Science topic

Copper - Science topic

A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Questions related to Copper
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
Are there any LASER fabrication group in USA where I can fabricate an antenna with 25 micrometer gap? till now I searched a lot of group, all of them can do at least 3 mil=76 micrometer gap. But for my research I need to fabricate a copper gap of about 25 micrometer.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can contact Coherent Labs since you are based in USA.
FOR IMMEDIATE ASSISTANCE, PLEASE CALL +1 734 456 3100 - the contact detail of Coherent Labs.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
There is a copper based alloy (aluminium bronze) containing iron for specific custom application. The ratios should be very unusual: 65% copper, 25% aluminium and 10% iron. I tried to search literature for this diagram, but failed to find anything. Maybe because there is no such an alloy in practical use. Software "Thermocalc" is expensive for personal use, so I tried demo version and failed to reach databases (thought that they could have this ratio alloy already) present in demo version.
Is it possible to construct a ternary phase diagram for such an alloy using some software (if yes, would you refer me to such software, or maybe even calculate it for me?)? Or somehow estimate the liquidus and solidus temperatures some other way (aside from experimental)?
Thank you very much!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Dauren Sarsenov,
Do you still need help with this?
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
We synthesize Copper Phenylphosphonate, for the study of single crystal diffraction analysis,
but we are unable to find any suitable solvent to dissolve it. Could anyone please suggest which solvent I should try?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Beniwal,
first, please tell us if you have synthesised Cu phenylphosphonate already and have it as microcrystalline powder. And how you have synthesised it.
Second, there are many different ways to obtain crystals.
A) For crystallisation from solvent:
There are numerous solvents in the world and for Cu phenylphosphonate I would suggest something polar, non-protic like acetone, acetonitrile (or other nitriles), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), propylene carbonate, dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethyl acetamide (DMA), ... Take the smallest amount of this solvent to dissolve the sample. Then slowly evaporate the solution or cool it.
In the attached paper the authors worked in H2O and obtained mono-hydrates. So, you can basically also work in H2O, but I suggest non-protic solvents to get a crystal structure different from them.
B) You can try the same solvents under pressure: sample + solvent in an ampoule and heat it. Be careful with DMSO under pressure, it produces toxic stuff.
C) You can search for a good solvent, that dissolves your compounds completely. And then slowly admix a poor solvent, which might lead to crystallisation.
D) You can try to crystallise the product during the reaction, e.g. by diffusion of two solutions containing the Cu source and the phenylphosphonate, respectively.
E) A very common method is a synthesis under hydrothermal conditions (which is much like B). This often leads directly to crystalline products.
In the attached paper by Emmerling et al. Maybe they have synthesised Cu phenylphosphonates in H2O under hydrothermal conditions and obtained directly single crystals in one case.
Best wishes
AXEL
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
6 answers
I generally used a solution of orthophosphoric acid at 1.75V for electropolishing pure copper but I have found that it takes about 10-15 minutes or more to obtain the good flat finish required for EBSD. Can someone suggest another solution to reduce the time for electropolishing?
Relevant answer
Answer
Pilli Jaya Teja If the specimen is polished well, you would require about 5-15 seconds. I would recommend to refrigerate and cool the electropolishing solution before using it.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
Hi.. I am trying to synthesize copper oxide nanoparticles. I have tried various chemical synthesis methods but getting precipitated solution at the end. According to few research articles I have received black powder and red as well but both are insoluble in water, ethanol and DMSO, therefore cannot use further for any biological experiments. Can any one please suggest me the method for the synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles. Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Prayrna Kulkarni, what are the precursors used. Please have a look at the following documents. My Regards
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
I use electroplating to deposit Cu on Si wafer already seeded with thin Cu layer. Then I pattern it with insulating polymer and dip in electroplating bath. out of multiple copper seeded surfaces , few get electroplated while others gets etched, regardless of any electrical supply. it appears that the reaction is taking place in forward direction in one place and reverse in another spot. how is this possible.
Relevant answer
Answer
may be fluctuations in concentrations, current, conditions of electrodes may be reason
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
Hello,
I have PMMA polymer particles embedded with CuO nanoparticles.
I analysed two samples via ICP-MS and obtained the Cu wt% within the expected range.
I then analysed further samples via ICP-OES and have obtained Cu wt% that are far too low (like 1-2% when should be around 8-10 wt%).
I could visually see the increase in CuO across the samples so I know there was much more than what the results provided.
Does anyone have any suggestions as to why this would happen?
The samples were dry (around 8-20 mg provided) and contained only PMMA, CuO, PVA, NaHCO3, the lab then acid digested prior to analysis. The CuO completely dissolved and the PMMA formed a clump.
I have asked the lab to repeat the samples again on ICP-MS to see if this makes a difference though the lab did not seem hopeful that this would provide a different result as usually the error between the two techniques is less than 3%.
Thank you :)
Relevant answer
Answer
My first thought was: How close to the limit of detection is the Cu concentration in the ICP-OES sample? If the final volume of the sample diluted the sample too much, you will approach the lower limits of the instrument's accuracy. Roughly calculating; 10mg x 10% Cu in 10 ml final volume would be around 100 ppm. Even if it was 50 ml final volume, that would bring it down to 20 ppm, which shouldn't be a problem.
  • Could there be an interference from another element on your Cu wavelength? Maybe the sodium from the NaHCO3 is causing baseline issues?
  • Could the sample have absorbed moisture prior to analysis?
  • Might the clump of PMMA be preventing full dissolution of the Cu, physically holding the Cu inside? (I don't know what PMMA is.)
  • Are you sure the conditions were the same for the second digestion?
  • Have you double checked that the calculations and results from the ICP-MS analysis are correct? Maybe the ICP-OES results are good and you've missed something in the first analysis?
Maybe when you repeat the analysis, submit a dilute CuO solution as well and see if the two instruments give you similar results. If they differ, then you can investigate the instruments as the source of difference. If the same, then it was your preparation(s) of nano-particles that seems to be the problem.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
If i use copper's conductivity (385W/mK) will I be losing accuracy?
Relevant answer
Answer
I need Scaps software parameters for titanium dioxide nanoribbons
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
7 answers
Most of the THz antennae use Graphene material as the radiating patch instead of copper. What are the advantages of Graphene over copper in the THz range?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you @Said Choukri.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
I am leaching a copper-rich solid material using deep eutectic solvent based on carboxylic acid hydrogen bond donors, and my most accessible way to analyze the current content of copper from my solvent is through flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. However in our lab, we have no experience in using the FAAS in non-aqueous solutions. Can you advise the appropriate sample pre-treatment before analysis through AAS (do I dilute it with acids or other organic solvents), and other parameters needed to be tweaked (fuel or oxidant flow, etc.)?
Any reference is gladly appreciated!
Relevant answer
Answer
So the situation is simpler than it seemed. If there is a lot of copper, it is enough to mineralize a very small amount of the sample, whether it is liquid or solid. First try with a very small amount of sample (e.g. <0.1 g) and a few milliliters of concentrated HNO3 in a beaker on a hotplate (fume cupboard!). Carefully boil the acid to check that the reaction is not too violent so that the contents can be kept in the beaker without loss. If this is successful, it will be possible to mineralize even more of your sample quantitatively. Evaporation with nitric acid to near dryness will also remove chlorides. After dissolving the residue in diluted HNO3, you will obtain an acidified nitrate solution, which can be fed to the FAAS spectrometer, possibly after additional dilution to obtain the optimal copper concentration (e.g. from a few to several mg / L, depending on the spectrometer and its operator). The concentrations of nitric acid in the measured solutions, i.e. in the mineralizate solution and in the calibration solutions, should be as close as possible. The FAAS technique is perfect for your case, because for ICP-MS measurements, a solution containing Cu a few g / L would have to be diluted several times, e.g. 1000 times, and maybe even more.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
the Substrates material is copper with thickness of 50μm. After 30mins pulse laser deposition, the whole sample is lighter than the original copper foil. have anyone ever met this ?
Relevant answer
Answer
What material did you deposit on the copper substrates?
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
Does Copper(II)acetate monohydrate have one metal-metal (δ bonds) bond? The crystal structure shows that the Cu-Cu distance is 2.64 Å, but really confusing to consider a Cu-Cu delta bond.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes in Copper(II)acetate monohydrate have one metal-metal (δ bond) bond involving
dx²-y² orbital. Also in more detailed way we can say it is due to this interection the two unpaired electron present in each dx²-y² orbital of each Cu centre will undergo antiferromagnetic superexchange interection. AS a consequence the system becomes diamagnetic. Also we can explain interms of molecular orbital theory.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
I have a mutant bacteria strain and want to confirm its phenotype by TEM. Copper mesh with carbon membrane was used to grid,here are my workflow:
1, 2.5ul diluted bacterial fluid,2min,
2, 5ul UA(Uranium acetate),10s,
3, 5ul UA(Uranium acetate),10s,
4, 5ul UA(Uranium acetate),1min,
5, Dry 10min.
Unfortunately,I cant see any bacteria on negative staining,how can I improve my experiments?Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
If you want to see the bacterias under TEM then can go for negative staining method. For that, put a drop of bacterial solution on to the cu grid, let it set on the grid for about 1 min then remove the excess solution by a filter paper then add the uranyle acetate stain to it and after 1 min remove the excess stain by a filter paper. Next, dry the grid in a incubator for sometime and now it will be ready to view under TEM.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
I have an issue where a customer has used Adblue/def products instead of coolant in several vehicle engines.
I need to understand potential issues the adblue can have on an engine and cooling system, some of the things i want to understand is what effect Urea will have on materials like copper and aluminium. i also want to understand how urea will react with coolant products. this is something that has very little information available and i don't know how to approach the problem.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Thanks for the response, any idea how the product would react in a radiator system?
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
5 answers
As the question describes.
I recently submitted a paper, and the reviewer said the amino group of the reagent can also react with copper ions.
But in our study, only copper (I) ion exists.
I googled the reaction.
It seems only copper (II) ion reacts with the amino group.
Is this correct ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Jürgen Weippert Many thanks ! so helpful !
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
5 answers
According to the great difference between titanium propreties and Aluminum ones, especially the melting temperature. We have to make an other alloy between Aluminum and Titanum to weld them using RFW technique, for example, we have thaught about the copper. Do you agree ?
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
We are purifying a copper protein that should have 4 moles of copper per mole of protein, but we don't know if the protein is fully loaded with copper. We don't have atomic absorption spectroscopy and how can we determine the total copper concentration in the protein? thanks for your help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
Hmm, this is a tough one, but maybe you can heat it with Nitric acid to make all the Cu into Cu(+2), then neutralize with KOH and heat to make CuO and get a mass? (Assuming the nitric and KOH treatment would destroy the protein). Alternatively, can you sequester the Cu out with EDTA or something and get the apoprotein, then titrate Cu in and see what the UV-Vis does? You would also need to get an idea of what kind of Cu sites are present.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
4 answers
We are purifying a copper protein that should have 4 moles of copper per mole of protein, but we don't know if the protein is fully loaded with copper. We don't have atomic absorption spectroscopy and how can we determine the total copper concentration in the protein? thanks for your help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Difficult to orient you towards a specific determination method, without knowledge of the expected Copper concentration or the solubility of the Copper ions from your protein complex (easy to release or not ?).
Off the top of my head and without having to turn to mineralization followed by AA or ICP (which would be ideal) :
  • all time classic is iodometric titration : reduction of Cu2+ by iodide I-, which produces iodine I2 that can be back titrated using thiosulfate S2O32-
  • colorimetric determination by UV-Vis spectroscopy : a variety of methods do exist, using various ligands to produce a coloured complex from Cu2+
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
4 answers
I have written the code as given below. But it showing error, kindly suggest......
pair_style hybrid eam lj/cut/coul/long 10.0 10.0 lj/cut 12.0
pair_coeff 2 2 lj/cut/coul/long 0.006739 3.166 #O-O
pair_coeff 2*3 3 lj/cut/coul/long 0.0 0.0 #O-H
pair_coeff 1 2 lj/cut 0.0114563 2.751 #Cu-O
pair_coeff 1 3 lj/cut 0 0 #Cu-H
pair_coeff 1 1 eam Cu_u3.eam #Cu-Cu
Relevant answer
Answer
Jyri Kimari Thanks a lot!
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
7 answers
Hello to all
Two questions
1. Does the use of metals with high magnetic permeability, such as iron alloy in the waveguide, cause insertion losses?
2- What about chrome or copper plating?
If you know the article in this field, please introduce it. Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Please find the attached files.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
Hello all,
We have a problem with our cell cultures.
The cells are growing more slowly, are less adherent and sometimes just detach and dye.
They form strange "bubble-like" structures or kinds of filaments and we see something accumulating inside. We can see brown aggregates inside.
This is even worse when their density is lower.
We did a lot of tests (medium components, plastics, mycoplasma, bacteria, ...) and nothing appears. We believe that it could be a toxic effect of the oxidized copper inside of our incubator.
BUT, is it possible that oxidezed copper diffuses in air to reach the cells ?
Thank you in advance for your help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sabine,
In humid air comprising acetic acid, the metal copper can be oxidised to form basic copper acetat, i.e. Cu(OAc)2·[Cu(OH)2]3·2H2O. This compound might subsequently react to Cu2(OAc)4, which is a dinculear complex with four µ-acetato bridges. This coordination compound has a low boiling point of about 240 °C and thus substantial vapour pressure at a moderately enhanced temperature as it might occur in you incubator.
Hope that helps a bit!
Thomas
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
I want clarification on the type of wood powder to opt for as an adsorbent for removing Copper and Lead from soil. Also which sieve size will you recommend, is 60 mesh sieve size okay?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Bright Gyapong your question seems to me noncomplete. The main properties that dictate the adsorption capacity of metallic cations are the following : (i) porosity (when physical adsorption is considered, then the ionic radius of the adsorbate is a critical factor) and (2) chemical surface (functional groups and pH at the point of zero charges) (chemical adsorption by bridging). As far as I am concerned, any type of wood can be used as an adsorbent (biosorbent) provided that it is functionalized according to the desired application.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
7 answers
This may be a question that might not be an intelligent one, but still, this is how we learn tight.
Is it better to call CuFeO2 copper ferrite or delafossite? I know AB2O4 are called ferrites in general.
So in this case with the ABO2 structure, can we call this cuprous ferrite?
Relevant answer
Answer
Many chemicals have several names: trivial and systematic (IUPAC nomenclature, red book), and in this case there can be two nomenclature names - anionic and oxide form. In this case, delafossite is a trivial name (from mineralogy, but it can be from technology, everyday life ...), copper (I) ferrite is an anionic form (there is another copper ferrite CuFe2O4 - copper (II) ferrite) and copper oxide (I)-iron(III)) - oxide form of the systematic name.
... If names are not right, words do not fit. If words do not fit, affairs go wrong. ...A gentleman is nowise careless of his words. ... Confucius. Analects XII.3.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
hi dear, I recently started a project on the flotation of a sample of mixed copper ores, I wanted to optimize the doses of a new reagent (XD5002 collector) at the laboratory level it should be noted that the reagent initially used in the factory was the SIBX associated with the B75G as "frother" used for the preflotation of the sulphides of my ores so this new investigation aims to associate the XD5002 with the B75G, ​​only the dosage was the only parameter of my investigation given that there is a factory design already established, did you think that under these conditions my conclusions will be of great confidence and on what basis should I no longer base myself if you had previously worked on a theme like this then your remarks will be welcome!
Relevant answer
Answer
In my opinion all you would gain is an optimum dose for one set of conditions you are unlikely to see in the plant for more than a few minutes at best. If you know the standard operating ranges for all the other variables, including temperature, then you should try and find the optimum dosage for high/low pH, high/low solids etc and build a matrix. That would give a range for the optimum dosage that would then give you a reasonable average that you can start using on the plant. Just changing the dose on one set of conditions is not as useful as a map of possibilities.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
hello
hope your doing well over there.
please i need your help regards , the study on preparation technology and property ofABS electroless copper plating.
looking forward to your reply'
best regards
Arnold
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Zhou Momo I'm absolutely no proven expert in this field of research as we work in organometallic chemistry. However, I often made the experience that it can be very helpful to use RG directly as a valuable source of information. For example, the following article is freely available as public full text on RG:
Electroless Cu Plating on ABS Plastic by Using Environmentally Friendly Chemicals
I found another potentially useful paper which can be freely downloaded as pdf file:
Study of electroless copper plating on ABS resin surface modified by heterocyclic organosilane self-assembled film
(see attached)
Good luck with your research!
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
I am using two electrodes (Cathode: modified carbon electrode and Anode: Aluminum) dipped in highly contaminated wastewater and externally connected with copper wire. The output voltage and current were observed as 0.9 V and 100 mA, respectively.
  1. I want to calculate the coulombic efficiency of this system. Can any one suggest me?
  2. Can also suggest me that by which mechanism the electricity is generating?
Relevant answer
Answer
Useful information, Thank you sir Bachir Achour
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
A long copper plate is moved at a speed v along its length as suggested in the attachment. A magnetic field exists perpendicular to the plate in a cylindrical region cutting the plate in a circular region. A and B are two fixed conducting brushes which maintain contact with the plate as the plate slides past them. These brushes are connected by a conducting wire.
Is there a current in the wire? In which direction?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think it is waves that are spreading across the wire. And not a current of electrons .. . . ...
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
5 answers
Hello everybody,
I would like to ask you about my cyclic voltammogram. It looks weird because of special 'triangle shaped peaks". Have you seen this graph before or you have some suggestion where the problem is? Cathode - Nasicon +PVDF +NMP +C on copper foil, cathode - sodium foil or sodium metatitanate foil on copper foil, separator and typical electrolyte for sodium ion batter. Assembling battery and setting of software were checked by my older colleague who has good results.
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
This is due to some parameters like poor diffusion of Na-ion, the thickness of electrodes, scan rate, porosity, and thickness of the separator.
I would recommend you measure the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. for better understanding.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
i want to grow MgO nanostructure on copper sulfide substrate via CVD anyone can help in sharing literature or can tell parameters .
Relevant answer
Answer
that's not something related T. H. Al-Noor
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
We are told that the alloy in question is primarily made of copper but also contains som silver or gold and we are asked to calculate the composition.
The diffraction peaks seem to match very closely with pure copper so i assume the alloy must be made of a pure phase but unsure how to say if it is alph copper and gold or a quenched beta phas copper silver alloy?
Relevant answer
Answer
This depends on the materials systems. In this context please look at so-called "Vegard's rule". Say you have a metal A in cubic system with lattice constant a, and another one B with lattice constant b, then the lattice constant of the alloy with composition AxBy would have the weighed average lattice constant from both constituents - in simple theory. Vegard's rule is not a law, only a guide which often holds in many examples, sometimes only in limited mixture range.
Then, of course, the X-ray diffractogram shows how the Bragg reflections move to the positions during alloying which corresponds to the weighed averaged lattice constants.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
5 answers
Cu2O NP and CuO NP were synthesized using glucose as reducing agent and no UV visible peak was found. The XRD confirmed the characteristic peaks of these NP.
Relevant answer
Kousar Perveen it would be great if you share your spectrum.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
4 answers
I am trying to analyze the amount of gold in the copper anode slime. Since it has other elements such as Pb, Cu, Se, and Ag in it, what would be the best reagent to dissolve them for ICP? And is there any standards for ICP digestion of Gold?
Relevant answer
Answer
There are no "standards" as such for dissolution of metals and slags etc, but there may be commonly used methods.
This answer from a recent Plasmachem-L discussion might be of use to you:
">However there are a couple of textbooks/references I would recommend, that were invaluable to my education in wet chemistry and instrumental techniques used in the field of steel making and beyond. > The first is Vogel's /"Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis"/, which was first published in 1939, but there have been 6 further editions, the last being in 2000. I would highly recommend this book without hesitation to anyone who wanted a better understanding of the fundamental of analytical chemistry.You'll find a link to the book below if interested in purchasing it (you might even find an older version online). > > https://www.amazon.com/Vogels-Quantitative-Chemical-Analysis-6th/dp/0582226287 > > The 2nd book is /"Progress of Analytical Chemistry in the Iron and Steel Industry"/ published by the publication office of the European Union, which I learned about when I was working for PerkinElmer as an Application Scientist. This book was compiled in 1992, so was not available until after I left the steel industry, but I found it very useful when developing methods for our AA, ICP-OES and ICP-MS instrumentation. I think it is a reference book which you would find very useful as it contains a multitude of analytical procedures used in the quality control of iron and steel. I particularly liked the fact that it includes methods using modern instrumental techniques and also detailed information about how to approach the sample preparation and analysis of the many varied types of samples encountered in this industry such as slags, ores and refractory materials. If interested, I found an online pdf version of the book, which you can download below: > > https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/251e2b25-7f45-4342-ad8f-5f0a091019f1
>"
I expect you will be using some combination of Nitric acid, Hydrochloric acid, maybe Perchloric acid, (note this requires somewhat more elaborate safety precautions) and possibly even Hydrofluoric acid, **NOTE this last acid (HF) requires extremely careful handling and extra safety precautions, DO NOT use this chemical unless you have read the safety precautions, have calcium gluconate first aid on standby and know which hospital you are heading to if you get burns.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
15 answers
I have done the adsorption experiment between PS microplastics and 0.1 ppm copper ions for 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. The adsorption increased from 0 to 24 hours, but it gradually decreased after 24 h to 48 hours. May I know if there are any reasons for describing this trend? I look forward to hearing from you.
Best,
Relevant answer
Answer
The mass of the adsorbent plays an important role. The amounts of adsorbate fixed must be in agreement with the doses of adsorbent in the solution to ensure an equivalent number of adsorption sites. Beyond a certain mass, the retention rate decreases slightly, probably indicating the presence of another type of interaction between adsorbate and adsorbent. It could be a competition between the molecules retaining fractions of the adsorbate and the free molecules of the adsorbent which attract it, bringing it back into the solution.
The pH also plays an important role. Retention rates are appreciable between a certain pH range, with a retention peak around a given pH, then a slight decrease in efficiency can be observed with increasing pH up to a certain value; Beyond a certain pH value, a dramatic decrease in efficiency can also be observed.
Regards
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
12 answers
I have a suspension of Copper Nps in DI water which probably contain a large amount of Copper oxides.
Relevant answer
Answer
Melika Afshar I'm still struggling to see what you have in your system so probably I'm not explaining myself well enough. In such systems visual inspection tells you a lot. Ideally, you'd have a picture taken from the side in say a 10 or 20 mL vial (could be smaller) rather than a Petri dish. Then we'd be able to look at the color of the supernatant, any settled/settling particles and so on. If you have a transparent colored solution (e.g. like wine or de-gassed beer) without sediment then we can be confident that you have a small, certainly nano (< 100 nm), system. It's a simple visual examination that should be the first thing to do. Turbidity would suggest larger material (perhaps sub-micron, 100 - 1000 nm) and settled material (> 1 up to 100 microns). This is why visualization is important. If you have such a small system then the SEM image you showed (with almost complete aggregation) is an artefact of preparing the sample for SEM and we can work on that. If your sample is already aggregated (much settling) then there's much less hope.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
I found these copper nanowires on sigma aldrich (sigmaaldrich.com/US/en/product/aldrich/807958) but I can't find any examples in literature of researchers using them to make electrodes. I was wondering if anyone has experience with making copper nanowire based electrodes and if there are any nanowires (like the ones from sigma aldrich) I could purchase off the shelf to make these.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Bert,
many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with the RG community. Personally I'm not a proven expert in this field. However, my suggestion would be to avoid buying the copper nanowires from commercial suppliers because you never really know how pure and homogeneous they are. It is quite seasy to prepare copper wires following the straightforward protocol described in the following useful literature reference:
Extremely Simple and Rapid Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Electrodes Using Ultralong Copper Nanowires
Luckily this paper has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG so that you can download it as pdf file. In this article not only a simple synthesis of copper nanowires is described in detail, but also the reparation of flexible transparent electrodes.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work!
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
7 answers
The SEM is related to a suspension of Copper Nps in DI water which probably contain a large amount of Copper oxides.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, the above answers that mention charging are correct. Also, as mentioned by Vladimir, agglomerations can be challenging. Sputter coating material often does not get into all the nooks-and-crannies of a sample.
1. One way to overcome a charging issue is to lower your KV (your acceleration voltage). This will require a realignment of the column to optimize the SEM to the lower KV range. I find something in the 4 - 5 KV range often overcomes such issues. This will impact the total magnification one can achieve, but should allow a better image.
2. Interestingly, another option sometime helps, (if your sample can stand up to it), and if your sample is thin enough. Increasing the acceleration voltage to max (usually 30 KV) can force electrons through your sample allowing them to reach ground at the aluminum stub. I have used this technique as a last resort, but it often works on very thin, but sturdy specimens.
3. An alternate option: If available on your instrument: I find that Backscatter Electron (BSE) imaging mode also often overcomes many of these charging issues. The appearance of the specimen will change, due to where the BSE detector is located within the SEM, but I often prefer the BSE image. You may also get a little compositional contrast as a result.
4. A forth option is dependent upon the type of SEM you may have access to. If there is an E-SEM available, using one of the wet mode options would definitely help.
I hope this helps, Melika.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
4 answers
May I know why commercial sintering die attach paste is always based on silver? Why not other metals, such as copper and aluminum? Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
The problem with other metals is that they oxidize when sintered in air. Only silver, gold, and the platinum metals other than osmium do not oxidize in air at the temperatures required for sintering. Silver is the cheapest of these metals, so it is the most commonly used.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
For example: How is the Full-Scale XRF sorter mechanism? Is it possible to use it to sort low-grade copper minerals?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ali Behrad Vakylabad many thanks for posting this interesting technical question. As a synthetic inorganic chemist I'm certainly not a proven expert in this field of research. However, I can suggest to you the following potentially useful article which might help you in your analysis:
XRF – New Applications in Sensor-Based-Sorting Using X-ray Fluorescence
The paper is freely available as public full text (please see the attaced pdf file). Also please see this Open Access article:
Sensor-Based Ore Sorting Technology in Mining—Past, Present and Future
This article has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG, so that you can easily download it as pdf file.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
Hello,everyone !Recently I am working on AAO preparation for copper nanowire fabrication, and I would like to do anodization under room temperature and then do barrier layer thinning to provide better contact for copper deposition ,however, the surface of AAO corrode randomly with no reason after 30min of one step anodization,but I saw many paper that there was no problem that doing anodization even above room temperature,could you recommend me some advices? thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Sunny Cheng ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting paper:
- Correlation between Defect Density and Corrosion Parameter of Electrochemically Oxidized Aluminum
Hao-Ren Lou, Dah-Shyang Tsai and Chen-Chia Chou
Coatings, 10(1), 20 (2020) - https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010020
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
In-Refrigeration plant, needed copper-copper brazing joints.
The chemical Composition of brazing rod is
Phosphorous : 7-7.5 %
Copper : Remaining
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Atik Islam ,
'
Copper-to-copper brazing with copper-phosphorus filler rods can be done without flux, the material can be cold-worked, and the filler is applicable for large joint clearances, see the PDF document at the following URL: https://www.copper.org/applications/marine/cuni/pdf/Broschuere_Loeten_ENG.pdf Use the FIND function in your PDF reader to search for the term 'phosphorous'.
Regards,
Thomas Cuff
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
9 answers
We have been synthesizing copper nanoparticles via chemical reduction method and using different capping agents to increase the stability of the copper nanoparticles as with the passage of time the color and oxidation state of copper nanoparticles vary.
We have so far tried immobilizing copper nanoparticles onto sepiolite, used capping agents like glycerol, tween80, CTAB and PVP. And different reducing agents including NaOH, glucose, ammonia, hydrazine and NaBH4 as well as ascorbic acid.
The synthesized nanoparticles attain brick red color and then turn black. We want to maintain the brick red color.
I will be grateful for your kind responses and guidance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Noor Ul Ain thank you for posting this very interesting technical question on RG. Red nanoparticles of pure copper metal (Cu(0)) are highyl sensitive to oxygen and, as already indicated by Yuri Mirgorod, the corresponding copper oxide nanoparticles are thermodynamically more stable. However, I just came across an inmteresting articles in which a chemical reduction protocol using copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate as precursor salt and starch as capping agent is described in detail. This might be the solution of your problem as no inert gas is required in this proces. Please have a look at this paper:
A chemical reduction approach to the synthesis of copper nanoparticles
The article can bee freely downloaded as pdf file from the internet (see attachment).
I hope this answers your question. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
4 answers
Surface oxidation of brass in methanol environment is observed . Is it zinc oxide or copper (cuprous) oxide or copper-meth-oxide or zinc- meth- oxide? Please help me in understanding of brass corrosion in (dilute) methanol environment of 1M to 10M concentartion.
Thank you in advance for helping me.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Prof. Yuri Mirgorod.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
A piece of steel and a piece of copper immersed in a 1M NaCl solution develops a certain voltage when the metal pieces are connected electrically. How do I calculate the potential of the cell?
Well, no iron ions are initially present in the solution and no copper ions either (only the brine solution, no salt bridge). The electrode reactions are iron oxidation and oxygen reduction. Can we somehow apply the Nernst equation to calculate the potentials at the two electrodes?
Relevant answer
Answer
I guess I would take issue with your characterization of a brine solution as a "non-electroactive solution" with respect to an iron-copper couple. Clearly, if you touch together a clean piece of iron with a clean piece of copper, an open circuit voltage will result from the different work fucntions of the two different metals. But in the aforementioned case, there is no EMF present and, hence, currents cannot be sustained in a closed circuit. In the case of an iron electrode and a copper electrode immersed in a brine solution, one also gets an open circuit voltage, but there is also an EMF present, which causes a current to flow in a closed circuit until the chemical constituents are used up.
Regards,
Thomas Cuff
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
we want to connect the thin copper wire to the ITO layer on the PET sheet. But we are facing the problem of connecting this wire to the ITO layer because of the flexibility of the PET Sheet. since it is plastic we can not solder. so can you please suggest to me, how to give this(electrical wire) connection to Flexible ITO coated PET Sheet?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Bobby Bnm ,
Have you tried Aquadag®: a colloidal solution of dispersed Acheson graphite in water? Aquadag® is still used by the electronics industry as an opaque, electrically conductive layer inside TV picture tubes and oscilloscope tubes, it forms the anode in these types of vacuum tubes. Paint it on and let it dry to form a thin, electrically conductive layer.
[1] Bernard H. Porter; Research applications of colloidal graphite; Review of Scientific Instruments; Vol. 7; No. 2; February 1936; pp. 101-106.
[2] D. De Graaf; Use of brush applied coatings in black and white television tubes; in B. N. Chapman, J. C. Anderson (Eds.); Science and Technology of Surafce Coating, A NATO Advanced Study Institute on the Science and Technology of Surface Coating held at Imperial College, University of London in April, 1972; Academic Press; 1974; pp. 209-214.
[3] E. G. Acheson; Carborundum: its history, manufacture and uses; Journal of the Franklin Institiute; Vol. 136; No. …; July-December & October 1893; pp. 194-203 & 279-289.
Regards,
Thomas Cuff
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
9 answers
There are different theories of graphene growth by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques (e.g., microwave-CVD, plasma-CVD, thermal-CVD etc.) on a catalytic transition-metal substrate (commonly copper/nickel) is proposed by researchers.
Kindly put your expert insight whether there are any particular established mathematical relations/equations that follows carbon atoms diffusion in catalytic substrate or nucleation in surface to predict mono-layer/few-layers of graphene synthesis (considering the catalytic substrate is devoid of possible microstructural defects).
Relevant answer
Answer
Dr. Nadir Fadhil Habubi , Thank you for sharing the articles .. I will go through it.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
5 answers
Hi,
May I know what is the industrial process to coat copper wire with palladium in the production of PdCu wire? What is the process and what instruments are used? Please kindly advise. Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Qun Ye P.S. In addition to the article which I already suggested in my first answer, you can also search the "Publications" section of RG for the term "palladium-coated copper wire". This will provide you with a long list of potentially helpful literature references:
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
5 answers
Dear Everyone. I am trying to do the high yield synthesis from ascorbate and copper salt, according to the similar procedures from the literature (0.18M copper ions) I now tried PVA up to 2%, Tween 20 up to 10%, both, none, dropwise addition of ascorbate, burst addition of ascorbate, nitrogen, air atmosphere, temperatures 50, 60, 90 centigrade. I followed a couple of similar syntheses from the literature, nothing works. All the time instead of suspension I get a salmon-colored precipitate that for sure is not a dozen nanometer copper. What do I do wrong?
Thanks a lot for all the hints
Relevant answer
Slow addition with continuous stirring (magnetic stirring) is required.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
copper extraction from CuFe2O4 and or Delafossite CuFeO2
Relevant answer
Answer
Please kindly read the research paper "
and , I recommend to search about
[ using nano-particles of Iron in investigated systematically by batch experiments, and focus on contact time and also pH ]. Maybe it would be helpful.
Good Luck
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
5 answers
To date, it is highly recognized the association between alkaline/calc-alkaline potassic rocks and gold and copper-gold deposits (Muller & Grooves, 2016; Muller, 2001; Jensen & Barton, 2001). Although not yet perfectly clear in some. I am now focusing on the Roman Magmatic Province (Italy), and I was wondering why, although in some districts (especially Sabatini and Vulsini) the whole rock composition and partially the mineralogy resemble those of some high-k rocks of gold-related deposits (Cripple Creek, for instance, where phonotephrites crop out ), this Magmatic Province didn't develop any precious metal mineralization. Obviously, whole-rock and mineralogical characteristics do not define the chance to develop or not a deposit, but they make comparable these rocks with other ones associated to dep worldwide.
I reach out just to open a discussion about this topic because I think it is very interesting and might lead to distinguishing, in some cases, the limit of the accepted model.
Food for thought! :)
Relevant answer
Answer
The images above are from "sun et al." Mine are not so pretty. Same process I believe.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
4 answers
I had synthesised CuO NPs from plant material using copper salt. May I ask, how can I wash or purify my synthesised CuO NPs?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Chan Yu Bin many thanks for sharing this interesting technical question with the RG community. The "green" synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles using plant extracts is currently a hot topic. I'm sure that numerous RG members are working in this and related areas. I think the most common method for washing CuO nanoparticles is thorough washing with distilled water followed by centrifugation. In that respect the literature reference suggested by Mohammad Kooti already provides a good example of the typical protocol. Also please have a look at the following potentally useful article:
Preparation of functionalized CuO nanoparticles using Brassica rapa leave extract for water purification
This paper is freely available as public full text (please see the attached pdf file).
You can also search RG directly for valuable information about this topic. Just search for the term "CuO nanoparticles" and then click on "Publications". This will provide you with a long list of relevant literature references which have been posted by RG members, many of them even as public full texts:
I hope this helps. Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
I need CAPR reagent for free fatty acid analysis. Can copper(II) acetate monohydrate be used for its preparation? Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Darshana Deka thank you for sharing this very interesting chemical question with the RG community. The preparation of the cupric acetate - pyridine reagent (CAPR) is in fact quite easy and straightforward. A detailed protocol is given in the following relevant literature reference:
A Sensitive Microplate Assay for Lipase Activity Measurement Using Olive Oil Emulsion Substrate: Modification of the Copper Soap Colorimetric Method
This paper is freely accessible as public full text (please see the attached pdf file). It is stated here that (ctation): "Cupric acetate pyridine reagent CAPR was prepared by placing different amounts of cupric acetate (2.5 g, 5 g, and 7.5 g) into a 100-mL volumetric flask and bringing to volume with water. Then, the content was swirled to dissolve the cupric acetate, and then it was filtered through Whatman no. 1 filter paper. Finally, the pH of the solution was adjusted to different values of 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 using pyridine". This clearly shows that you can also use copper(II) acetate monohydrate for the CAPR preparation since the salt is dissolved in water anyway. Thus it doesn't matter if you use anhydrous or hydrated copper(II) acetate as starting material. You just need to adjust the stoichiometric amounts accordingly.
Good luck with your experiments and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
The type k has chromei wire,alumei wite n probably copper wire.It is the most available thermocouple probably.
Relevant answer
Answer
In the past I built many thermocouples, like cromel-alumel, Cooper- constantan, cromel- copel and so on. First we twist the two wires each other and in a graphite well filled with alcohol conected to an electric transformer we built the junction by a short circuit and melting. The junction with a ball shape was observed with a glass magnifier to check for defects. Finally we calibrate the junction by comparison to a certificate thermometer inside a oil bath or a water bath depend on the temperature range.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
8 answers
Hello RG members,
I have recently deposited copper thin film using magnetron sputtering system. I have characterized those samples using XRD. From the XRD results, I have obtained a peak of single plane of Cu along with peaks of multiple planes of Cu2O. If I want to measure the degree of crystallinity of Cu How can I do it? Any suggestions
Relevant answer
Answer
For the article titled “Qualitative Analyses of Thin Film-Based Materials Validating New Structures of Atoms” if the link http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.27720.65287 is not working, please check the link https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352830671 as it is working. Sorry for the inconvenience and thank you.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
Is it possible to machine copper through edm process
Relevant answer
Answer
Of corse. EDM can be used to machine any conductive materials.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
7 answers
Hi i am working on electroless copper plating on plastic .in the last step(plating bath) the deposition is formed on the bottom of beaker not on the plastic! i have do it in Higher temperatures but did not respond! what is the problem?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Reyhane Mokhber thank you for sharing this very interesting technical question with other RG members. As a synthetic inorganic chemist I have no practical experience with electroless copper plating on plastic. However, I know that it is often very helpful to use RG directly as a valuable source of information. Many relevant research articles have been posted by RG members. For example, please have a look at the following potentially useful articles which might help you in your analysis:
Electroless Plating on Plastic
and
Electroless Cu Plating on ABS Plastic by Using Environmentally Friendly Chemicals
Both articles are freely available as public full texts on RG, so that you can download them as pdf files.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
hi i'm serving as a students who participated in the lab
and i got leed image of graphene on cu(111) that has hexagonal spot surrounded by ring pattern
through searching the reason that how we get this image, i found that ring is due to rotational disorder of graphene and the spot is due to copper
but the hexagonal spot has two set that one set(tirgonal) is brigter than the other one
there was any chance for me to learn about diffraction analysis and i can't find the reason of this
somebody help this poor student plz
Relevant answer
Answer
Is your Cu(111) a single crystal or is it epitaxially grown? If it's an epitaxial film, it may have textured domains, i.e. you have different rotational variants of the Cu(111).
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
5 answers
Dear Colleagues,
I want to design a Helmholtz Coil using 11AWG copper wire and having 5 ohm coil resistance. The voltage required is 200 volt and wattage is correspondingly 200×40 = 6 kW.
So heat generation is 6KW/ 4.2 is approximately 1.5 K calorie.
CAN I RUN THIS SYSTEM BY WATER COOLING?
Please comment.
Regards
N Das
Relevant answer
Answer
ليس من اختصاصي ولكن اتمنى اعرف الجواب لاني مهتمه بالموضوع
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
7 answers
Structural Equation Models (SEM) are widely used for modelling complex processes, but is there an analogous method for testing several connected hypotheses?
For example, let's assume that two archaeological cultures in a certain context are considered the same if
1. more than 25% of obsidian are from the same volcanic source (a simple yes/no question)
2. the percentages of tin and copper in bronze are the same (proportion test)
3. the direction an altar is facing is the same (testing for common mean direction)
Can we apply frequentist tests and the corresponding p-values to answer these questions in order to answer the global question? Is there a method of doing it?
Relevant answer
Answer
Did you try multigroup moderation analysis?
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
We are going to fabricate silicon based anode materials on copper foil. We are targeting to enhance cyclic stability of anode as a result of Li ion insertion. In literature, mostly it has been done after coin cell fabrication. Is it possible to test that without coin cell fabrication in electrochemical work station by EIS and CV? If yes, then what should be complete electrode assembly? We are looking to use LiOH solution as an electrolyte, sample deposited copper foil as working electrode and Ag/AgCl as reference electrode. Will it work? Any suggestion or recommend from literature will be appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Your electrolyte will be substantially different, therefore the cycling characteristics of your electrode in this setup would be substantially different than those in a cell made using a standard Li-ion electrolyte. Can this difference be ignored for your publication?
If I tried to do this with my cells - and I wish I could - my first problem would be that my binder (CMC/SBR) would dissolve in any aqueous electrolyte. This binder seems to be the standard for Li-ion anodes, but lots of researchers ignore that and use PVDF/NMP. Does this apply to your anode?
Electrodes are often treated as if they perform in isolation, but the electrochemical efficiency of an electrode in any cell is dependent on both the electrolyte solvent and salt. This isn't just because of the SEI, it's fundamental to the charge transfer at the interface.
If you want to conduct CV and EIS without coin cell cycling, I recommend using a swagelok-type cell (some manufacturers are EL-CELL and redox.me) with a standard electrolyte that can be assembled in an inert environment then removed and tested with a standard potentiostat.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
5 answers
prospection minière dans le site de khouribga
Relevant answer
Answer
Using clustering analysis.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
I am using copper as electrode material in the model of a triboelectric nanogenerator in COMSOL. The module is electrostatic. In COMSOL, the built-in relative permittivity of copper metal is 1. However, this is not correct as relative permittivity of a metal is close to infinity. What value should I insert then?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
2 answers
Experimentally, 4-aminosalicylic attained an inhibition efficiency of 99.4% at 303K and a concentration of 0.0005 M. Other compounds it was compared with at a much higher concentration are; salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, benzaldehyde, and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gideon Sunday many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with the RG community. As already indicated by Sengottuvelan Balasubramanian it would be helpful if you would specify which kind of inhibition you are interested in. I assume that it's corrosion inhibition of the copper surface. In this context, please have a look at the following potentially useful article which might help you in your analysis:
Amino acids as corrosion inhibitors for copper in nitric acid medium: Experimental and theoretical study
This paper has been published Open Access so that it is freely accessible as full text on the internet (please see the attached pdf file).
Good luck with your work and please stay safe and healthy!
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
4 answers
For industrial applications in ground-coupled heat pumps, a vertical U-tube, horizontal (straight and Slinkies) pipes are used. In the ground condensers and evaporators, metal tubes such as Copper are utilized. Is it practical from the manufacturing and maintenance point of view to implement fins (internal or external) to the buried tubes?
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi,
For ground source heat pumps (geothermal) I do not see the point of using copper pipes since heat transfer mechanism is penalized by the soil's poor conductivity. That's the reason why plastic pipes are used besides the fact that they do not corrode. At the end of the day, enhancing heat transfer coefficient of the tube (less thermal resistance) will definately not improve the heat pump performances.
Concerning added fins, theoratically increasing heat transfer surface of boreholes should enhance heat pump's performances. However, this should be done by adding other boreholes respecting distances between each of them to facilitate the ground regeneration. Adding fins definitely increases the heat transfer surface but does not allow to respect the necessary distance between the added surface and the initial surface (bare tube w/o fins) for regeneration purposes. At the bottom line, adding fins will not make a significant difference in my opinion.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
24 answers
It is well known that copper plating on steel directly is difficult and has bad adhesion. In order to improve the adhesion the current method is striking a nickel layer before plating copper, or preplating cyanide. Is there any other method to treat steel to get good adhesion with copper?
Relevant answer
Answer
Electrodeposit a thin layer of nickel prior to Cu plating on it. It will work. But some stainless steel contain very high chromium contents and nickel plating also experiences adhesions problem.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
6 answers
Hi every one
I used the e-beam evaporation technique to deposit a layer of 200 nm of copper. However, after the deposition, many black dots (like the pinholes in SiN layer deposited by PECVD) have appeared. Do you have any idea what the problem would be and how to get rid of it?
Vaccum was 5e-6 mTorr, and the deposition rate was 2.5 A/s.
Many thanks for your suggestions in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
The black material related to cupper is cupperoxide.
So I assume that you have residual oxygen molecules in your evaporation chamber which reacts with the cu forming trances of cupperoxide.
Th remedy is to inprove the vacuum and you have to preheat the the crucible before the evaporation phase where the high temperature melting prevails.
Best wishes and happy new year.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
I have noticed that copper oxidation on copper nanoparticles often coincides with aggregation of nanoparticles into ,much larger clump in my experiments. I was hoping for some insight of literature that can help explain if these two mechanisms are correlation in nanoparticle oxidation, or if it is unique to the copper.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Haidyn,
the melting point of metal powders decreases significantly when the size of their particles decreases. This phenomenon is all the more important as the particles are small. This phenomenon can be exploited in soldering products for the assembly of electronic components at low temperature (see attached documents and the associated bibliography). A lowered melting temperature indeed allows sintering at lower temperatures. Furthermore, it is known that the oxidation of a metal is exothermic. We could therefore assume that the oxidation of copper nanoparticles leads to a local temperature rise responsible for aggregation (sintering). What do you think?
Best regards.
Philippe.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
I am currently working on 3D printed copper using L-PBF. While conducting Light Optical Microscopy (LOM) I couldn't see the melt pools in the cross sections. I tried etching the Cu specimens with two etchants namely: 50% water - 50% nitric acid and Ammonium hydroxide - hydrogen peroxide. Using these two etchants I could see the grain structure but not the melt pools.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Wayne Edgar Alphonso sorry to see that your interesting technical question has not yet received any expert answers. Unfortunately I'm absolutely not an expert in this field of research. However, I made the experience that a lot of useful information is available right here on RG. It often pays off when you search the "Publications" or "Questions" sections of RG for certain research topics. In this case, please have e.g. a look at the following potentially useful article which has been posted as public full text on RG:
3D Printing of Highly Pure Copper
The following literature reference is a review article which should provide you with a good overview:
A Review on Additive Manufacturing of Pure Copper
The paper has also been posted as public full text on RG and can be freely downloaded as pdf file.
Good luck with your work and please stay safe and healthy! With best wishes, Frank Edelmann
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
1 answer
Exist a wide diversity of gilded-based objects corresponding to the early intermediate historical period. At this time, it might be thought that there was limited knowledge of electrochemical processes. However, the quality of excavated gilded pieces, such as the gilded coppers from cultures of northern Peru, suggest that the goldsmiths possessed a valuable metallurgical understanding. In this sense, some of the techniques that have been proposed are casting, embossing, electrochemical replacement, and depletion gilding.
Relevant answer
Answer
نعم ممكن استعملها
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
What could explain the loose of luminescence property of a mixed Copper(II)-Europium(III) complexes?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Patrick,
Good question and easy to explain: The Eu3+ PL is quenched by adjacent Cu2+ due to energy transfer, while Cu2+ shows PL in the NIR range, like in CaCuSi4O10 (Egyptian blue) or BaCuSi4O10 (Han blue).
All the best
Thomas
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
3 answers
Which scientist works in archaeological contexts on the so-called Beaten Copper phenomenon? In particular, the possible causes of this "disease" or the phenomenon are of interest. Would be grateful for any useful information, especially references.
Best Kurt
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Kurt, many thanks for posting this very interesting technical question on RG. As an inorganic chemist I'm absolutely no expert in this field of research. In fact, I had not even heard about the "beaten copper phenomenon" before I read your question. However, my advice here would be to use RG as a good source of information. In my experience it often pays off to search the "Publications" and "Questions" sections of RG in order to find and access relevant literature references or to read closely related questions which have been posted earlier on RG. For example, please have a look at the following potentially useful article which has been posted as pubic full text on RG:
Copper Beaten Skull! Can It be a Usual Appearance?
A search for the term "beaten copper phenomenon" revealed a good number of other relevant articles which have been posted by RG members, some of the even as public full texts:
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
4 answers
Hello,
I am setting up some reactions by using standard click chemistry: Azide + Alkyne in DMF/water, Ascorbic acid, Copper (II). I am having problems with the reprudicibility of the reaction. Sometimes it works perfectly well, the other day it does not. Does anybody could give me and advice about the pitfalls of that reaction?
- Does it matter if I use CuSO4, CuCl2 or Cu(OAc)2 ?
- Does the order matter:? E.g. I add first Azide + Alkyne, next Ascorbic Acid, then Cu(II)
- Is there a "best" ratio (equivalents) of each reagent?
- What do you think about the pH, steric hindrance of the alkyne (heat?), solvant effects?
Many thanks for your hints and help!
Best,
Sebastian
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sebastian, sorry to see that your very interesting chemical question has not yet received any expert answers. I'm sure that there are numerous RG members who are experienced with click chemistry. As an inorganic chemist I'm not an expert in this field. However, I made the experience that a lot of information about a certain research topic is easily available right here on RG. Just check the "Publications" and "Questions" sections of RG for "click chemistry" and related terms. For example, it might be helpful to check the answers given to the following closely related question which has been asked earlier on RG:
What is the best procedure for click reaction between alkyl azide and terminal alkyne group?
(33 answers)
For a good overview you might want to check the following useful review article:
Copper-Catalyzed Azide–Alkyne Click Chemistry for Bioconjugation
(please see the attached pdf file)
The following relevant link might also be helpful:
Click Chemistry Protocols
Good luck with your research and best wishes!
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
10 answers
Nowadays, many industries and activities discharge various types of heavy metal ions with their effluent including Cu, Fe, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, etc.
Is there any industry in which copper and cadmium are the major constituents of its effluents?
Relevant answer
Answer
Tannery effluent have large amount of Cr. Iron also may be present in many type of wastewater due to treated systems and pipe. Cu I don't find it in most copper industries wastewat such as wire. Ni and Co in the military industries wastewater. In fact the presence of heavy metals depending on both industry effluent and regulation limits. I mean some regulations accepted high concentration of heavy metals in wastewater.
  • asked a question related to Copper
Question
4 answers
If yes what is the concentration of acid required?
Relevant answer
Answer
Since it was used for Au , I think it can be used for Cu. See the following useful link: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2014/ra/c4ra02111h