Science topic

Criminal Justice - Science topic

Criminal Justice is the system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. Those accused of crime have protections against abuse of investigatory and prosecution powers.
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Please, feel free to give more examples and to share your experiencies and/or opinions.
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فرضت التقنيات الحديثة نفسها على ارض الواقع؛ لاسيما فيما يتعلق بأستخدام الذكاء الاصطناعي في انتاج الاحكام الجنائية وذلك بأستحداث روبوتات قادرة على انتاج الاحكام؛ ويستند هذا الروبوت الى البيانات الرقمية المخزونة في النظام معتمدا على السوابق القضائية.
وهنا نجد ان انتاج الحكم على المتهم من قبل الالة وليس البشر.
وهذا ما يتطلب تنظيم تعاون دولي؛ لغرض الاعتراف بهكذا نوع من الاحكام.
فضلا عن ذلك، ان هذه الروبوتات اصبح يُعتمد عليها في استخلاص الدليل الجنائي وظهر في هذا الشأن الاعتماد على بصمة المخ كدليل مستخلص من تقنيات الذكاء الاصطناعي
فما حجية هذا الدليل في الجرائم الدولية؟ هل تعترف دولة غير ناظمة للذكاء الاصطناعي؛ بأحكام صادرة من دول اخرى قائمة على استخدام الذكاء الاصطناعي في انتاج الحكم واستخلاص الدليل؟
الموقف هنا تكون في غاية الخطورة؛ لايمكن تطبيقه اذا كانت الدولة لاتعترف بهذا التقدم العلمي ؛ وهذا ما يتطلب انتاج توجيهات دولية تقوم على اساس مراعاة العدالة الرقمية الجنائية
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Greetings! I'm interested in learning which Criminal Justice peer-review journals exist that focus exclusively on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime. If anyone can recommend valuable sources, that would be very helpful.
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My research topic is: "examining the effective participation of deaf and hard of hearing persons in the criminal justice system".
Objective: to assess the experiences of the deaf and those who work in the criminal justice system.
Possible data sources: deaf people, judges, police, sign language interpreters, and family members.
Data collection strategy: interview, FGD, and document review.
Question: Which one should I use: Grounded Theory or Thematic Analysis?
Thank you!!
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Simplifying the answer - the grounded theory is more demanding, as its application's aim is to create a new theory. Thematic analysis is more usual, but in this case You need to have some novelty too. What kind of novelty - depends on the researcher, or collected data itself.
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As much as I understand, the case will be decided by the jury, which consists of people who are not experts either in law or in medicine. Why is this good?
Would you be happy if you were tried by people who know neither the law nor the mater which the trial is about?
Why do law school exist, if a jury of non-experts can decide in the most difficult cases?
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Judges decides as per the laid laws whereas jurys decide as per the fact / data made available to them.
Noone will be happy if he is tried by the person who does not know the law.
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Once the Restorative justice was prevalent across the globe, where the main focus of the justice system was the victims. But in 1610s, the retributive justice system was introduced in the criminal justice system and the position of victim was taken away by the state, and the victims were excluded from the justice process. Again in the 1970s the Restorative justice was again set in motion in criminal justice, but this system does not exist in all criminal justices. For ensuring justice to victims, do think this system should be incorporated in the criminal justice again globally?
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The development of restorative justice is one of the crucial achievements in the criminal justice system; it preoccupies particular attention theorists and practitioners. The relationship between the restorative and retributive response to criminal activities, with intent preferring a restorative approach as an integral retributive criminal justice. Under the influence of numerous international documents on restorative justice, the countries' individual criminal laws restorative procedures are taking up more and more space, while evident lag of these processes in the vast majority of countries.
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After the abolition of the death penalty in some countries, did crime rate increase or decrease in those countries? Which better serves justice: the deterrent effect -if any- of the death penalty or the risk of executing a wrongfully convicted human being?
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Dear RG friends, this question 'how effective is the death penalty as a deterrent?' should actually not be asked. After all, carrying out the death penalty is a question of ethics. As long as we as humans are not the creator of life, we are not allowed to end life through capital punishment. The death penalty is the ultimate act that fits into the philosophical movement 'The Enlightenment' where 'man' places himself above God. All the best, stay safe and healthy, Carl
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I am currently a student pursuing my B.A in Criminal Justice and I am about to start my final/senior project to be awarded my degree. I would like to focus my research on Juvenile Delinquency/Crime and Violence.
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Effect of social media, tv among other media are making young people consider their heros the people on tv especially the action pact ones.
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The Hulu production ‘Harlots’ highlights how during the 18th Century aristocrats would often disregard the law (which they implemented and had enforced on their subjects) in their lust for power by abducting young maids and then would have their way with them such that the rape culminated in the death of the women all for some seconds of orgasmic pleasure. “This is fiction!!!”, you say. If you consider what has been happening at the House of Windsor over the last century you might be more credulous. Here we have a case of a young Princess Diana deceived into marriage so that the Royals could continue their bloodline. The princess, often confined to her bed-chamber (once she gave birth to the children), eventually had a mental breakdown that led to her death all while her prince charming committed repeated infidelity. In a like manner, we have another Royal, Prince Andrew, the much beloved son of Queen Elizabeth, caught with has ‘pants-down’ fraternizing with pubescent girls in the company of the late Jeffry Epstein who as an insurance policy against anyone who planned to report on his illicit operations on his Island of Pedophilia, video-taped all the rich and famous who indulged in those activities with him. What all these stores have in common are having unlimited funds to support an unchecked lifestyle.
Now to Donald Trump. If you look at the history of this man he employed his vast sums of money (presently estimated to be around 2.4 billion dollars by Bloomberg News) to commission a bevy of lawyers to succeed at victimizing individuals who cannot come up with a comparable sum of money to succeed in court. He picks his victims strategically. When he was accused of raping an underaged girl with Jeffry Epstein in the state of New York in 1994, the girl—later as an adult and apparently of modest means—never put forth an effective prosecution in 2016 (Case 1:16-cv-07673-RA). In a like manner when Trump refused to pay individuals for the construction of Trump Tower in New York or for the running of his businesses most did not have the means to fight him in court (US Today June 9, 2016). Trump has a long history of using the American court system to his advantage knowing that by simply pushing more money a rich person often overcomes the defenses of a poor person. Even when he loses in court, as he did for running a fake ‘Trump University’, he has the mean to manipulate the media such that his followers concluded that he is indeed a master deal maker as underscored in ‘The Art of the Deal’ and promoted in the TV series ‘The Apprentice’ which propelled him to the presidency.
The methods used by Donald Trump to corrupt the results of the 2020 election is much in keeping with the forgoing precedent: use the court system even when the chips are down since in the end—even if defeated—one will have the opportunity to contaminate the minds of the entourage which now number in the tens of millions and which includes prominent Congressmen, that the 2020 election was stolen, a distortion of fact that will then be used to pave the way to the next deception which always seems to replenish his bank account. So far, Trump’s followers have contributed over 170 million dollars to his ‘election fraud’ scam. The only way to end this contemptible behavior is to put him away much like what has been done with Al Capone, Anthony Salerno, Ivan Boesky, El Chapo, and if he had not taken his own life, Trump’s partner in crime Jeffry Epstein.
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This was completely new and unusual in politics and public law. It was extremely interesting to see that political scientists and other professionals did not know what would happen the next day, what reactions would occur. Similar phenomena can be observed in other countries (actors, businessmen, laymen in power), we are arriving at another milestone.
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One of the principal objects of restorative justice is focussing the restoration. Although debate about the subject matters of restoration is not recent, it has been continuing since 1970s. What is your thought about it?
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Thanks Michael for your great answer. I also think restoration in the criminal justice indicates restoring the victim, offender and the community. The restorative justice puts its focus on victim, offender and community, whereas the prevalent retributive justice gives least focus on the victims. In restorative process, the victim is restored through healing his/her wounds, alternatively, the offender is restored by giving them an opportunity to understand their wrongs, ensuring their rehabilitation for rectification, facilitating to get pardon, helping to feel remorse. In respect of the USA, various restorative models, such as victim offender mediation, conferencing, reparation boards, peacemaking circle are in practice, but VOM are mostly used in almost 32 states. However, thanks again for your answer.
  • Michael A. Cretacci
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I am doing research with the aim of exploring the effect of personality disorders on criminal liability and infliction of penalties in Hungary. I would like to investigate, under what circumstances personality disorders (especially APD and psychopathy) diagnosed by forensic psychiatric experts in the course of the criminal procedure affect experts' opinions and courts' decisions on criminal liability (and infliction of sanctions by courts). Of course established personality disorders alone - without other mental disorders or psychopathological mental states that have existed at the time of the commission of the act - do not give ground for excluding mental capacity (and thus punishability), but in some cases they can result in the establishment of limited mental capacity if the 'insane state of mental function' hinders the perpetrator in the recognition of the consequences of the act or in acting in accordance with this recognition. Legal practice however does not seem to be consistent at this point.
International academic literature on this issue is extensive, but mainly pertaining to common law jurisdictions. I would like to inquire about research findings and experiences of - preferably, but not necessarily - continental law experts.
Thank you in advance for your sharing of information.
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In the UK, this rarely happens to be honest. Personality disorders are very rarely diagnosed using the full range, let alone being used in court. I used to work in a forensic mental hospital and despite all offenders in there being diagnosed with some mental health issue, it was never used in their trials. It was more about 'dealing' with them afterwards if that makes sense.
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I am looking for this book for my research. If anyone knows of a way to obtain it for free download please let me know. My school library does not have it. Thanks!
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Hi Emily,
Dominic here, in Malaysia. I used to be college in the US and have degrees in CJ and Psychology.
First off, police brutality reseaech are obtainable from research journals, there are many.
Secondly, check with NGOs especially Amnesty International USA, Human Rights Watch, and states NGOs.
Thirdly, check with Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), National Criminal Justice Resources (NCJRS), and any Federal, State or County databases. There are lots of information.
Lastly, for your book, check with your local library - they have interlibrary loans. Not sure which state you reside, but major universities in your state carries a copy.
Rgds, and happy hunting.
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Suitabulity to use the title "ADR in Criminal justice system" for research.
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Thanks for comments
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For amicable settlement of civil dispute, in brief we say ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) alternatively for settlement of any criminal matter, can we say ACR (Alternative Conflict Resolution) or we will say ADR in Criminal justice system. Would you please give your valuable opinion.
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You are invited to review and use some of my free material I posted here on RG on mediation, negotiation and alternative dispute resolution (ADR)...
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I have also conducted a study on perceptions toward criminals (PTC). Firstly, I and my colleague developed a scale about PTC and then conducted it of college students of social work, n=432.  I would like to tell you our findings: The scale of PTC has two sub-dimension: Psychological-personal aspect of criminals (8-items), sociological-environmental aspects of criminals (4-items). In PTC, the more score you have, the more adverse you see criminals. Via Scale of PTC, we aim to see perspective of students or professionals who work or probability of work with criminal in criminal justice settings. After conducting (PTCS), we found that our students see criminals as positive in terms of their psychological aspects and we try to explain it with humanistic nature of social work perspective. But our students’ rate of sociological aspect of criminals are higher than the other sub-dimension and this means that they are adverse to criminals. The sociological sub dimension has four items: criminals’ family are wrongful. Criminals’ family are criminal. Criminals’ friends are wrongful. criminals’ friends are criminal. I think that they are a bit right, but this finding may also sign a stigmatization of criminals as well. And I think that this finding may related to social model of social work. The perspective of "individual in its environment” may also effected the students. Via this perspective, our student may think that “criminals are good but their environment are also bad”. And I am of opinion that is the perspective of “individual in its environment” misunderstood by students or does this perspective effect wrongfully to students in terms of criminals or any. what could you think about this findings, please?
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Many thanks
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National Conference on "Challanges & Innovations of Criminal Justice System" 21-22 February,2019 held at Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, UP, India
Please Join this mega event....
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I am interested for this conference. would you give me the flier about this agenda
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We have already developed a scale about perceptions toward criminals for practitioner who will probably work in criminal justice system and I am also planning for victims one.
thank you.
Burak M. Gonultas, PhD
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In this study we aimed to determine the status of domestic violence in women of reproductive age with mental disorder referred to Razi educational mental health service of Tabriz, 2014-2015.
In this cross-sectional study, 400 women with mental disorders controlled by drug, aged 19-49 years were interviewed using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST), Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-4), WAST (Women Abuse Screening Tool) and a socio - demographic questionnaires (associated by some relevant items of DHS (Demographic and Health Surveys) and Items included: age, the type of disease, disease duration, education level, employment status, marriage age, and the duration of marriage, divorce history, the number of children and the adequacy of income) at a psychiatric hospital in Tabriz-Iran or presented outpatient clinic of the hospital during the study and had willing to participate. This hospital is the only center providing inpatient psychiatry services in the northwest of Iran. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders (SCID-I) and axis II disorders (SCID-II) (a standard method for the diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms) were used by a psychiatrist to diagnose participant. disease. All participants were using medicines to control their disease. Women with less than 12 months of marriage, those who were divorced over 12 months, and those with diagnosis of mental retardation, cognitive disorders, or dementia were excluded.
Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with patients when they were in a stable situation, with inpatients just before their discharge and with utpatients after they were visited by the physician if they were stable. Before the interview, the research objectives and the method and confidentiality of information were explained to the participants and written informed consent was taken from them. We used translation, face and content validity of Persian version of the WAST. At first, its translation validity was confirmed by forward and backward strategy. Then the questionnaire was given to ten faculty members of midwifery, psychiatry, psychology and necessary corrections were made after collecting their comments. Also, a pilot study was conducted on 29 convenient subjects to evaluate face validity and possible problems. Reliability of the tool was evaluated by test-retest (ICC=Intra Class Correlation) with the interval of one week and by internal consistency using Cronbach‟s alpha coefficient.
Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test, Independent t-test, One way ANOVA, Chi-square test, General Linear Model, Multivariate logistic regression model, Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was used to determine characteristics of the screening tools.
Based on the results, prevalence of domestic violence among reproductive age women with mental disorders was high and there were significant correlations between domestic violence sub-scales and quality of life domains of life. As the WAST at cutoff score of 04 have good accuracy in diagnosis of intimate partner violence among the women, routine use of WAST for screening could improve detection of violence and therefore may improve psychiatric services.
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Hi all!
I would like to invite you to participate in completing an online questionnaire (phase 1) of my PhD research. I am a PhD Law and Criminology candidate (Doctorate) from the Institute of Criminal Justice at the University of Portsmouth. This survey is targeting the general public’s perception of paedophilia, child sexual abuse and prevention strategies. I would really appreciate as many responses as I can gather so please feel free to share the survey link with others who may be interested. Please note: you have to be 18 or over to participate. If you have any questions please email me on lauren.stevens@port.ac.uk
Many thanks in advance!
Lauren Stevens
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You are welcome, looking forward to see the questionnaire
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What is Ethics? & /or what is Morality in Criminal Justice?
Since crime can be a social, legal, or a violation of code(s), and sanctions "bestowed" in the name of "justice" may involve an individual or a society's educational or economic situation, understanding (& eventual application) of Ethics & /or Morality in Criminal Justice is a significant issue which must be dealt with, especially if USA is to give up and cede the number one (# 1) position in incarcerating its own people!
Any realistic, concrete humanistic suggestion(s) on USA to go down to the 2nd, 3rd, 4th ... .. ... or the last position?
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At punishment of act its legal qualification, but not a moral component has to be considered.
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Someone, many many years ago wrote:
"[T]he temporal lords are supposed to govern lands and people outwardly. This they leave undone. They can do no more than strip and fleece, heap tax upon tax and tribute upon tribute, letting loose here a bear and there a wolf. Besides this, there is no justice, integrity, or truth to be found among them. They behave worse than any thief or scoundrel, and their temporal rule has sunk quite as low as that of the spiritual tyrants. . . . " (M.L.)
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I cannot see how the temporal lords with lord over people with justice and integrity over the long haul.
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One of the most complicated problems posed by the Internet, namely that of jurisdiction and lack of global criminal justice system. While cybercrime is a phenomenon without borders, the effective prosecution of such a crime is seriously hampered by conflicts of territoriality and jurisdiction.
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Thank, and most appreciated. However, cyber-crime continues to escalate and does not respect sovereignty
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Hi,
I am looking for a theory to justify my research on human rights application / protection of the accused during criminal justice process.
Thank you in advance.
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An accused person must be accorded the “presumption of innocence“ until proven otherwise by the crucibles of a fair trial; he/she must be (except the offence charged is of such a weighty nature) granted bail after plea or at any stage during trial; he/she must be notified of his/her offence; he/she must be accorded time and facility to make defence; he/she must be accorded protection from ‘self-incrimination‘; he/she must be heard from during the course of evidence to conduct his defence by himself or through a lawyer of his choic; he/she must be provided with a lawyer where the severity of the charge is of such a technical nature as to need legal aid counsel (and where he has none); he/she must be allowed to change plea (where he desires); he/she must must not be subjected to involuntary confessional statement ; he/she must be allowed post-trial opportunities,like filing notice of appeal before execution (in capital offences where death penalty has bee decreed),etc,etc, depending on the constitution and criminal jurisprudence of the legal system.
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Hello everyone,
My data analysis so far shows that criminal justice officials use specific methods, techniques, tactics or mechanisms to extract bribes from clients. I am however finding it difficult to get literature that addresses methods, techniques, tactics or mechanisms employed by officials to extract bribes. Any suggested readings will be much appreciated.
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Try this ? Have you read about the Doha declaration? UNODC
About the Global Programme At the conclusion of the 13th United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice held in Qatar, the Doha Declaration was adopted. Calling for the integration of crime prevention and criminal justice into the wider agenda of the United Nations, and endorsed by the General Assembly, the Doha Declaration has at its centre the understanding that the rule of law and sustainable development are interrelated and mutually reinforcing. To put the Doha Declaration into reality, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime - with the financial support of the State of Qatar - launched an ambitious Global Programme aimed at helping countries achieve a positive and sustainable impact on crime prevention, criminal justice, corruption prevention, and the rule of law. This four-year initiative promotes peaceful, corruption-free and inclusive societies for sustainable development, through a people-centred approach that provides access to justice for everyone and builds effective and accountable institutions at all levels. The Global Programme focuses on four inter-related components: Resilient, reliable and transparent institutions: Strengthening judicial integrity and preventing corruption in the justice system. Fair, humane and effective criminal justice systems: Fostering the rehabilitation and social integration of prisoners to provide a second chance in life. Youth crime prevention: Preventing youth crime through sports-based programmes and life skills training. Education for Justice: Supporting the integration of crime prevention and the rule of law into all levels of education. Library of Resources News Multimedia Network Contact us     Tertiary Organized Crime Module 4: Infiltration in Business & Government Share this pageToggle Dropdown University Module Series Organized Crime Module 4 Infiltration of Organized Crime in Business and Government Introduction and learning outcomes Key issues • Extortion • Extortion racketeering • Loansharking • Links between organized crime and corruption • Bribery versus extortion • Money-laundering • Liability of legal persons • Summary • References Exercises • Case studies • Thinking critically through fiction • Excerpts of legislation Possible class structure Core reading Advanced reading Student assessment • Review and assessment questions • Quiz 4 • Research and independent study questions Additional teaching tools Published in April 2018.
Developed under UNODC's Education for Justice (E4J) initiative, a component of the Global Programme for the Implementation of the Doha Declaration, this Module forms part of the E4J University Module Series on Organized Crime and is accompanied by a Teaching Guide. The full range of E4J materials includes university modules on integrity and ethics, crime prevention and criminal justice, anti-corruption, trafficking in persons / smuggling of migrants, firearms, cybercrime, wildlife, forest and fisheries crime, counter-terrorism as well as organized crime. All E4J university modules provide suggestions for in-class exercises, student assessments, slides, and other teaching tools that lecturers can adapt to their contexts, and integrate into existing university courses and programmes. The Module provides an outline for a three-hour class, but can be used for shorter or longer sessions. All E4J university modules engage with existing academic research and debates, and may contain information, opinions and statements from a variety of sources, including press reports and independent experts. Terms of Use and Disclaimers
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To what extent does the criminal justice system provide justice for victims in the UK and Wales?
#victims #justice #criminaljusticesystem #uk
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Though I am not familiar with UK law law but residing in common law following country gives me a urge to answer this question in a nut Shell. The cardinal principal of criminal Justice system is that no one should be condemned convict until proven guilty beyond reasonable doubt. Further,it can be comprehended that to safeguard the inhabitants of the society from the fury of the goons and corrupts application of a due criminal Justice system is prerequisite. Other wise people would people would resort to different avenues other than court.which will create miscarriage of justice.
Regards,
Irfan
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Hi Folks,
In his 1975 book The Mythical Man-Month, Fred Brooks introduced the notion that increased incremental persons added to software projects that were already late increased the time necessary for completion.
Do you know if Brook's Law has been examined from other project perspectives -- systems engineering, general engineering, criminal justice, intelligence analysis, finance, economics, and so forth?
Thank you!
Have a great day!
--Adrian
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Sirs,
Thank you all so very much for your answers!
--Adrian
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Beyond a few relatively vague pieces from the press, I have come up empty. Some surveys of veterans (especially in criminal justice contexts) ask, but I would like to have some idea of national numbers for comparative purposes. I am sure the DoD must track, but it does not seem readily available. Any suggestions on government or peer reviewed sources would be appreciated. Thanks.
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The Army historical branch in the library connected to the United States Army War College at Carlisle barracks is an outstanding source for historical data. The issue of discharge status has been area of interest related to the United States military since the American Revolution. Today, discharge status carries only greater importance than ever before because of the benefits related to discharge status and/or disability claims. It is very common to see significant efforts made to upgrade discharges for those reasons
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I teach criminal justice. As this is a world wide body of academics in a large number of varied disciplines, I am very interested in what you think the most critical or important critical justice problem is in your country.
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The fact that policies and practices across the criminal justice system are changed in the absence of scientific evidence, or worse, against the available evidence. Everything from policing, interrogation tactics, suspect lineups, decisions to prosecute, eyewitness testimony, jury decision making, judge decision making, sentencing, treatment, and supervision.
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Given the recent interest in creating swarms of robotic flies that carry explosives and contain face recognition circuitry (as described in Bot Flies, The Economist, Dec 16, 2017) will a time come when the enablers of such killing machines will be made to account? We all know that machines will never—and I emphasize never—be able to make decisions without the assistance of humans so expect arguments such as “the machine did it” to fail in a court law. Can you imagine a world where people like Robert Oppenheimer (the developer of the atomic bomb) are hauled off to prison and later put to death for the creation of lethal autonomous weaponry?
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Dear Edward,
I propose you to see links and attached files in subject.
-Who is Responsible for Autonomous Weapons? - Future of Life Institute
-When Thinking Machines Break the Law - Schneier on Security
-UN urged to ban 'killer robots' before they can be developed | Science ...
https://www.theguardian.com › Science › Weapons technology
-We can't ban killer robots – it's already too late | Philip Ball | Opinion ...
https://www.theguardian.com › Opinion › Robots
-Making the Case: The Dangers of Killer Robots and the Need for a ...
-Killer robots: No one liable if future machines decide to kill, says ...
-Humans Can't Escape Killer Robots, but Humans Can Be Held ...
-Military Robots and the Laws of War - The New Atlantis
-In defence of killer robots: Interview with expert Dr. William Boothby ...
Best regards
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We all see innovation in almost every field, almost every year/month/day.
We have better laws and protection. Food safety, property rights regulated, human rights, international criminal justice and so on...
But, morally, how do you think we as humankind are?
Are we better than in the past?
Do we respect others?
Do we try to understand others needs?
Do we stop doing what could - anyhow - prejudice others, just because it could? Even if it can certainly prejudice us?
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We are always in the sorcerer's apprenticeship ; the human learning curve is slower and lower than the technical one; only ethical learning processes can close this gap. Modern knowledge and classical wisdom have to be brought together, especially in education, economics and medicine. Quantitative knowledge transfer (the learning assembly line) alone is not sufficient to cope with the challenge of moral behavior; the educated personality must be put back into the focus of learning. In any case, the ethics is now in our hands, it is a matter of value preferences.
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I am undertaking research on court referred conferencing for young offenders and I would like to  specifically investigate the empowerment principle underpinning Family Group Conferencing. However most of the articles focusing on this appear to be written from within a child welfare context and are discussing Family Welfare Conferences rather than youth justice models. Any help with this please
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I suggest you read this article
Iudici, A., Maiocchi, A. (2014). Community Justice and juvenile offender: the management of an individual case with criminal slope with community involvement. MEDITERRANEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, Vol. 5 (20), pag. 2015-2027.
Antonio
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Hello, is anyone offering any opportunities to contribute to research regarding in Child Welfare Social Services, Human Services and Criminal Justice?
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and Iudici, A., Maiocchi, A. (2014). Community Justice and juvenile offender: the management of an individual case with criminal slope with community involvement. MEDITERRANEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, Vol. 5 (20), pag. 2015-2027.
Antonio
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I am a junior criminal justice major doing a research proposal for my class in quantitative methodology. I need raw datasets to do my research from, and have been unable to find any. Suggestions?
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It is not something that I am aware of in the UK. However, there is currently a transition in police officer entry standards in the UK driven by the College of Policing. They may have some background research. However, as policing functions differ hugely I agree with Ben measuring performance will be very difficult. So much so key opinion formers differ enormously on how to do so. Good luck Sean
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If you give prisoners in the U.S. an option to get classes in order to become teachers for impoverished areas and in return for a reduced sentence for only criminals for petty crimes. Would this be a good idea?
The criminals would be monitored carefully.
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HI, Timon,
The social and political obstacles to what you propose are substantial. As a matter of course, ex-offenders are barred in the US from working with children. As you might easily imagine, parents are quite likely to object to this arrangement regardless of the degree of oversight provided.
Another major obstacle is that petty crimes do not receive sentences of sufficient length to permit adequate provision of educational programs to prepare ex-offenders for teaching duties. Petty crimes tend to be dealt with by local or county jail sentences of less than a year's duration. Obviously, there is little that an educational program might provide with a population that churns up to 6 or 8 times a year.
And there is always the problem of funding for the educational programming provided. Prisoners are no longer eligible for Pell grants or other federal funding, and it is a rarity for states to see the wisdom in targeting scarce tax revenues to educate this population, regardless of the high return on the investment in lower recidivism or future criminal activity.
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I was wondering if anyone had any expertise on the fourth amendment pertaining to electronic surveillance.
Would prospective warrantless StingRay searches that track a criminal to their own private residence be constitutional. Under the public movement doctrine, public roads are arguably covered, however if we follow Karo, it states that once the tracking invades the residence of an individual it violates the fourth amendment.
Thank you,
Dr. Sartre 
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Ok thank you, I will be looking at U.S. v. Lambis and the reasoning behind it.
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When child abuse victims tell of their victimization, evidence may be difficult to find. Add constraints on the legal age victims gain a voice within the legal system, many childrens' human rights are ignored in lieu of the accused's rights. What policies and strategies are presently effective in the United States for prosecuting and sanctioning child abuse offenders? Does anyone know of state or local governments that evidence a high success rate in holding offenders accountable?
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I will echo Ben's response suggesting that prevention is more important.  We know that rates of harsh physical punishment (abuse) are much higher in low and middle income countries and that the correlation between the use of harsh punishment and years of maternal education is -0.735 in a 19 community study.  AHT is also inversely correlated with maternal education and age. Delayed childbearing (i.e. LARC for teens) and facilitating girl's education are two prevention policies that can pay great dividends in reducing maltreatment. Conversely, prosecution is closing the barn door after the horse has left for AHT as repeat AHT with second or third children after recognition of the first case appears exceedingly rare.
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What are the best (and most progressive) LGBT inmate policies in correctional settings. 
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In most American correctional institutions the inmate is assigned to housing based on their biological gender. However, some like Riker's Island in New York have allocated particular housing units for those that would voluntarily prefer to live in them.  The issue in most jails and prisons is overcrowding and there is not a lot of leeway in housing assignments.  
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I am seeking suggestions for obtaining unbiased answers from respondents within the custody of the department of corrections. I feel that there should be a form of payment, as to offer or deny payment based upon the custody status of an individual could possibly elicit results that are biased.
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Having worked in both a correctional institution (1.500 bed county jail) and as an academic, the rules for research are a little different. Common to both is the need to have the support of the correctional institution's administration. In an academic institution, Jason is right IRB approval is a must. When we did research with the National Gang Crime Research Center at the Sedgwick County Jail in Wichita as a part of a nationwide survey on gangs we had both. We offered participating inmates a bag of chips (with the approval of administration on where and how we did this in accordance with security regulations to participate. Inmates were provided an anonymous survey and got the bag of chips when they filled it out and returned it. The main issues were security of survey staff (they had to be accompanied), institutional security (anti-counterband rules) , and inmates being either illiterate or semi-literate (objectivity)  There was no penalty for non-participation by inmates (you just did not get the chips).
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Can anyone refer me to research exploring the application of complexity theory to the criminal justice system? Or the application of complexity theory to a complex social phenomenon i.e. human trafficking?
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Could include how restorative justice works.
Could include results from certain studies.
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Dear Laura,
Please have a look at the recent meta-analysis of Sherman and colleagues examining the effectiveness of restorative justice conferences in terms of reducing the rate of re-offending of offenders.
Sherman, L., Strang, H., Mayo-Wilson, E., Woods, D. J., & Ariel, B. (2015). Are restorative justice conferences effective in reducing repeat offending? Findings from a Campbell Systematic Review. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31, 1-24.
In addition, for a systematic review of the same authors of the impact of restorative justice conferences on victims, see:
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Can they alter, or not make a register, if they just think about the possibility to receive a bonus? Especially in countries where the salaries are poor.
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There may become an under reporting or failure to log such violent crimes due to the fear of losing the bonus,especially in the poorer countries which in turn could have adverse effects on the community. A bonus could also possibly cause staff conflict regarding disagreements on what violent crimes should be reported.
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My question is related to caseloads of police officers in USA. We are trying to analyse police officers´ role in controlling the crime, we have understood that if police officer clears the crime (arrest) on same day it happened would reduce the burden on them for the later days. Later arrestees prosecute at Court/Jury, at this stage Judges will have (?) discretion power to decide on the punishment. Judge may send them to the prison or impose monetary punishment or community service. If they impose monetary punishment, the criminals would pay and again engage in the activity, which would certainly increase the burden on the police. To check this hypothesis we need to check judges´ discretion power. Do you have any idea where I can get such information/data (punishment of various crimes, prison or monetary punishment)
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Thank you very much Ines Ferreira Leitem, Felicia Croall , Fran Ashton and Kjell Hausken.
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We have found that within several police investigations, psychologists have applied the procedure credibility of testimony, without the proper scientific support. this is true?
From the literature we have reslizado research, we found that this procedure was developed for application to child victims of sexual buso, and this in question even if Validi apply to witnesses and adults.
There is debate about whether it is appropriate application to victims of other crimes and found no referncia about the application of this suspected of having committed crimes people.
Anyone with information on the subject?
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Can you write your question in Spanish please, to better understand what is the question?
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Globalization affected every facet of life. Third world countries are most affected in various aspects. I want your opinion about its effect on Justice in third world countries
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While globalisation has had a great impact on economic development its impact on justice is far from satisfactory. First you need to consider a few questions and research in relation to these.
1, What is the definition of 'justice' and what is its scope
2. Are you looking at the independence of the judiciary in the country or the efficiency of the judicial system or both?
3. Are you looking at the impact of international conventions and treaties eg. on human rights on justice for the people of a country?
I believe that Harshvardhan Singh has shared some excellent articles. 
I echo the collective view in the articles cited in that justice requires political will. In most developing countries that espouse democracy it is a highly 'disciplined' democracy that does not bear criticism and debate even in the face of glaring mismanagement and corruption recognised and investigated internationally.
Another issue is the treatment meted out to immigrant workers. Even with the best labour laws enforcement of the rights of immigrant workers is pathetic .
On the aspect of war crimes, take the eg. of Cambodia and the hybrid Court investigating the human rights violations perpetrated by a few top octogenarian leaders during the Pol Pot era. I would hardly consider that satisfactory or sufficient to assuage the trauma of 2 - 3 generations of Cambodians and others.
So I would submit that the concept of Justice in the globalised era is not on par with economic development.
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The percentage of women in the police in US, UK and most Asian countries remains at or around 10%. Do agencies follow gender neutral policies or promote women's recruitment actively?
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Jeff Hearn, Wendy Parkin (2001) Gender, Sexuality and Violence in Organizations
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Murder is the most heinous form of unlawful homicide; intentional killing is it's paradigm case, which usually incurs a penalty of mandatory severity. But most jurisdictions permit reliance on partial defences which reduce intentional killing from murder to a lesser homicide such as, for example, manslaughter. Provocation and excessive force in self defence are recognised as partial defences in many jurisdictions. Should freely given consent to die or incur a risk of death at the hands of the defendant also be recognised as a partial defence? This would be an affirmative defence with appropriate definitional safeguards. The suggestion is not unprecedented. Thomas Macaulay's Indian Penal Code permits reliance on such a partial defence.
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Hi all,
There won't be a homonymous answer for all legal systems. Mark these questions.
 1. What difference is there between euthanasia and murder with consent? Is there anybody who would consent without sufficient reason(s)? 
2. This first remark is only helpful if euthanasia is more or less accepted in a legal order.
3. Even if accepted, still 3 questions should be regerded. (a) what are the legally permissable grounds for the will to die (euthanasia)? (b) should one or more professionals judge these grounds? and (c) is legally permissable help or acting itself limited to a certain group of persons, like professionals? 
Succes,
Niels
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Does anyone teach a criminal justice analysis/statistics course using a book that uses stata (as opposed to SPSS)?  I would love recommendations 
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Hello, 
A quick google search provided me with the following two book. That being said I am not sure if both use STATA but I know once says that it uses both SPSS and STATA.
Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice
By Jacinta M. Gau
Statistics in Criminal Justice
Authors: Weisburd, David, Britt, Chester
I hope this can help. 
P.S. No book can mean there is a market for it =) 
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Small islands seem to have similar crime risks: money laundering, corruption, tourists, close knit populations, nepotism, lagging behind in crime analysis capabilities.
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Yes - I am currently considering these issues in the Pacific for my PhD.
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Prison labor, private prison industries
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Firstly, thank you for your answers but i think the answer is not adequately correlate with my question. Moreover, can you clarify "awareness and dept of belief system of prisoners" briefly.
Best wishes, Levent
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May i know who are the researchers in the field of criminal justice system and in good governance studies?
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You would need to narrow down your inquiry -- which country, for example, and what areas of criminal justice? E.g., sentencing, conditions of confinement, reentry, etc.
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Balancing public safety, children safety v. privacy. What is more weighty?
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We know that there are several risk factors for offending against children and a prior offense is just one of these. I doubt that anyone would find it motivated to map individuals according to any of these other risk factors. So, if the argument is to inform the public about "risk" then one would need some additional argument to why this particular risk factor (prior offense) is more meaningful than any other. 
And, one has to remember, that all risk factors for offenses against children are unreliable, they lead to a lot of false positives as well and in such instances may increase public and personal distress for no reason whatsoever.  
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There has been plenty of research regarding the plain facts and statistics asked in the question, but I have yet to encounter any information regarding the underlying reasons for these prevailing statistics and facts. Sure, one could gather that an underlying fear of racial minorities, especially those living in poverty, makes their crimes seem worse than other minorities — but does research exist to corroborate these statements on people's popular opinion?
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Good question, You have several ways to look at this.
First of all, let's look at the issue of race & crime. Just focusing on Criminal Homicides, blacks commit roughly the same number (actually a bit higher) of criminal homicides as whites (FBI-Crimes in the US). That in itself demonstrates how easy it for the skewed perception in your question.
The issue here (and in the other index crimes) is how does a minority match and surpass the majority in criminal events? You cannot ignore the influence of gangs and the gang culture in this issue. Minorities are extremely over represented in gangs and gang activity. That's not saying whites aren't in gangs, they are, but not at the same rate as blacks and hispanics. Most of the juvi tried as adult crimes are Murder, Robbery, Felony Battery, Habitual Felon and Sexual Assault. 4/5 of those are acts heavily used in gang activity.  
Of course Plea agreements are always on the table and can allso have an effect. Money (attorneys) and cultural aspects (levels of cooperation) can be used to lower/raise the chances of adult charges. 
I have not run into any consistant source to separate the gang activity charges from the regular population. The Justice Dept (Bureau of Justice Statistics) and the FBI give access to their reports/research which could help you in this issue. Numerous sources (like the Suntimes in Chicago and the Baltimore Sun in Baltimore) have homicide trackers which can give you snapshots of those jurisdictions.
Unfortunately this topic gets extremely political very fast. You are going to have to work hard to avoid that.
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juvenile detention, prisons, courts, sentencing
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My impression is that people on the spectrum are more likely to end up in contact with the criminal system, both as perpetrators but also as victims. I have found some interesting articles in danish by the man in scandinavia who is the best I know of in the field, Bo Hejlskov. In the link below there are some good references (in english)
Henrik Anckarsäter has written a review of the link above. In swedish unfortunately. He explains that Bo Hejlskov shows both that there is a overrepresentation of people with autism and at the same time that there is not. Hejlskov explain the paradox that in the ordinary prison population there is not a difference. But if you look at those that have been sentence to forensic care instead of prison there is a clear overrepresentation. Here is Ackarsäters list of references.
Anckarsäter H, Nilsson T, Ståhlberg O, Gustavsson M, Saury, J-M, Råstam M, Gillberg C. Prevalences and configurations of mental disorders among institutionalized adolescents. Pediatric Rehabilitation 2006; in press.
Gabbard GO. Mind, brain, and Personality Disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162(4):648-55.
Hare DJ, Gould J, Mills R, Wing L. A preliminary study of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders in three hospitals in England. 1999. London: The National Autistic Society. 
Isager T. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Criminal Behaviour – A Case Control Register Based Study. 1ST International Symposium on Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Forensic Context, 2-3 September 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark. Conference paper.
Scragg P, Shah A. Prevalence of Asperger´s syndrome in a secure hospital, Br J Psychiatry, 1994; 165:
679-82.
Siponmaa L, Kristiansson M, Jonsson C, Nyheden A, Gillberg C. A juvenile and young adult mentally
desordered offenders: The role of child neuropsychiatric disorders´. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law: 2001;29: 420–26.
Söderström H, Nilsson A. Childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders among adult patients in a Swedish special hospital, Int J Law Psychiatry, 2003; 26:333-38.
Söderström H, Sjodin AK, Carlstedt A, Forsman A. Adult psychopathic personality with childhoodonsetr hyperactivity and conduct disorder: a central problem constellation in forensic psychiatry. Psychiatry Res 2004; 121:271-80.1/9 2004
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I am elaborating a study about fraud in exported vehicles in the European Union with a real case in the south of Spain with police data. This is my first paper in this area and I need somebody interested in this study that can collaborate for publishing together.
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Fifteen years ago I spent a year in Kaliningrad, Russia, and became interested in the movement of stolen cars from the EU (Western Europe in general).  I did a little field work that resulted in a publication:
Gerber, Jurg, and Martin Killias.  2003.   “The Transnationalization of Historically Local Crime:  Auto Theft in Western  Europe and Russian Markets.”  European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 11(2):215-226.
There was little on this topic at that time.
Let me know if you want to pursue this work.
Jurg Gerber
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Until recently, I thought the answer to this question was obvious, but I am gradually becoming aware that a large and influential portion of the population simply do not or will not accept this link.  See this from Guardian April 30th 2015:
'Am I being executed?' Brazilian killed by Indonesia unaware until end, says priest.  Priest who counselled Rodrigo Gularte – who had been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – says he tried in vain for three days to to explain to the inmate he was about to die"
I have not read all the hundreds of comments on this article, but people objected to the execution for 3 main reasons: objection to death penalty; drug dealing should not be punished;  procedural errors.  No one seemed at all bothered by the fact that a psychotic person was being shot, when it is surely beyond argument that the disordered thinking and poor judgement in psychosis can lead to crime.  For them, no psychosis: no crime.   Would any representative of a mental health organisation like to take the opportunity here to speak up for the criminally insane?
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Certainly in the UK and USA, "diminished responsibility" and "not guilty by reason of insanity" are well established legal defences that in some circumstances prevent a case even being fully tried in court. A diagnosis of schizophrenia, bi-polar, schizoaffective disorder and many other psychosis-related conditions can be sufficient for a defendant to be certified as unfit to stand trial, let alone be sentenced and punished for the crime.
My feeling is this is somewhat controversial amongst the non-scientific community due to the lack of understanding of psychiatric disease. People may accuse patients of "faking it" to avoid facing up to their crimes, or see mental disorders as a lesser form of illness that people should just "get over". The legal systems is some less developed countries may also follow this line of thinking, as Indonesia seems to going by this case.
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Are there any empirical evidence that International criminal justice (ICJ) do help post war countries?
In post war countries where usually corruption is rife and  majority of the population live below the poverty line, can ICJ be of priority for the population or more a means of setting international precedent? 
Also if it can be argued that ICJ is important for post war countries, how can it be applied so that the affected people can feel a part of the process considering the ICC for example which hearings and procedures are held thousands of miles away from where the crimes being tried occurred.
Any answers or articles on these topics will be highly appreciated
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I agree that this is a contentious issue with good arguments for and against. In researching, I suggest using ICL (international criminal law) as an alternative to ICJ as you might find more relevant hits. A few arguments 'for' ICL are that it functions to:
Provide theoretical and conceptual foundations and set international standards, it provides a  model for domestic legal systems (for example, providing progressive procedural rules in prosecuting rape and sexual violence), it establishes an official version of the past - vindicating victim's lived experiences and preserving the narrative for future generations, and can act as a deterrent and change societal norms regarding tolerance for atrocities. (If people conspire and carry out genocide, for example, they will answer for it). Failing to prosecute could embolden future perpetrators.
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Domestic violence and sexual assault are, of course, different types of cases, so I don't expect there to be a single review. Other work on this topic are also welcome.
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J. Ptacek (ed) Feminism, Restorative Justice, and Violence Against Women New York: Oxford University Press.
Strang H & Braithwaite J (eds) Restorative justice and family violence Cambridge University Press, Melbourne
A Restorative Approach to Family Violence: Changing Tack edited by Hayden, A., Gelsthorpe, L., Kingi, V. and Morris, A. Published by Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Surrey, UK
and on sexual assault see many works by Mary Koss.
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Whilst there is concern about the existence of ADHD there is equal concern that, as it does exist with regard a type of diagnosis relating to a varied set of behaviours, many of which are considered undesireable without their being any specific intent. Such that recent focus has been on the prison population and how many may or should be diagnosed with ADHD but what of those under community supervision? Does anyone know of any policies/practices which are in current use - UK prefered but International data eqally invaluable.
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The response by governmental agencies to this issue will vary across jurisdictions. Some states, counties, or cities have more sophisticated mental health services. In California, AB109 passed by the legislature, essentially released thousands of state prisoners to the counties. This resulted in immense pressure on county agencies to develop and implement programs to reduce recidivism as they have inadequate jail space and other program slots. Reducing recidivism is now a high priority. The San Bernardino County Probation Department has implemented day reporting centers for probationers, Interestingly, the County Behavioral Health Department has service providers in these centers. There is no research on the effectiveness of these mental health services nor the number of people using center services. This is an area that is in need of research.
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I would like to have a comparative idea of how is the situación in the different EU Member States. It will be interesting to have different perspectives of how useful can it be the criminalization of cartels in Competición Law. 
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This is  a brief paper for Veronica Pinotti and Martino S. gives you an idea where anti-trust is considered a crime in EU.
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Can anyone assist me into finding articles that I can use for my research paper
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Justicepolicy.org has some interesting information. There are many school to prison pipeline articles written. Here is an interesting one: Safran, S. P., & Oswald, K. (2003). Positive Behavior Supports: Can schools reshape
disciplinary practices? Exceptional Children, 69(3), 361-373.
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Criminologists appear to have carried out little research as to if LGBT people commit crime and how they experience the CJS. Is there any current/recent research about LGBT people, offending and their treatment by the CJS (apart from DV and Hate Crime).
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Thanks Lee and Arin, just what I was looking for!
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How should Adolf Eichmann have been punished? The question assumes that punishment is an appropriate response to his crimes.  Hannah Arendt agreed with the Supreme Court of Israel that Eichmann should be put to death, though her reasons were quite different.  She concluded her study of his trial, ‘Eichmann in Jerusalem’, with the following words of condemnation: ‘no one, that is, no member of the human race, can be expected to want to share the earth with you. That is the reason, and the only reason, you must hang’.  She would have condemned him to forfeiture and elimination rather than punishment.  Suppose Eichmann had not been sentenced to death.  If he is to be punished, how is it to be done? This is the challenge implicit in Arendt’s final condemnation. If he is allowed to live, how are Eichmann's judges, the correctional officials, prison warders and the broader community which they represent, going to ‘share the earth’ with him?   Eichmann would probably have made a compliant prisoner.  He was compliant with his interrogators: Arendt records that he told them that, ‘he would like to find peace with [his] former enemies’.  If he is not to be executed, must the criminal justice system offer him opportunities for redemption, reconciliation and eventual release?  
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Hanging or banishing Eichmann for life is just one part of the entire story. The real part is actually outside the Eichmann trial. How do we we propose to deal with the demon called racial prejudice?
We have enough UN conventions, resolutions, declarations and national laws across the face of the earth expressly and impliedly banishing racial prejudice. Yet, it is the most visible facet of our life everywhere. The real enemy of peace therefore are not the Eichmanns of the earth; it is the political use of race, color, language, creed, ethnicity, religion and caste. Unless we find a common voice against it, Eichmann will continue to live in perpetuity and we will be chasing mirages of justice.
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We want to identify effective community reintegration programs for female offenders, both delivered in prison and the community. This is one step of a research project
that looks to identify best practices and effective programs.
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Dear Jaun Luis,
In San José de Costa Rica (17 dec 2014) have been approved a series of documents about Social Reintegration in Latin America (women, and others group). If you can look if possible that you can find relevant information (documen abotu women and good practicas). This is the link: 
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Me and a group of researchers from the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam are conducting research on the level of custody and the range of services provided to prisoners who have been sentenced by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL). Inmates sentenced by these courts are serving their sentences in a variety of countries that have participating agreements with the tribunals. At present, there are ICTY, ICTR and SCSL inmates spread around 14 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and UK) and 4 African countries (Benin, Mali, Rwanda and Tanzania).
I would appreciate any information you have regarding:
- correction system in any of these countries
- individual prisons where these inmates are housed
- the level of security and custody provided, and
- any information about the daily routine they experience, including recreational, educational, and other rehabilitation services
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Dear Patricia, 
I would be very happy to assist and help to your research regarding Spain, if it is actually active. Let me know too. Regards
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The Nuremberg Trials set the tone for the evolution of a host of norms that eventually found their reflection in the Rome Statute. With over 122 Ratifications, the Rome Statute has come to be a guiding light on its own merit casting its luminance on those functions of sovereigns that hitherto were protected from 'public scrutiny'. There are serious debates as to whether by subscribing to the ICC nations are forsaking their sovereignty. The number of ratifications however are reflective of the emergence of a consensus amongst nations that no regime must violate individual right to life and dignity in the name of sovereign impregnability. Charles Taylor's conviction seems to suggest that the consensus is not merely a vote for morality. Or, is it?
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Greetings Professor Srinivasan. As the factors go:
1 - I agree with you in the matter of of time being, the 69 years that separate the present from the Nuremberg Trials are a substantial amount of time. Nevertheless, our legal system, and by that I refer to the international one, is quite slow in matter of recognition of norms that affect the liberty of States, and its representatives. Since we have in many books, as in Orakhelashvili's or in Hannikainen's, the recognition of the immunity of the representatives as a peremptory norm of international law.
2 - Regarding to the acceptance of States, the number that is necessary for the recognition of a peremptory norm, is yet to be defined, and such definition is not to be achieved soon. I agree that it should be usefull to have representatives of different legal systems, and representatives of all continents, so it would be diminished the debate over the eurocentration that is well used by some. I think the peremptory norms should be used as a protective system to the International Community as well as to human beings, and in the cases presented by you, the crimes to be judged by the Roman Statute, it is most present.
3 - It is set to motion the engine and it's parts, but I still do not know if it already set to be enforced. Cause untill the date none of the customary norms used in the international relations is recognized as peremptory, as the requirements ask for. Undoubtedly, someday, it is gonna be recognized by States, beyond the conference meetings held in Viena, a group of norms, or at least the existence of some norms as peremptory. It is set as an example the Human Rights legislations, that are recognized as important and fundamental for State pratice, but none of them recognized it as peremptory in the legal text, only on arguments during the conference, and yet, not by all.
But in our field the changes are set in academy long before they reach the reality of politics.
Glad to have recieved an answer. Hope to continue the conversation, that cannot be held at the University, since as for the moment, I am the only one with a background in International Law. Have a great day also!
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In England and Wales the coroner is responsible for investigating deaths that are suspected to be i) violent or unnatural, ii) of unknown cause, or iii) in police or prison custody. About half of all deaths in E&W are reported to the coroner for further investigation but inquests are only necessary in about 30k cases. The rest are registered as natural deaths once the cause has been established. How is this function carried out in other countries worldwide?
I am a PhD researcher just writing up my thesis on the way coroners carry out this role in E&W.
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The Unites States Criminal Code of Procedure Title 1. Chapter 49 outlines the procedures for inquiries in deaths where the cause in unknown. Any doctor in a hospital or private practice can request an autopsy if the cause of death is unknown. Also, if the death is a result of a criminal act, an autopsy can be performed to confirm the cause of death. At any time in which the cause of death in a person is not evident, an autopsy can be ordered to determine the cause of death. The family members of a deceased my appeal to their local Justice of the Peace for an inquiry as to the cause of death. The US Centers for Disease Control has also requested autopsy on certain cases if they suspect the person has been exposed to infectious disease. Cases of suspicious cause of death have often resulted in the exhumation of bodies for autopsy and forensic testing to try to determine the cause of death; although these cases are rare. I hope this information is helpful.
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With respect to dowry death cases in India, the conviction rate is one of the lowest.
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Manner is a difficult question. It needs all collation of all circumstantial evidence, along with the postmortem examination findings (thus scene, eye witness and participants in the case's evidence, etc. all play a key role). An even bigger contributor in determining the manner is if the victim was able to make a dying declaration about her circumstances of death.
I would think the one situation where all things come together in a decent system of death investigation and death investigators is the US Medical Examiners' system, but I have qualms about their interpretation of the manner of death automatically transcribed on all death certifications - where the ME's manner may be at variance with what the courts find out later!
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I'm especially interested in the following: a) increase of number of mentally ill people in prison since mid 1990s b) homelessness c) cost of private residential care d) construction of 'new' asylums d) increases in A&E attendances for people with a mental illness.
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There is a lot of literature on this issue from Britain
I have copied few references here. There is a series of papers fromTAPS project.
Long-stay patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals Social and clinical outcomes after five years in the community. The TAPS Project 46
J Leff, N Trieman - The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2000 - RCP
Background There have been no large-scale prospective studies evaluating the transfer of care from psychiatric hospitals to district-based services. Aims We aimed to compare the quality of life of patients in two north London hospitals scheduled for closure with that in ...
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[PDF] Team for the Assessment of Psychiatric Services (TAPS) Project 33: prospective follow-up study of long-stay patients discharged from two psychiatric hospitals
J Leff, N Trieman, C Gooch - American Journal of Psychiatry, 1996 - Am Psychiatric Assoc
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the policy of closing psychiatric hospitals and replacing their functions with community-based services. Method: All long-stay nondemented patients in two UK hospitals scheduled for closure were assessed with a ...
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The TAPS project: VIII. Design of the research study on the long-stay patients.
C O'Driscoll, J Leff - The British Journal of Psychiatry, 1993 - psycnet.apa.org
Abstract 1. Describes the origins of the Team for the Assessment of Psychiatric Services (TAPS) project and the design of the prospective study of the long-stay patient populations of 2 large mental hospitals in north London scheduled for reprovision and closure by the ...
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The TAPS project: XIII. Clinical and social outcomes of long-stay psychiatric patients after one year in the community.
J Anderson, D Dayson, W Wills… - The British Journal of …, 1993 - psycnet.apa.org
Abstract 1. As part of the Team for the Assessment of Psychiatric Services (TAPS) project, this study compared clinical and social outcomes for 278 long-stay psychiatric inpatients who were discharged from the hospital and 262 long-stay psychiatric inpatient controls ( ...
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The TAPS Project. 22: A five-year follow-up of long-stay psychiatric patients discharged to the community.
JP Leff, G Thornicroft, N Coxhead… - The British Journal of …, 1994 - psycnet.apa.org
Abstract 1. The Team for the Assessment of Psychiatric Services (TAPS) assessed a group of 114 long-stay patients in 2 psychiatric hospitals while in the hospital, and then again 1 and 5 yrs after discharge to community placements. Measures used were the Present ...
Cited by 87 Related articles More
Long-term outcome of long-stay psychiatric in-patients considered unsuitable to live in the community TAPS Project 44
N TRIEMAN, J LEFF - The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2002 - RCP
Background Whereas the majority of long-stay in-patients have been successfully resettled in the community, there is a group of such patients who are too disturbed or disturbing to be managed in standard community homes. Aims To study the long-term outcome of a group ...
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The TAPS project. 3: Predicting the community costs of closing psychiatric hospitals.
M Knapp, J Beecham, J Anderson, D Dayson… - The British Journal of …, 1990 - RCP
Abstract The planning of long-term care in the community as an alternative to in-patient care requires accurate information on the likely expense of altering the balance of provision. Unfortunately, as very few long-stay psychiatric hospitals have yet closed, the planning of ...
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The TAPS project: VII. Mental hospital closure: A literature review of outcome studies and evaluative techniques.
C O'Driscoll - The British Journal of Psychiatry, 1993 - psycnet.apa.org
Abstract 1. Reviews the literature on outcome studies of deinstitutionalization and mental hospital closure with particular reference to the UK, the US, and Italy. Data from these studies are discussed in terms of their influence on the design of a new study to evaluate ...
Cited by 54 Related articles More
The TAPS Project A report on 13 years of research, 1985-1998
J Leff, N Trieman, M Knapp, A Hallam - Psychiatric Bulletin, 2000 - RCP
The Team for the Assessment of Psychiatric Services (TAPS) was established in May 1985 with the explicit purpose of evaluating the national policy of replacing psychiatric hospitals with district based services. TAPS'remit was to mount the evaluation with respect to the ...
Cited by 60 Related articles More
The TAPS Project. 4: An observational study of the social life of long-stay patients.
M Dunn, C O'Driscoll, D Dayson, W Wills, J Leff - The British Journal of …, 1990 - RCP
Abstract Observations of long-stay patients in a club in a psychiatric hospital were carried out unobtrusively over several months. Much of the social activity that went on was stimulated by an economy based around the purchase and exchange of tea and ...
The TAPS project. 3: Predicting the community costs of closing psychiatric hospitals.
M Knapp, J Beecham, J Anderson, D Dayson… - The British Journal of …, 1990 - RCP
Deinstitutionalisation--from hospital closure to service development.
G Thornicroft, P Bebbington - The British Journal of Psychiatry, 1989 - RCP
Original Article
Out of the wards and onto the streets? Deinstitutionalization and homelessness in Britain
1992, Vol. 1, No. 3 , Pages 265-275
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Tom Craig1† and Philip W. Timms1
1United Medical & Dental Schools, St Thomas's Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, London, SE1 7EH
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[C] Community mental health teams (CMHTs) for people with severe mental illnesses and disordered personality (Cochrane Review)
P Tyrer, J Coid, S Simmonds, P Joseph, S Marriott - The Cochrane Library, 2003
Deinstitutionalization, social rejection, and the self-esteem of former mental patients
ER Wright, WP Gronfein, TJ Owens - Journal of health and social behavior, 2000 - JSTOR
A public hospital closes: impact on patients' access to care and health status
AB Bindman, D Keane, N Lurie - Jama, 1990 - jama.jamanetwork.com
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Various models exist for strategic decision-making about resourcing and priority-setting in the police field. Centripetal and centrifugal impulses are the main options. The principle of subsidiarity requires decentralised processes of governance. Testing the effectiveness of the devolved alternative is vital to find out if and how public safety is being improved and how disorder is being tackled.
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The problem lies in the accountability of the police virtually no control over the judicial system by the non-governmental organizations and independent public organizations. In the above links are only established the possibility of controlling the police itself or government agencies police property that leads to the development mechanism "understand because he is."
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Is extraditing an effective measure to prevent terrorism?
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I don't think that extradition is the best counter-terrorism strategy. I guess political will is the key to tackling terrorism. along with it, effective counter-terrorism laws and institutional backup can reduce this problem. the worst scenario is one when the whole nation is divided into what constitute terrorism.
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JF Stephen once remarked that the degree of moral loathing of the offence of murder is a reflection of the fact that murderers are hanged for the offence. That reflection has interesting implications for jurisdictions which abandon mandatory penalties for murder.
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The definition of murder is not based on malice aforethought. While malice aforethought may help prove a reason why the murder occurred but is not required for a conviction. There must be the act of killing someone and the intent to do so. Furthermore, many states also have a category called Felony Murder where if certain violent crimes are committed and during the crime any person other than the felon(s) is killed, the criminals are subject to the same penalties as an intentional murder, Therefore intent to kill does not have to be proven. Rather, the intent to commit one of the included crimes must be proved,
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I have recently laid the groundwork for research on male victims of domestic violence. I recently was involved with a male victim of domestic violence. He had been videoing the abuse and when he called the local police department. He was disregarded and was told deal with it, as the officers didn’t see a big issue. Not only did the victim have marks, but had the officer’s remarks on tape. The officers stated that if he had a problem and continued to push the issue he would be charged with disorderly conduct.
I personally spoke with the commander and he stated he did not see an issue and gave a phone number for the victims advocate group for the state. Not only that the person we spoke with, had no idea where he may go for help. As this really doesn’t happen and when it does, they (male) does not have a shelter like the women do.
I would like to stir my research on male victims of domestic violence and if there is a correlation with the murder suicide cases. As the male victims just don't have the resources as the female victims.
My research is in need of cases that may be helpful in my research. Did things get missed by law enforcement, mental health providers and states as male victims are not believed, because female perpetrators can drop a tear and prejudicial judgment may come into play and the male is seen as the person who inflicted the violence.
What do we as professionals do to reach out to the male victim. Are we in need of better understanding to relay to law enforcement, mental health providers, and give them the same resources as any victim of domestic violence?
Any cases that I may use or input would be of great help, as little research and cases are out there.
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Hi. First thing to do is look at the state law on domestic violence: is there a mandated arrest law? If so, then the responding officers are legally bound to arrest his partner if her actions left marks or resulted in other injuries. So, if he is bruised, chiped tooth, broken bones etc. then they are legally required to arrest her. If they have a preferred arrest law, then she should also still be arrested. If there is no mandatory or preferred arrest law, and he has been marked and called the police and there is no response then he should document this and continue calling and documenting. (In all cases of non-response he should take pictures and document time of call, time of response, what the officers told him, did they speak to partner, etc). Then go to file a complain with the police community review board as well as the chief of police. Something else to be aware of, while some states do not have mandatory or preferred arrest laws for DV, it is not unusual for the county to have them. So, check there as well.
I have research the area of IPV for 18 months. The current paradigm goes beyond criminal justice education. The traditional IPV theory positions that women are incapable of eliciting fear in men, so when women engage in acts of IPV there should not be consequences. This theory is the basis of the treatment model that has been legislated or established by state guidelines in 90% of states. Traditional IPV advocates work to support women victims of IPV and they are the "experts" that legislators and criminal justice system relies on. What we need are advocates for male IPV offenders in general as well as male IPV victims. Individuals need to be well armed with data from research that counters traditional IPV theory and begin educating Public Defenders as they are the only ones I have found at this point who can support change in the current system. There is a family violence prevention group through the America Public Health Assoc. that is becoming involved in this issue. There is also a Mens Health group that you can get involved with to support this issue.
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I'm in the midst of this kind of study and would like to use Structural Equation Modeling to assess the complex relationships among many variables related to Bystander Intervention.
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I think it should be assessed in accordance with your hypothesis. Both exogenous and endogenous variables to estimate causalities you want to reveal, maybe??
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In particular, I am interested in the fight against the Italian Mafia.
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Restorative justice has, or should have, many 'dimensions'; the one stipulating that RJ must involve an offender 'accepting blame' is one that arose from the standardisation of RJ as the 'movement' entered into dialogue with policy makers and law makers in the 1980s. In other words, it is a governmental imposition on restorative processes. Restorative processes as practised say by my people (Ngati Porou iwi/tribe of New Zealand), accepted in some cases that 'blame' was shared by all parties. As for the question itself; can RJ work for organised crime? Probably as much difficulty there as with using it for law officers, corporate offenders and in fact some 'ordinary offenders', many of whom are very reluctant to accept responsibility.
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I wish to examine any research that shows the benefits to a victim or victims of crime through making a written victim impact statement/report for the criminal justice system or the courts.
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Courtney,
I'm primarily looking at the victim impact statement presenred to the Court by victims of serious crimes under Criminal Law. These are not given until the offender is actually convicted.
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John Stuart Mill stated regarding the death penalty that, "I defend this penalty, when confined to atrocious cases, on the very ground on which it is commonly attacked—on that of humanity to the criminal; as beyond comparison the least cruel mode in which it is possible adequately to deter from the crime." It is well known that both Kant and Hegel thought that execution is required to preserve the convicted murderer’s dignity as a rational moral agent. Was it merely the state of the prisons of their day which led these men to make such statements or is there some notion of what it means to be a fully functioning human being which they felt was degraded by being imprisoned for life?
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The normative rationale for a death penalty is to placate the dis-acceptance of the dignity of citizens and/or culture (the former in idealized honor- or dignity-based societies, the latter (and/or culture) in cults of honor and dignity. Note the implication: the death penalty is NOT unnatural, nor morally heedless, nor even the necessary result of haphazardly thought through principles. It is a statement of loss of deservedness of one’s dignity to be protected once one has to the appointed degree dis-accepted the dignity of another or others. Prevention has nothing to do with such an argument; the notion of ‘an eye for an eye’ likewise has no bearing on the matter, appearances notwithstanding.
The death penalty ‘placates’ insofar as it hinges on moral and ethical justification, these in turn hinging on the importance of pride. Where pride is lost owing to cynicism or dejection, manners and civility fall aside by degrees and criminous intentions come to the fore (seeing no expectation of punishment – witness the recent financial calamities). In effect, society is presumed to enter upon degradation so soon as there is a serious and/or consistent failure to ensure pride of culture at the extremities where failing to deny dignity to those denying it to others amounts to an invitation to turn cynical toward authority.
If these are very unlogical to us, they are not for that reason any less valid a rationale from the vantage of desiring an orderly and peaceable society. Such societies advocating the symbolic and/or factual expression of dignity disestablishment for certain crimes are also those most reliant on a parallel rationale, namely, shame -- for prevention of ordinary problems. It is not so surprising, therefore, that in a society where shame is anathema, as in our own (American), so also tends to be the very notion of capital punishment. (Those in our country who are most supportive of the penalty are also, through a ‘law and order’ outlook riding on testosterone and steroids together, view incarceration as a shame-based answer to moral obloquy, which also explains why these same folks have no qualms shutting up serious chunks of the black community on whatever will comfortably seem to the observer the correct punishment for a shameless sort of folk, and which thus stands as an especially abhorrent expression of deep prejudice).
In other words, where the death penalty stands on rational grounds (I did not say fully acceptable grounds), the idea of deterrence is nowhere to be found for it has nothing whatever to do with maintaining pride in cultural institutions. It has everything to do with fear, occasionally irrational, but real enough in these cultures, that failure to disestablish dignity in the guilty creates conditions of a slippery slope into social devolution. This has always been the basis for honor-based capital punishment whether owing to sorcery aimed at the public or the occasional rare instance where destruction of social symbols is taken to the extreme.
Somewhat the same rationale goes to explain previous ideas mentioned in this thread. The idea that death is a punishment lighter than prison follows from the idea that imprisonment is not merely disestablishment of dignity but far more, the reduction to animal status, so that the affair begins to look like a disgrace upon the society for punishing a breach of dignity with termination of human status, which effectively then offers an excuse for the crime, rather than a shame-based abridgment of normal protections of dignity.
The Greeks offered Socrates the choice of banishment (also separately on the books as a ten year penalty for violating pride of culture in which the public employs ostracism to identify those deserving the penalty) because banishment signifies in fact as opposed to symbolism that a city-state has disestablished dignity, meaning that those to whom the evicted comes in hope of solace will know there is no rationale not to opportunize, whereat the punishment leads invariably to murder. Many traditional cultures have long-standing policies similar, as for example Eskimo tribes of past times (Diamond’s work uncovered this).
Arabs treat women who violate cultural strictures very harshly for the same reason: women are, for being responsible for the cultural health, responsible for upholding the dignity of the culture, whence their crimes become by extension crimes against culture itself, whence the justification for capital punishment. It is less the fact of capital punishment that is unsettling as the fact that so many of the acts thought to lead to degradation of society are hardly what we Westerners worry over, to say nothing of the fact that we also ascribe rights to these same activities.
I am not advocating these cultural norms, only pointing out that the use of capital punishment carries a very deep-rooted human value system that is not entirely extinguished for our claims to modernity and material advancement. As human beings we still can – and indeed ought to – be mindful of fundamental human strivings and justifications, not because they must necessarily be right, but because they can be right under certain circumstances. To deny this is essentially to deny all of previous humanity the dignity of that word – humanity. And I seriously doubt whether anti-death penalty adherents really mean to allow that presupposition.
Now before I am legitimately accused of writing an essay than a post, let me address a couple of points directly and briefly. The problem with the American system is not inherently in the fact or doctrine of the penalty (such as it is taken, and no doubt by too few given the confusion with non-issues like prevention) but in our unique incapacity to properly defend the accused, even our near complete incapacity to manage an honestly impartial view of the presented evidence. neither lawyers nor judges nor juries are anywhere near suitably equipped to take on such cases. And thus there is no rationale, juridically speaking for any instance of capital punishment save the obvious where the culprits are known without recourse to proof, and the calamities sufficient to obviate need of argument as to contempt of culture and its dignity.
The problem with assuming on principle that the death penalty is somehow ipso facto morally flawed, not only does not stand up to historical practice throughout the world and throughout all of history, but it suffers also from this defect: life tends to be horrifically over-valued in a society dominated by cults of dignity (my dignity is better than your dignity). What do the Palestinians constantly rebuke the Israelis for? But of course, the latter’s penchant for destroying ten thousand Palestinians in avenging a single Israeli death (that is an overstatement, but the idea is understated, whence the hyperbole). Every interview with the past Iranian president featured this essential retort: “Since when are the Israelis so special and so deserving?”
We need to be addressing more questions like this in order to assure a certain perspective upon the death penalty as a social construct. Since when does extinguishing a life for extinguishing another deprive all of us of dignity? It does so only by a willingness to park upon Mount Olympus our desire to think only the best and purest thoughts. But this also tends ineluctably to favor unreality over reality at the expense occasionally of the very moral precepts we thought were being vouchsafed from on high. There is simply no logical or rational argument in defense of the proposition that there can be no adequate justification of a death penalty.
Such a position mistakes death as an absolute opposite of life, when in fact there is, as Christ allowed, sufficient death in life. And Christ’s dis-acceptance of a death penalty was ministry oriented, not in principle. He could hardly ask the guiltless to cast the first stone if he were in favor of a death penalty. But then, how realistic was his command that the guiltless toss the first stone? We ourselves manage to do exactly that every day of the week a thousand times over in every court of law. Recall, Christ’s task was a ministry, not the instruction as to absolutes.
When it came to instruction, Christ was quite sensitive to the realities of the day, even to the inclusion of Roman taxation (render unto the Romans…). In this light, and in absence of the ethical responsibilities attending the conversion of people into altered norms, how can we be so certain that he would have had so much trouble acknowledging the validity of a death penalty?
We also have trouble of a very similar sort in evaluating the respect owed to offices versus officeholders. Thus we will support a rapacious wretch of an officeholder out of respect to the office. No office can be respected by respecting violations of the officeholder. The same parallel is not entirely out of place in the death punishment discussion. We think to respect life by sparing death when in taking a life to repair damage to the spiritual fabric of society can save many more lives merely by ensuring that all are happier and more law-abiding in a fair and generous society. Are we to deny that precept simply because we have opted on a destructive society with destructive policies and with examples of perfidy that go regularly unpunished?
Frankly, I had rather keep the death penalty on the back burner until we have matured rather a good bit further as a society.
This is a very difficult issue, and one of very few I had to commit to work on a separate site and then cut and paste. I only hope I have done some justice to the approach I advocate and again apologize for the length. Doubtless it is my inability that accounts for prolixity.