Science topic

Crime Prevention - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Crime Prevention, and find Crime Prevention experts.
Questions related to Crime Prevention
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
5 answers
I was told that Gary Becker's rational choice theory was NOT the basis for the theories in environmental criminology & situational crime prevention. Is that correct?
If not, which rational choice theory was the reference?
Relevant answer
Answer
Tim and Martin
Interesting discussion, thank you. What kinds of rationality we use in different situational contexts is a relevant question.
Does it classify as "not rational" if someone is running from the police and kill someone else (by car) in the heat of the moment?
The interaction between individual characteristics (propensities) and environment incitements would need to test "some sort of rational behavior", but we would still depend on what we mean by rationality.
Situational Action Theory does not rely on the assumption that offenders are rational in the same sense as SCP does (the situation makes the criminal). They may be talking about two entirely different things as you both pointed out.
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
2 answers
Dear colleagues,
Does anyone know if there are any reference values (i.e., thresholds, service levels) for urban planning practices and analysis, considering the following indicators?
1) criminality/criminal occurrences (*)
2) accidents between vehicles and pedestrians
3) average volume of motorized traffic (in urban areas)
Are there international standards, for example, from ISO or another institution? I would appreciate it if anyone could point out a reference source (link to an article, report, or standard) to support the information.
Thank you for your attention.
_____________
(*) For crime, I found only the Homicide Rate as a reference indicator (but without thresholds). This indicator seems to me to be extremely limiting since it ignores other types of crimes that are more common and affect more people, such as robberies (with or without weapons) and theft, in addition to neglecting sexual crimes and assaults (also grave) and vandalism (lighter). It seems that focusing only on homicides is reductionist and omits other risks to the population.
Relevant answer
Answer
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting references:
- Global status report on road safety: time for action.
1.Accidents, Traffic - statistics and numerical data. 2.Accidents, Traffic - trends. 3.Wounds and injuries - epidemiology. 4.Safety - statistics and numerical data. 5.Data collection. I.World Health Organization. Dept. of Violence and Injury Prevention.
- TAG UNIT A4.1 - Social Impact Appraisal - GOV.UK
1 Social Impact Appraisal. 2 Accidents Impacts. 3 Physical Activity Impacts. 4 Security Impacts. 5 Severance Impacts. 6 Journey Quality Impacts and etc.
- Crime, Violence, and Development: Trends, Costs, and Policy Options in the Caribbean
A Joint Report by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the Latin America and the Caribbean Region of the World Bank
- Sustainable Transport Evaluation. Developing Practical Tools for Evaluation in the Context of the CSD Process
UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS
Commission on Sustainable Development. Nineteenth Session. 2-13 May 2011
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
5 answers
The restriction in movement and maintain of law and order curtails various activity. The scope of drones in day to day activity will provide ample assistance. Please provide various research that compliment the questions especially during COVID-19.
I would wish to share my results from my study:
Relevant answer
Answer
Of course, Drones has a role in delivery services in some countries to reduce Corona infections
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
4 answers
Are there any databases that share Crime and COVID-19 data prediction?
Relevant answer
Answer
I provide some ideas and comments on data in this paper: https://rdcu.be/b48cvit
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
39 answers
From the (2002) review by Roger Egbert:
At a time when movies think they have to choose between action and ideas, Steven Spielberg's "Minority Report" is a triumph--a film that works on our minds and our emotions. It is a thriller and a human story, a movie of ideas that's also a whodunit. Here is a master filmmaker at the top of his form, working with a star, Tom Cruise, who generates complex human feelings even while playing an action hero.
See:
The opening scene, demonstrating the effectiveness of crime prevention, based on mysterious predictions of the “pre-cogs,” contrasts with the account of the predictions involving the search for a “minority report.” Though the precogs, it is said, “are never wrong,” sometime they disagree among themselves. The hunt for the dissenting view leads on into political intrigue—which may explain our skepticism of the prediction of crimes –on the part of “the usual suspects.”
Relevant answer
Answer
Philadelphia, PA
Dear Malik & readers,
You might want to go back over the discussion already at hand in the thread.
I think the answers are all there.
H.G. Callaway
---you wrote---
An interesting question waiting for the discussion to continue.
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
5 answers
Sexual harassment and violence against women is a harsh crime that affects the whole society not just the individual. according to its significance, do you think design can help solving the problem?
Relevant answer
Answer
Though I am not providing a definite answer of YES or NO to this question. But you may refer to two of my researches. These definitely indicate that sense of safety, interaction between people, intent of people has a bearing on architecture and built environment.
Please feel free to cite my papers.
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
16 answers
I am conducting a research to explore the driving forces of crimes in a particular city. However, the city only has few zones (24). If I perform a regression analysis and have met all the assumptions of such regression model, should I trust the results (model)?
I hope someone could help me!
Patrik
Relevant answer
Answer
There are two answers I think:
1) k+2 where k is the number of predictors. This is the minimum required to derive an error term for the model. It won't generally be a very useful or precise model (but there may be exceptions)
2) it depends on how big the effects are you want to be able to detect relative to the error in the sample. This leads naturally to some kind of power/sample size estimate (or an analogous approach if you don't use significance tests)
Rules such as those suggested by Tabachnick & Fidell (actually Green's rule as they did not originate the formula) assume certain patterns of correlation among the predictors (probably independence) and a certain magnitude of effect relative to error. It is worth looking at Green's original paper to see if those assumptions are appropriate (I suspect generally not).
Green, S.B. How many subjects does it take to do a regression analysis? Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1991, 26, 499-510
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
3 answers
I would be interested whether there is a study/research on the connection of media literacy and social competencies / assertiveness / self-esteem. As a bigger picture, would be also interesting to see a possible link between improving media literacy and crime resistance – whether media literacy programs can function as a kind of crime prevention tool. Even prognoses are welcome!
Relevant answer
Answer
I'm not sure it's directly related to assertiveness and self-esteem, but we wrote a paper a few year ago about the social dimension of medias and the importance to develop competences related to this dimension. Maybe you'll find some interesting ideas for your research.
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
3 answers
Need help to find any of three dataset:
1) Transit Record (From Smart Card Data/ Commuter Trajectories)
2) Public Transportation Network
3) Theft or Incident Report (from Twitter/Weibo/Sina)
What I am trying to do is to detect pickpocket suspect from a large set of transit data. I want to analyze origin and destination of the passenger and match them with the incident report posted on social media to predict whether it is a pickpocket suspect or not.
I will plan using data mining methods such as SVM, and clustering
Can anyone suggest any opendata.
Many thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Nanda,
You can try Google's General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) where you can find both static and real-time public transit data: https://developers.google.com/transit/
Best, Tao
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
8 answers
Child abuse materials (CAMs) share some characteristics extensively. They mostly take place indoor settings, victims' face or genitalia is visible and there are few visual clues about the abuser(s).
For the known CAMs, there are methods and projects to detect and remove them automatically such as PhotoDNA of Microsoft Inc. and Baseline project of Interpol. However, detection of new CAMs still heavily relies on outdated and inefficient methods such as user reporting of ordinary people.
Unfortunately, till new CAMs are registered to the related databases as known CAMs, they spread all over the Internet. From the viewpoint of a practitioner, there are millions of known CAMs which may enable the supervised machine learning to recognize a possible new CAM.
Is it possible to use cutting-edge technologies such as machine learning and computer vision in this area effectively? if not, what are the limitations at the moment?
Relevant answer
Answer
A disclaimer first: I follow the field and have background in AI, but I have little hands-on experience with machine learning (ML), so some caveats apply.
I would say that detection of CAM might be borderline possible (with a significant error rate, but much better than random), but I would not advice on doing so. There are three main reasons:
1) Ethical implications: the same technology can be used to search for CAM by consumers, you are storing and manipulating a lot of sensitive data....
2) Current ML approaches to image/video classification are unreliable and would likely produce a large amount of false positives which may be a problem in itself - most content is not CAM, so even misclassifying 1 in million items wrongly will lead to huge amount of investigations into innocent people.
Worse, ML approaches can be tricked by an adversary (see e.g., https://openai.com/blog/adversarial-example-research/ and http://www.kdnuggets.com/2015/07/deep-learning-adversarial-examples-misconceptions.html) This could allow people distributing CAM to avoid detection by fooling the system to flag their content as 100% clean. An even worse problem is the potential use of materials that look OK to humans but are classified by the algorithm as CAM to put someone else in trouble. E.g, send someone modified cat pictures by email and then notify the police that the recipient has CAM. If the cat pictures were modified skillfully, the algorithm would confirm it is CAM, warranting further investigation of the recipient. "10 files on the computer of prime minister flagged as CAM" would make a sweet headline.
A nice example of similar (but simpler) effect in practice is unlicensed content on YouTube. YouTube has algorithms to discover when someone is posting copyrighted content. So the illegal content distributors started to modify the videos slightly (stretch, blur, letterbox, adjust audio...) and they get along mostly fine. And this is without using any of the sofisticated methods to fool the system that were mentioned above.
3) ML has bad reputation for repeating biases in the data. For example, if the training set CAM feature predominantly white/caucasian victims, the system may  easily learn that videos containing people with different skin tone are highly unlikely to contain abuse. Skin color is such a simple feature to learn that it is likely to be picked up if it correlates at least slightly with the target label. This could then result in systematic negligance in fighting CAM featuring victims from ethnic minorities.
More generally: implementing ML for such a task could be counterproductive, as it will reroute resources and focus from classification by humans. But the increased confidence of "we have an algorithm to find CAM" may easily prove unjustified as the criminals adapt to the way the system works.
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
4 answers
data scientists
Relevant answer
Answer
If your question encompasses financial crime, then there are various techniques for detecting financial fraud using data mining.  Typically I use payment transactions data going through an organisation's accounts payable process (to suppliers) and payment transactions going through the payroll process (to employees).  I then set up various hypotheses about how fraud may have happened, usually in consultation with management using an action research approach (Kurt Lewin).  Mostly that requires adding further data sets such as GPS tracking data, cell phone data, building entry/exit data, CCTV etc.  Testing the data with those hypotheses often leads me to actual fraudulent transactions - sometimes different to what was expected under the initial hypotheses, but nearly always useful to management.  In the case of zero findings, that at least provides a degree of assurance that the fraud (probably) has not occurred during the period covered by the data.  The attached articles explain a little more fully.  Hope this helps.  
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
6 answers
There are about 21 honor killings each year in the US. However, there are many more incidents for emotional and physical abuse for each killing. I am thinking whether a quantitative analysis would be fruitful in such a scenario.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Hanif!! It's not just that HBV (honour-based violence) cases are few in number, its under-reported and survivors have a high privacy need. Further, in the West - and arguably particularly in the Stats, HBV is under-recognised and poorly defined.
I have twice investigated HBV - you can see the publications on my page. Both of the ones in the JIV are relevant to your interests. To get at case-studies, I used case-files sourced from an NGO. To get at attitudes and the interrelationship with family structure, I used an on-line survey, which I got distributed through a university and a jobsearch site. I was able to analyse the dataset in SPSS. I currently have quantitative data on 100 cases from residents of women's shelters which I am working with also. Perhaps you'd like to inbox me to discuss my research methodologies in greater detail.
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
2 answers
Looking for insights, as it has been suggested that these can improve offender predictive modeling, suspected poly-victim tracking, etc. based upon theoretical applications and/or evidence supported conclusions.
Relevant answer
Answer
I wonder if those interested in Evidence-based Policing would have any insights.
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
4 answers
Hello. I'm trying to gain an overview of different efforts to reduce political violence and gang violence in South African cities after 1994, both at the local and national level and in between. I’m particularly interested in measures and programmes against violence in the Johannesburg- and Durban areas. Could you recommend me a few good sources? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Adrein,
Given the times, the issue you are dealing with is not just topical but very imperative. My speciality is urban planning but just like everyone else violence, like an evil wind, touches everyone, one way or the other. I believe you have seen the piece on "Someone Stole My Smile: An Exploration into the Causes of Youth Violence in South Africa" edited by Patrick Burton (2007) < http://scholar.google.nl/scholar?q=faith-based+organization+and+curbing+violence+in+south+Africa+&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5>.
Besides, a focus on the role of faith-based organisations is also key in violence reduction or prevention. For example, the Johns Hopkins' Bloomberg School of Public Health is currently doing a similar thing with its Faith-Based Violence Prevention Initiatives <http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/center-for-prevention-of-youth-violence/faith_based_initiatives>
I wish you all the best the best in your endeavour! 
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
15 answers
What do you think about dead-end streets? Some believe that guilty people can easily hide themselves in these streets and also they can create a closed circuit are with the help of the dead-end streets. Do you agree with it?
Relevant answer
Answer
This is one of the topics that are studied in 'environmental psychology'. They have done quite a lot of research on urban areas that feed crime. As far as I can remember, those areas with easy escape are more favorable to criminals. For example, in case of burglary, they prefer those houses which are close to parks or large open area. use the key word 'environmental psychology' in your searches and it will come up. Also you can search for it in two popular journals:1, Journal of environmental psychology and 2, Journal of Environment and behavior both have lots of articles regarding crime in urban and rural areas.
  • asked a question related to Crime Prevention
Question
35 answers
I quote: 'It is a fallacy to paint a beautiful picture that everything is perfect here in Malaysia with 100% full employment as if it is Utopia.'
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Miranda,
To answer your question one needs to get statistical data which is not always easy. Regarding our situation we have been in recession for more than 15 years. Soft crime may be experienced in everyday life. Where I work at the university - an open public institution, anybody can enter it - one cannot leave open office doors because some steal money, computers even sun glasses etc. When travelling on train one should concern his/her personnel things.