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Conversion - Science topic

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i used python to convert but theres an error.
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
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Would you provide error details; little more description will help
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I am currently looking at attenuation of light with depth in different materials and have several measurement datasets I need to synthesize. I am mainly looking at attenuation coefficients where k_total = k_scattering + k_absorption. However, one of my data sets is only presented in terms of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the material. I know there is a conversion from m_imaginary to k_absorption via the relation k_abs = (4pi/lambda(nm))*m_im, but I can't seem to find a relation for the real part of the refractive index. I know this corresponds to scattering, but I am wondering if there is a precise relation like that for the real part of the refractive index?
Thanks!
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The problem here is the mixing of two different levels of theory. The "scattering attenuation" coefficient is an extension of the Beer-Lambert approximation. One of the most important assumptions of this approximation is that the refractive index is unity. Note that this extension is also empiric per se (analytically I cannot see how to derive it from Mie-theory or one of its extensions). In this sense it seems paradox to me to now assume that the refractive index is not unity because of the scattering coefficient. In my opinion a non-electromagnetic theory like the BBL approximation should not be mixed with electromagnetic theory...
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How calculate protein content? Why N conversion factor for estimation of the protein content of grain vary based on analytical methods and crop types?
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Protein percent counts on N % multiplied by a constant factor, wheat, rice, other sources do have specific constants for the difference of N in that protein. Please check AOAC for more details. Regards.
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Hello everyone,
We are desperately trying to get bands for PCR utilizing cell free plasma DNA extracted from cancer patients. After Bisulfite conversion, the PCR did not show any band. What could be the reason for that?
Best regards,
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Thank you Sergei, very insightful!
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I am working on a book proposal on mentoring and Professional development. I am open to a separate conversation about the topic.
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I am putting the book proposal together at this time. Can we speak by email?
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Im working on chemical reaction engineering. My raw material concentration is analysed by HPLC, after that i got conversion of raw material. Whereas product is analysed by GC MS. So how can i calculate yield of product?
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Yeild is relative, that is it is a fraction of mass (concentration) of raw material/finished product. HPLC and GC have different separation and detection criteria. For instance HPLC is dependant on water (mobile phase) solubility while GC depends on gas solubility and detectability. A prime example is an organic acid (that is water soluble) versus it ester (which is organic solvent soluble). Your best solution is to perform a mass balance of the 'core' of the molecule.
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I did ELISA for AST and ALT liver enzymes and the results are plotted in ng or pg/ml but I require these results to be in Units/L. Could anyone help?
Thanks in advance
Saranya
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unfortunately, i don't know and I want to convert ALT and AST from mg/dl to U/L
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I am working on a project where I am able to perform conversion of NIFTI to JNIFTI file. These are neuroimaging files that require conversion so that I could integrate this into NiBabel, which is a package that gives access to some common medical and neuroimaging file formats. How can I perform this conversion in Python?
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I don't know how to program with Python, and I haven't converted these files either. But I think that by using the link below and MATLAB software, you can open your files and probably convert them to other formats.
Best regards
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Dear all,
I am a student pursuing a master degree in psychology (conversion). I am interested in how human have their own unique styles in making a decision or solving a problem.
According to the Brief-COPE assessment, there are 3 major styles; problem-based, emotion-based, and avoidance. My question is about how to interpret the result.
1. What does it mean about showing percentile of each style and why is it essential?
2. How to say prefer which style to the others as each sub-scale holds unequal number of items?
3. Can a person possess all styles?
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Hi Oramate,
Measuring coping strategies with COPE is most useful when you want to find general trends associated with a coping strategy, not for comparing one individual to others.
Concerning your questions using the Brief Cope with individuals. . .
1. For determining percentiles, you need to standardize the scale which means collecting lots of data from the desired population. Every population (defined by nationality, ethnicity, age, education, gender, etc.) would need to be standardized differently. Plus, norms change over time, so the standardization might not be valid for very long.
2. Concerning preferred coping strategy, it's best to discuss the results with the individual. Ask them what they think their relative scores mean.
3. People use many coping strategies, often from all 3 categories and simultaneously. It would be very rare for people to only use one category of strategy.
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I don't know the concentration. Is conversion possible? Thank you in advance.
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Epsilon is the extinction coefficient in Beer's Law, I presume. If you have the log of epsilon, take the antilog to get epsilon. Then use Beer's Law, the concentration of the solution and the path-length to calculate the absorbance:
Absorbance = epsilon x path-length x concentration
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I am looking for reliable data processing to convert cubic meters of Quercus cerris (Hungarian oak) wood into CO2 equivalent. Thank you.
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Hi Fabrizio,
We have to start with a boundary condition. The boundary condition is that all the carbon in the Quercus wood is converted in CO2 (like burning wood in a stove till only inorganic ash remains.
If this boundary condition is met, then the problem is reduced to a good estimate of the carbon content of (Quercus) wood.
Let's assume that we take 1 m³ as a standard volume to convert. The carbon content of trees is usually calculated from wood volume equations (in m³) which include basic wood density (Mega-gram of dry biomass per m³) and a conversion factor for the %C in dry biomass (Houghton et al. 1990).
Basic wood density is defined as the oven dry weight of wood divided by the volume of wood. It is commonly considered as an indicator of wood quality and varies widely among species. On the other hand, a concentration ratio of 50% is used to convert tree biomass to carbon stock for operational level purposes. This simplification has been proposed as a default value by the IPCC (Houghton et al. 1990), even though carbon content varies between tree species. See also:
Variation in carbon concentration and basic density along stems of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) in the Cantabrian Range (NW Spain).
Available from the URL:
Example:
For Quercus petrea the %C varies between 46 and 50 or in MgC/ha between 184 and 216.
For Quercus pyrenaica the %C varies between 45.6 and 50 or in MgC/ha between 94 and 121.
To go from C to CO2 (equivalent), apply the rule of three, based on the molecular weights of C and C02.
Hope this helps,
CHeerz
Frank
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Dear Colleagues,
I have been performing the adhesion studies for my polymeric patches in the TA.XT plus texture analyser instrument.
The unit displayed for the adhesion force is in newton (N) or kilogram (Kg). I need to convert the newton unit to a pascal or kilopascal unit. Can anyone let me know the mathematical conversion for this?
Kindly suggest.
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While I know nothing about adhesion of polymeric patches, I know that newton is a unit of force and pascal is a unit of pressure, i.e. force/area. Therefore I would say that you can convert by dividing the reported newtons by the number of square meters over which this force is applied (area). I assume that the area is much smaller than a square meter so that you get a much larger number than the number of newtons. If you divide your calculated pressure by 1000, you get kilo-pascal. :-)
I hope that answers your questions...
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Greetings,
It is commonly said in the literature that BCNT relies on the collision of 10B with thermal neutrons to yield the following reaction, in which 11B is described as unstable.
10B + n° → [11B] → 7Li + 4He + gamma ray
I was wondering how the 11B could be so unstable after conversion from a 10B considering that usually 11B is said to have a natural abundance of 80% and to be a stable isotope of boron.
Any explanation about this phenomenon would be welcome.
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Temporal B-11 nucleus is in a highly excited state. Hence, the equation should be written as
10B + n° → [11B*] → 7Li + 4He + gamma ray .
If you want to know more, look up "compound nucleus," proposed by Bohr in 1936.
The lifetime of the composite nucleus is considered about 10^(-20) seconds,
which is a very different from the stable nucleus that you are thinking of.
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Conventional Pretreatment - Using chemicals
Membrane Pretreatment
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Typical seawater desalination pre-treatment processes are:
A very economical way to prevent biofouling is the chlorination of seawater. Unfortunately, chlorine oxidizes the membrane material and therefore only 0.02 mg/L can be tolerated.
A standard dechlorination process is an injection of sodium bisulphite or metabisulphite, which acts as a chlorine deactivator. Another solution is the use of granular activated carbon.
Organic matter (OM), particles and colloids can be removed by conventional treatment, namely coagulation followed by media filtration for slightly cloudy water. Additional steps such as flocculation and settling are added in the case of very turbid water coming from shallow water.
The unconventional treatment for MOs, particles and colloids is ultrafiltration.
An antiscalant should be added before passing through the membranes to disperse the calcium carbonates and sulphate precipitates in order to avoid scaling.
Fine filtration (5-micron) is required just before passing through the reverse osmosis membranes to prevent debris or sand particles from damaging the membranes.
Regards
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I have total annual rainfall in mm. e.g. the value is 38.13 mm. How can I convert this from mm to metre/seconds?
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You have 38.13 mm.year-1 total rainfall
There are 31, 536,000 sec in a year
Therefore, 38.13 / 31,536, 000 = 1.20909x10-6 mm.s-1
Therefore, 1.20909x10-6 / 1000 = 1.20909x10-9 m.s-1
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I dealuminated proton form of ZSM-5 and achieved a good conversion with zero trace of fructose, but when it was modified with a Lewis Acid metal (Sn), the conversion decreased with a trace of fructose (<2%). Sn is Lewis Acid and its inclusion is supposed to influence the rate of isomerization of Glucose to fructose effectively, but it's the other way round. Any suggestions to this result please?
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@Lyubov Patrylak Thanks for your suggestions.
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Please suggest me some eminent groups working on photocatalytic chemical conversions like hydrogen evolution or carbon dioxide to methanol or N2 to ammonia
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If you use Google to search for "photocatalysis research institutions" it will return a number of useful links
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Producing a standard score for a neuropsych test normally involves browsing norms tables, finding a particular table that matches a demographic, finding the appropriate raw to standard conversion, then manual entry. Unfortunately, this process can be quite error prone.
Is it possible to instead use a calculated field and lookup tables to both (1) choose the correct table of normative data and (2) choose the correct standard score for a given raw score?
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  • radioactivity conversion
  • gamma emmitters
  • Bq/g to ppm
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With C = activity concentration in Bq/l, volume V[l]= Mw mass of water in kg
and MCs= mass of Cs137, Avo= Avogadro number 6.02*10^23 atoms/mol
Atm= atomic mass 137 g/mol , T1/2 in sec
activity = C * Mw[kg] = ln2 *MCs[mg] * Avo / (T1/2 * 10^3 * Atm)
ppm = MCs[mg]/Mw[kg] = C[Bq/l] * T1/2 * 10^3 * Atm / (ln2 * Avo)
A very low concentration indeed, even for a high activity.
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I came to this question as I took a role of respondent recently. The researcher presented his research topic and he guided a conversation, so he had questions in mind to which he needs to hear my answers. The interview was ended a bit abruptly, but I assume that had happened not before he had his answers. Though.... I still had some things to say, which in my opinion were important in order to represent my personal case on the matter. As a respondent, am I allowed to say something to the researcher if in my opinion he is skipping something important for the topic of our conversation? I have had respondents to comment questions in my questionnaire what had given me an extra perspective so I was glad about that. But today, when I was in the role of a respondent I started doubting a bit, and started wondering how others see the role of respondent, what "rights" does one have in a research interview?
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choice of the opposite one... !!!
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is there a conversion tool from CHARMM36 to MARTINI force field?
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We carried out following reaction where the amine formation from bromine compound , we have analyzed MALDI mass, showing final conversion in mass spectra and IR spectroscopy showing free amine strechings at 3428cm-1 and 3339 cm-1 but there is no stronger broad peak in H1NMR at designeted delta value.
Any kind of suggetions are welcome.
Thank you
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Chadli Redouane, thank you for your suggestion,
The product showed the IR peak at ~3400cm-1 and 1650cm-1 corresponding to free amine stretching and bending respectively. if there was an intermediate of azide rather than converted amine there must have been a broad peak at 2200cm-1 which would attribute to N=N but I didn't get it in the final product. Additionally MALDI has shown the correct value.
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Hello researchers !
Could you please explain me or help me get the references or books about the basics and fundamentals of time decay/ PL life time/ decay time processes of PL downconversion ?
kindly help me , get some references!
Is there any standard mechanism for time decay?
How are increasing and decreasing time decay measured with a fixed excitation for a particular emission related to concentration of activator ions?
please help me understand this!
Thank you all !
With regards,
Manoj
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Here is a reference for your query...
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Hello everyone!
Can anyone please help me out in plotting an energy graph in gromacs, the problem is that I've simulated my system for 1 microsecond and since at every 2 pico second the output is written, my energy.xvg is a huge data file. In order to plot a significant data, I want to plot the energy curve with a scale of 1 unit=10ns on the x-axis.
So, please suggest me a conversion method for the pico second data to be written in nano seconds so that the analysis is simplified.
Thanks in advance
Have a good day!
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It seems that the gmx energy tool of gromacs doesn't have a flag option to choose the frequency of the output.
The best you can do in my opinion is to produce the .xvg file and then cut it down with some tool like awk, for example
$> awk 'NR%10==0' energy.xvg > new_energy.xvg
will take every 10th line of your energy file and save it in the new_energy.xvg file. If your output originally has 2ps steps and you want the values only after 10ns you have to skip 5000 points, that is
$> awk 'NR%5000==0' energy.xvg > new_energy.xvg
should produce a new_energy.xvg file with data every 10 ns. Only thing to consider should be that the first lines are comments probably starting with @ since it is an .xvg generated by gromacs, so the results will be a bit skewed, but you can modify the command to avoid the first lines.
Best
Nicola
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Let's think about something like this: Can we get another speed and amount of light using the speed and amount of light? While I was taking attendance at my friend's student dormitory, I thought about the possibility of an object interacting with light, creating a light length depending on the object, and thus going on forever. What thing in the universe can be equivalent to the intensity and speed of a light, that is, a photon? Or, with a different question, how could the photon and the speed of light be formed? If light is reflected from the photon interaction with an object, what do we deduce from this? How can we obtain a different light speed and intensity from here? Let's think: We said that what could be equivalent to the intensity and speed of a light, namely a photon, in the universe, the reflection between the light and the object would also change depending on the motion. So it would change depending on the acceleration because the faster I move, the faster and farther the reflection between the light and the object would have the potential to travel. So how do you get another speed of light from a photon? If a light creates a light reflection depending on the acceleration, that is, the change in motion depending on the object, there must be no acceleration in order for there to be a counter-light speed in the universe. To think of a counter-speed of light, that is, an unconstant speed of light in the universe, we need to find a place where there is no acceleration. that is, a place where there is no gravity, so our universe is actually suitable for the opposite speed of light. So how do we find the opposite speed of light in the universe? If the normal speed of light is dependent on acceleration in the universe, that is, if a = c'2, the counter acceleration will be a not = c'2. So what happens when that happens? The point in the universe from F=m.a to F=E will be F=NOT E. that is, there will be a universe where force is not equal to energy. So how does such a universe work? What if force is not equal to energy? Let's first look at what happens when force equals energy. When force equals energy, it will be necessary to create the speed of light due to motion. When force is not equal to energy, it will be necessary to create the speed of light that does not depend on motion. The speed of light, which is not dependent on motion, will result from the conversion of accelerated motion to the speed of light. In that case, the light transforms within itself in the universe; From the speed of light, which is not dependent on motion, the speed of light due to motion occurs, and thus acceleration is needed. Because it consists of accelerated motion. Thanks.
Şöyle bir şey düşünelim: Işığın hızını ve miktarını kullanarak bir başka ışık hızı ve miktarı elde edebilir miyiz? Bunu dostumun öğrenci yurdunda yoklama alırken bir nesnenin ışıkla etkileşerek ışığın nesneye bağlı olarak ışık uzunluğu oluşturması ve böylece sonsuza kadar gidebilme ihtimalini düşünmüştüm Peki doğada böyle bir şey farklı yönden olabilir mi? Evrende hangi şey bir ışığın yani fotonun şiddetine ve hızına eşdeğer olabilir? veya farklı soruyla, foton ve ışık hızı nasıl oluşuyor olabilir? Eğer bir nesneyle fotonun etkileşiminden ışık nesneye göre yansıyorsa buradan ne çıkartırız?Buradan nasıl farklı bir ışık hızı ve şiddeti elde edebiliriz? Düşünelim: Evrende hangi şey bir ışığın yani fotonun şiddetine ve hızına eşdeğer olabilir demiştik ışıkla nesne arasındaki yansıma harekete bağlı olarak da değişecekti. Yani ivmeye bağlı olarak değişecekti çünkü ben ne kadar hızlı hareket edersem ışık ve nesne arasındaki yansıma o kadar daha hızlı ve uzağa gitme potansiyeli taşıyacaktı.Öyleyse bir ışıktan yani fotondan bir başka ışık hızı nasıl elde edilir? Eğer bir ışık , nesneye bağlı olarak ivmeye yani hareket değişikliğine bağlı olarak ışık yansımasını oluşturuyorsa evrende karşı bir ışık hızı olması için ivmenin olmaması gerekir. Evrende karşı bir ışık hızı yani sabit olmayan bir ışık hızı düşünmek için ivmelenmenin olmadığı bir yer bulmamız gerekir. yani yerçekiminin olmadığı bir yenr o halde evrenimiz aslında karşıt ışık hızı için müsaittir. O halde evrendeki karşıt ışık hızını nasıl bulacağız? Normal ışık hızı evrende ivmelenmeye bağlı ise yani a =c'2 ise karşıt ivmelenme a not = c'2 olacaktır. Peki böyle olduğunda ne olacaktır? Evrende F=m.a dan F=E olan nokta F=NOT E olacaktır. yani kuvvetin enerjiye eşit olmadığı bir evren olacaktır. Peki böyle bir evren nasıl çalışır? Kuvvet enerjiye eşit değilse ne olur? Önce kuvvet enerjiye eşit olduğunda ne olur ona bakalım bunun için. kuvvet enerjiye eşit olduğunda harekete bağlı ışık hızı yaratmak gerecektir. kuvvet enerjiye eşit olmadığında harekete bağlı olmayan ışık hızı yaratmak gerekecektir. Harekete bağlı olmayan ışık hızı ise ivmelenmiş hareketin ışık hızına dönüşmesinden meydana gelecektir. O halde ışık kendi içinde dönüşüme uğrar evrende ; harekete bağlı olmayan ışık hızından harekete bağlı ışık hızı meydana gelir ve böylece ivmelenmeye ihtiyaç duyulur. Çünkü ivmelenmiş hareketten oluşur. Teşekkürler.
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Light speed cannot reach the value c. c is an upper limit for the speed of light.
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I trying a reaction to protect 5'-OH of a modified nucleoside with DMT-Cl and DIPEA in pyridine. I have used 2 eq of DMT-Cl for 24 hour at room temperature. But the reaction is still incomplete. I have found a lot of starting material unreacted after monitoring by TLC. How can I reach the completion of this reaction?
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If you used the ratio of DMT-Cl to your nucleoside as 1.05:1, and your nucleoside possessed a primary 5'-OH, the reaction would be over in 2 h. As it is not the case, there are two options: 1. the moisture is present in the reaction mixture and 2. your DMT-Cl is contaminated with DMT-OH. To repeat this synthesis successfully, you can begin with drying the nucleoside by triple co-evaporation with anhydrous pyridine. The reaction then can be carried out by stirring the suspension of the nucleoside in anhydrous pyridine with 1.05 equiv. of DMT-Cl. No additional catalysis is required or recommended. TLC analysis is best done in MeOH-DCM 1:9 or 1:19. If the reaction does not work under the anhydrous conditions or furnishes an isolated yield of <90%, then your DMT-Cl is most likely partially hydrolyzed to DMTOH. Get a new one or heat the one you have with Ac-Cl (5 equiv.) at 60 to 80oC for 3 to 4 h. Evaporate the solvent, co-evaporate with toluene two times, and dry on an oil pump. If desired, recrystallize from toluene-hexane. Store DMT-Cl at a temperature < 4oC with protection from moisture and light. Repeat the synthesis as described above.
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I need article on the topic ASL to speech conversion for my project. Kindly help me if you can.
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Basically i am working on a project that converts American sign language to text and speech. So i wanted help on this regarding some key points.
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Hi, everyone! I have a question about Aspen HYSYS / Unisim Design: What's rate units means? I work with heterogeneous catalytic reactions in a plug flow reactor (PFR), and most of these reactions are specified with kg,catalyst instead of volume. And these simulation softwares have cubic meter (m³) in rate units.
My question is: This cubic meter it's about what? Cubic meter of the reactor? Cubic meter of the catalyst? I need to know that information for units conversion (kg,catalyst to volume).
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André Oliveira , you can also check out their materials in this link (https://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~ceng403/hysys/pfex.htm). I believe it would be of help to you. Regards
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I oxidize limonene in a 3-neck round flask, the main neck is connected to the condenser, I heat the limonene, catalyst (CuY or CuO/Y) at 60-70 Celsius Degree for 4, 6, 8, 10 hours. All of the samples (gas chromatography method) show high conversion rate but really low selectivity. Can anyone tell me how to increase it?
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I will try it and see the result. Thank you, Mr. Yurii V Geletii
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I have a molecule wherein the molecule has a ketone; however, it transforms into an ester after conversion.
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Thank you! Will try it later!
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Hi, everyone
I was reading many PCR protocols where I found that 100 pmol = 100uM. I am unable to understand this conversion as I found in google that 1pmol = 1000000 micromol.
can anyone guide me in a detailed way?
Thank you
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Concentration molar unit conversion between picomol/microliter and microMolar:
The rule is that 1 pmol/uL = 1 uM, so 100 pmol/uL = 100 uM.
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Hello,
I am doing LIVE/DEAD staining of biofilms on different surfaces and taking z stack images by CSLM ( Olympus Fluoview FV1000).
Then I am using COMSTAT to estimate biomass thickness roughness coefficient etc.
I am following the procedure detailed on COMSTAT 2.1 manual for making the stacks and image conversion and so, but I am getting different values for these parameters depending on the channel (red of green), and the two value are sometimes very different.
Is this usual or I am doing something wrong?
Many thanks
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Md. Ashrafudoulla Convert the images to 8 bit-OME Tiff. The issue will be resolved.
For more details you can follow this article:
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I want to know which weight is better to estimate carbon. Dry weight or wet weight?
And what is the conversion formula?
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Look the link, maybe useful.
Regards,
Shafagat
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Hi,
Could someone help me teaching me the easiest way to convert .rasx (from Rigaku) to .raw (from Bruker - EVA)?
Thank you
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Hello Bruno,
There are multiple ways to convert between XRD file types. Without getting into too much detail, the simplest way is to use the PowDLL software that is free at the following website: http://users.uoi.gr/nkourkou/powdll/
Good luck and cheers!
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While methylation of the fats for fatty acid analysis, what is the possibility of conversion of a saturated straight chain fatty acid to a branched chain fatty acid. Because after fatty acid analysis the results are showing more of branched chain fatty acids. For example my sample are detected with Isolauric Acid and Isomyristic acid rather than Lauric and Myristic acid.
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Hi
You need to process the fatty acids with some kind of reactions, oxidation, heating....
As the following paper
I hope this helps!
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According to (USEPA IRIS 2011), the toxicity responses (dose responses) to heavy metals are given as the oral reference dose (RfD) and oral slope factor (SF)) by (mg/kg/day) and (mg/kg-day)1, respectively.
Does a health risk assessment (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic analysis) require unit conversion from mg/l to mg/kg?
In other words, what is the unit of concentration of heavy metals to be used in all stages of the assessment of the risks of heavy metals ?
Thanks
Azzeddine
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Humans can get exposed to various chemical substances via oral route (i.e, eating food, drinking groundwater, hand to mouth transfer). It is necessary to determine the maximum amount of a chemical that can be ingested on a daily basis to protect human health. That is why we need to calculate the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). For pesticide residues and food contaminants, ADI may also be called Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI). The US Environmental Protection Agency has replaced ADI and TDI with the single term, reference dose (RfD).
For food additives or food contact additives and other consumer risk assessments, we calculate the ADI first,  compare it with estimated exposure levels to determine whether risks are acceptable.
Unit of ADI
The unit of ADI for a chemical substance is mg/kg bw/d or mg/kg bw. It means xxx mg per kg body weight per day or mg per kg body weight.
Regards
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before 2007 thought its work as an agonist
after 2007 changes to consider the antagonist
what u say?
can give a reason for this conversion in scientific hypothesis
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The issue is not my specialty , with my best wishes.
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Can any one suggest me a good discussion site or anyone willing to discuss regarding this?
I have a series of doubts in ammonia to Hydrogen conversion.
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robin marlar Rajendran Dear Sir, the topic you meant to discuss here is one such hot and emerging and must need for sustainable future. Of course, hydrogen gonna play an important role in the days near. However, the production techniques are vast, each are subjected to their own limitations.
In your context of Ammonia to Hydrogen conversion, catalyst based membrane are much effective than photonic based. However, the most challenging task which I suppose is the operating temperature. Conventionally most predominant catalyst are Ni based, which aren't tolerable at high temperature. On the other hand, we can see calcium amide supported Ni catalyst, Pd/Ta composite with Ru/La-Al2O3, Pd-Ag (keep in mind that this should be on-porous) are few advanced catalyst membrane that performs better in every aspects.
Moreover, I feel, there isn't any great forum rather than Researchgate to discuss scientific contents. If you can able to add the same in discussion than in question section, we can expect more reach and get effective responses from the people.
Best Wishes, Dinesh Kumar Madheswaran.
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I am looking for journals/special issues that satisfy the following-
1. Scopes: human-computer interaction, conversational agent, relational agent, virtual agent, mobile technology, pervasive computing, etc.
2. Rank: Q1
3. Review Process: Rapid
4. Publication Type: Hybrid/Open Access
Thanks!
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Use
Same idea can be found in springers and other publishers
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I have assayed rat FSH and LH in serum and the kit instructions show that the units are mU/ml. How to convert this unit to ng/ml.
Thanks in advance.
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@Homa Darmani
Hello
Actually not.
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I do apologize. wrong question already was asked .The correct question is as follows:
I want to extract precipitation, runoff and temperature data from nc format to text or excel for my study area
I did this several times in GIS, but it gave me figures that were unexpected. I don't know what conversion should be done on these figures.
I will be appreciated for any help
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Dear Leila
You should search '' make net CDF table view'' in Arc gis. After uploading your NetCDF file you can extract it by coordination, parameter and time. Ask me if you have any questions.
Here is my article using some of the data in this way.
Kind regards
Amir
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Hi,
Thank you in advance for your replies.
I am looking for the conversion of microplastic and nanoplastic particles whose concentrations in experiments are measured in particles/mL or particles/L to microgram/L.
There is a conversion formula which is used in case of Au and Ag particles, but I assume the same cannot be applied here since they are microplastics.
All answers are welcome to solve this conversion.
Thank you
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It will be difficult for another reason:
"Microplastics like polypropylene are lighter than seawater and will float and disperse widely across waterways. Microplastics like acrylic are denser than seawater and will accumulate in the deepest parts of the ocean"
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I know that THP-1 cells become adherent after exposure to PMA. Aside from this, are there any gross morphological characteristics that can be assessed by simple bright field microscopy? The vast majority of the cells attached to the substratum are ovoid in appearance, however there is a subset of the population that often exhibits two or more lateral processes, while some a almost completely flat with multiple processes. Is there a distinction between these cells? Does this morphological change become more pertinent after polarization of M0 to M1 and M2 as well? Conversely, is this merely representative of a more broad variability within the population?
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Query on conversion tool.
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If you need to convert ellipsoidal height to orthometric, you can use the Arithmetic function to apply the H = h - N equation.
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Reaction of I with palladium acetate, 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP), K2CO3, water and NMP under 30 psi of carbon monoxide at 120 C gives II. Please explain the mechanism for the conversion. thanks in advance.
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A "classic" in catalysis,
;good overview of carbonylation reactions and the use of different ligands.
Also the cat. cycle is shown.
Best regards
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what are the challenges and opportunities in implementation of conversational marketing for the promotion of any brand, please give your valuable suggestions.
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Conversational marketing is marketing that talks to consumers . This can be done through live chat, chatbots, voice assistants or other forms of conversational Although, Conversational marketing allows you to turn things that are traditionally seen as marketing materials and make them interactive. ensuring safety, understanding emotion of consumers, conversation in native language and Simultaneous conversations are the important challenges before marketers in conversational marketing.
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According to the studies, I have followed they described it as 'the estimation assumed 80% extraction efficiency (Kemp, 2006), 10% postharvest loss, and oil yield conversion of 1 kg ha−1 to 0.439 L volume biodiesel'.
Can anyone share the procedure?
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80% extraction efficiency means that there is only mechanical pressing of the oil content. The simple way to calculate convert your feedstock calculate yield than relate to production rate figures adjusted by 10% loss. This is it.
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The “green economy” is a fashionable economic opportunity that is mainly framed in the political discourse. Renewable, efficient energy sources and environmental protection are listed among its themes. Since those themes also have scientific implications that transcend economic policies, perhaps, it might be interesting to try and size some purely scientific issues.
To address a specific point, I wonder whether “efficiency” and “environmental impact” boil down to replacing fossil fuels with solar, wind, nuclear, …, energy in general, or whether the above words also mean that the conversion efficiency can be adjusted so that each type of power consumer is supplied by an adequate type of source. Joule, Rankine, Kelvin, and others reasoned that only the production of motive power matters, such as the motive power of chemical action, for example, and ventured into the determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat. Is the current task of dealing with conversion efficiency compatible with energy conservation? Or else, when having in mind to match the available sources to various different purposes is there a need to revise the concept of energy?
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Hi,
for me it is clear that energetics development could/should be coupled with individual (person) development.
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Hi, I'm doing bisulfite sequencing to study DNA methylation status of my target gene.
I'm using QIAamp DNA Mini kit(QIAGEN) for obtaining gDNA samples and EZ DNA Methylation-Lightning Kit(Zymo Research) for bisulfite conversion.
As protocol from zymo said that 200~500ng gDNA 20ul is optimal condition for bisulfite conversion, I'm using 200~500ng gDNA(sometime 500ng if my gDNA concentration is enough, but sometime I use around 200~300ng if my gDNA concentration is low.)
My problem is I think I'm getting unexpected results.
In my lab I'm the first person to study DNA methylation and use such kind of kits, I'm trying to get same, or similar results from previously published paper before I get results of my target gene.
The gene used in the paper was highly methylated and methylation status of each CpG sites were around 60~90%(mostly 70, 80%)
But when I did sequencing, only 50% were methylated.
Also CpG sites from each colony was all methylated or all unmethylated.
(I mean, I tried sequencing from 8 colonies and results from 4 colonies said all of the CpG was methylated and results from rest of the colonies said all of the CpG was unmethylated-so I'm hard to trust my results.)
I don't think bisulfite reaction didn't work because almost of non-CpG cytosines was converted to uracil.
I think I'm doing something wrong with my expreiments, so I needs some advices.
1. Is gDNA around 200~300ng not sufficient to perform bisulfite conversion? I've heard that too less gDNA amount or too much bisulfite treating could cause conversion of methylated cytosin to uracil. If it's not sufficient, how much would be optimal?
2. Is it common to get only all-or-none methylated result as me?
3. I didn't use RNaseA during extracting gDNA so maybe some RNA will be remaining in my gDNA. Would this be big problem?
4. Are there some other factors that could be a cause of unsuccessful or unreliable bisulfite conversion/sequencing? (There would be a lot, but I want to check if I'm missing something.)
If you have any other ideas or advices to perform successful bisulfite sequencing, I would like to know it whatever it is. Thank you for reading long question.
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Hi!
In our lab, we use the EpiTect Bisulfite Kit (Qiagen) for the bisulfite conversion and we work with very small amounts of gDNA (~20-100ng). Unfortunately, I don't have experience with the Zymo kit, but EpiTect works really well for us. We work with blood samples and cell cultures.
What kind of colonies are you analyzing? Is it the same organism as in the paper to which you compare your data? Gene methylation varies across tissues as well, so you could get different results if you analyze your target region for example in plasma, liver tissue, or saliva.
Maybe you can get some control DNA with known methylation levels, and test your workflow? I see that Zymo has this kind of methylated and non-methylated DNA Set: https://www.zymoresearch.com/products/human-methylated-non-methylated-dna-set-dna-w-primers
Good luck!
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Hello,
I am working with a kit that does not have a conversion rate defined.
How can I find the conversion factor? Is there a WHO log file for IU change in copy for CMV viral load?
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A quantitive value( reported in Iu/ml and logIu/ml) indicate the level of CMV disease ,CMV DNA (i.e, viral load) present in the plasma.A number of factors can affects CMV viral load resultd including the specimen type (whole blood versus plasma),biological properties of CMV. Attached ref.illustrate conversion factors fro Mayo Clinic Laboreties.Clin infct.Dis.2013 Jun;56(11):1546_1553
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Hello there,
I have completed dynamic 1H NMR experiments to study a reaction in DMSO. I have obtained my rates and rate constants for various temperatures and calculated the thermodynamic parameters for my second order reaction which is an SN2 reaction.
I have computed at DFT/B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p)/GD3 in DMSO (PCM) in Gaussian a scan which follows the reactants through the TS to the product. From this I have :
i) separate reagents, A and B
ii) the pre-reactive complex, A+B
iii) the TS, AB (using QST3 and berny optimization, followed by IRC to confirm the reactants and products)
I calculated the rate constant using the following equation:
k=(kb·T)/h * EXP (-ΔG/RT)
I have two issues. The first is the above equation has units of s-1 and not M-1 s-1 for a second order reaction. Often it is stated in textbooks to include a unit conversion of 1/c0 where c0 has units of M using the equation below
k=(kb·T)/h *1/c0* EXP (-ΔG/RT)
But I'm not sure if this c0 was suppose to carry a value different from 1M.
The second issue is that the calculated rate constant I obtain is larger than my experimental value of 7.3 × 10−3 M-1 s-1. I have tried using the ΔG as the difference between:
i) the TS and pre-reactive complex, but this results in an extremely large rate constant (1.33 × 102),
ii) the TS and separate reagents, much better approximation but still larger (1.24 × 10−2).
How do I match the theoretically calculated rate constant to experimental value with units of M-1 s-1. Is there a conversion I need to do or a different equation I need to use?
I’d appreciate any help, thank you in advance
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Thank you both for your input, I really appreciate it.
Saeedreza Emamian, I'm aware of the 1 atm standard state in the Gaussian calculation and I was wondering if this would be of concern, followed by the contribution of low vibrational frequencies, which I have tried to correct for as well by setting those below 100 cm-1 to 100 cm-1. Both have not lead to great improvement of my calculated values. I will try Orca as you have suggested. I have never used the program before, but always keen to learn something new especially if might help. Thank you for also giving insight into the basis sets I can test.
Morteza Jamshidi, I will try go though the IOP's. That is completely new to me, and thank you for pointing it out!
Thank you again to both of you for answering my question!
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Is there any conversion method or equation that I can use to convert free radicals concentration from M (or ppm) unit to spin/g? Any insight or suggestions regarding this will be highly appreciable.
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Thanks Kashif Ameer . Appreciate it.
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forrtl: severe (64): input conversion error, unit 9 file C:\D\swatThesisP\test\Scenarios\Default\TxtInOut\000010001.sol
I have checked the format of file, all is ok but still this error appears every time?
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Kindly guide Dr. Sonia Mehry
Regards
Meraj
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I have a chlorophyll corrected Pmax measurement with the unit: µg C (µg Chl)–1 h–1, which I need to convert to µg O2 (µg Chl)–1 h–1, as it is needed for a DO model.
I haven't been able to find a conversion coefficient.
Thank you for your time and help.
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This is very important stage and can be done in different ways. Attached files can help you;
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I have a protein with a concentration of 0.1mg/ml. Its average molecular weight is about 16 Kda. I have to apply this protein to my sample as 5 nM, 50nM and 500nM to stimulate my cells. How many microliter do I need?
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Dear Lauren Scaggs-Brownie,
I have attached the file which required calculations have been mentioned.
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How to calculate solar to hydrogen conversion? for hydrogen production through water splitting techniques under visible light irradiation (Xe lamb)
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Dear mam,
thank you
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whether nitrification inhibitor completely restrict the conversion from NH4-N to NO3-N or delay the conversion? if yes, to what extent be it will inhibit?
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The process of conversion of ammonium into nitrates is a two step microbial process , could take time from few hours to few weeks , depending upon soil and associated environmental conditions..
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I have tried to use the conversion factor of 0.0079 which tends to work for sunlight but I'm aware that although the sad lamp is meant to mimick sunlight it isn't exactly the same, hence when trying to calculate power conversion efficiency ratings I'm getting ridiculous values. Any suggestions would be appreciated.
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I have a set of CT scans performed on a GE Revolution of bones of which I need to know Bone Mineral Density in gr/cm2. All I have is Hounsfield Units. Is there a way (software or similar) to obtain this conversion?
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There has been research published about this and many often forget that it depend a lot on the scanner/technique/operator. So I think we only really might be able to do that for our local scanner and cannot generalise to other scanners/facilities.
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I want to convert methane without any sort of catalyst to another gas. can the researchers please share some guidelines to do that. Is it possible for this conversion
may be some mathematical data or some research papers that are on this topic are presented can be helpful too
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Hi,
The reforming of methane is possible with or without catalysts. However, the with catalyst an alternate lower activation barrier is provided so that the same reaction can take place at a lower temperature.
Several studies have reviewed the reforming of methane without using catalyst, you may refer to the literature below:
DOI: 10.1039/c9ra09835f
Thanks
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I want to convert flow rate unit Cubic centimeters per minute to KPa. What would be the conversion for 60 SCCM of H2 in KPa.?
Thank you
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I recommend you use PV=znRT.
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Good morning,
I tried converting seismic SAC data into SAF using Geopsy, but the results were not satisfactory. Is there any other way to do that conversion from SAC to SAF?
Thank you
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i am using seisaf program to convert 1.man file of seisan in sAF format but it convert only one top station in saf format and not converting others...any one please healp me in this matter
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I want to collect a speech dataset of real world interview conversations between two persons. Which microphone / recording instrument is advisable for it so that it doesn't interfere with the process ? Please suggest
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what do you mean with it does not interfere with the process.
Eventually you can use a microphone and an MP3 digital video recorder/player.
The sound will be stored in digital files that cab be easy retrieved and sorted.
Best wishes
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My phd research is leading me to speak with senior nurses that work at an executive level in other countries to gain an insight to their experience- to interview internationally - do I need to idenitfy the ethics application process per specific county?
Can I interview retired nurses?
or Could I have conversations with them and journal their reflections and include in my Phd?
any advice appreciated?
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I am totally agree with Aref Wazwaz.
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In the reaction of an aldehyde with malononitrile (Knoevenagel Condensation), the conversion calculation must be based on which of the raw materials (aldehyde or malononitrile)?
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Dear Mahdie, I think that Patrick already provided the perfect answer to your interesting technical question. If you run the reaction in a molar ratio of 1:1 then you can calculate the conversion based on any of the starting materials. When e.g. the malononitrile is used in an access, then the calculation should be based on the aldehyde.
In this context you might be interesting in reading the following article in which a "green" version of the Knoevenagel condensation is reported:
The green Knoevenagel condensation: solvent-free condensation of benzaldehydes
This useful paper is freely available as public full text on RG.
Good luck with your research!
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The goal of the academic research unit is to connect similar research ideas with technical expertise and funding to facilitate the generation of well-designed, ethical research. Historically, government and philanthropic organizations have been the main sources of funding driving research efforts at academic institutions that enable the generation of fair and unbiased scientific knowledge to the benefit of all its citizens. Institutional oversight ensures strong research- and ethical policy adherence within the borders of its mandate before any research is undertaken or subsequent findings published in formal, peer-reviewed journals. To the fullest extent, this process has resulted in the steady, albeit slow growth of a large, credible scientific knowledge base. Alarmingly, it has become evident that the era of "Big data" has overturned this important scientific paradigm.
The explosion of social media, the proliferation of digital computing devices, and almost universal internet access have resulted in the generation of massive amounts of data that in practice can be analysed by anyone at near real-time speed without institutional or governmental oversight, creating a slew of new ethical challenges. Proprietary algorithms developed by corporate incentives process massive amounts of data to reveal information about emerging social, economic and health trends that inform market strategies and product development. Currently, it is not known to which extent this information is shared or by whom.
These technological advancements offer both opportunity as well as challenges to academic researchers. Given the speed and the amount of data being generated today, are we as academic researchers able to keep up with industry-generated knowledge and standards while bound to the confines and processes of our oversight committees and current funding models? What are the obstacles and opportunities facing the academic research milieu that ensure its relevance in the age of technological advancement? This conversation has just started. Please share your thoughts and ideas below.
Do you agree? If not, can you provide better insight?
In the end, it will be our ability to adapt to our changing environments that will ensure the relevance of the academic research institution over the years to come.
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Certainly not, the traditional style is boring and is not creative. We need a style that is liberated from the routine steps of thinking to reach the conclusion. I don't have the alternative, but someone else may have.
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Suppossing:
Landing Page A with 1300 leads is achieving a 3% conversion rate Landing Page B with 1500 leads is achieving a 10% conversion rate
First, I want to see if I have achieved enough samples (Leads or conversions) to have a statistically valid test.
Second, I want to confirm that conversion rate for Landing Page B is statistically significant, so better than the obtained for Landing Page A.
How do I determine that the sample of leads and conversions obtained are statistically representative? What would be the minimum sample to get the same success in the conversion ratio?
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Conversion could mean different things for different campaigns. With that different ways could be used to measure. What type of campaigns are you using as in your research scenarios?
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Hi all,
May I know the conversion of MS (1+4) to ML (1+4)? Or the result is similar for the difference rotor size Mooney viscosity test?
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Dear Jace,
Mooney viscometers are supplied with two standard rotors differing only in diameter. The large rotor is 38.10±0.03 mm in diameter and the small rotor has a diameter of 30.48±0.03 mm.
There is unique conversion factor to convert the MS to the ML value. It must be established for each rubber. An approximate factor of 1.8 may be used to convert MS to ML if a high degree of precision is not required.
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I envision a system embedded within a speed bump. So, whenever a vehicle passes through the speed bump (mostly at low speed) his weight will serve as a force applying pressure on the piston within the speed bump. I see a potential here of generating energy. but you could help me understand more how pressure could converse to electrical energy
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Piezoelctric generator must be the most efficient way of converting and utilising such pressure energy . Can be designed to work in both up and down movement of the bump.
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Hello,
I want to convert *.msh OR *.cas file of Ansys fluent 2021R2 to OpenFOAM. I am using workbench 2021 R2.
I have used this conversion before with older Ansys versions by simply using *.msh OR *.cas file to OpenFOAM using 'fluent3DMeshToFoam' command.
I really appreciate any suggestion/help on this issue!
BR,
Gitesh
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Use on OpenFOAM the following command:
fluentMeshToFoam [options] [file.msh] ;
If it is a 3D mesh, only put 3DMesh on the above command. Please refer to this wiki to have more information: https://openfoamwiki.net/index.php/FluentMeshToFoam
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Hi... I would like to know if there is any scientific reference for the conversion typically used for the conversion from rainfall to snowfall? Based on the information I found on some websites, the rain-to-snow ratio depends on the air temperature, and typically from 27-34 ºF this ratio is 1:10, increasing with lower temperatures. (https://goodcalculators.com/rain-to-snow-calculator/)
But I would like to know what is the scientific base on these values? Or somebody knows any paper or official report in which this conversion has been used due to missing snowfall measurements?
Thanks.
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Agreed. This is a good question! Within the U.S., we measure snow water equivalent and snow density in several ways. Two of the most commonly used are snow pillows (e.g. SNOTEL sites: https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/wcc/home/aboutUs/monitoringPrograms/) and snow tubes (i.e. manual measurements). In both cases, the weight of the snow (and, in turn, the water equivalent) is directly measured.
You'll find that the density of snow changes over time. Freshly fallen snow may exhibit a density of 1:10 (1 inch of water equivalent per 10 inches of snow depth) or higher. However, as the snowpack matures, consolidates, and begins to melt, the density increases (the water content remains roughly the same but the snow depth decreases). As such, a ratio of 1:3 within a ripe snowpack isn't uncommon.
If you want to read foundational research related to snow hydrology, this is arguably the best collection: "https://usace.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/p266001coll1/id/4172/". While it is a bit dated, this research is still used within all federal agencies that build water resources infrastructure or forecast flood conditions throughout the U.S.
Finally, check out these resources posted to our website for more information: "https://www.hec.usace.army.mil/confluence/hmsdocs/hmstrm/snow-accumulation-and-melt". There's lots of good tid bits in there as well.
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I am interested in making calculations of non-radiative constants rates like internal conversion. There is a specific function on the Gaussian package that I can use for this purpose?
Or some other program?
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There are no specific functions for this purpose. This notwithstanding, an interesting paper was published in 2018 on the use of Gaussian only to calculate the rate constants of internal-conversion and intersystem-crossing transitions. Maybe this can be applied to your case.
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I am working on a scientific paper and I wanna know which software(s) is most suited for drawing mechanical illustrations such as the ones attached below (graphs, networks, Experimental setups etc.). Preferably softwares that unable conversion to a LATEX/tikz environment.
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Hi Dr Bachir Cheraf eddine Benhacine . Srr the following:
  1. TinkerCAD. TinkerCAD an online 3D design app geared towards complete beginners coming from Autodesk.
  2. FreeCAD.
  3. BlocksCAD.
  4. Creo.
  5. Fusion 360°
  6. Solidworks.
  7. AutoCAD.
  8. CATIA.
  9. See the link: https://www.3dnatives.com/en/top10-cad-software-180320194/
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Are there any research groups that have been manufacturing spot converters and are leading in this matter? Or who manufactured the best in terms of cost and size.
This can include any type of spot-size converters (gratings, tapers and micro-optics).
Thank you.
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For SiN platform would you say the edge-couplers are leading the spot-size conversion in integrated photonics?
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Hi, I am doing experiments to make SHG beam from an ultrashort pulse laser.
I use BBO crystal and lens to focus the beam into the crystal.
I found that the output beam is a very asymmetric (looks like a line shape) shape. It was not good beam quality.
How do people make good quality SHG beam shape after frequency conversion? Is there any simple but good method?
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Attached PLS find Prof. Shoji's work.
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I am using INSAT 3D insolation data at L2C level for my research work and I am trying to visualize in MATLAB. In the data file it is clearly mentioned the unit of latitude and longitude is in 'meter' in X and Y variables in the data set. So, I am dividing with 111000 for the conversion from meter to degree but I found the output is wrong. If any one can please help me to understand the conversion. Also, I have attached the data file please have a look.
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You should first see what your coordinate system is. Then you can simply convert from cartesian to the curvelinear. For instance, if it is in geodetic coordinate system and WGS84 datum, it can be simply converted by using the ellipsoidal conversion formulae
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