• Harshvardhan Singh added an answer:
    How can gender segregation kill creativity of students?

    I am working on gender segregation at school level and its impact on university level of students communication, creativity and innovation.

    Harshvardhan Singh

    Mareena khan Memon:

    Please See some of the literature attached related to your topic. I hope they are useful to you.


    + 2 more attachments

  • Reinhard Schulz-Schaeffer added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest strategies to help develop students' creative abilities?

    I'm thinking, in particular, of undergraduate fine arts students.

    Reinhard Schulz-Schaeffer

    Here are links to find methods for designer. They are used to find creative solutions.

  • Carlos Guillermo Mojica Vélez added an answer:
    What is the most efficient method for evaluating creativity in preschool children??

    Creativity is a complex behavior in children and  in many  occasions teachers have been unable to identify and nurture it. Once lost in the initial years in learning children are left disadvantaged. Is there a method of evaluating it early enough to provide interventions?

    Carlos Guillermo Mojica Vélez

    A lot of things in the culture naturalize our activities, thinking and ideas. I believe that when a children is able to change the "normal things" that society said it become a point important that talk about his creativity. For example: What can we do with a pencil? the normal answer could be to write, paint but a pencil also may be a airplane or it can build a world of imagination. Here we can observe the metaphor in the process that is someting important in the creativity , also new feeling and ideas. The abductive thinking also is an example about the form that the children resolve problems. The abductive is the thinking that permits that the science could be biggest. 

  • neil booc added an answer:
    Does anybody know if we can measure the resistance to creativity in organizations or work groups?

    I would like to study the reason why people have resistance to creativity in organizations to work groups therefore I need to have to measurement skills especially for those reasons which are related to environmental factors affecting the resistance.

    neil booc

    The reason creativity becomes resistance from the individual is the lack stimulus from the work group or head office or designer. .. organization must must evolve to the conditions of changing relativity. time,present reality. ...  environmental factors ... eg , pollution,  stress , work hours , night day conditions , economy,  culture impudence , factors to environmental mental stability of individual.... creativity is hampered to these conditions creating duress and mental blocks ..... but the human will/spirt is capable of exponential duress it is the body that must rest ... capacity of human capabilities can not be measured technological by factors it must be measured by test impudence of individual work which his state of mind gets the most stimulus which is driving to those capacity of creativity. ..

    1. Organzation must be set up accordingly to the factors of the individual's which concids resonate with the other individuals of the work group that works best towards the Organzation goal or motive 
    2. Creativity must concid with the organization goal and motive it is the organization clairvoyance to not to lose it true goal
  • Elmar Lins added an answer:
    What is the difference between creativity and inventiveness?

    Is this only a semantic issue?

    Elmar Lins

    Hi Steven,

    in this context we could refer to the differences between the (German) patent and copyright law. The first one deals with inventions, which are new, innovative and commercially usable products. However, they are based on natural laws and can be made by several inventors simultaneously and independently. The second one protects the intellectual creation of an individual which is not repeatable (it is unlikely that two artiss will make the same creation independently from each other). 

  • Imke Wood added an answer:
    Where can I find resources for CBT, DBT, MDT or other inspired worksheets for Loss and bereavement?

    I am putting a creative + cognitive resource book for Loss and bereavement together for grade 5-7 MDT clinicians working with complex PD diagnosis. What do other clinicians use?

    Imke Wood

    Thank you all very much for your thoughtful answers! Most helpful.  Happy New Year.

  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer:
    What role does standardized testing play in a child’s achievement? How could you make sure children obtain high standards?

    Hilliard (2000) brings up the point that standardized tests only “measure a very narrow range of behaviors, many of them at a very low level of thinking” something we, as a society, don’t question. He also brought up the point that the main reason on why we may not question the tests is because the technical manuals for these tests only show those people who have a correlation between high test scores and achievement. Showing that there should not be anything wrong with the test since excellence can be achieved. As a society, we fail to see those students that were able to succeed even after failing tests due to the help the students received from an educator. We fail to see that the “most successful educators are ‘invisible’, unknown or not featured” (Hilliard, p. 293). We only tend to hear about those educators who followed the curriculum and made their students obtain high test grades. Making us stay in this cycle of wanting to obtain high test grades in order to show that we are capable of succeeding. To Hilliard (2000) the biggest problem with high-stakes testing is not that the tests are difficult, rather he can see that the tests do not represent everyone; the tests just represent “enormous profits for the corporations that make them” (p. 302). At the end, he suggested that we need to stop making children take these tests since they crush their hope and pride.

    Please share your views on the role of standardized tests in child's achievement? How could you make sure children obtain high standards?


    Hilliard, A. (2000). Excellence in education versus high-stakes standardized testing.Journal of Teacher Education, 51(4), 293-304.

    Harshvardhan Singh

    Dear Colleagues,

    Thank you very much for your opinions.

    Your opinions are appreciated.

    Best regards,


  • Mario Hirz added an answer:
    Is sketching properly present in engineering education?

    I needed your support to perform a survey study for both engineering students and educators about visual thinking, skecthing and engineering education.

    If you spare a few minutes to fill in this questionnaire I shall appreciate:

    Many Thanks

    Mario Hirz

    Sketching is an important ability and teached e.g. in mechanical engineering studies. On the one hand they are used for describing constructive ideas and details, e.g. a shaft ands its bearings in a transmission. On the other hand to express workflows, sequences etc. in block diagrams or similar types of diagrams. New is the kind of sketches creation. During the past decades, sketches were drawn on paper. These years, sketches are increasingly created on pads and digitized online. In this way, hand-drawn information is able to be integrated into computer-aided drawings and even into simulation platforms or 3D-CAD models.

    Kind regards,


  • Hussin Jose Hejase added an answer:
    Should there be 'Fixed standards' in curriculum? If so, what classes need the standards?

    The standards movement restrict teachers from being creative and force them to stay teaching off the curriculum they are being given. The standardized curriculum does not take a students’ diverse interests, skills, or aspirations into consideration. But in higher education and technology education, how can creativity be included in Curriculum??

    Hussin Jose Hejase

    Same to you Harshvardhan and to all our colleagues on RG.

    Best to all and more excitement next year.

  • Peter Eyerer added an answer:
    How can creativity be reinforced through school curriculum?

    The best teachers are those who allow students to create their own learning objectives after the teacher gives a vague lesson on a topic. To promote creativity in students, it should first be allowed and encouraged in teachers. What are the factors (student related and teacher related) that effect Creativity in school classrooms? And how can creativity be reinforced through school curriculum?

    Peter Eyerer

    Yes, I can agree!

    Best wishes back


  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer:
    What made you 'Motivated' to learn when you were young? Did your teacher relate your learning to real life?

    To promote creativity in students, it should first be allowed and encouraged in teachers. Did your teacher relate your learning to real life? What made you Motivated to learn when you were young? 

    Harshvardhan Singh

    Dear Colleagues,

    Good Day,

    Merry Christmas and Happy New Year 2016.

    May New Year Bring Happiness, prosperity, Good Health and Academic Achievements for you.



  • Shian-Loong Bernard Lew added an answer:
    Should universities teach innovation and entrepreneurship? If so, how?
    Universities are increasingly being criticized for their failure in innovation and entrepreneurship education with their excessive focus on storytelling about entrepreneurs, business planning competitions and lean start up models. Stemming from many cases of leading entrepreneurs who were either university drop-outs or did not go to university at all, there is cynicism in the community about the effectiveness of universities in generating innovators. However, there are in fact successful approaches to developing creativity and innovation skills being used by universities such as work integrated learning (WIL). Research shows that this approach is beneficial to both students in developing their creativity and innovation skills, confidence, self-efficacy and leadership and also to businesses in contributing towards the development and commercialization of new products and services and the recruitment of talented employees who contribute to innovation within their firms. For further details on preliminary work on such approaches, see:
    Shian-Loong Bernard Lew

    Most universities can't teach innovation or entrepreneurship. As evidenced by the many entrepreneurial, start-up founders that have dropped out from college.Not because universities don't want to, but because it is hard to define what is truly entrepreneurial at a given point in time. By definition, innovation and entrepreneurship is anti- status quo, and futuristic. The ones that do try and teach it have "entrepreneur-in-residence", where the courses are usually design over a few weeks of intense sessions rather than a full semester. Alternatively they seek to be as interdisciplinary in focus as possible. After all innovation and entrepreneurship is usually a puzzle-solving exercise requiring flexibility & adaptability.

  • Pedro Mendonca added an answer:
    How do you evaluate student creativity? More specifically, how do you define creativity?

    I’m interested in how teachers quantify student creativity in to grades (especially in the arts classroom). However, the question can also be addressed to the different disciplines.

    Most school disciplines have strict quantitative parameters of evaluation. In the arts classroom and for the arts teacher, quantifying into grades ours students work can be very challenging.  What parameters do you use when evaluating student visual creative expression?

    Pedro Mendonca

    Hello Ricardo,

    Yes, I agree we should not forget collective creativity (conscious and unconscious), as well as environment and other factors.

    But creativity, as a general concept must be defined first (looking for a consensus definition).

    Only then we can look out for all kinds of creative expression, individual, collective, animal, human, etc...

    Only then we can attempt to measure it.  

    What is your basic definition of creativity? 

    Thanks for your input.

  • Manuel Morales added an answer:
    How can a professor use Research Gate among his students to enhance a spirit of innovation, creativity, and discovery?
    Having returned from the United States to Colombia, I have found that my students almost always use the "we-can't-do-that" expression. I wish to expose them to innovative ways of thinking. I also wish to help them see things from various perspectives and basically I wonder if Research Gate can be a good tool to enhance discovery, creativity, and innovation.
    Manuel Morales

    A revised "Flawed Scientific Method" document has been uploaded to replace the previous version. This version is designed to go with the public invitation to help science self-correct. In essence, this one page document illustrates for the public the mechanics of the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables (see link).

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Albert Einstein held the belief that quantum mechanics was an incomplete theory and that there were local hidden variables that would give us a complete sense of reality. As the findings show, he was correct about there being hidden variables. However, he was incorrect as to where to find them. The basketball examples serve to illustrate the findings of the Tempt Destiny experiment and the mechanics involved. The "Flawed Scientific Method" illustrations were designed to go with the public invitation to help science self-correct. In essence, this one page document illustrates for the public the mechanics of the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables which in turn revealed how the scientific method is fundamentally flawed and how to fix it.
      Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2015
  • (Pastor) Debbie Jean Lancaster added an answer:
    Do head space and workload hinder Creativity?

    Does creativity and growth happen only when people have the head space for it, or does a creative mind find the head space whatever the workload?

    (Pastor) Debbie Jean Lancaster

    Excerpted from the article "When Less Is More: Exploring the Relationship Between Employee Workload and Innovation Potential" from the Center for Gender in Organizations (CGO) (2002) is the following:
      "Contrary to many managers’ assumptions that workload is a good indicator of 
      employee output, our research shows that as their workload increases, workers
      report that their capacity for creative work decreases."

    Link where you can find the article:

    As well, I located another article on how the brain develops creativity if you think that may be an avenue of resource for you.

    And one more that perhaps you would like to channel is a study done on women in the workplace as mothers. This is a little different perspective; but, it is within the same theme of your question.

  • Monika Reuter added an answer:
    Theories of creativity in sociology?
    I have looked at 50 years of research in Psychology, but cannot find any formal theory of creativity. Does anybody know?
    Monika Reuter

    My book on a sociological theory of creativity is being published by Palgrave/MacMillan on Sept 18.  It is on amazon in the U.S., and on I have looked at creativity from a constructionist perspective. There is a model, a theory, and the results of the past 6 years of research, i.e., over 1700 student surveys, and over 550 open-ended electronic employer interviews. I would like to hear from everybody what would be a prudent and interesting new approach to studying creativity, i.e., I have been thinking of doing a content analysis of creativity courses taught, or possibly an ethnomethodological participatory study in a creative workplace - what do you think?  If you read the book, I would be very interested to hear what you have to say!

  • Gloria Latham added an answer:
    Does your university include creative writing within its courses focusing upon critical literacy for educators or other professionals?
    I am researching undergraduate, postgraduate and lecturer perceptions of the value and prevalence of creative writing in teacher education program.
    Gloria Latham

    We have a course where our Pre-service teachers create ( write and illustrate) a  text for upper primary students. We teach writing by having our students write and publish their own text. During the course their drafts are workshopped as are their designs. The text can be in print form or using multimedia. It is a very daunting task for students but they learn a tremendous amount about the writing process.

  • Kathleen Ryan added an answer:
    Is it possible to establish an objective uniform grading scheme for different jurors in works of fine arts, sculpture and architecture?

    Grading the works of fine arts, sculpture and architecture by different jurors is often more subjective than objective. Please/ what are your suggestions and opinions.on how to grade creative works objectively?

    Kathleen Ryan

    Following up on Angela Kelly's comments,  consider the work of Amabile and the consensual assessment technique which identifies characteristics to identify such as technical, aesthetic and function. I have adapted the technique to assessing design student work by non-experts and experts. Amabile, T. M. (1982). The social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 43, 997-1013. Amabile, T. M. (1983a). The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag. Amabile, T. M. (1983b). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45,357-377.

  • Y. Sreekanth added an answer:
    Are there articles that provide evidence that society discourages creativity (e.g., in the workplace or classroom)?

    It's often said that society discourages creativity but what I'm looking for is data that supports this. 

    Y. Sreekanth

    I am of the view that teacher's impression about students makes lot of difference. If a student is considered bright, every time he/she responds, the child gets appreciation though does not deserve it. The opposite is also true. This is a big encouragement/limitation in the school system.

  • Megan Just added an answer:
    Are there any reliability generalization (RG) studies known to have been conducted on some of the "uses tasks" in creativity research?

    Although I know much work exists demonstrating reliability of these measures, I am wondering if a formal RG study has been conducted on any/all of the "Uses" tasks (e.g., Guilford's Alternate Uses (1967), Wallach and Kogan (1965), Torrance (1962), etc.).   

    Many thanks for the direction and guidance.   

    Megan Just

    Thank you, Dr. Runco.   With so much research using DT (via Uses tasks) as proxies for all creative thinking, I recognized the need to sort it out.  So, I will send you an email with more specific questions indeed.   Incidentally, I'm hoping to come up to UGa next summer to take the training in TTCT administration and scoring. I see your website offers info on other instruments, so that is exciting.  I will certainly check it out.



  • Ferenc Hörcher added an answer:
    Can literary studies increase creativity?
    One of the benefits of reading literature and engaging in literary studies is that it has the ability to increase inter-subjectivity and expand ones' own experiences. Does the expansion of subjectivity facilitate creativity and creative thinking, or are the benefits simply limited to the above.
    Ferenc Hörcher

    As I see it, a simple consumption of leterary works does not necessarily enhance creativity directly. However, fictional works can help to develop our ability to use our phantasy, which is a prerequisitie of creativity. Also, through a widening up of one's vocabulary and stylistic refinenement one's ability to write creatively might also develop.

  • Jeff Lubin added an answer:
    Can anyone refer me to a CLEAR and DETAILED explanation of open and axial coding in the grounded theory procedures?
    I have key books on this subject by Corbin & Strauss ('Basics of Qualitative Research' & 'Grounded Theory in Practice') but neither gives a detailed description of these two coding methods. The most useful explanation would take the form of a few concrete examples. I need this info as an aid in assessing creative interventions in psychotherapy and possibly also in developing a theory of psychotherapeutic creativity.
    Jeff Lubin

    Thx so much Janet and Alfred.

  • Mark A. Runco added an answer:
    How can we measure creativity?
    Can the creativity be measured? What would be the parameters? Is there any method to do the assessment.
    Mark A. Runco

    Going back to what was called the fundamental question (in this thread), is it worth measuring... Yes. By all means. As long as you realize that you are measuring potential and not creativity per se. If you treat a "score" as an indicator or predictor and not a synonym of creativity, a great deal of useful information can be obtained via measures of creativity.  The next question, after the fundamental one from this thread, is, what is the score an indictor or predictor of?  And the answer to that is, which measure are you using. There are dozens of measures, as is implied by the introduction at     It is even possible to obtain useful data of "general creativity" (across domains, ages, and cultures).

  • Azlan Iqbal added an answer:
    Who is/are the leading scholar/s in creativity research?
    I am organizing creativity workshops for students and corporate partners. At the moment I am pondering about whether to start my PhD in the field of creativity research and innovation. Therefore I would like to know more about the main scholars in this field and their research, respectively. Thank you!
  • Azlan Iqbal added an answer:
    What are the measures to evaluate computational creativity in computers?
    Say I have programmed something in computer which acts as a creative thinking, it could be an idea, plan or any artifact. I want to know how we will evaluate this artifact as being creative.. Are there any standards to measure creativity like Turing test?
  • Daniela Vandepeer added an answer:
    Does reflective thinking also include meta cognitive thinking if it is interwoven between thinking critically and creatively?

    I am now studying reflective thinking skills that are currently not very popular. I've got a lot of feedback the results of discussions on this forum about the interwoven process of critical thinking and creative thinking in reflective thinking skills. I'm now also thinking that interwoven thought processes are included in meta cognitive thought process. But I still doubt, meta-cognitive thought process is defined as thinking about thinking, while reflective thinking is thinking about the result of thinking? What do you think?

    Daniela Vandepeer

    Acquiring the thinking skills in the first place (learning how to learn by making thinking visible) and adopting/engaging dispositions/habits of mind can lead to a more successful phase of  reflection.

    See Hattie, Hyerle, Burden

  • Filippo Salustri added an answer:
    What is the relationship between analogical reasoning and creativity?

    I will also need articles about this topic. Many thanks for responses.

  • José M Cardeñoso added an answer:
    What real power benefits are provided with the new fashion in research and design, the pedagogical intervention for gifted?

    When we know how important is education for all, to barbarism, ignorance and inequality prevailing in this wildly globalized world
    As we explain that the effort is not engaged the attention of the less gifted or benefited by society.
    Could it be that again, we neglect the great mass, and invest only in subjects that the political system requires, for the few jobs that offer creative quality?

    José M Cardeñoso

    Hello everyone and thanks for the contributions received: nuances, suggestions, light and shadow

    Well, the question already died in his hands. My initial interest was not feeling alone in this swim upstream. I wanted to identify colleagues who do not get carried away by money and fashion it generates, support research lines and not others, indexed research and publication.

    Also, certainly, we know we're not the only ones who will not compete for those officers money, given away from European banks (Mediterranean) rescued by public funds. Entities using their existence to score more poverty for the basic salaries are below the poverty line, as indicated by the European community, although the minister prime Spain still ignoring it.

    Is it compatible with the signing of Horizon 2020 Protocol and taking investigative purposes marking the capital? Where is education for Sustainability?
    Which of the principles of environmental sustainability, risk, social accountability college ... it is fulfilled when we dictate what we should investigate?

    Perhaps if this is the real debate, and surely compensate launch as a new matter, for visibility

    Thanks in advance, and to ask you that you might be interested in responding, that it might be best done through new question


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