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Cost Benefit Analysis - Science topic

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We are doing a study of the counterfactual scenario in CBA. We are using empirical data from a large number of completed CBAs and, most likely, interviews with analysts and decision-makers. Some countries have guidelines that set out what the do-minimum scenario should include. I would also like to review relevant scientific literature on this issue, but I am struggling to find any studies. Tips on both guidelines and studies would be much appreciated.
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You can use various methods to evaluate the Benefit-cost analysis. These include partial budget analysis, enterprise budget analysis, and the whole firm budget analysis. The analysis can be supported using the payback periods, the benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and the Marginal Rate of Return (MRR) analysis technique.
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dear all
I work on CBA/J (F) x DBA/2J (M) mice as abortion models. Since I received them, I have added walnuts, multivitamins, carrots, and apples to their diet in a limited way and maintained them in an animal facility, but so far I have not been able to see vaginal plugs in them. Does anyone have a suggestion for getting pregnant in this model?
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Hossein Ansariniya Then, I don't know the exact reasons. Maybe, you can change the female mouse or male mouse. Maybe, your mouse really doesn't want to mate.
By the way, I wonder if you are inducing the spontaneous abortion model. Recently, I failed to do it using the CBA/J X DBA/2J mouse model, and I can't seek the reason. Therefore, I hope you can share your mouse purchase information if you can induce the abortion in the mouse model. I will be grateful for your share.
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Coal based power plants are one of the cheapest and more effective instruments to produce electricity. Many developed countries have already applied this plants and had the benefit from it. Although some of the countries have now stopped using coal based plants because of the negative impact being created towards the nature.
At present, many developing countries specifically in Asian and African region, are choosing Coal to produce more electricity as the demand is at the highest peak; even though a huge environmental degradation is happening due to these circumstances.
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Coal is cheapest source of energy production, if we use new technology for removal of the pollution
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Social cost of carbon (SCC) is usually calculated by means of integrated assessment models (IAM), where the assumed social discounting rate has significant influence on the magnitude of SCC. Now, let's assume that I use a given SCC estimate in a cost-benefit analysis (CBA), say, to evaluate a project that would change the carbon storage capacity of soils in a given region. Conducting the CBA, I have to discount the costs and benefits - but this means that I discount the SCC that is already the result of a CBA (as any IAM implies a CBA); moreover, it may well be that the social rate of discount chosen in my hypothetical project evaluation differs from the one underlying the SCC estimate I use (for whatever reasons). Especially the former seems to amount to a double-discounting of the climate-externality related to the carbon storage capacity of the soil. Is such 'double discounting' a valid approach from a theoretical point of view?
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This is an excellent question. Time discounting carbon by a Decision Maker (DM) does not result in the double-discounting of carbon. Furthermore, the DM is not engaging in a CBA (the DM is engaging in a cost or a benefit analysis, not in a cost and benefit analysis) in discounting the Social Cost of Carbon. The DM Is simply discounting the value of the damage of carbon. This yields a social-discounted carbon tax, or subsidy, depending on whether atmospheric carbon is being increased or drawndown by the project that you are working on; but the discount is only of the damage caused by carbon, or benefit of preventing such damage.
The issue is the time lag between the release/drawdown of the carbon and the actual damage that It does/prevents.* You are not double discounting because your CBA project is discounting the time period between today and the time that you pay for and the carbon and the carbon tax and presumably "release" the carbon or remove the carbon and receive the subsidy and are assumed to drawdown atmospheric carbon, but the carbon tax is discounting from the time that you pay the carbon tax/receive the subsidy until the damage/damage prevention from your "use" of the carbon has occurred (say in ten years later).**
So if your CBA involves removing carbon from the soil in ten years (t=10), then you discount the tax that you will pay at that time to its present value (in t=1), while the DM will have discounted the carbon you release in ten years from ten years after that from that future (t=10) time period, when the carbon you release actually does most of its damage. You are discounting t=1-10, while the DM is discounting 10-20, though from the DM's perspective your t=10 is t=1 and your t=20, the DM's t=10. There is no "double counting" because you are discounting t=1 through t=10, and the DM is discounting t=10 through t=20. (Though from the DM"s perspective, again, your t=10 is the DM's t=1 and so on.)
Any disparity between your and the DM's discount rate means that present and future agents (' lives) will be relatively affected differently then if your discount rate matched the DM's and differently still if the DM's matched yours. The difference lies only in the net effective discount rate produced by your time period until you buy/emit the carbon and the DM's time period from your time of emission until it damages the environment.
What the most effective rate is cuts to the primordial question in time discounting: what is the correct rate? As far as carbon release/release-prevention, the answer to that is zero, other things being equal. It is only if economic growth occurs and there is elasticity in marginal utility, there is an actual risk of the exogenous extinction of the Earth, or some other empirical factor that actually changes the value of damage to the environment caused by carbon release as a function of time.
Any of these real values must be either known or very accurately estimated; if any of them are not--if "imaginary" or subjective values are used to discount-values that do not effect the actual experience of future generations, then it is inefficient and untechnical to positively discount environmental damage because current generations are simply destroying future generations without compensation, while they "benefit" materially from the increase in (say) carbon emission.
As far as the discounting of your CBA, outside of the values that are not compensating for an effect on actual experience, their might be an ethical case for positive time discounting, but it would still be inefficient. The inefficiency in any "unreal," subjective discounting results from the welfare loss that occurs when distribution is based on the mismeasurement of welfare that discounting causes. At any given moment, all utility is fully enjoyed, but time-discounting measures its value as if it were less than it actually is: the result is generally inefficient distribution of resources across generations.
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Dear All,
I have a problem in growing Helicobacter pylori in solid media i.e. tryptic soy agar (TSA) and Columbia blood agar plate (CBA). HP growing good and are healthy in liquid media i.e. in tryptic soy broth(TSB). unfortunately, when I tried growing the bacterium in solid medium using Gas pouch in glass jar with 0.1% sodium boro-hydrate and DDW (in universal tube).
So I am interested in the simple and reliable method, how to obtain HP growth in solid agar media. Is it a good idea to use gas jar?
Thanks for all suggestions,
Abdullah
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It is well-known that agar-based media are used effectively for primary isolation of H. pylori. Brain heart infusion agar, brucella agar, and Columbia blood agar are the most commonly used. The later was reported to gives an excellent results. Inoculated agar plates are incubated at 35 to 37°C in a humid microaerobic atmosphere (4% O2, 5% CO2, 5% H2, and 8 6% N2). These conditions are obtained using either a gas jar and gas-generating system or a special incubator for such purpose. The presence of hydrogen enhances the growth significantly.
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Hi everyone,
I want to ask a (not so) quick question about ecosystem services economics, urban planning, sustainable water drainage and cost-benefit analysis.
Whenever comparing different scenarii of urban greening or urban planning, in a cost-benefit anaysis (CBA), opportunity costs have to be integrated to represent the whole array of costs associated with a plan. The definition by Buchanan (1992) is good enough here : "Opportunity cost is the evaluation placed on the most highly valued of the rejected alternatives or opportunities", which is to say, it is the value that is sacrificed in any choice in a decision making situation. This cost is usually valued as the highest benefits that could have been produced by a choice, but that was forgone by the actual choice.
Now, when the subjects of a CBA, that is, the scenarii, are firm or private indivdual investments, the notion of opportunity cost is pretty thorough : it is the net revenue from the best forgone investment. And that's it.
However when dealing with urban planning, as with many other real world economics, it becomes trickier. The opportunity cost of using urban space is almost exclusively represented in the literature with land or real estate prices. The underlying hypothesis there is that construction would always be the next best profitable option for urban land, and that land prices are its best reflection. Fair enough, although it may debatable, as not all the alternatives of land use for a given land have a clear net benefit flow, far from it. Who knows, perhaps, at times, the next most profitable option for public welfare would be represented by the net flow of ecosystem services generated by a natural conservation option ?..
Anyhow, what if we are valuating water drainage systems scenarios ? Small urban green bioswales alongside the roads, designed for managing sustainably rainwater and stormwater ? It does not really eats up property lands, but rather public space, streets and sidewalks. What about linear street parking spaces, if those are to be converted for creating urban parks and whatnot. Real estate prices would not be a fitting approximation for the lost foregone best benefit in these situations, it seems to me.
I have not found any alternatives in the literature for taking into account the opportunity costs of open or public space. Do you have any insights on this matter ? Any literature on geographic economics or urban economics modelling that deals differently with this ?
Many thanks for any contribution
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Very good question. The opportunity costs of using public space for greening depends on situations and countries.
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I need materials on the text instituting the CBA as well as its importance in the teaching/learning process. I want to come up with an academic paper comprising information on the text instituting the CBA as well as the importance of CBA in the teaching/learning process. The level of study here does not matter, but the information above. Thank you in advance for your help.
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Great discussion
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I would like to examine the level of TNF-alpha, IL-6, Il-1beta, Il-8 in the supernatant of human adipose tissue after various periods of storage in various preservative fluids. Is it necessary to prepare a sample before the detection? So far, I have been trying to harvest a supernatant and store it in -80 degrees after spinning it (from tissue contamination), or not. In both cases, the detection was placed at the lower threshold; everything shows that it should be much higher. I have used a Human Inflammatory Cytokine Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) - I Kit (RUO) Bioscience. What can I do to get some more distinct results?
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Intelligent transportation systems provide many advantages as part of our daily lives. One of the most common applications of these current and increasingly widespread systems in our cities is intelligent junction control. The scope of the intelligent junction control concept which includes different approaches and algorithms, is quite wide. It is known that it needs realistic and objective technical knowledge to guide decision makers correctly. In this sense, what do you think the definition of intelligent intersection should include? Is a high-cost intersection control system with a lot of equipment always necessary? Or are the lower cost solutions that enable multi-plan control by only increasing the number of control programs? What should be the threshold or the transition point for the preference? Is it sufficient to make only cost-benefit analysis? To what extent should social benefits be taken into account for feasibility analysis? Sharing your views on this issue can be beneficial to many researchers and interested parties and can contribute to the spread of sustainable transportation (traffic management) systems.
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I heard recently from an agency that they consider that signals operate effectively if they change light from green to yellow to red, in that consecutive order and without interruption. So, what exactly is a good control is like a "beauty in the eye of the beholder". So, an agency first needs to be comfortable with level of operations quality or misery that non-optimal control generates to participants in traffic stream. Then, an agency needs to define operational measures (or objective functions more formally) that they would like to improve. If there is more than one such measure then they should be able to judge how to weigh each criterion. At this point we probably already lost their interest and attention as this is usually an overwhelming task for them but if anyone survives this point then it makes sense to talk about level of ITS equipment, primarily for sensing purposes and then finally the quality of the control algorithm. So, what we in academia usually put at forefront of our research (control algorithms) folks in practice usually care less.
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Dear RG members
I am starting to teach CBA course for PhD students at my university. Could anyone recommend me what case study may be the best to show/teach to PhD students for CBA?
The case should be illustrative and implications should be easy to grasp to students, and it should be Scientific Paper or Report done by international organizations like WorldBank, ADB, or FAO etc.
Thank you for your support
Ganzorig Gonchigsumlaa
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Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects Economic appraisal tool for Cohesion Policy 2014-2020
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I am interested about application of LCA (Lifecycle Assessment) and cost benefits analyses to revise the environmental policies and associated taxes.
(https://www.advocata.org/commentary-archives/2018/9/23/the-cost-of-being-a-sri-lankan-woman). The content in this article may not 100% accurate, however, by experience I know the basics points mentioned here is true.
"The taxes on baby diapers and sanitary napkins are high as 71.2% in Sri Lanka (It is only 12% GST in India). According to SAARC (South Asian ...) Chamber Women Entrepreneurs Council, out of 5.2 million menstruating women, only 30% can afford sanitary napkins in Sri Lanka.
These taxes are not only affecting a women's cost of living but also has negative effects on girl's education and menstrual hygiene."
Hence, I wonder the following points;
A. LCA and cost benefit analyses and Environmental policy making (If you have some case studies please share).
B. How to dispose baby diapers and sanitary napkins? (Is controlled incineration the only solution?)
C. How developing countries manage the issue (if there is any case study).
D. Readers may add any other interesting information or questions.
Thanks.
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Sur le plan politique dans plusieurs pays comme le Mali ce type de déchet (serviettes hygiéniques) est classé comme déchets spéciaux donc potentiellement dangereux, d'une part à cause des liquides biologiques d'autre part à cause du plastique. Presque aucun Pays en Afrique de l'ouest n'a élaborer spécifiquement des texte pour pour sa gestion.
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We have a problem with the fcs files of CBA generated by the "Attune Nxt" cytometer, these files can not be detected by "FCAP" software because these files are in version 3.0.
We need a software that converts cytometry files fcs version 3.0 to 2.0. Anyone who can help me with the conversion of the files?
We could consider this a collaboration.
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Hi Sandra,
Did you sorted out the problem as I just came across with same situation
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I need to know the tangible values of thesis in higher education. How can I calculate the effectiveness or benefits of passing "thesis" in comparison to its costs?
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Thank you again Henry.
In my country (Iran) almost all students in higher education system and specially in my field (dentistry) need to write thesis before graduation.
Do you have any idea how I can document that writing thesis is worthwhile or vice versa?
Mentions subject because I see that just few students like doing thesis and most of them do it inevitably. The product (written thesis) also would not use properly and each year a lot of time and money spend on thesis writing without a tangible outcome.
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It is always come to my mind that how can I assess the pros and cons of thesis (dissertation) preparation in terms of monetary scale?
Would you please let me know about related literature in this regards?
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Thank you for your question. It depends a lot on what would you do after getting your degree. We cannot assume that all graduate will end getting the same outcomes, positions, or financial status from a particular thesis-based degree.
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As Miyawaki method is presently getting popularity in various afforestation programmes we also
wish to try it on some parts of barren hills of Udaipur (Rajasthan). But I have gone through some literature and I found some contradiction on significance of the method. Some scientist are saying it is good while others are telling it is not a option for preparing natural forest or it is not cost effective.
So it will be very good for mother Earth if intellectuals, scientist and forester come for discussing this topic and showing the importance of the method. It may be a very good method for combating climate change and restoring degraded areas in general.
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This paper provided by @Arvind Singh Sir may give some idea in this regard.
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Hello everyone, so I'm trying to create a least cost-benefit map and factors for least cost-benefit are very varied like slope, elevations, region vegetations and etc. I must say I'm very confused between these varied factors and I just want to make sure that I choose the correct and suitable factor in my map. although I want to create several maps of least cost-benefit but i want to ask you: what is the best factor for least cost-benefit for reaching a site to another in a region like southeast Iran?
if you are unfamiliar with the region and topography of southeast Iran, I must say that it's just like the most regions in Baluchistan of Pakistan with low hills in east of the region and high mountains in west. the vegetations of regions is also similar.
so if anyone could help me, i will be so grateful. thank you.
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Hi! If there is land-use continuity (what you need to be sure about.... ususally archaeology is recorded right in the modern villages/settlement spots.. rather due to built-up change and infrastructure then due to the fact that the patterns show 'realistic' archaeological land-use opportunities) you can integrate the NDVI in your friction surface by recalculating the value of the vegetation density:
produce your NDVI map with a remote sensing software (eg multispec, find the guidance for the channel recalculation attached. Download the multicpec software here: https://engineering.purdue.edu/~biehl/MultiSpec/
in your GIS, you can recalculate the values of your raster image to any range you like and finally create no-movement corridors (high values) and potential movement corridors (low values). I am not sure that high vegetation areas would enable movement though...
adding all your raster values to one final raster would result in a friction surface.
in general, you might want to have a look at these books for technical guidance (C/L) and a methodical overview (P):
Conolly/Lake:
Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology (Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology)
Parcak:
Satellite Remote Sensing for Archaeology
Good luck
Michael
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While there are increasing support for floating solar panels over water bodies, research on floating photovoltaic power plant assessments in the field of sustainable energy technologies and assessments are studying the negative and positive side effects, including environmental and techno-economic impacts of floating solar panel projects?
The First Global Floating Solar Conference recently stated that: floatovoltaics or floating PV (FPV) preserves agricultural farmland as it reduces the land footprint for ground-mounted solar projects, while the floating solar economic surface transformation (EST) can be defined as the $ income generated from previously unused water surface now tranformed by floating solar to generate income from power and other sources such as agronomic income from saved agricultural land (Prinsloo, 2021).
What are positive impacts of putting floating solar panels over a water body like the ocean or irrigation dams, rivers, canals (including scientific references) ?
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Theoratically, it looks very fascinating to use Floating Solar Panels in a water body like an ocean, irrigation canal, dam, river or a lake etc. but there are many practical difficulties of putting them in any of the above mentioned water bodies. If it is necessary to use them in a water body due to the reasons mentioned by my fellow scientists, then I recommend that they may be installed near the coast of the ocean or banks of the rivers/ canals for their safety and design a waterway to cool them down. Thanks
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HI,
Looking for any tips to measure phospho STAT3 in the proteins extracted from Trizol.
I have very limited sample size ( human synovial tissue biopsy) and priority is to mesure gene expression. However I would lkie to also to measure pSTAT3. MAy protocols available online to extract proteins from Trizol and also litereture shows that phospho proteins can be mesured by WB. Unfortunatelly for my sampoe size the WB is not senitive nough and I am looking into using ELISA or CBA assay.
I will be using Aceton precipitation of protein from Trizol ( after RNA and DNA extractions) following the protocol of
Direct-zol DNA/RNA Miniprep kit and I was wondering what I could use to resuspend the pellet?
Will the pellet resuspend in the diluition buffer supplied in the ELISA kit? Many people on Reseachgate etc.. complained that pellets don't resuspend well and I am aware that not all buffers will be suitable for ELISA ( some may block abs binding).
Can anyone comment/recommend a potential way of preparing the proteins for phospho ELISA?
Thank you Agata
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For samples that already in TRIzol the most comprehensive resource I have found is this: (https://www.interchim.fr/ft/D/DU1295.pdf ) . However, I have found that there are 3 key points.
#1 (& most important) DO NOT LET THE PROTEIN PELLET DRY OUT. Aspirate the supernatant and then IMMEDIATELY resuspend in your solubilization buffer (even if there is still some supernatant left). I have found that 2x Laemmli Loading Buffer with beta-mercaptoethanol works superbly for resuspending TRIzol protein pellets for Westerns.
#2 Ensure your sample is appropriately diluted in TRIzol, if you use too little TRIzol or try to precipitate large amounts of protein you will end up with a rubbery pellet that is impossible to resuspend.
#3 Use the DNA Back extraction (pg 18) otherwise I have lost protein using the "classic DNA isolation protocol".
Note 1 : Tip #1 is important in any type of protein precipitation I have ever done, acetone, TRIzol, etc.
Note 2: Resuspension still requires some effort, usually I vortex samples well, let them boil at 95 C for 10-15 min, vortex well again, then if I can still see something you can use a probe sonicator to get the last bit.
Note 3: If you need protein concentrations the Qubit assay works even with loading buffer and beta mercaptoethanol. If you don't have a Qubit, you can make a 2x loading buffer without bromophenol blue or mercaptoethanol for resuspension, measure concentration then add in the bromophenol blue or mercaptoethanol at the end.
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Recently I've been looking T CD4 subset and the CBA kit of BD Th1/Th2/Th17 hasn't been enough for my needs, I want to investigante another subsets such as Th9/Thf. Biolegends has this similar beads assay to evaluate cytokine with more cytokine such as IL-9 and IL-21, but I don't have experience with this kit and my research colleges never used this kit. Does anyone has a experience with this kit? Does it perform well with ex vivo splenocyte supernatant?
Thanks
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Thank you very much Julie Joseph
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Disaster Risk Recovery/ Mitigation efforts are one of the most spent sectors worldwide as large number of lives and infrastructures are ravaged worldwide by recurring hazards. Since recovery efforts are blended with multitude of factors including enthusiasm, awareness, dedications and helping hands(expertise, funds and endorsement of policies) it is not easy to interpret in terms of economy. Hence, what are the practices/methodologies worldwide to interpret D.R.R efforts in terms of cost benefit analysis?
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Iswar Mani Adhikari : Yes sir. As it is directly related with humanitarian aspects, cost effective issues may sometime misinterpret the notions as well as viability/feasibility concepts. However, if we can link it with pre disaster preparedness then it may be useful.
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Where can I find reliable and open data about cost-benefits and/or life cycle assessment (LCA) of municipal solid waste collection-treatment-disposal processes?
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Dear Mahmut,
There is a recent publication with the case study in Australia.
I hope you find it useful.
Warmest regards,
Rizal
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I am currently working on a project named CELL BASED ASSAY.
I need some insights on application of CBA in various fields on biotech pharma, basic research and others, instruments employed, some constrains, drivers, etc in the field.
i have herewith attached a questionnaire regarding the same.
It would of great help for me if u can give some insights on the same.
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Hope attached article will help you. You can find lots literature regarding your interest!
Good Luck!
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Self regulation can reduce operation as cost ?
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Dear Abdul Rahman Mahmud,
Are you refering to in-house rules and regulations as " Self Regulation"?
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If we have to calculate annual imputed cost of a fixed capital like that of a building where the SME unit is functional. What are the different ways to do so?
i.e. we have to calculate annual value of a fixed capital or annual fixed cost.
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1. SUBSTITUTE, how much does it an equivalent cost if we obtain a substitute?
2. REPLADEMENT cost is a second way. If this building is destroyed, how much will itcost to get a replacement?
3. FAIR MARKET VALUE is the third way. Under the same condition and age, what is the fair mzrket value of this builting?
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I want to do a cost-benefit analysis for the removal of heavy metals by biosorption . Can someone give me some basic materials? Thank you very much!
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Cost benefit Analysis can be explained as a procedure for estimating all cost involved and possible profits to be derived from a business opportunity . There 6 steps: * Understand the cost of status quo. You need this to measure the relative merit of an investment against the do nothing option.
* identify cost
*identify benefits
*determine the cost savings
*create a timeline for expected costs and revenue
*evaluate non - quantifiable benefits and costs
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Friends and seniors:
We are planning to conduct a community based Controlled Before & After (CBA) study and our interventions will include adolescents [both left behind (e.g., adolescents whose parents have migrated overeseas] and non-left behind] of our study areas. However, we really like to focus our outcomes on left behind adolescents so the sample size calculation should consider this.
1. Power : 80%; Sig Level (2 tailed): 0.05; effect size (estimated): 0.3 (30%) and SD of the outcome (mental health related tool): not known yet as there are not any interventions among left behind adolescents. In this case, shall we assume ± 3 SD (thumb rule)?
2. What would be the sample size for intervention and control area?
looking forward your reply.
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it depends on the anlaysis you have planned. Can you describe it? It also depends on the metric of the effect size you have reported. So .3 if it is r is very different from .3 if it is eta-squared
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Barind area ​of Bangladesh ​is a water ​crisis area. ​The problems ​acute day by ​day. Integrated ​Water Resource ​Management (​IWRM) project ​has been ​undertaken. We ​are working as ​follow the ​guideline of ​GWP and trying ​to get solution ​implementing ​appropriate ​context ​specific model. ​
"Boro rice" ​is most water ​consuming rice. ​We are ​motivating ​farmer to shift ​that crops with ​less water ​consuming ​crops  e.g:​ maize, wheat, ​tomato etc. ​Farmers also ​adopted it.
Beside the ​many intervention ​we also ​installed water ​efficient ​technology like ​AWD, drip ​irrigation etc. ​
We calculated ​that, replacing ​boro cultivation ​in 1 hectare of ​land with wheat,​ tomato, and ​fruits saves ​annually 1.6 ​million cubic ​metre of ​equivalent to ​100’000 ​people’s ​annual domestic ​water need. ​
Interventions ​in agriculture ​have a much ​higher effect ​compared to the ​interventions ​above at HH ​level or the ​MAR system ​where there we ​talk about ​thousands of m3,​ while the ​agriculture ​related ​interventions ​we talk about ​millions of m3. ​
A question is ​that, Is MAR ​needed for ​establishing ​true IWRM? How ​are the impact? ​Though a little ​contribution, ​why we  ​invest a big ​budget to MAR ​compared to ​cost benefit ​analysis of ​agricultural ​intervention? ​
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IWRM is the way, and we need to have some patience. The shift will be gradual & the benefits will show up over time.
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In two programs A and B run by state government : Program A health care cost INR 2500000,patient and family cost INR 150000, cost in other sectors INR 500000; Program B health care cost INR 1500000,patient and family cost INR 75000, cost in other sectors INR 300000. Following net gains were achieved: Health 400 years of life gained, utility 290 QALYs gained, Willingness to pay INR 100000000, Health care saving 2500000, Saving to patients and families 100000, saving to other sectors 200000? calculate incremental cost effectiveness ratio using health benefit as measure of outcome? calculate incremental cost effectiveness ratio for cost utility analysis? calculate values of net benefit for cost benefit analysis?
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To claculate ICER using CUA seems accuarete. Rae you doing all three calculations?
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I would like to conduct a cost-benefit-analysis of a worksite health promotion intervention.
Further questions: Which questionnaires are often associated with the JD-R Model?
- I first thought of the SALSA questionnaire...
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There is a growing body of evidence that supports effects of job demands/resources on burnout and work engagement. Burnout and work engagement, in turn, have been shown to relate to job performance.
I believe the following papers provide valuable insights into the nature of relationships under consideration:
Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., Verbeke, W., 2004, Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance, Human Resource Management, 43(1), p. 83-104.
Bakker, A.B., Van Emmerik, H., Van Riet, P., 2009, How job demands, resources, and burnout predict objective performance: A constructive replication, Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 21(3), p. 309-324.
Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., 2018, Multiple levels in job demands-resources theory: Implications for employee well-being and performance. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers.
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I am looking for a thorough analysis/ evidence on use of combined harvesters for rice versus manual harvesting methods considering the initial investment cost of the equipment for smallholder farmers.
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Thanks a lot for those links. Very helpful.
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I'm doing Energy Audit study for a distribution utility, and there are two studies one for energy efficiency improvement and the second focuses on the economic analysis, I have searched and found that mainly the energy audit is done for building or any energy dependent place, but for an electric distribution substation, the economic study is not clear for me, if anyone can help understand it briefly or if there are articles supporting the study, please do share them.
Thanks,
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Hi all, I searched for Cost and Benefit Analysis of Exploiting minerals in some place in the whole world, but I got nothing. Also, I did not see any publication about applying CBA method for extractive industry. It seems like there is no publication about this topic?
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I am looking into literature that explains which incentives a country has to introduce policy assessment tools for legislation enacted by Congress or the Parliament. For example, there is a vast literature on government accountability that explains why governments would adopt these tools on secondary regulation (oversight, address delegation problems, etc.). However, for the case of primary legislation it is not as clear to me what justifies it from a Law and Economics or Political Economy perspective, or even just legal. 
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There are many different theories/explanations that can be used to identify variables that might affect legislation. As Thomas Dillon, for example, suggests above you could use public choice theory, but that's not the only option.
The variables selected may also be selected bases on the kind of law/policy being investigated.  For example, if you were examining environmental policy/legislation, then you would want to make sure that you had variables representing economic, social and political factors that could affect the creation of those kinds of policies. 
So, what kinds of policies are you studying? All kinds? Specific kinds? 
Also, you suggest your sample is across countries.  That could affect the kinds of variables you choose because there might only be certain kinds of information available related to your law/policy issue that can be collected in different nations.
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I wish to know how economical is to use the synthetic amino acid like L-methionine DL-methionine, L-lysine, and other synthetic amino acid wich is now  commonly used to formulate the fish feed?
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Dear Amit. it is my personal experience, the synthetic amino acids are quite costlier than the commercial amino acids. If you know someone in the feed company please ask them price details. 
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It is claimed that investment in Social Accounting will improve economic benefit, What is the best way of measuring this benefits.
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You need to write a Social Balance Sheet as SWOT matrix. In this way you have the "Social Income" as SO, the "Long-Term Debt" as ST, the "Short-Term Debt" as WO, and the "Overload" as WT. Therefore you have 4 states in which you can find your situation. Then you can achieve linear/curve of the social accounting by regression method through Y=alpha+beta.X in which the Y is ST and the X is the WO and relevant linear/curve is SO/WT. To analyze social accounting you have Alpha and Beta in which you can find relevant "Width of the source" and "Tilt". It is obvious that "Positive Width"+"Positive Tilt" means positive income in social accounting while "Negative Width"+"Negative Tilt" means negative overload. This method is one of my experiences over many years. I hope you understand it very well indeed. 
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I am just wondering if there is any research about AMS-circuits performances to meet the requirements of an energy harvesting-sensor requirement. What are the investigated performances and to meet which goal or to staisfy which constraint?
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IMEC made first true energy-harvesting industrial device (tire pressure sensor) back in 2012. 
You can also see my paper:
The Availability and Statistical Properties of Ambient Light for Energy-Harvesting for Wearable Sensor Nodes
Also, the same research (not published) yielded estimation of 80 uW/kg harvestable energy of wearable sensor from vibration. 
Basicaly, for sensor node of reasonable size, average power consumption must be  20-200 uW.  In particular, SOI CMOS is the most suitable for AMS microchips.
For ADC, dominant architecture for energy-harvesting is charge-reuse ADCs, especially SAR architecture is popular. Current-based ADCs has simply too high power consumption
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I am looking for estimates in the Indian context on the cascading economic benefits of 1 unit of electricity. To be more specific, I want to answer the question 1 unit of electricity finally results in 'x' units of economic benefits in monetary terms to the society through different activities such as industry, irrigation, etc, etc.
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Please refer to the project "Economic Impacts of The Indian Point Energy Center"
done by Nuclear Energy Institute
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Guide to Cost Benefit analysis of a retrofitted gas turbine engine.
Need help on how to develop a cost benefit model of a retrofitted gas turbine. The LP compressor and turbine stages were modified and an additional turbine added. How do I go about this
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You can use @RISK software or Monte Carlo simulation.
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Dear Experts
I have to do cost benefit analysis in micro irrigation in Himalaya so can you suggest me any past study related to this.
Which common methodology do we have to adopt for rural area of mountains?
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This is an interesting area ...find below some useful PDFs relating the issue...
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Namibia is one of the countries in sub-Sahara Africa with high HIV/AIDS prevalance, HIV/AIDS consumes most of the health expenditure which is currently mainly funded by donors, and the donors are withdrawing for the government to take full financing. I am thinking of an intervention on the youths in schools, if effective to be extended to communities. The intervention is continuous screening and testing of HIV in youths, by knowing their status can empower them to take full responsibility on protection against HIV and also those diagnosed can be supported and properly managed early. A main limitation to this can be fear of stigmatization but yet creating awareness with this intervention can also help fight stigma in HIV.
i would like your ideas in how i can do a cost analysis for this intervention and its feasibility as a cost-effective study/intervention.
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The first thing you must do (if you haven't done so already) is find a recent systematic review of of the efficacy of HIV testing and counseling (HTC)  in preventing HIV and STIs in youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Ideally, the review should also assess evidence quality. If there is no quite recent review, you may need to conduct your own. After you know the relative risk of incident infection in youth receiving HTC, compared to those who don't, you will have a basis for your cost-effectiveness analysis. Without knowing this, you cannot do a cost-effectiveness analysis.
Our review (conducted in 2011 to inform WHO's 2013 adolescent HTC guidelines) found mostly very low quality, very indirect evidence that such interventions are efficacious. However, several years have passed and new, more directly-applicable research may have been done since that time.
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Is there any expert in cost-benefit analysis of bioprocesses in Tunisia?, or anyone that has worked with SuperPro Designer software? Needing help
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Good day!
I plan on conducting, as above, a cost-benefit analysis of a proposed no-fee irrigation water policy. I imagine doing this as a case study on one irrigation system, but is it doable? What kind of data is required?
PS. I am an undergraduate researcher working on my thesis. :)
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Dear Fernando, I think that advises of both Jim & Klemens are useful. What I can add? I would start from modelling production function. Apart from traditional capital and labor, I would include land there, and also water. You might find economic norms for water use by different cultures, and what will happen with crop when water is undersupplied. What will irrigation add to the crop? Compare productivity without and with irrigation. Note that a farmer may choose a culture depending on water supply. How to calculate costs - is a pure accounting problem, when you use a fixed plan. But when the pattern of your channels is flexible, this is an optimization problem. Looks rather complex, if all factors are considered, but you can simplify. You can also have a look at my paper: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228549496_Water_Spatial_Network_Pricing_45th_Congress_of_the_European_Regional_Science_Association
Regarding free water supply, it is controversial. There might be water overuse. On the other hand, you eliminate a natural monopolist. I would suggest state regulated firm that supplies water exactly at its cost level.
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Dear all,
An increasing number of listed firms are using XBRL in the reporting process.Would this complicate the audit approaches and audit implications?
Also, in the auditees' perspectives, what is the costs-benefits of using XBRL? Please share your views, experiences and thoughts, thanks
Background:
Since 2004, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) expects firms to use eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) to file their reports. This helps tag a firm’s financial information using a computer readable and searchable engine. Investors are demanding assurance on the tagging process but the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) has yet to issue a guidance on attesting the engagements regarding XBRL financial information furnished under the SEC’s current voluntary filer program, which relies on the auditor agreeing a paper version of the XBRL-related documents to the information in the official EDGAR filing. This approach is deemed adequate for the current paper-oriented reporting paradigm but once the filing in XBRL becomes mandatory, this will affect the way financial and non-financial data are reported, used and attested. The current audit focus on reconciling only the XBRL output with the paper submissions may not completely address this paradigm shift and may add costs to the rising audit costs and delays of issuing audit opinions.
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Dear all,
If you or your professional contacts are using XBRL for audit/assurance purposes, please share the cost-benefits, thanks
Gin
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One of the crucial aspects related to infrastructure regulation is, which and how projects are socially relevant? or how those projects must be ranked under society interest?. Indeed, for decades, the most interesting tool used is the cost benefits analysis, or the economic socio-economics studies on those, incorporating externalities and shadow prices for some social benefits or costs. However, it is generally assumed that the baseline of those analysis is a pure competitive and well known equilibrium price as a point of departure. Ethics on assumptions and not well defined alternatives for example are not always defined as explicit contents on CB analysis reports and evaluation practices. 
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I am going to look for it. I hope so. 
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Hi all, 
All decisions taken by rulers have political consequences  which has a cost For instance going to war or joining an alliance for war ( Pakistan's decision to join the global war on terror in 2001) was a political decision. How can we measure its, Political cost and benefits? In short what can be operational definition of Political -Benefit Analysis.
For the purpose of analysis of this decision to join the war on terror by Pakistan ,Technically this decision can  be called Political Cost-Benefit Analysis? 
Looking forward to seek valuable input of you great scholars here !
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I would not separate political cost and benefit from economic, these 2 are interrelated. The political cost (say, losing elections in a democracy or having a coup in an authoritarian state) comes hand-in-hand with economic cost - to the ruling elites, but also to the nation at large. Generally speaking, political cost is about losing power or weakening your power position, and political benefit is about increasing or solidifying power.  However, wrong political decisions typically result in large economic costs for the country: cf. Ukraine's decision to turn its back on Russia.
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The benefits may be tangible or intangible. How to quantify them while implementing cost-benefit analysis?
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Firstly do you need to quantify accurately the intangible benefits or could you just describe them in a qualitative terms. i.e. the business case is clearly made and justifiable based on tangible benefits alone.
If the case is less clear then consider why the benefits are considered intangible. Is it because they cant be measured or that the data to measure them does not exist or is not in the right format or granularity. If it is the later then consider implementing a process to make the intangible - tangible (resources and time allowing).
If it is the former then you need to find another way of quantifying the qualitative. I have used a number of methods in the past, usually a combination of collection, analysis and interpretation tools or methods.
these might include AHP, Statistical, scenario and/or comparative analysis, elimination and reduction processes etc. In my thesis available on RG, i have a chapter on the use of AHP and statistical analysis as well as multi criteria decision making which may be useful.
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I am looking for a model which allows a cost-benefit analysis for eGovernment portals in order to identify cost drivers as well as to derive measures to optimize its benefits. The model should be pragmatic enough in order to be used in a real world context. Thanks a lot. 
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I'm afraid I can't help save to say that most 'cost benefit' analyses here in the UK, do results in saved costs to the government, but almost invariably do not result in any consumer or customer benefits. The cost reductions results in organizational benefits. However, the whole process tends to be presented as being of benefit to customers and consumers, and the end result is usually disbelief and incredulity.
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i wanted to carry out a cost analysis may be a cost-benefit analysis of a pilot constructed wetlands. Can anyone suggest me as to how may i approach for the analysis? 
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A natural wetland is a sourced of numerous environmental benefits.  You would need to measure the ability of the constructed wetland to provide these services and determine a dollar value for each of hate services against the dollar value of the cost of creating the wetland.  And, this is not a static analysis as the wetland would have increasing benefits as the ecosystem of the wetland forms over time.
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  1. Can anyone help me out to resolving the issue of calculating shadow wage rate for labor. Is govt announced this rate for each year region wise. can we take this value direct from the government records. or there i a methodology for calculating the shadow wage rates while determining the opportunity cost of labor. 
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Dear Promila Sheoran,
I have attached an article to solve your problem, please read carfully and catch the ideas from this article then you are right
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Nano-fertilizers, as published in literature, enhance uptake efficiency of the component nutrient, eg works reported in case of nano-zinc, but from cost-benefit analysis do not look quite acceptable.
Nano fertilizers prove effective under foliar nutrition.
Can the research gate colleagues having experience on this aspect provide insight on this imp subject?
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 thanks Mr Gobinath, since nano-particles are used in several applications, so when used as fertilizer through foliar/soil we may term as nano-fertilizer although products are not yet in the trial stage in several public/corporate institutions.
happy to note that you are conducting some trials on Zn and Fe through foliar/soil application, foliar seems to be more economical, but not attractive from cost-benefit, in soil application we have to apply a greater amount involving even more costs.
some work already done in other parts of the globe, and my interest of raising this issue was to initiate the discussion on this imp aspect
regards 
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Universities UK (UUK), the representative body of executive heads (vice-chancellors & principals) of UK universities, is currently seeking views on the methodology it uses for estimating the economic impact of UK universities, with an aim to expand the range of impact this covers, and explore how this can be made to reflect the latest methodological advancements.
UUK’s latest economic impact report (published in April 2014) is attached, or available here: http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/highereducation/Documents/2014/TheImpactOfUniversitiesOnTheUkEconomy.pdf   
We’ve recently issued a call for evidence (available at the link below) which is open for submissions by all interested parties. The deadline for contributing will be extended from 18 December 2015 to 15 January 2016. We look forward to hearing your views.
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Here are three articles that will definitely help you...
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I am doing a literature review in this topic and collecting nice papers as the seed pool. Thank you.
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Using the notion of network externalities in economics to approach the economics of software maintenance:
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as  carbon  targets indicate for developed countries there needs to be applied a common retrofit solution on a national scale in order to cut down emissions of greenhouse gases. so how construction firms can prescribe ecoefficiency as a rule to massive retrofits in domestic market? is a cost benefit analysis fully capable to incept transition or is there something else more appropriate?
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in my opinion massive retrofit addressed from subsidy reform can motivate stakeholders to integrate low carbon measures in their homes. efficiency driven from ecology and economy can mean applying energy efficient solutions like domestic lighting (led) and natural light in buildings and from an economic perspective it should  address cost efficiency like selection of best available technology in terms of market choices and renewable resources uptake. we must highlight that conventional markets have more or less failed  due to our choices are not equipped mostly  with operational apologies for  the common good and that behavior  destroys the lithosphere. we don't want to lose the resiliency of our planet as we do not have another to accommodate so the best use of solar energy and rest renewable resources has to confront issues of rapid population  growth  like landscape domestication  and immigration status  rather than thinking how to extract oil and gas from underground storage. the last is still explored but is for my mind a  "bad necessity"
this is my  opinion nothing more
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Related to a research project, I would like to use a regional econometric input-output (EC+IO) model in order to value economic impacts coming from the implementation of offshore wind project in Brittany (Brittany is a French region). A standard input-output model values only the gross effects (in production and employment for instance), but not the net effect explained by the reduction in household consumption coming from the increase in taxation required to finance the offshore wind project. A regional EC+IO model enables to overcome this limit inherent to the standard input-output model.
I know that there are different types of EC+IO models (see for instance the article of Rey 1998 published in International Regional Science Review). But, there may be a book explaining and summarizing the different techniques required to implement a EC+IO model (for instance econometric techniques specific for regional models, …).
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Hello dear please find the "Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, vol. 5A, Volume 5A" as PDF for free from the link below:
all the best
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I want to compare the two technologies to see which one is more sustainable. 
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A 1MW wind turbine will have a different power output as a 1MW PV array.  A direct comparison of environmental impact of the two therefore does not give much useful information.  It would make more sense to compare the environmental impact per kWh produced of typically sized units.  There is already quite some literature about the subject that can be easily found using Google Scholar.  I would recommend to look into this literature to see how it is done.
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I have read several recent papers concerning ecological restoration and remediation of polluted areas but surprisingly it is often used a BCA in the average project. I understand that meaningful costs and benefits are mandatory to carry out ecological restoration or polluted areas remediation but there are problems linked to the purely economic conception of BCA methodology -such as the difficulty to evaluate social benefits or costs. In fact, I consider that it would be more convenient to use different methodologies –like SWOT analysis plus BCA - to make decisions and plan projects.
So, the points of this post are:
1) Do you believe that only BCA should be applied? What are the advantages of using only this methodology?
2) Do you think SWOT analysis along with BCA should be the methodology considered? What advantages are associated?
3) Is there another available methodological approach? Should there be a mix of methodologies to cope with the planning and maintenance issues of ecological restoration?
Thanks in advance.
Best regards,
Jesús Díaz
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In my humble opinion:
1) The BCA will give a quantitative benchmark whether the project is go or no go. But in the project concerning ecological aspect, the community participation is an essential factor for its success. This factor is quite difficult to include in the analysis.
2 & 3) The debate between quantitative and qualitative method is always a big issue and it is never ending debate. They have different approach. However, nowadays researchers and scientist encourage multidisciplinary approach to solve the problem, I think a good methodology will develop soon.
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Multi-objective optimization can be used in sewer system rehabilitation. Many particular aspects may be modeled and optimized, like rehabilitation costs, reduction of costs of transport and treatment (reduction of Infiltration/Inflow rates), useful life of the components, rehabilitation techniques options, and structural condition of existing/rehabilitated sewer pipes, between others. What are the current possible approaches, the possible objective functions, and the predictable development in this area a short term?
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Dear @Antonio, multi-objective optimization is used in sewer system rehabilitation. Different algorithms were applied. I am aware of one model developed by Serbian researcher Dragan Savic and his colleagues.  Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm was applied. It is very good conference paper. I have attached a copy of.
The objective function in the optimisation model is the cost minimisation, number of defects...
Stochastic Multiobjective Optimization Models can also be applied...!
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I am currently studying the LHC and other experimental facilities in physics, including pure science or applied, e.g.  for cancer therapy, and testing a social cost-benefit analysis model taylored to infrastructures providing research  services. I am interested to know if other have seen similar work around. Our methodological paper is: Massimo FLORIO & Emanuela SIRTORI, 2014. "The Evaluation of Research Infrastructures: a Cost-Benefit Analysis Framework," Departmental Working Papers 2014-10, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano.
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Thank you, Massimo. I had a quick look at your paper, which provides a lot of valuable and detailed information and I think I understand the basic approach you take to modelling. I assume the social discount rate chosen would, as usual, have a big impact on whether the NPV for a specific project comes out positive or not. In practical terms, in the projects that I have been involved with, we typically needed to demonstrate at least a potential size of benefit of new knowledge by giving examples of areas of application and working out some of the values that may have previously been generated by other projects with 'comparable' types of impacts (a lot of this depends on detailed discussion with the experts / scientists, and 'clever' extrapolation, which is where the consultants typically come in!). So the idea of the option value taken in these projects I was involved with is made a bit more concrete, and Monte Carlo type simulations are added almost as a sensitivity analysis. I am not an academic so I am sorry I can't give more detailed feedback, but I will forward your paper to my former colleague. Regards, Raoul
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I am trying to find out potential market size for 2 products I am developing and constructing several business model scenarios. I do not know if I should use disease prevalence, health care expenditures, number of cases performed, trends bot away from the private practice model as well as moving procedures away from the hospital setting.
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Hello,
Have you read the Transparency Market Research Report, "Digital Radiology Market - Global Industry Size, Market Share, Trends, Analysis and Forecast, 2012 - 2018"? It indicates that the global radiology systems market is estimated at $9.7 billion in 2012 and expected to reach $13.3 billion by 2018, at a compound annual growth rate of 5.4 percent from 2012 to 2018.
Kind regards,
Monica
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I am working on a cost effectiveness analysis linking with survival of patients with cancer. The survival part of the analysis is necessary to estimate the "number of life-years gained". To find this quantity I need to calculate the area under the survival curve. In this specific context of long term survival of cancer patient, i need to choose the parametric function of Gompertz which fit the survival in the best way. I'm working on stata software and I would to know if anyone has already done a Gompertz model in STATA, and how to calculate the area under the curve which is the integration of the Gompertz function. Thank you so much for you suggestions.
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A major difference between KM and Gompertz plus other such models is that KM deals with historical or current data while the others mentioned above also extrapolate. The latter can be interesting but are also more risky since you do not know a priori that the existing data trend will continue. So it all depends on the purpose of your exercise, do you want to present existing data or do you want to present educated guesses/guestimates?
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Has anyone completed, or know of a good source to locate, a Medicare (CMS) payment-based cost comparison analysis that was written as part of a grant proposal? Thanks
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Of course it depends a bit on what comparison you want to make. 
Mu would suggest that you look around on e.g. The RAND Corp web site (rand.org) and find something that resembles what you want and contact the author. 
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I want to know if any methods exists in some countries by which they monitor Non Governmental Organisations such as listing them in terms of which NGO had better impacts like the Stock Exchange does in Financial terms.
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Yes, Impacts of NGOs can be measured by
1. Compare the changes taken place due to intervention with Baseline, if it is community based intervention.
2. NGOs inter -organizational relationship with other Government or NGOs
3. Physical infrastructure facilities developed in operation area vs before their work and after the situation in the areas
4. Sector-wise Stakeholders Organized by NGO
Likewise we can have a framework.
Best are - Before-After comparison; inter-organizational partnership of NGO
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 I am currently involved in a cost utlity analysis of anti-epileptic drugs in Indian setting. What are the CE thresholds that I need to consider if I am calculating cost per QALY gained for new drugs compared to current alternative?
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The CE threshold should be the same for any drug or health products, and not specific to  a particular drug. Some countries have adopted a threshold such as United Kingdom (see the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)). Their threshold is between £20,000 and  £30,000 per QALY. Some countries, such as France, have not adopted a threshold, but studies consider that intervention with a CE ratio higher than 50,000 euros, is not very cost-effective.
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What type of preventive policy might be more useful to tackle the problem of anti-corruption in the short run?
In the long run?
In which cases the cost-benefit analysis would not be sufficient to justify these policies?
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Corruption has three elements: (1) discretionary power of a government officer over a decision  (2) economic rents associated with the corrupt act and (3) the likelihood that the corrupt act will remain undetected and/or unpunished. It is often  very difficult, if not impossible, to remove the discretionary power. Hence, societies which wish reduce corruption may focus on (2) and (3) above. A vast body of  empirical literature on corruption suggests that  strengthening the political institutions (e.g., independent and effective judiciary, freedom of press, strong anti-corruption legislation) is the most effective way of fighting corruption. In the short  run and at the organisational level, strong monitoring and honesty of corporate leadership are important in controlling corruption.
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Some success has been achieved in recent years in establishing the clinical utility of the pharmacogenetic testing though it remains questionable whether it is cost- effective or not.
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Fagerness, J., Fonseca, E., Hess, G. P., Scott, R., Gardner, K. R., Koffler, M., . . . Lombard, J. (2014). Pharmacogenetic-guided psychiatric intervention associated with increased adherence and cost savings. American Journal of Managed Care, 20(5), e146-156.
This is a recent article published that notes a cost savings of 462$ over a 4 month period/ patient. More studies are coming out regarding cost effectiveness it seems...
This is important information in reimbursement for testing!
Julie
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Is there any report comparing all process of biomass conversion and their commercial implementation for cost analysis ?
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It is called Visbreaking. As a result, initial fluid is separated into lower viscosity liquid and sludge. Sludge causes problems in pipe-lining of hydrocarbons. 
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As we have seen, nowadays BIM technology is wildly used in the AEC industry. There are numbers of papers talking about how to apply BIM in cost-benefit analysis, energy simulation, sustainability evaluation, life cycle assessment and so on.
Most of these processes require manual data input to the model while others might use kind of sensor to generate data.
Therefore, I wonder how accurate of the current data input methods for BIM simulation or analysis, and how to make sure the results are turn out to be reliable?
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Like any interaction with Humans....what comes out is only as accurate as the data/info put in.  Each  Analysis program has it's strengths and weakness, again depending on Human interaction.  Regardless, there WILL ALWAYS be the need to  Manually verify, or at the very least, the ability to Manually, independently verify the results...
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Hello,
I am currently devising a cost-benefit analysis report for my dissertation and need to estimate the amount of lives that will be saved through mitigation work in school safety programmes in Nepal. The mitigation work includes: education/awareness, non-structural safety, retrofitting and new school buildings.
If anyone has any advice or knows of any papers that may be of use to me it would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you for your time,
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The following is the only paper I know of that quantitatively estimated the number of lives saved by mitigation.
Wyss, M., & Wu, Z. L. (2014). How Many Lives Were Saved by the Evacuation Before the M7.3 Haicheng Earthquake of 1975? Seismological Research Letters, 85(1), 126-129. doi: 10.1785/02201 30089
I have proposed to calculate the number of lives saved by retrofitting by first calculating the fatalities in a realistic scenario earthquake with the old building fragility and then with the new fragility to estimate the difference. But we have not been funded.
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Am looking for any suggestion on this topics wich concern of use CBA for valuation of the commercial potential of technology or any othe rmethods what you suggest to use. Thank you!
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The article "Using DEMATEL Method to Analyze the Causal
Relations on Technological Innovation Capability
Evaluation Factors in Thai Technology-Based Firms" by 
Detcharat Sumrit a, and Pongpun Anuntavoranich may be useful for your purpose. Please check the link below:
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I want to find a formula for calculating the NPV of the string of past values in a situations where the interest rates are changing annually rather than the constant interest rates.
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Dear Pezhman
Some clarification is needed. NPV of past values - must amount to a Future Value, FV, as seen from the beginning of the past string you consider.
It  is correct as Miguel says, that usually NPVs use a single (the appropriate risk adjusted e.g.) interest rate (discount rate) for the cash flow of a given project. However, we do in fact sometimes see, recommend and use different interest rates for different periods.
In some countries it is recommended by Government's economic offices that Social CBAs on long-term environmental projects are conducted with time varying interest rates, e.g. in Denmark the interest rate for the first 35 years is 5 %, then 4 % until year 70 and 3 % for any impacts further out than 70 years. Similar step schemes are found in UK and France.
Note that this is interpreted as and means that a payment arising in year 50 must be discounted by 4 % all the way back to year 35 (i.e. divided by 1.04^(50-35)) and then discounted with 5% for the last 35 years. You can see that it is straightforward to translate this to your case:
As you are essentially calculating a Future Value at time T_F = 0 (today) of a past cash flow stream of length T_Past with an annually, varying interest rate r_t and annual (perhaps also time varying) cashflow C_t, you can set it up like this (I hope it is written correctly as this is a bit odd for equations):
FV (T_F = 0 = today) = Sum from (t = 0) to (t=T_Past) [C_t] Product from (i = 0) to (i=t)[1 + r_i]
That should work - it just did in Excel
Bo
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Several doctorates and NHS groups have undertaken cost benefits analysis of treatment modalities such as the adding of fluoride to public or minimum invasive preparations or ART in reduction in decay.
I am seeking to compare the benefit of introducing a high tech approach to rural communities outreach programs to reduce the number of teeth lost due to primary intervention options being limited in the field.There is convincing evidence that the loss of teeth and POPS will have a devastating effect on cognitive and psychological factors relevant to patients QoL.  
Does anyone know of any similar studies (in whatever field)?
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Dear Dr. Mark Slabbert;
following are some documents that may help you in this task. Also I did not forgot the other documents I promised you about the chemistry of dental material. Sooner I will find out and send them. Regards
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We are interesting in using the costs-benefits evaluation of agricultural productivity of the experimental trial (using biochar-based treatments and the control) to evaluate how smallholders deciding to use these treatments along with all other agricultural inputs (costs) and outputs (benefits) would impact their livelihoods (net benefits/net revenue/net profit)?
In our cost-benefits evaluation, we monetized every transactions so that we could calculate the net benefits to net cost ratio to determine the optimal productivity and treatment choice that smallholders could mostly likely prefer.
The main assumption here is that smallholders rely on farming for their livelihoods, as a result, the total net benefits (what smallholders generate from their farming activities each growing season) should be </= to total net costs (all inputs).
During this study, we calculated agricultural inputs (costs) against outputs (benefits). We also monetized all factors that were freely contributed to the project by the farmers as benefits, since we did not pay for it.
The total amount spent on treatment were spread out against each treatment (as the treatments were used as the inputs and output variables). We also spread all the potential benefits across each treatment in monetary form.
To determine the optimal treatment choice that smallholders might most likely preferred, we computed the net benefits to total cost ratio. The ratio which is dimensionless, was used as the decision variable. That is, the higher the net benefit to total cost ratio per treatment productivity, the most prefer would that treatment be used by smallholders. The underlying idea is that the total net benefit should exceed total cost.
Total harvest per treatment were also monetized and the net revenue factor in the calculation as benefits.
Therefore;
Inputs (costs) is a sum of = [manure ($/kg) + Land ($) + irrigation ($) + seeds ($/kg), + pyrolysis system ($) + inorg. fert. ($/kg) + transportation ($/trip) + labor ($/person/day) + lunch ($/person/day)]
Some factors in the benefit categories that were given/donated by farmers that we did not pay directly were used as benefits (saving farmers from the expense). These included feedstock and water from the dug well used for irrigation.
Outputs (Benefits) is a sum of = [Rice straw ($/kg) + rice husk ($/kg) + tools ($/day) + savings of pyrolysis system over time ($ X  2yrs) + net renevue ($) + water ($/gal/day)].
Net Benefit = Total Benefits - Total Costs
Net Benefits to Total Cost Ratio = Total Benefits / Total Costs
One other factor was sustainability. How would you monetized that if you were interested in that aspect? What have we left out?
The net revenue portion was calculated separately using crop yield data (kg) and price kg and subtracting the cost of revenue and operating costs. Laos has 0% for domestic vegetable growers or rural smallholders as the country is encouraging agricultural productivity.
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If small landholders take into account cost-benefit analysis, they could not survive. Generally they use household/family labour and do not consider it as input, they survive in a condition of loss. Consider a situation of informal sector where fruits vendors sell fruits on cart. They purchase fruits, bring them from wholesale market on the cart, sell it in small amount, many of fruits get rotten and thrown, when they return home they have some money surplus to the money invested in purchasing fruits. They manage food for the family. If one calculate the cost of their labour and and cost of rotten fruits, an economist will find a net loss, but they survive.
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Need to get a value of ES, to be including in a Cost-Benefit analysis of deforestation policies in Costa Rica.
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