is to construct and validate a quantitative questionnaire on critical pedagogy. I want to use this grounded work as a background to support my quantitative questionnaire which is based on the main issues  in the literature review on critical pedagogy.
Now my questions: 
1. Depending on the age of the learners, how should I choose  them as the participants of the grounded study? 
2. When constructing the questionnaire,  how should I write the items to be understandable and applicable for different learners for example guidance school, high school, and university learners?
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I assume that you will be doing open-ended, qualitative interviews to generate content for a questionnaire. One common technique for this kind of research is to use focus groups, because you get to hear a variety of different responses during the discussion, and that helps you understand the range of topics that you need to cover in your questions.
In terms of the different age groups, I am not familiar with the term "guidance school," but it sounds like you want to cover a large age range. The obvious issue here is whether the same things matter to each of the three different age groups. If not, then it may not be wise to write a single questionnaire -- but you cannot know what topics matter to what age groups until you do your initial interviews.
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Dear Colleagues,
In our presentation "21st Century Critical Literacy: Pedagogical and Ideological Intersections" my partner and I explored the question: What is critical literacy and how does it 'look' in the 21st century? This webinar highlights how and why systems thinking and action/activity theories inform an understanding of the pedagogical and ideological intersections of 21st century critical literacy teaching and learning. The intended audience is expert and novice educational researchers, teachers, and teacher educators in brick and mortar, hybrid, and online settings. The topic of 21st century critical literacy is relevant to early childhood, primary, secondary, and tertiary learning environments.
We look forward to your feedback. Please visit the following link for a video archive of this webinar presentation:
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for me critical literacy for 21st century should be slowing down the growth and development so that sustainable development be the reality. We need to re-establish the human values and aesthetics so that education should not loose the human face. People need to learn diversity, tolerance and peace and leave the culture focused around money and material.  
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We are going to design a questionnaire on critical pedagogy (cp). Based on the literature review and all stages of quantitative validation, I have prepared a questionnaire. Consisting of some constructs and the related items, now I want to do it qualitatively. For the qualitative phase, I have done it in an EFL context using the grounded theory. The result is a theory of critical pedagogy on perception of Iranian EFL teachers consisting of some constructs and the related sub categories. I have not yet distribute my quantitative questionnaire to the EFL groups.
Now my question: Should I distribute the questionnaire and consider my qualitative phase (grounded) as a complement or should I update my questionnaire with my grounded work and then administer the questionnaire?
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In contrast to what Michael Marek has said, there is no reason why you can't use the theory that you developed to inform your quantitative survey. In fact, I think that most Grounded Theory (GT) researchers would support that.
Solid GT research usually leads to hypotheses that are then used to quantitatively test the theory that you developed. So, if you haven't already done so, I'd suggest that you develop hypotheses based on your theory and add items to your questionnaire that will both test those hypotheses and also inform your quantitative study.          
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As teachers, we are often forced to use Learning Management Systems (LMSs) that do not satisfy the needs and expectations of ourselves and our students.  Yet, for some reason or another, they permeate our institutions.
Imagine you were involved in the creation of a new LMS. We want YOU to be involved in building an LMS that will best serve you, your students and your institutions. 
Help us build an LMS that you and your students will love.  What would you change, what would you add, and what could you do without of your current LMS?  More importantly, what purpose would you want the LMS to serve? We have already started building Goodio, but we want to tailor it to your needs.
Join the mission to change the delivery of online education.  Visit Goodio.com to register for our launch on January 2016.   In the mean time, please provide us your input to build the product that YOU actually want to use.
Adam
Founder - Goodio Inc.
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Because most, but not quite all college students use smartphones, the LMS needs BOTH excellent desktop functionality and app-based functionality.  
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I am currently looking for comprehensive literature reviews on this topic that evaluates our current status and understanding of how pedagogical interactions in higher education have been investigated using conversation analysis methodology. 
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Здравствуйте Кевин! Я изучаю педагогические взгляды Джалаладдина Руми и там я обнаружила интересные данные.про дискуссии и про разговор и рекомендую вам для методологии анализа разговора читат книгу "Фихи мо фихи", и "Маснави". Это не только относится в Восточные знание. Я как то работала над этим в своих статьях если можете читайте их. Если не смогла нечем помочь извиняюс.   
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Hi, I am doing quasi-experimental study to find the effectiveness of flipped classroom comparing it with traditional classroom? Any instrument to gauge college students' satisfaction of learning environment?
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“Does anyone know of a method for measuring the effectiveness of a learning environment?” is an interesting but complex question. The reason is that methodology, learning environments and effectiveness use a quite broad terminology. 
Firstly,  comparative research on media or technology effectiveness  has been questioned. An old but interesting reasoning about media effectiveness: http://www.uky.edu/~gmswan3/609/Clark_1983.pdf
Secondly, considering the methodology, if you speak of quasi-experiment to measure effectiveness of an existing  learning environment, is this method controlling all the parameters of that environments, except one or two parameters that differ from each other which cause possible differences in effectiveness? Or do you mean a design experiment in which the researcher defines the parameters of the learning environments?  For more information on design experiments, see for example: http://www.sashabarab.com/syllabi/p500/cobb%20et%20al.pdf
Thirdly, the concept of learning environment is very broad which leads to many learning environments with overlap in their characteristics or parameters. See for example ‘Innovative pedagogy (Open University) that offers an interesting overview of innovative approaches to teaching. Though interesting in itself, it shows the problem of a clear demarcation of methods or technologies which impacts measurement of effectiveness http://www.openuniversity.edu/sites/www.openuniversity.edu/files/The_Open_University_Innovating_Pedagogy_2014_0.pdf  Another, interesting analysis of the concept of ‘learning environment’ and human interaction/interface  sheds light on the complexity of  designing learning environments:   http://www.slejournal.com/content/1/1/5
Fourthly, another  challenge is that students do not react to objective or nominal stimuli in a given  environment but to transformed, i.e. interpreted stimuli, like learner control (see http://anitacrawley.net/Resources/Articles/Learning%20effectiveness%20in%20a%20Web-based%20virtual.pdf), task perception ( Luyten, L., Lowyck, J. & Tuerlincks, F. (2001). https://ppw.kuleuven.be/okp/_pdf/Luyten2001TPAAM.pdf)  self-efficacy beliefs (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j , instructional conceptions , See:  Lowyck, J., Elen, J. & Clarebout, G. (2004) Instructional conceptions: Analysis from an instructional design perspective.   International Journal of Educational Research, 41, (6), 429–444. Consequently, effectiveness cannot only be measured through comparison of observational characteristics of learning environment. Indeed, many intermediating variables play a role and should be taken into account.
Fifthly, the last part of the question is the method to measure effectiveness.  It is difficult to indicate which precise method for effectiveness measurement can be used, if not the whole structure and organization of the learning environments  is known. Some more general publications can be consulted that point to the diversity of entries in this evaluation matter. See: https://www2.viu.ca/integratedplanning/documents/Berk_2005_survey.pdf and http://147.226.7.60/-/media/WWW/DepartmentalContent/Teachers/PDFs/109full.pdf
To inspire: an older example of measuring differential effects of on-line and traditional instructional methods can be found in Woo, M.A. & Kimmick, J (2000). Comparison of internet versus lecture instructional methods for teaching nursing research. Journal of Professional Nursing, 16 (3), 132–139.
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Mobile devices are of the most powerful teaching and learning tools in the hands of 21st century teachers. In what ways and how is it effectively used in the classroom and beyond?
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Hi Nikos, I am currently undertaking research on the use of mobile devices to increase student engagement in lectures. The research is complete and I am in the process of write up. I would be happy to share experiences.
Thanks,
Claire
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In my field, I'm constantly trying to pursue new visions of the sense and purpose of education. I´m interested in perspectives of education from other countries. Do you have any contributions?
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Our course curricula tend more then ever to focus on sustainability. Hence, concrete examples of mathematical optimization models are more often about utilizing scarce resources as effectively as possible, to reduce waste and energy expenses, and we also have applications within the areas of sustainable power production, like wind power. For the students we hope that their continued professional lives might be connected to such fields.
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Emancipation in the 1970s, quality in the 1990s, inclusion in the 2000s? I guess there are a lot more candidates for such values, especially from an international perspective. However, I think it is highly relevant which normative idea pedagogy adopts as its self-description. For example the standardization and output-orientation of the 1990s would not have been possible without the (economical) Trojan Horse of "quality". 
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Hello Franz,
I think this has been historically cumulative, as you rightly said in your introduction, which does not mean that everything is reconciled satisfactorily. I fully agree with you about the need for a self-description of the process and it will take into account.
For what I believe pedagogy as the core elements that I would include in a concept of education: the reflective process (philosophy), freedom of thought, diversity, inclusion, dialogue (well in the critical sense given by Paulo Freire) interaction, use of new technologies , literacy, self-learning, knowledge building, participation of students (as well as our colleague reminded Švaříček Roman).
Let the quality of the educational process and academic quality (like separate the two) and finally the evaluation, because the basis of these two processes should be the principles and values that explicitei before.
In Brazil, the state public education is primarily (at least 85% of it in elementary school - from kindergarten to 3rd year high school here it is at around 17 years old), so, as a public officer that quality should be assessed for purposes of transparency and public reporting of quality of service offered.
Regards,
S.
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So far I am reading Rebecca Oxford. Need guidance on what to read for effective learning strategies in order to make my learners autonomous.
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Dear Meher, There are different kinds of books discussing learning strategies along with other skills, such as Teaching by principles: An introduction to language pedagogy by Brown; the practice of English language teaching by Harmmer as follows: I hope they are useful and informative.
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Does education belong to the society or even to the world? Does education belong to the parents paying for it? Does education belong to the students? Or is education Profit and rightfully belong to the school engaging it for profit? If we know who owns education, probably we would know how to deal with education from a pedagogical viewpoint or from a curriculum design viewpoint.
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1. @ Frank Hummer
I suggest that you examine the reasons for the 'Glorious Revolution of 1688'. (Great Britain).
2. @ everyone
Education, defined as a methodical process of learning within an institution, can not be free from a source of financial support for that institution and it's teaching body. Some group or individuals some where, have to provide the money for building and maintaining physical institutions. Someone must pay for teaching hours and preparation, educational supplies, etc. The question was / is/ does one person pay for one person? Does one person pay for all? Or is there some way that the entire community can pay for all members of the community. IS this financial support a benefit for the members of the teaching body - or for the 'student body'? Should it be a benefit to both teachers and students?
In what eventually became the U.S.A. this sort of argument raged throughout the 17th, 18th centuries and well into the 19th century. It clearly continues into the 21st century. paraphrased..should all citizens have equal access to education..or should those who can pay have 'it all".
In 19th century United States, many people vigorously complained at having to pay taxes to support their local schools. At the same time it was quite common for many young people to remain illiterate. Young people's parents had to pay fees for primary and secondary schooling, as well as university education.
This was before public primary and secondary schools were created to benefit the 'ordinary person', as well as the famous 'Land Grant Universities' to train the farmers and mechanics - children of ordinary people ....what has happened here?
The argument was (is) that the welfare of the society was at stake if people were ignorant and illiterate.
Access to education should be free to students regardless of their personal economic and social situations - a fair method of ensuring that the population is literate and thoughtful is to educate them to read, write and understand mathematics at the very least. (This doesn't assume equal abilities will 'arrive'. This is about equal access to develop one's potential - whatever that may be.) Everyone should contribute via their taxes to the general welfare of the entire community, thus ensuring basic fairness to all. A child from a poor family should not be denied the right to go to school. Taxes distribute benefits to everyone in society.
Paying taxes does not contradict paying for private schools, nor does it legislate against an individual's right to choose to pay for a private school. Sometimes there is no choice but to pay additionally for a good educational institution.
The problem will come when the better education comes from schools that require parents to pay fees. If the the public schools are poorly supported , then the ordinary person is back to square one.
In this discussion, one needs to separate the behaviours of an adult community from the behaviours of children who usually only think of themselves - because they children.
Some students may regard their parents' efforts to provide for them as a form of 'a free lunch' that they are 'due' regardless of their behaviour (whether or not parents have paid taxes or fees for education). They may also believe, by extension, that like their parents, all adults owe them the same consideration. They need to realize that it is now their turn to be adult and take responsibility for their own lunches and to be responsible and to think of the welfare of others around them.
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This seems like very dangerous road for HE to go down, avoiding topics that will naturally be upsetting to the majority seems like an end-round around addressing issues of social justice. Would like to hear what others think of this shift in what is permissible to discuss in college classrooms.
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I agree with you that it would be a dangerous road to go down indeed. I do hope that we (nobody here but us academics) will not adopt this policy. No matter how hard parents, politics or administrators might try to push us in this direction. How should we educate our students when we are not allowed to talk about anything that might offend some persons religious / political views or upsets this person in any other way. No swear words in literature classes? Or no sex? No wars, plagues in history classes? No evolution? We are suppose to prepare our students for the world and all its wonders ou there and not to help them living in their very own secluded versions of it.
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Multicultural education in a country like Australia has taken a back step in schools as there don't seem to be strong policy emphasis or adequate resources. While in some states there are policy documents, the issue is the extent to which the policy is implemented? In any case, there are grounds for critically examining the focus and emphasis in the policy ,ie. Teaching English more than different cultures and histories. Curriculum is also heavily biased toward mainstream, Eurocentric subject content. Bilingualism is paid lip service.
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Hi Siri,
I teach in a Business School that is realizing the need to enhance the global literacy of our students so that they will be competitive when they enter the business world -- most likely on the management track in a multinational corporation. Unfortunately, our campus does not offer our students (most of which hail from New Jersey within a few miles of our university) much in the way of racial, ethnic, religious, cultural, national origin, or class diversity. The faculty is almost as homogeneous as the student body with a few notable exceptions such as myself.
So, how will we tackle the problem of "multicultural education" in the Business School? Like I said, the Business School at least realizes that it is selling its business students short in this insular environment; so it is exploring possibilities such as bringing Chinese scholars to campus as visiting professors and also trying to recruit students from China.
Are we also offering Chinese language training or any language training, for that matter, to our business students? Believe it or not, we just added an "International Business" major to our curriculum and the major has no language requirement. The Administration decided to let the students vote on whether there should be a foreign language requirement (seriously, the students) in the major. Of course, the students voted not to have a language requirement; and our school believes that, "The customer is always right."
So, Siri, I envy you since Australia at least pays "lip service" to Bilingualism. The consensus at our Business School is that everyone should speak English (preferably with an American accent).
Seriously Bitter,
Gwen
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The Society is on continuous transformation. Nowadays digital technology is an essential element to understand socio-cultural transformations.
However, educational institutions doesn´t change at the same rhythm than society.
The digital technologies, mainly Internet has increased opportunities to learn outside of the educational institutions and in a more natural and motivational way.
Hence, should University as educational institution make a deep transformation of pedagogical model in order to get closer to Society and their students needs?
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Sonia, I think that there is certainly room for pedagogical transformation but I am not yet convinced by e-learning, MOOCs etc. For me, a change in university would keep the best parts (dialogue, research and coffee shops) and slim down the worst parts (paper-work, tradition and pointless lectures). Then I would push for more dynamic teaching, student-centred activity and an exploitation of the teaching/research nexus. The beauty of a university is that it is one of the few places where ideas can grow without having to have an application in 'the real world'. This means that universities should be places where free thinking can happen such that truly new ideas can be born. Socio-cultural changes haven't reduced the role of the university they just mean that there are more tools for idea-creation. Students can still sit in coffee shops and work out how to fix the world - they just have quicker access to literature and data to support their arguments and faster means of disseminating their ideas. Universities don't need to chase the rest of society and become ICT conduits, they can remain physical places and still embrace technological tools. This is the (Higher Education) evolution as I see it.