Criminal Justice - Science topic
Criminal Justice is the system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. Those accused of crime have protections against abuse of investigatory and prosecution powers.
Questions related to Criminal Justice
Please, feel free to give more examples and to share your experiencies and/or opinions.
Greetings! I'm interested in learning which Criminal Justice peer-review journals exist that focus exclusively on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime. If anyone can recommend valuable sources, that would be very helpful.
My research topic is: "examining the effective participation of deaf and hard of hearing persons in the criminal justice system".
Objective: to assess the experiences of the deaf and those who work in the criminal justice system.
Possible data sources: deaf people, judges, police, sign language interpreters, and family members.
Data collection strategy: interview, FGD, and document review.
Question: Which one should I use: Grounded Theory or Thematic Analysis?
As much as I understand, the case will be decided by the jury, which consists of people who are not experts either in law or in medicine. Why is this good?
Would you be happy if you were tried by people who know neither the law nor the mater which the trial is about?
Why do law school exist, if a jury of non-experts can decide in the most difficult cases?
Once the Restorative justice was prevalent across the globe, where the main focus of the justice system was the victims. But in 1610s, the retributive justice system was introduced in the criminal justice system and the position of victim was taken away by the state, and the victims were excluded from the justice process. Again in the 1970s the Restorative justice was again set in motion in criminal justice, but this system does not exist in all criminal justices. For ensuring justice to victims, do think this system should be incorporated in the criminal justice again globally?
After the abolition of the death penalty in some countries, did crime rate increase or decrease in those countries? Which better serves justice: the deterrent effect -if any- of the death penalty or the risk of executing a wrongfully convicted human being?
I am currently a student pursuing my B.A in Criminal Justice and I am about to start my final/senior project to be awarded my degree. I would like to focus my research on Juvenile Delinquency/Crime and Violence.
The Hulu production ‘Harlots’ highlights how during the 18th Century aristocrats would often disregard the law (which they implemented and had enforced on their subjects) in their lust for power by abducting young maids and then would have their way with them such that the rape culminated in the death of the women all for some seconds of orgasmic pleasure. “This is fiction!!!”, you say. If you consider what has been happening at the House of Windsor over the last century you might be more credulous. Here we have a case of a young Princess Diana deceived into marriage so that the Royals could continue their bloodline. The princess, often confined to her bed-chamber (once she gave birth to the children), eventually had a mental breakdown that led to her death all while her prince charming committed repeated infidelity. In a like manner, we have another Royal, Prince Andrew, the much beloved son of Queen Elizabeth, caught with has ‘pants-down’ fraternizing with pubescent girls in the company of the late Jeffry Epstein who as an insurance policy against anyone who planned to report on his illicit operations on his Island of Pedophilia, video-taped all the rich and famous who indulged in those activities with him. What all these stores have in common are having unlimited funds to support an unchecked lifestyle.
Now to Donald Trump. If you look at the history of this man he employed his vast sums of money (presently estimated to be around 2.4 billion dollars by Bloomberg News) to commission a bevy of lawyers to succeed at victimizing individuals who cannot come up with a comparable sum of money to succeed in court. He picks his victims strategically. When he was accused of raping an underaged girl with Jeffry Epstein in the state of New York in 1994, the girl—later as an adult and apparently of modest means—never put forth an effective prosecution in 2016 (Case 1:16-cv-07673-RA). In a like manner when Trump refused to pay individuals for the construction of Trump Tower in New York or for the running of his businesses most did not have the means to fight him in court (US Today June 9, 2016). Trump has a long history of using the American court system to his advantage knowing that by simply pushing more money a rich person often overcomes the defenses of a poor person. Even when he loses in court, as he did for running a fake ‘Trump University’, he has the mean to manipulate the media such that his followers concluded that he is indeed a master deal maker as underscored in ‘The Art of the Deal’ and promoted in the TV series ‘The Apprentice’ which propelled him to the presidency.
The methods used by Donald Trump to corrupt the results of the 2020 election is much in keeping with the forgoing precedent: use the court system even when the chips are down since in the end—even if defeated—one will have the opportunity to contaminate the minds of the entourage which now number in the tens of millions and which includes prominent Congressmen, that the 2020 election was stolen, a distortion of fact that will then be used to pave the way to the next deception which always seems to replenish his bank account. So far, Trump’s followers have contributed over 170 million dollars to his ‘election fraud’ scam. The only way to end this contemptible behavior is to put him away much like what has been done with Al Capone, Anthony Salerno, Ivan Boesky, El Chapo, and if he had not taken his own life, Trump’s partner in crime Jeffry Epstein.
One of the principal objects of restorative justice is focussing the restoration. Although debate about the subject matters of restoration is not recent, it has been continuing since 1970s. What is your thought about it?
I am doing research with the aim of exploring the effect of personality disorders on criminal liability and infliction of penalties in Hungary. I would like to investigate, under what circumstances personality disorders (especially APD and psychopathy) diagnosed by forensic psychiatric experts in the course of the criminal procedure affect experts' opinions and courts' decisions on criminal liability (and infliction of sanctions by courts). Of course established personality disorders alone - without other mental disorders or psychopathological mental states that have existed at the time of the commission of the act - do not give ground for excluding mental capacity (and thus punishability), but in some cases they can result in the establishment of limited mental capacity if the 'insane state of mental function' hinders the perpetrator in the recognition of the consequences of the act or in acting in accordance with this recognition. Legal practice however does not seem to be consistent at this point.
International academic literature on this issue is extensive, but mainly pertaining to common law jurisdictions. I would like to inquire about research findings and experiences of - preferably, but not necessarily - continental law experts.
Thank you in advance for your sharing of information.
I am looking for this book for my research. If anyone knows of a way to obtain it for free download please let me know. My school library does not have it. Thanks!
For amicable settlement of civil dispute, in brief we say ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) alternatively for settlement of any criminal matter, can we say ACR (Alternative Conflict Resolution) or we will say ADR in Criminal justice system. Would you please give your valuable opinion.
I have also conducted a study on perceptions toward criminals (PTC). Firstly, I and my colleague developed a scale about PTC and then conducted it of college students of social work, n=432. I would like to tell you our findings: The scale of PTC has two sub-dimension: Psychological-personal aspect of criminals (8-items), sociological-environmental aspects of criminals (4-items). In PTC, the more score you have, the more adverse you see criminals. Via Scale of PTC, we aim to see perspective of students or professionals who work or probability of work with criminal in criminal justice settings. After conducting (PTCS), we found that our students see criminals as positive in terms of their psychological aspects and we try to explain it with humanistic nature of social work perspective. But our students’ rate of sociological aspect of criminals are higher than the other sub-dimension and this means that they are adverse to criminals. The sociological sub dimension has four items: criminals’ family are wrongful. Criminals’ family are criminal. Criminals’ friends are wrongful. criminals’ friends are criminal. I think that they are a bit right, but this finding may also sign a stigmatization of criminals as well. And I think that this finding may related to social model of social work. The perspective of "individual in its environment” may also effected the students. Via this perspective, our student may think that “criminals are good but their environment are also bad”. And I am of opinion that is the perspective of “individual in its environment” misunderstood by students or does this perspective effect wrongfully to students in terms of criminals or any. what could you think about this findings, please?
National Conference on "Challanges & Innovations of Criminal Justice System" 21-22 February,2019 held at Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, UP, India
Please Join this mega event....
We have already developed a scale about perceptions toward criminals for practitioner who will probably work in criminal justice system and I am also planning for victims one.
Burak M. Gonultas, PhD
I would like to invite you to participate in completing an online questionnaire (phase 1) of my PhD research. I am a PhD Law and Criminology candidate (Doctorate) from the Institute of Criminal Justice at the University of Portsmouth. This survey is targeting the general public’s perception of paedophilia, child sexual abuse and prevention strategies. I would really appreciate as many responses as I can gather so please feel free to share the survey link with others who may be interested. Please note: you have to be 18 or over to participate. If you have any questions please email me on email@example.com
The survey link is: https://portsmouth.onlinesurveys.ac.uk/non-offendingpaedophilessurvey
Many thanks in advance!
What is Ethics? & /or what is Morality in Criminal Justice?
Since crime can be a social, legal, or a violation of code(s), and sanctions "bestowed" in the name of "justice" may involve an individual or a society's educational or economic situation, understanding (& eventual application) of Ethics & /or Morality in Criminal Justice is a significant issue which must be dealt with, especially if USA is to give up and cede the number one (# 1) position in incarcerating its own people!
Any realistic, concrete humanistic suggestion(s) on USA to go down to the 2nd, 3rd, 4th ... .. ... or the last position?
Someone, many many years ago wrote:
"[T]he temporal lords are supposed to govern lands and people outwardly. This they leave undone. They can do no more than strip and fleece, heap tax upon tax and tribute upon tribute, letting loose here a bear and there a wolf. Besides this, there is no justice, integrity, or truth to be found among them. They behave worse than any thief or scoundrel, and their temporal rule has sunk quite as low as that of the spiritual tyrants. . . . " (M.L.)
One of the most complicated problems posed by the Internet, namely that of jurisdiction and lack of global criminal justice system. While cybercrime is a phenomenon without borders, the effective prosecution of such a crime is seriously hampered by conﬂicts of territoriality and jurisdiction.
I am looking for a theory to justify my research on human rights application / protection of the accused during criminal justice process.
Thank you in advance.
My data analysis so far shows that criminal justice officials use specific methods, techniques, tactics or mechanisms to extract bribes from clients. I am however finding it difficult to get literature that addresses methods, techniques, tactics or mechanisms employed by officials to extract bribes. Any suggested readings will be much appreciated.
In his 1975 book The Mythical Man-Month, Fred Brooks introduced the notion that increased incremental persons added to software projects that were already late increased the time necessary for completion.
Do you know if Brook's Law has been examined from other project perspectives -- systems engineering, general engineering, criminal justice, intelligence analysis, finance, economics, and so forth?
Have a great day!
Beyond a few relatively vague pieces from the press, I have come up empty. Some surveys of veterans (especially in criminal justice contexts) ask, but I would like to have some idea of national numbers for comparative purposes. I am sure the DoD must track, but it does not seem readily available. Any suggestions on government or peer reviewed sources would be appreciated. Thanks.
I teach criminal justice. As this is a world wide body of academics in a large number of varied disciplines, I am very interested in what you think the most critical or important critical justice problem is in your country.
Given the recent interest in creating swarms of robotic flies that carry explosives and contain face recognition circuitry (as described in Bot Flies, The Economist, Dec 16, 2017) will a time come when the enablers of such killing machines will be made to account? We all know that machines will never—and I emphasize never—be able to make decisions without the assistance of humans so expect arguments such as “the machine did it” to fail in a court law. Can you imagine a world where people like Robert Oppenheimer (the developer of the atomic bomb) are hauled off to prison and later put to death for the creation of lethal autonomous weaponry?
We all see innovation in almost every field, almost every year/month/day.
We have better laws and protection. Food safety, property rights regulated, human rights, international criminal justice and so on...
But, morally, how do you think we as humankind are?
Are we better than in the past?
Do we respect others?
Do we try to understand others needs?
Do we stop doing what could - anyhow - prejudice others, just because it could? Even if it can certainly prejudice us?
I am undertaking research on court referred conferencing for young offenders and I would like to specifically investigate the empowerment principle underpinning Family Group Conferencing. However most of the articles focusing on this appear to be written from within a child welfare context and are discussing Family Welfare Conferences rather than youth justice models. Any help with this please
Hello, is anyone offering any opportunities to contribute to research regarding in Child Welfare Social Services, Human Services and Criminal Justice?
I am a junior criminal justice major doing a research proposal for my class in quantitative methodology. I need raw datasets to do my research from, and have been unable to find any. Suggestions?
If you give prisoners in the U.S. an option to get classes in order to become teachers for impoverished areas and in return for a reduced sentence for only criminals for petty crimes. Would this be a good idea?
The criminals would be monitored carefully.
I was wondering if anyone had any expertise on the fourth amendment pertaining to electronic surveillance.
Would prospective warrantless StingRay searches that track a criminal to their own private residence be constitutional. Under the public movement doctrine, public roads are arguably covered, however if we follow Karo, it states that once the tracking invades the residence of an individual it violates the fourth amendment.
When child abuse victims tell of their victimization, evidence may be difficult to find. Add constraints on the legal age victims gain a voice within the legal system, many childrens' human rights are ignored in lieu of the accused's rights. What policies and strategies are presently effective in the United States for prosecuting and sanctioning child abuse offenders? Does anyone know of state or local governments that evidence a high success rate in holding offenders accountable?
I am seeking suggestions for obtaining unbiased answers from respondents within the custody of the department of corrections. I feel that there should be a form of payment, as to offer or deny payment based upon the custody status of an individual could possibly elicit results that are biased.
Can anyone refer me to research exploring the application of complexity theory to the criminal justice system? Or the application of complexity theory to a complex social phenomenon i.e. human trafficking?
Can they alter, or not make a register, if they just think about the possibility to receive a bonus? Especially in countries where the salaries are poor.
My question is related to caseloads of police officers in USA. We are trying to analyse police officers´ role in controlling the crime, we have understood that if police officer clears the crime (arrest) on same day it happened would reduce the burden on them for the later days. Later arrestees prosecute at Court/Jury, at this stage Judges will have (?) discretion power to decide on the punishment. Judge may send them to the prison or impose monetary punishment or community service. If they impose monetary punishment, the criminals would pay and again engage in the activity, which would certainly increase the burden on the police. To check this hypothesis we need to check judges´ discretion power. Do you have any idea where I can get such information/data (punishment of various crimes, prison or monetary punishment)
We have found that within several police investigations, psychologists have applied the procedure credibility of testimony, without the proper scientific support. this is true?
From the literature we have reslizado research, we found that this procedure was developed for application to child victims of sexual buso, and this in question even if Validi apply to witnesses and adults.
There is debate about whether it is appropriate application to victims of other crimes and found no referncia about the application of this suspected of having committed crimes people.
Anyone with information on the subject?
Globalization affected every facet of life. Third world countries are most affected in various aspects. I want your opinion about its effect on Justice in third world countries
The percentage of women in the police in US, UK and most Asian countries remains at or around 10%. Do agencies follow gender neutral policies or promote women's recruitment actively?
Murder is the most heinous form of unlawful homicide; intentional killing is it's paradigm case, which usually incurs a penalty of mandatory severity. But most jurisdictions permit reliance on partial defences which reduce intentional killing from murder to a lesser homicide such as, for example, manslaughter. Provocation and excessive force in self defence are recognised as partial defences in many jurisdictions. Should freely given consent to die or incur a risk of death at the hands of the defendant also be recognised as a partial defence? This would be an affirmative defence with appropriate definitional safeguards. The suggestion is not unprecedented. Thomas Macaulay's Indian Penal Code permits reliance on such a partial defence.
Does anyone teach a criminal justice analysis/statistics course using a book that uses stata (as opposed to SPSS)? I would love recommendations
Small islands seem to have similar crime risks: money laundering, corruption, tourists, close knit populations, nepotism, lagging behind in crime analysis capabilities.
May i know who are the researchers in the field of criminal justice system and in good governance studies?
There has been plenty of research regarding the plain facts and statistics asked in the question, but I have yet to encounter any information regarding the underlying reasons for these prevailing statistics and facts. Sure, one could gather that an underlying fear of racial minorities, especially those living in poverty, makes their crimes seem worse than other minorities — but does research exist to corroborate these statements on people's popular opinion?
I am elaborating a study about fraud in exported vehicles in the European Union with a real case in the south of Spain with police data. This is my first paper in this area and I need somebody interested in this study that can collaborate for publishing together.
Until recently, I thought the answer to this question was obvious, but I am gradually becoming aware that a large and influential portion of the population simply do not or will not accept this link. See this from Guardian April 30th 2015:
'Am I being executed?' Brazilian killed by Indonesia unaware until end, says priest. Priest who counselled Rodrigo Gularte – who had been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – says he tried in vain for three days to to explain to the inmate he was about to die"
I have not read all the hundreds of comments on this article, but people objected to the execution for 3 main reasons: objection to death penalty; drug dealing should not be punished; procedural errors. No one seemed at all bothered by the fact that a psychotic person was being shot, when it is surely beyond argument that the disordered thinking and poor judgement in psychosis can lead to crime. For them, no psychosis: no crime. Would any representative of a mental health organisation like to take the opportunity here to speak up for the criminally insane?
Are there any empirical evidence that International criminal justice (ICJ) do help post war countries?
In post war countries where usually corruption is rife and majority of the population live below the poverty line, can ICJ be of priority for the population or more a means of setting international precedent?
Also if it can be argued that ICJ is important for post war countries, how can it be applied so that the affected people can feel a part of the process considering the ICC for example which hearings and procedures are held thousands of miles away from where the crimes being tried occurred.
Any answers or articles on these topics will be highly appreciated
Domestic violence and sexual assault are, of course, different types of cases, so I don't expect there to be a single review. Other work on this topic are also welcome.
Whilst there is concern about the existence of ADHD there is equal concern that, as it does exist with regard a type of diagnosis relating to a varied set of behaviours, many of which are considered undesireable without their being any specific intent. Such that recent focus has been on the prison population and how many may or should be diagnosed with ADHD but what of those under community supervision? Does anyone know of any policies/practices which are in current use - UK prefered but International data eqally invaluable.
I would like to have a comparative idea of how is the situación in the different EU Member States. It will be interesting to have different perspectives of how useful can it be the criminalization of cartels in Competición Law.
Can anyone assist me into finding articles that I can use for my research paper
Criminologists appear to have carried out little research as to if LGBT people commit crime and how they experience the CJS. Is there any current/recent research about LGBT people, offending and their treatment by the CJS (apart from DV and Hate Crime).
How should Adolf Eichmann have been punished? The question assumes that punishment is an appropriate response to his crimes. Hannah Arendt agreed with the Supreme Court of Israel that Eichmann should be put to death, though her reasons were quite different. She concluded her study of his trial, ‘Eichmann in Jerusalem’, with the following words of condemnation: ‘no one, that is, no member of the human race, can be expected to want to share the earth with you. That is the reason, and the only reason, you must hang’. She would have condemned him to forfeiture and elimination rather than punishment. Suppose Eichmann had not been sentenced to death. If he is to be punished, how is it to be done? This is the challenge implicit in Arendt’s final condemnation. If he is allowed to live, how are Eichmann's judges, the correctional officials, prison warders and the broader community which they represent, going to ‘share the earth’ with him? Eichmann would probably have made a compliant prisoner. He was compliant with his interrogators: Arendt records that he told them that, ‘he would like to find peace with [his] former enemies’. If he is not to be executed, must the criminal justice system offer him opportunities for redemption, reconciliation and eventual release?
We want to identify effective community reintegration programs for female offenders, both delivered in prison and the community. This is one step of a research project
that looks to identify best practices and effective programs.
Me and a group of researchers from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam are conducting research on the level of custody and the range of services provided to prisoners who have been sentenced by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL). Inmates sentenced by these courts are serving their sentences in a variety of countries that have participating agreements with the tribunals. At present, there are ICTY, ICTR and SCSL inmates spread around 14 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and UK) and 4 African countries (Benin, Mali, Rwanda and Tanzania).
I would appreciate any information you have regarding:
- correction system in any of these countries
- individual prisons where these inmates are housed
- the level of security and custody provided, and
- any information about the daily routine they experience, including recreational, educational, and other rehabilitation services
The Nuremberg Trials set the tone for the evolution of a host of norms that eventually found their reflection in the Rome Statute. With over 122 Ratifications, the Rome Statute has come to be a guiding light on its own merit casting its luminance on those functions of sovereigns that hitherto were protected from 'public scrutiny'. There are serious debates as to whether by subscribing to the ICC nations are forsaking their sovereignty. The number of ratifications however are reflective of the emergence of a consensus amongst nations that no regime must violate individual right to life and dignity in the name of sovereign impregnability. Charles Taylor's conviction seems to suggest that the consensus is not merely a vote for morality. Or, is it?
In England and Wales the coroner is responsible for investigating deaths that are suspected to be i) violent or unnatural, ii) of unknown cause, or iii) in police or prison custody. About half of all deaths in E&W are reported to the coroner for further investigation but inquests are only necessary in about 30k cases. The rest are registered as natural deaths once the cause has been established. How is this function carried out in other countries worldwide?
I am a PhD researcher just writing up my thesis on the way coroners carry out this role in E&W.
I'm especially interested in the following: a) increase of number of mentally ill people in prison since mid 1990s b) homelessness c) cost of private residential care d) construction of 'new' asylums d) increases in A&E attendances for people with a mental illness.
Various models exist for strategic decision-making about resourcing and priority-setting in the police field. Centripetal and centrifugal impulses are the main options. The principle of subsidiarity requires decentralised processes of governance. Testing the effectiveness of the devolved alternative is vital to find out if and how public safety is being improved and how disorder is being tackled.
JF Stephen once remarked that the degree of moral loathing of the offence of murder is a reflection of the fact that murderers are hanged for the offence. That reflection has interesting implications for jurisdictions which abandon mandatory penalties for murder.
I have recently laid the groundwork for research on male victims of domestic violence. I recently was involved with a male victim of domestic violence. He had been videoing the abuse and when he called the local police department. He was disregarded and was told deal with it, as the officers didn’t see a big issue. Not only did the victim have marks, but had the officer’s remarks on tape. The officers stated that if he had a problem and continued to push the issue he would be charged with disorderly conduct.
I personally spoke with the commander and he stated he did not see an issue and gave a phone number for the victims advocate group for the state. Not only that the person we spoke with, had no idea where he may go for help. As this really doesn’t happen and when it does, they (male) does not have a shelter like the women do.
I would like to stir my research on male victims of domestic violence and if there is a correlation with the murder suicide cases. As the male victims just don't have the resources as the female victims.
My research is in need of cases that may be helpful in my research. Did things get missed by law enforcement, mental health providers and states as male victims are not believed, because female perpetrators can drop a tear and prejudicial judgment may come into play and the male is seen as the person who inflicted the violence.
What do we as professionals do to reach out to the male victim. Are we in need of better understanding to relay to law enforcement, mental health providers, and give them the same resources as any victim of domestic violence?
Any cases that I may use or input would be of great help, as little research and cases are out there.
I'm in the midst of this kind of study and would like to use Structural Equation Modeling to assess the complex relationships among many variables related to Bystander Intervention.
In particular, I am interested in the fight against the Italian Mafia.
I wish to examine any research that shows the benefits to a victim or victims of crime through making a written victim impact statement/report for the criminal justice system or the courts.
John Stuart Mill stated regarding the death penalty that, "I defend this penalty, when confined to atrocious cases, on the very ground on which it is commonly attacked—on that of humanity to the criminal; as beyond comparison the least cruel mode in which it is possible adequately to deter from the crime." It is well known that both Kant and Hegel thought that execution is required to preserve the convicted murderer’s dignity as a rational moral agent. Was it merely the state of the prisons of their day which led these men to make such statements or is there some notion of what it means to be a fully functioning human being which they felt was degraded by being imprisoned for life?