Science topic

Conversation Analysis - Science topic

Conversation analysis (commonly abbreviated as CA) is an approach to the study of social interaction, embracing both verbal and non-verbal conduct, in situations of everyday life.
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We did a splitting tensile strength test on our design mix concrete and our instrument giving us results in load vs displacement from load we can find out stress by the analysis given by ASTM C496/C496M,
T= 2P/πld, but there was no conversion analysis on strain is available
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I would suggest you that the splitting test is not appropriate in this scenario. Because it would provide erronous outcomes. I would suggest you to perform a direct tensile test.
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I am using a Qualitative research style to analyse doctor-patient interactions in English and Igbo during a consultation meetings. Please how do I go about tape recording such interactions without the consent the interacters. Secondly, how do I use Gail Jefferson's CA notations to transcribe the extract of doctor-patient interactions.
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I don't think it is ethical to record such data without the consent of the subject.
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We did a splitting tensile strength test on our design mix concrete and our instrument, giving us results in load vs displacement. We can find out stress by the analysis given by ASTM C496/C496M,
T= 2P/πld, but there was no conversion analysis on strain is available
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Dear Dr. Mehran Shahpari I got your point, and thanks for the excellent technical explanation of my query. I have already done splitting tensile strength; there is any significance if will explain load vs. displacement curves in the results and discussion section....
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Can someone help me to understand the emic(insider) perspective in Conversation Analysis and ethnography? They should very different stances in different
It is explained in Ortega's book on page 228 but still, I need a clear definition
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On YouTube please watch and listen to Professor Maya Khemlani David on ethnographic research (emic/etic).
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Describe the skills and attributes that are necessary to communicate with someone who is experiencing mental health problems.
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It is a CLINICAL relationship and praxis -not a coffee chat or between friends- that usually has a Psychodynamic basis, Support Therapy and Ventilation, Catharsis, Relationship of Help, or Counseling (and can be more than one of the at the same time) ... in the end, is to use THE WORD (the "LOGOS") as a therapeutic weapon; the Asclepiades -and Hippocrates was- already told us in Classical Greece that "the Sanitary heals with the knife, the poison and the word": the knife has given foot to Surgery, the poison to Pharmacotherapy and, the word , to Psychotherapy (and they do not have to be exclusive).
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I need to cross check several words that appear in subtitles of a movie with what is spoken out in a movie - a word in English or Hindi. A list of words in time order is provided. Is there anyone who would have a capacity to help?
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Hi, I am from India, doing research on subtitles (AVT) in foreign language like Chinese, English. If you have done any research on same, may share with me also.
Thank you! @Agata Bednarek
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I am investigating the possibility of gaining first person data on inner speech
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I am also searching for the questionnaire. Any luck so far?
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I am working on a paper in Conversation Analysis, titled “Toddlers asking Amazon Echo Alexa to play the song baby shark”
When analyzing the data i faced this issue of (when toddlers ask Alexa to play the song, and Alexa doesn’t respond to them, or doesn’t process their words correctly; due to their bad articulation,, what they do is repeat themselves again with the same exact words)
Is that considered repair or confirmation.
Videos‘ links are below for better understanding.
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If they repeat themselves only or more often after Alexa's non- or wrong response, I would consider it an attempted repair. The first video clip shows a variety of both repairs and confirmations IMO. The girl frequently says 'Yeah' as a confirmation, but almost all of what I hear and see in both videos are attempted repairs. Some are way more clear than others, as when volume or annunciation changes. Although toddlers are not bad at inferring why a conversational partner doesn't respond appropriately, they are far from skilled & not infer that the partner doesn't process the pronunciation appropriately.
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Hello! I am looking for assistance with a quantitative textual analysis. Below, I've created an small sample of what our current data (conversation between two participants) looks like.
Partner A:
Hello how are you?
Partner B:
Hey, Im good thank hbu?
Partner A:
Im good, What year are you in?
Partner B:
Im in forth year.
Ideally, we are looking for a line of code or a software that could take these log files and split them into two separate word documents or text files, with all of Partner A's comments in one file and all of Partner B's comments in another. Currently, we are manually splitting files, by copying and pasting them into the separated word documents, however, this is time consuming.
Additional Info: The two separated files of each conversation we have collected will be processed through Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC).
Thank you in advance.
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Personally, I would do this sort of thing in Python 3, which is free, high-level, has a number of nice distributions with built-in IDEs, and is pretty quick to learn. I just spent a few minutes looking over your example, and I think I produced the behavior you desire with the following code:
infile = open('*the file path containing your source text*', 'r')
outfile_partner_a = open('*the path where you want partner a's output text*', 'w')
outfile_partner_b = open('the path where you want partner b's output text*', 'w')
current_outfile = outfile_partner_a
for aline in infile:
if aline == ('Partner A:' + '\n'):
current_outfile = outfile_partner_a
elif aline == ('Partner B:' + '\n'):
current_outfile = outfile_partner_b
else:
current_outfile.write(aline)
infile.close()
outfile_partner_a.close()
When this is executed, the output text file for Partner A is:
Hello how are you?
Im good, What year are you in?
And the output text file for Partner B is:
Hey, Im good thank hbu?
Im in forth year.
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I am trying to analyse discourse and will code my data. There will be two iterations of this in the form of a pre-task, intervention and post-task involving naturally occurring conversational data. I want to measure the effect of the intervention and so want to use a parametric t-test measure in order to investigate any statistically significant difference.
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Of course Tyrone Bishop , but try not to be limited to the simple T-test ; there are a lot of statistical methods in this field.
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Conversation analysis begins with the assumption that no interactional event can simply dismissed as unimportant or irrelevant. consequently, expert suggests that it is necessary to try to capture the detail of interaction in transcripts of data recordings; and this means not only transcribing what was said, but the way it was said, and making sure that things seem messy, accidental or ungrammatical are recorded in the transcript and not filtered out in some form of tidying up process
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That's the idea of Conversation Analysis, if you look at the coding legend you will see that it accounts for overlaps, pauses, breaths and a whole host of other data.
I'm in the process of transcribing a lot of radiotelephony interactions between pilots and controllers using a system proposed by Nevile (2006) which is based on CA. Take a look, really interesting.
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Nevile, M., 2006. A conversation Analysis model for examining aviation communication in context: part II - processes for analysing data. Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, 6(2), pp. 155-175.
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To measure inter-rater agreement for categorical data with more than two raters, Fleiss' kappa can be calculated. However, I am not sure whether Fleiss' kappa can be used to measure agreement between two raters only, because I have found conflicting statements in this regard. On the one hand, one can read that "Fleiss' Kappa is a way to measure agreement between three or more raters" (https://www.statisticshowto.datasciencecentral.com/fleiss-kappa/), while on the other hand it can be read that Fleiss' kappa "is suitable for studies where any constant number of m coders is randomly sampled from a larger population of coders" see
I know that it is technically possible to calculate Fleiss' kappa in the R irr package for two raters only, and this calculation does not give the same results as calculating Cohen's kappa (which is, by definition, for two raters only), as can be seen from the following R code:
> library(irr)
> data(diagnoses)
> kappam.fleiss(diagnoses[, c(1:2)]) # computes Fliess' Kappa = 0.643 for 2 raters
> kappa2(diagnoses[, c(1:2)]) # calculats Cohen's kappa = 0.651 for 2 raters
But does it conceptually make sense to calculate Fleiss' kappa for two raters only?
The reason why I would like to use Fleiss' kappa rather than Cohen's kappa despite having two raters only is that Cohen's kappa can only be used when both raters rate all subjects: "If different raters are used for different subjects, use the Scott/Fleiss kappa instead of Cohen's kappa" (http://john-uebersax.com/stat/agree.htm). In my research design, this is not the case, since I will use a constant number of 2 raters randomly sampled from a population of raters, with a different sample of 2 coders rating each subject.
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Hello Michael,
Conceptually, a generalized measure should simplify to the specific measure (for the minimum number of raters). But...
The Cohen kappa and Fleiss kappa yield slightly different values for the test case I've tried (from Fleiss, 1973, Table 12.3, p. 144). (Cohen's kappa = 0.0, Fleiss's kappa = -.00775, in both an excel worksheet I made and R library irr.)
The reason for the discrepancy is in the computation of the chance-level agreement (Pe or Pc, depending on whose notation you're following). In Cohen's kappa, it is based on the products of the two raters' marginal proportions. In Fleiss's (1971) kappa, only the marginal proportions of the respective rating categories are used (having been summed across raters, and presumed equal, it would appear, for all raters), Hence, you'll most likely get a different chance-level agreement, and the computed kappa indices will therefore not agree.
If I only were using two ratings, I'd use the Cohen kappa formula.
Good luck with your work!
References:
Fleiss, J. L. (1971). Measuring nominal scale agreement among many raters. Psychological Bulletin, 76(5), 378-382. doi:10.1037/h0031619
Fleiss, J. L. (1973). Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York, NY: Wiley.
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I am conducting a study on three-party medical interaction from CA perspective mainly focusing on epistemic asymmetry. It is observed that family member is responding to the doctor's questions even if the question is directed to the patient, still the chaperone is the dominating party and the patient is silent observer. I would be so grateful if you could refer me to any article or book about epistemic asymmetry in multi- or three-party or something about entitlement of knowledge or authority to claim knowledge?
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This might help:
'Speaking for and about a spouse with dementia: A matter of inclusion or exclusion?'
Elin Nilsson, Anna Ekström, Ali Reza Majlesi
2018 Discourse Studies
(Sorry about the horrible formatting, I'm sending this from my phone!)
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As the Vice Chair of the IEEE Computer Society, Silicon Valley, looking forward to meet potential speakers, particularly in the bay area, who can give talks in the following areas:
Artificial Intelligence, Autonomic Computing, Machine Learning
Neuromorphic computing, Smart Cities, Quantum Computing
Conversational UI, Fog Computing, 4D Printing
Smart Robots, Connected Home, Augmented Reality
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Sourabh Shastri
Assistant Professor
Kathua Campus
University of Jammu
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We are interested in looking at the interview setting from a qualitative and interactional perspective. Having employed conversation analysis as an effective research methodology within conversations, I am wondering if there have been studies with CA regarding (primarily) job interviews. Any references would be appreciated.
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Thanks to Reza, Carl, and Maria for your responses. (Don't know how to respond to your responses individually). The suggestions made will be helpful. I do know the Hutchby reference but doing a focus on "institutional settings" may offer more, as Carl states...good idea. Also, while I am engaged in CA work, the EMCAwiki site is one I didn't know so it will be helpful in a number of ways, Mara...as will the mention of grounded theory (as are most of Reza's contributions on researchgate). Thanks to the three of you for your help!
Jack
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Hi,
I would be interested in who does research on video-games (the actual gaming being done on-screen) from an EMCA perspective and where I could get hold of this research. I'm currently doing some analyses on CS:GO (esports) and finding some really interesting stuff, but I would like to read what others have done as well. I know of the studies on the interaction around the screen, however, I'm interested in the sequentiality and accountability of the actual on-screen interaction.
I found this: Reeves, S., Greiffenhagen, C., & Laurier, E. (2017). Video Gaming as Practical Accomplishment: Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, and Play. Top Cogn Sci, 9(2), 308-342.
But is there any more that I do not know of?
Thanks in advance,
/ FR
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Maria Eleonora Sciubba it seems as I had already found one of Laurier‘s texts
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I have a data set of spontaneous speech in Romanesco (Italian dialect spoken in Rome), which I need to gloss morphologically.
These are the turns in question (but there are other similar instances):
25 C; [°tsahah::=avvocà°]
26 F; nzomma viè da sé
The notation used is taken from Jefferson and the SBSC.
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I've been taught to work with the Leipzig Glossing Rules. That means glosses align vertically for ease of identification. You can have as many lines per item as needed for your analysis. I have worked with spoken Greek dialectal data (which I wanted to present to English-speaking audiences). I had 6 lines per item: 1. Dialect transcribed in Greek 2. Standard Greek equvialent transcribed in Greek 3. Standard Greek equivalent transliterated with roman characters 4. Word for word English translation 5. Morphological analysis 6. English Translation
I'm not sure how that would feed back into a Conversational Analysis piece that also has its own coding conventions. I'd imagine going with a 6-line gloss per turn will be way too much.
But then again it is more of a matter of what you want to actually claim. Is there morphological variation away from the standard language in your data? Or is it that the dialect only differs phonologically? Remember a morphological analysis deals in morphemes. So the dialect may present different morphs (allomorphs), but not different morphemes. If that's the case, glossing from the standard equivalent is fine. If not then you'could go with a phonemic gloss first and then morphologically gloss that (essentially treating the dialect as a 'different' language).
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Design-based research analytical methods rarely include CA, but as DBR typically aims to build domain theories and propose design principles to solve a problem, can CA have a role in discovering changes that happen over time during interventions? What would be the principal argument against using CA in DBR?
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Dear Colleague Jelena Marjanovic ,
Good question.
For those not exactly in your field I give a Wikipedia definition:
Design-based research (DBR) is a type of research methodology used by researchers in the learning sciences, which is a sub-field of education. The basic process of DBR involves developing solutions (called "interventions") to problems. Then, the interventions are put to use to test the how well they work. The iterations may then be adapted and re-tested to gather more data. The purpose of this approach is to generate new theories and frameworks for conceptualizing learning, instruction,[1] design processes, and educational reform. Data analysis often takes the form of iterative comparisons.
I have some ideas about texts that might help
_An Introduction to Discourse Analysis_ by Malcolm Fairclough (Longman, 1985).
Fairclogh covers that most important rhetorical communications topic of "framing" a discussion. For me, this text made the concept quite understandable.
Certainly any "intervention" will involve a careful framing of the discussion. Where the frame is and what falls outside the frame are key issues of forensics, historiography, and other fields. And Fairclough gives good examples.
I hope this aids in your preparation. Best wishes!
Gloria
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Hello everyone,
I'm currently looking into some data in which Korean speakers tell stories in English.
A recurrent practice I find is how those speakers reenact certain moments in their stories, particularly with regards to what other characters have said. I think an example may better illustrate this:
So instead of indirectly saying (usually with a relative clause),
"He told me that I was good at playing chess."
many speakers instead say,
"He told me 'you are good at playing chess'."
If you can recommend me some relevant literature on this or any comments in general, I'd really be grateful.
Best,
Ye Ji Lee
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Dr. Al-hindawi,
Thank you for your comments.
As I am dealing with nonnative speakers, it does become relevant that I suggest language learning implications to which your contrastive design with native speakers can certainly play a role. While evaluation of L2 learner performance is not the main interest of my research (for now), I will take into mind your suggestions.
Best,
Ye Ji Lee
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Until today my analysis is based on kerbrat- orecchioni (from the poliphonic theory); Pragmatic theory of human communication, and conversation analysis
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Dear Maria,
I suggest two approaches:
  • Critical Discourse Analysis (with 4 different methodologies championed by Fairclough, van Djk, Wodak, and Gee). Each of these would bring you their tools and ways of analyzing discourse, especially of a political nature.
  • Critical Metaphor Analysis: Charteris-Black (2004) and Maalej (2007). For an application of metaphor to discourse, see Maalej (attached) and for an application of metaphor analysis to teachers' narratives (applicable also to interviews), see ALGHBBAN, BEN SALAMH and MAALEJ (2017, attached).
Hope this will help you.
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I am interested in CA analysis of SLA interaction, both in classrooms and outside. It seems very hard to find the source recording for a lot of published work in this field.
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Hepburn & Bolden have some on the companion site of their recent book, Transcribing for Social Research: https://study.sagepub.com/hepburnandbolden
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I think the focus of question falls on whether these online interactions are "naturally occurring" or not. Or how do you define "naturally occurring interaction"?
I'd like to hear your opinions. Thank you in advance!
Enhua
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You certainly can. In addition to the already brough up issues, it might be useful to see papers that use or argue for 'digital conversation analysis'. It is a fairly new strand of CA research that uses as its data different online interactions.
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Are you aware of research giving evidence of approximate time and/or conditions under which participants in a (recorded or not) spontaneous conversation start loosening their self-monitoring? In other words, I assume that even when participants start a conversation with a high degree of control and self-check of their linguistic and non verbal behaviour, this high self-monitoring tends to loosen over time. Any ideas of specific studies on this?
Many thanks!
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Since long researchers have talked about the 'observer paradox', which is pretty much an obstacle that it difficult to overcome. I quite like Richard Watts' (1999) uptake - he suggests simply not to bother but admit this as a natural concomitant of working with real-life data collected in such a way.
Sorry, I guess this doesn't really respond your query... In my own recordings I simply do not bother, but this is of course just my 2 cents on this.
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Considering that for ethics reasons participants need to know that they are being recorded in a spontaneous video-mediated conversation (ex. a Skype call), I need to find relevant studies that show how/when/to what extent such data can be considered as reliable, or really spontaneous.
Any relevant research literature you can direct me to?
Many thanks!!
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Yup, it would. But they didn't know they'd been recorded. We got in, probed for the material we were looking for and when we felt we had enough we stopped recording, informed them about the project and asked permission to use the recorded material. We only used material we were given permission for and deleted the rest. Most, even if surprised -or even annoyed- at first, were more than eager to allow use of the 'bootleg' recordings when we explained why we needed them, some asked for anonymization, only a few downright denied involvement.
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some students of mine wish to analyse specific brands' social media presence; although a deep analysis is impossible if you're not part of that brand's team, maybe some tools could provide some information. We're interested in engagement metrics for the brands' posts, hashtags usually used, origin of consumers reach, anything else that might be useful. What is out there that could help us?
Thank you so much.
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I'd recommend brand24.com and sotrender.com - both have a free trail version for two weeks, thus enough for students to analyze data and prepare reports.
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Thanks for your help!
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Hello,
Notably, Flanders's (1970) interaction categories are divided into two types; namely, direct influences and indirect influences. The issue of empathy is generally related to indirect influences where L2 tearchers' response to learners' emotions and feelings has a great bearing on learning and teaching processes. Accordingly, research regarding conversational analysis addressing emotional management (empathy) is of a great empirical significance. The following links can hopefully provide you with the targeted literature you are looking for.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Based on translation being done Word by Word and fluency translates de idea expressed in the complete  sentence.
translation is done after the person grasps the complete idea and not before that idea is obtained.
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Hi dear
Translation is a mature activity and to be able to translate you have to acquire the two languages fully.  Concerning the role of translation in fluency, I think if the translation is oral both of them have mutual importance. But if you mean written translation, I don't think that it has direct effects.  Liqaa 
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I would like to do descriptive statistics. The following variables are under measure: patterns of interaction (ways of exchanging ideas in e-discourse) and modes of communication (visual, aural, and written mode)?
Best wishes!
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It sounds like both variables are categorical in nature.  Appropriate descriptive statistics are counts and percentages for each category or combination of categories.
Appropriate plots include bar plots of counts and mosaic plots.
Descriptive statistics for continuous variables make no sense for categorical variables.  These include mean, median, standard deviation, and so on.
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More information and ideas
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I think the Seasonal Affective Disorder is a type of depression that typically arises during the dark days of the year. What is less well known, however, is that people with SAD generally experience other symptoms before they become depressed.
These include,  Difficulty waking,   Decreased energy,  Difficulty concentrating,  Increased appetite especially for sweets and starches,  Weight gain,  Anxiety,
  Decreased interest in socializing.
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I found Zyngier (2001) 'Towards a cultural approach to stylistics' and Paton (2000) 'Beyond Bakhtin: Towards a cultural stylistics.' I have the Routledge Handbook of Stylistics in front of me too, and note that cultural stylistics is not included. Paton's notion of 'cultural conversations' and Zyngier's frameworks suggest that Historical and Pedagogical stylistics might be the best places to start. If you have other suggestions for students of the ever-expanding field of Stylistics please let me know!
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Dear Paul Sevigny,
Notably, stylistics, as you have very rightly observed,  provides a useful link between literature and linguistics (Birch, 1985; Gupta& Srivastava, 1991).  The Handbook of Linguistics and the Handbook of stylistics are two authoritative sources by prof. Peter Stockwell, which I believe can be very useful in this regard.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Hello everyone,
I'm looking for a digital tool/environment to make a scripted conversational bot. It does not have to be in audio mode. It can be text-based. It does not matter.
The goal is to design a conversational bot that would allow learners to practice Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP).
Thanks.
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Thank you Stephen. I'll check it out.
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The instrument seems to apply predominantly to Independent cultures than Interdependent cultures. Hence, my question!
Thanks
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Let's not have a tiresome discussion of the pros and cons of "intelligence" tests. We can agree that cross-cultural comparisons are problematic. You may not wish to review the extensive literature on the predictive validity of these measures within any given culture (especially not if you hadn't known the major tests get updated and revised regularly), but to be brief: grades in school, years of education, complexity/status of job, performance on job (especially when complex), response to training, response to psychotherapy, reaction time, nerve conductance speed, inspection time, consistency & complexity of evoked potentials, and at least a few more things I can't think of right now.
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Does somebody know of some interesting literature about language contact in a quantitative approach? Papers on how to determine if a pattern in a language is the result of contact with another language using quantitative techniques (others than descriptive statistics) are welcome. I'm not interested in quantitative studies in lexicology, however.
Thank you in advance!
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Maibe Budzhak-Jones 1995, about language contact manifestations.
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Dear All,
I was wondering whether anyone had any reference to suggest to me on how people pay and express their condolences in "real life", therefore f2f and written communication, and on social media.
Any comment is really welcome.
Thank you!
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Maria:
You have gotten very good resources from Harshvardhan. I can only add that teenagers in school can also use it to deal with similar issues regarding their classmates, perhaps, those who might have attempted suicide. An example of how Social Media was used to engage students in their popular communication space can help to show the process to be used:
Best regards,
Debra
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Dear all,
I need to analyse automatically conversational features such as the amount of time each person speaks, amount of overlapping speech, number of interruptions, who speaks louder, and so on.
I have separate audio files for each participant (only with his/her voice). How can I analyse these features automatically? Is there any tool that eases such analysis?
Thanks in advance
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If you have separate files for each participant you may want to perform Voice Activity Detection on each signal. This will tell you when the participant is speaking. You would then look for overlaps and the other information you need by comparing the active times.
For the loudness of each speaker you could analyze the energy contour of each signal.
If the signals were recorded in a quiet environment, and there's no much interference between speakers this should not be that hard.
 A good tool to perform these task is Praat.
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I am thinking of a possible study of H. G. Wells' Morlock characters in his 1895 novella The Time Machine.  The Morlocks and Eloi were two separate species of human descendants.  The Eloi were the scion of the UK landed gentry and the Morlocks the offsrping of factory workers and household domestics.
I am theorizing that, since the name Morlock actually exists that perhaps Wells meant someone in particular.  It could be analogous to Dante's sening his enemies to the lowest rung of Hell in The Divine Comedy.
A second line of inquiry is whether anyone is studying J. R. R. Tolkien's Mordor in Lord of the Rings, which seems obviously derivative of Morlocks.  More locks to more doors.
I welcome your comments.
Respectfully,
Gloria McMillan
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''Mordor actually has two meanings: The Black Land or The Dark Land in Tolkien's contrived language Sindarin, and The Land of Shadow in Quenya. The root mor ("dark", "black") also appears in Moria. Dor ("land") also appears in Gondor ("stone-land") and Doriath ("fenced land"). The Quenya word for Shadow is "mordo". It is pronounced with a Russian-sounding r. The gate of Mordor, Morannon, means The Black Gate. It was named this by the elves in the Second Age.
A proposed etymology out of the context of Middle-earth is Old English morthor, which means "mortal sin" or "murder". (The latter are descended from the former.) It is not uncommon for names in Tolkien's fiction to have relevant meanings in several languages, both those invented by Tolkien, and "real" ones, but this of course happens with any two languages. Mordor is also a name cited in some Nordic mythologies referring to a land where its citizens practice evil without knowing it, imposed on themselves by the society long created for that purpose. This quite fits with Tolkien's Mordor.''
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I am searching for a public dataset of offline conversations to analyse it for word of mouth. It would greatly help to get sources or hints.
Thank you!!
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This is a corpus of Spanish varieties. May be this could be helpful.
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Comment on article: I found it wonderful to read and I felt confirmed that CA-research brings out important points. In our own study on sexual offenders in prison we found that they don't lack empathy! They make a dysfunctional use of it but they have it.
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Many thanks for your comment! We found it useful to bring the voice of the offenders to listening; not to defend or excuse what they did but to study how they use or misuse language and other human qualities - and they do it, surprisingly, very skilfully.This permits a more encompassing view of these people as they are not only sex offenders but traumatized, in early years often violated and exposed to violence, trying to make something of a life that started from very disturbed conditions. And one can begin to hear it, not only to diagnose it. This, I hope, increases chances of dialogue with them and then chances of therapy.
However, I hope that other CA-studies will follow.
Best
Michael
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There is the theory from the Boston Change Process Study Group (Daniel Stern, Ed Tronick and others) who describe therapeutic change as operated in "now moments" or "moments-of-meeting" which accumulate to "moments-of-change". I am interested to know if there is any precise analysis based of transcripts with fine-graded granularity?
Thanks, Michael
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Dear Emo, many thanks for looking things up. Obviously you couldn't find a transcribed example of "moments" as well as I could not. However, your hints to co-constructions is very valuable for me. I have used the papers be Hutchins/Nomura
Hutchins, E., & Nomura, S. (2011). Collaborative Construction of Multimodal Utterances. In J. Streeck, C. Goodwin, & C. D. LeBaron (Eds.), Learning in doing : social, cognitive and computational perspectives. Embodied interaction. Language and body in the material world (pp. 29–43). New York: Cambridge University Press.
and
the work of Gene Lerner
Lerner, G. H. (2013). On the place of hesitating in delicate formulations: a turn-constructional infrastructure for collaborative indiscretion. In M. Hayashi, G. Raymond, & J. Sidnell (Eds.), Studies in interactional sociolinguistics: Vol. 30. Conversational repair and human understanding. (pp. 95–134). Cambridge, UK, New York: Cambridge University Press.
who uses the term "other completion" for the phenomenon you described.
Thanks for your paper which is rich and exiting for me! I attach one of my recent works and here is a link on my work on "musical empathy"
Best
Michael
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It is well known, that co-expressive gesticulation gestures develop their structure of movement accompanying the verbal and melodic structure of the utterance and also that they are linked to it semantically and pragmatically.
When analysing gesticulation gestures linked to verbal language and intonation, it seems to me a little bit difficult to establish a close descriptive relation between the movement structure of gesticulation gestures and the verbal and melodic structure of the utterance in spontaneous speech.
I think, that one of these categories or aspects has to do with the close relation between the more prominent segment in pitch range of the utterance and the more prominent phase in gesticulation structure.
Could you suggest me other categories or aspects I should pay attention?
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Dear José,
As you know, Núria Esteve-Gibert recently discussed her PhD thesis exactly on the alignment between gesture, prosody and segmental material. Since the research question of "gesture-prosody-text alignament" is actually not new (dating back to even before McNeill's 1992 book), Nuria's thesis focussed on some more specific and new issues, that had to do mainly with language adquisition and infants. In case you are interested in the alignmanet/interplay among gesture, prosody and segmental material in adults, you might have a look at the Introduction of Nuria's thesis, where she summarizes in a few pages the most relevant studies about this subject.
See you in June :-)
Paolo
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Dear Anna,
I think everything depends on a certain language. Please, google the keywords "mother tongue influence", "test results" ,and so on, and you will find many interesting works (for ex., "http://jeteraps.scholarlinkresearch.com/articles/Effect%20of%20Mother%20Tongue.pdf).    
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Discourse analysis is a broad field that  not only studies language use 'beyond the sentence boundary', but also prefers to analyze 'naturally occurring' language use in real-time interaction.Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of social science disciplines, including linguistics, education, sociology,interactional socioloinguistics, cognitive psychology,cultural studies,communication studies, etc, each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies.
Today, the focus on 'cultural' has shifted to 'inter' in "interculturalism" which involves moving beyond mere passive acceptance of a multicultural fact of multiple cultures effectively existing in a society and instead promotes dialogue and interaction between cultures.
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Interculturalism strengthens connections with other countries by accepting their immigrants into our society.As people come together different ideas are shared and others can learn things from cultures that can help make the community better. Pizza for example is a food loved around Canada but it was made by the Italians.
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I think the rhetorical positionings of person deixis (I/you and exclusive we/ inclusive we) are predictable and over-flogged
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Dear Akin Adetunji,
I'd suggest you the two following volumes:
- Duszak, Anna (ed.). 2002. Us and Others: Social Identities across Languages, Discourses and Cultures. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
- Pavlidou, Theodossia-Soula  (ed.) Constructing Collectivity: ‘We’ across Languages and Contexts, Benjamins.
Best wishes,
Carla Bazzanella
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I want to create a roundtable discussion format for a cultural studies conference. I currently have a 150 minute 5-6 person panel discussion standard where there is a general abstract and then individual expert abstracts for their 20 minute presentations with moderated discussion from the audience at the end. I want to create a roundtable alternative to this. What standard roles/rules work best for this?
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I have participated in a roundtab;e along the lines that Rafael suggests, and found it very useful. The co-chairs tailored the questions to each participant's background, and then the others were able to expand the ocus to add their own insignts. This way the co-chairs were ab;e to determine the focus, but in a way that alowed for cross-pollination.
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I am currently looking for comprehensive literature reviews on this topic that evaluates our current status and understanding of how pedagogical interactions in higher education have been investigated using conversation analysis methodology. 
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Здравствуйте Кевин! Я изучаю педагогические взгляды Джалаладдина Руми и там я обнаружила интересные данные.про дискуссии и про разговор и рекомендую вам для методологии анализа разговора читат книгу "Фихи мо фихи", и "Маснави". Это не только относится в Восточные знание. Я как то работала над этим в своих статьях если можете читайте их. Если не смогла нечем помочь извиняюс.   
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There is some work published in the UK on maternal mind-mindedness (E. Meins) as an early predictor of socio-cognitive development and obviously the early work of Michael Siegal on deaf children from hearing families.
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I my MPhil i looked at a philosophy for children programme and its effect on the development of metacognition of 4 and 5 year olds. You might want to look at the p4c and teaching thinking literature,  i read a lot on the conversation and thinking skills. I am sure there is a lot more on the topic now.
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E.g. focus groups or other settings where several individuals interact freely, which might be relevant to examination of simulation debrief.
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Hello Miranda
These papers cover your criteria, but I'm not sure about the examination of simulation debrief:
This first paper is a case study of an Australian rural community using principles of grounded theory and ethnographic techniques - a purposeful sample - The majority of data was collected  from individuals (interview, diaries, personal tapes and tape recorded meetings) but the researchers also tape recorded 'meetings'; one was in a doctors' waiting room (p.16), or other meetings (pp.13-14), including a craft club (p.15).
Falk, I., & Kilpatrick, S. (2000). What is social capital? A study of interaction in a rural community. Sociologia Ruralis, 40(1), 87-110.
This paper looks at 'senior citizens’ day program at a social service agency in an urban Latino community in the Midwestern United States'. There was tape recording and some observational data collected and analysis was from a conversation analytic perspective.
Cashman, H. R. (2005). Identities at play: language preference and group membership in bilingual talk in interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 37(3), 301-315.
This draws on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis:
Vom Lehn, D., Heath, C., & Hindmarsh, J. (2001). Exhibiting interaction: Conduct and collaboration in museums and galleries. Symbolic interaction, 24(2), 189-216.
There might be something useful in this book (available to read certain sections on Google):
Llewellyn, N., & Hindmarsh, J. (Eds.). (2010). Organisation, interaction and practice: Studies of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. Cambridge University Press.
This is old now, but may have some relevance:
Tang, J. C., & Leifer, L. J. (1988, January). A framework for understanding the workspace activity of design teams. In Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work (pp. 244-249). ACM.
Best wishes with this
Mary
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I'm searching conceptual/methodological cues about formulating a personal opinion in interaction, particularly in conversational analysis. Despite many research, I haven't found a clear definition. Can we see personal opinion formulation as an action (request, offer, greetings...) and if yes, what differentiates a personal opinion of an assessment (see Pomerantz, 1984)? Does it always implies an act of evaluation? or an act of stance-taking (Du Bois, 2007)? and what the difference between "a personal opinion answer" and a answer that brings information (as a simple Q-A sequence). In my data (classroom interaction) sometimes the FPP(1st pair part) is (lexically) designed to do so by the teacher as "What do you think about...? What's your felling on this topic?. But sometimes, the teacher ask a WH-question (with no specific opinion request but more as an information request) as "Why do you work at school?" and the student treat it as a request for personal opinion: (SPP) "me I think that....".  I will be happy to have some returns (and to be more explicit).  Thanks
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Regarding your question about the difference between an assessment and an opinion, I do think they are the same thing in principle: they involve evaluating a particular entity/issue/state of affairs (the assessable). What I have found in some examples is that it is not clear whether the FPP includes an opinion or a fact. In these cases, it could be thought that the FPP presents a fact, but it is treated as an opinion by the next speaker, who agrees or disagrees with it. Other references I can think of are:
Heritage, J. and Raymond, G. (2005) "The terms of agreement: Indexing Epistemic Authority and Subordination in Talk-in-Interaction", Social Psychology Quarterly 68(1), 15-38.
Stivers, T. (2005). "Modified Repeats: One Method for Asserting Primary Rights From Second Position", Research on Language and Social Interaction 38(2), 131-158.
Hope it helps!
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I'm interested in the first encounters in therapy or counseling settings and espescially in diagnosing the client's problems. I know some older articles (e.g. Davis 1986, Hak & Boer 1996, Antaki et al. 2005), but all further suggestions would be welcome!
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Dr Shannon Clarks dissertation on the topic of openings in therapy might help. It's available at aiemca.net 
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As a significant part of pragmatic competence, researching cross-cultural  and interlingual competences can undeniably prevent pragmatic failure. I want to know what the most effective methods of capturing such theoretical constructs are.
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I agree with the above to a certain extent. Sociocultural norms of interaction can be negotiated but they need to be understood.
I believe that learners need to become aware of the sociocultural norms of interaction. These can be highlighted by using conversation analysis as it reveals the orderliness of conversation and what norms conversationalists orient to. To be able to do that you need to use authentic videoed conversations and by exploring speech acts you can highlight pragmatic features. I have devised a methodology in which we use awareness-raising activities whereby learners focus on particular L2 sociocultural norms of interaction which they compare and contrast with their L1. That way they can learn intercultural competence as they have to reflect on the new norms and then interact with other learners. This methodology based on conversation analysis and politeness pragmatics has been encapsulated in a course book called Beyond Talk. It can be downloaded for free, if interested, on the link below.
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I want to analyse the specific communication type of my interviewees in my goups interviews. As i interviewed them on a specific way of communication in groups (=Council), it would probaly contain a lot of information, when I compare their personal type with their opinion/experience about Council. I am therefore looking for a valid or scientifically used typology of communication styles/types, which can be applied to persons?
Thank you.
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Have your checked out Deborah Tannen's work on different communication styles? She has several books out and I believe is a linguistics professor in New York.
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Is TalkBank.org still operational? What about authentic audio-visual recordings that can be used for English communication training?
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Hi Ivan
academic lectures involving students' talk, conference panels and  forums interviews, and radio dramas,
and radio news announcers could also be utilized to make the comparison  .
read STEVE TAUROZA and DESMOND ALLISON please.
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Do frequent words lead sound changes? Any studies done in Arabic sociolinguistics? 
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If your first question can be rephrased as 'How can the frequency of words in published articles on sociolinguistics be measured?', the first step would be to create a corpus of articles on sociolinguistics and use some kind of corpus tool to count the words.
I think you will find an answer to your second question in: Bybee, Joan. (2007). Frequency of use and the organisation of language. Oxford: Oxford University press.
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I have come with this the of responses in my own research, and I would guess this is something that has been documented earlier. Possibly, this practice ("yes-and") can be used by teachers/supervisors to expand on students' answers, managing possible threats to the student/supervisor's face. I just would like to be able to reference this type of practice, as I doubt I could be the first one observing it. I would very much appreciate if you suggest a specific article documenting this type of conversational practice (rather than an author or area of research).
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I have a vague memory of reading an article in Language in Society on this topic.  I'll see if I can verify that the memory is correct and, if so, supply the citation.  
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I'm interested in something beyond the classic Sacks, Jefferson, Wooffitt and Houtkoop-Steenstra.
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Here is another one I found out about. Haven't read it yet.
Bredmar, Margareta & Linell, Per 1999: Reconfirming normality: The constitution of reassurance in talks between midwives and expectant mothers. In Srikant Sarangi & Celia Roberts (eds.), Talk, work, and institutional order: Discourse in medical, mediation, and management settings pp. 237–270. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
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I'm looking for studies from a conversation analysis / ethnomethodology / discourse analysis perspective that have looked at 'student presentations' in classrooms.
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Hello Christian! I know a person how is currently developing a research on student presentations (in Spanish) at the University of Costa Rica. She is doing using discourse analysis. 
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I'm interested in having a closer look why therapeutic interpretations are rejected by the patient. My hypothesis is, that this is to a large extent due to insufficient confrontation and clarification (as mentioned in Greensons The Technique and Practice of Psychoanalysis (1968, p.37)) of the phenomenon before the actual interpretation is made.  
Is there any quantitative research you are aware of?
Do you think it is possible to create a measuring tool that depicts the patients reaction to the interpretation in terms of the emotional change simply by counting the positive/negative emotional utterances following the interpretation?
I'm looking forward to your answers.  
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I am running a similar project entitled "The Acceptance of Bilingual Terminologies Extraction of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature: the Case of Veterinary Terminologies".
I believe you need to run this paper based on a quantitative method; preferably a multi-method approach and/or triangulation. I recommend survey; however, if you would like to evaluate the cause-and-effect relationship you may need to do a DA or SA to understand the rationale for popularity of one term or rejection of the other.
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Hi, I'm looking at automated discourse analysis and I'm considering what one might call the "ELIZA" principle - that when one participant in a conversation repeats something that the other person said, it probably signifies that it is something important.
I've been reading a lot of the literature on discourse analysis and linguistics, but I can't find anything that gives a linguistic basis for this assumption.
Does anybody have any ideas for things in the literature that refer to the importance of this echoing to provide a basis for making this assumption?
All help much appreciated!
Best,
Nick
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Popular contemporary model:
Why is conversation so easy?
Garrod S, Pickering MJ.
Trends Cogn Sci. 2004 Jan;8(1):8-11.
Toward a neural basis of interactive alignment in conversation.
Menenti L, Pickering MJ, Garrod SC.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2012 Jun 27;6:185
But see also:
Dialog as interpersonal synergy
Fusaroli R, Raczaszek-Leonardi J, Tylén K
New Ideas in Psychology 32 (2014) 147–157
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I have some very interesting data to look at that is from free text box responses. I would like to do some type of language analysis on this. What method would you propose I use? My thought is that conversation analysis would not work as this is not naturalistic data. A discursive psychology may also have the same issue..... any other thoughts that fit with a social constructionist perspective?
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The content analysis cannot be seen as a linear approach. There are no simple and objective guidelines to conduct qualitative data analysis: each research is distinctive and the results depend on the knowledge, analytical skills and style of the researcher. In fact one of the challenges of content analysis is that there is no simple and correct manner to conduct it, in a way, that no unique defined standard or pattern has been established according to which content analysis should be carried on.
You can findin in the attached books the methodology or complementary methods that best fits in your investigation.
Best regards
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I'm in the process of writing a thesis looking at the construction of infertile selves through talk in doctor-patient encounters, looking at the ways infertile couples create, transform and resist culturally available discourses in the process of constructing their various identities. Has anyone come across a similar topic or piece of research, or could suggest a framework for analysis that would take into account the different variables my topic suggests?
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Have a look in the journal of discourse & society. Also Margaret Wetherell's edited collection on identities research as part of her work at The Open University (uk). I would also reiterate Michael's recommended reading.
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Gubrium and Holstein (2003) - Postmodern Interviewing -They believe the interview event can be considered a narrative practice. I agree with it, but I don't work with conversation analysis principles. Is it possible to use this idea outside of conversation analysis?
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Hi Maria,
I as I understand you, your goal is to look at interviews as performative events--instead of looking for narrative segments the interviewer has brought out, the interview as a whole can be understood as an interactive performance between the interviewer and respondent. I think you might find Bamberg's adaption of the Labov & Waletzky narrative model useful:
Bamberg, Michael GW. "Positioning between structure and performance." Journal of narrative and life history 7, no. 1-4 (1997): 335-342.
Bamberg presents an example of how to use functional aspects of narrative in interviews (e.g. temporality, evaluation, narrative positioning) to achieve pragmatic ends in interviews.
BTW, if you haven't read Labov & Waleztsky's original piece on narrative structures in personal experience, I highly recommend it--it's the foundational work for narrative analysis methods:
Labov, William, and Joshua Waletzky. "Narrative analysis: Oral versions of personal experience." (1997).
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Atlas.ti has been developed in the tradition of "Grounded theory" but I feel there is more potential in it. I would like to be informed about experiences others have made with the program in the CA-field. If you have references or even copies of publications in this area it could help a lot.
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Greetings Christopher! Thanks for your comments and for the differentiation of what Atlas can do: not the analysis but facilitates data management. This is what CA-purists often do not distinguish.
Give me a day or so to read your paper and I will send a comment.
Meanwhile, I do attach what I wrote about "empathy" and which is obviously similar to what you call "interactional sensitivity".
Best
Michael
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Communication strategy researchers have identified fillers as stalling devices but from my transcription work of CS training participants, I realised that they were also using fillers with other strategies.
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Schegloff, E. A. (2010). Some Other “Uh(m)”s. Discourse Processes, 47(2), 130-174.
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Can you help with gesture analysis? Our research includes McNeill categories, like beat, deitic, iconic and metaphorical.
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I think you might find some parts of Victor Lim Fei's doctoral dissertation useful. The thesis is available at http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/29928.
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The topic of my PhD is: The verbal interaction between Noah and his people in the Qur'anic text". I am looking to the interaction cited from both discourse analysis and social-psychology theory. When the corpus is modest in size, the selection and extraction of parts of discourse can be done manually. That is the case of my study about the central system and the peripheral system in the interaction between Noah and his people in the Qur'an. Here, the belief system represents the main cultural component which is at stake in the encounter between Noah and his people.
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This might help you find an answer to the discursive-side of your question, Abdelmadjid. But it takes a different path from some of the other discussions.
The gist is that Max Weber (1921/1952) did something like this and Harvey Sacks (1999) and Emmanuel Schegloff (1999) examined the methods that Weber used to interrogate a sacred text so to answer a sociological question.
Rod Watson (2009) introduces the Weber-Sacks-Schegloff sequence and briefly describes the textual analysis that was involved on pages 3-4 of his book. This might be a place to start to gauge whether this material might be helpful for your purposes.
Sacks (1999) located Weber’s methods but it is a complex read because it draws on ethnomethodology; and many people are not familiar with it. But you see how a small extract from a single text is produced as a case study that orients to local organisation of text as a practical accomplishment. It will help you find some commonalities between this and your research intentions, and so help to consider whether it is useful.
Weber used the Old Testament to produce a description of Ancient Israel. Sacks (1999) subjected Weber’s reading of the Old Testament text to praxeological examination so to determine Weber’s methods. Schegloff (1999) helps us to see how Sacks worked, discovered, and described the method used to transform Old Testament text into Weber’s formulation of Ancient Israel. So Schegloff is important because he helps us to see some of the taken-for-granted things in Sacks’ paper.
My offering, Abdelmadjid, is that by tracking these things in a retrospective way (i.e., what was Weber’s method?) that you might be able to determine a practical method that is useful for your studies: A prospective way of working. I hope that it helps in some way.
References
Sacks, H. (1999). Max Weber’s ancient Judaism. Theory, Culture, & Society, 16(1), 31-39. doi:10.1177/026327699016001002
Schegloff, E. A. (1999). On Sacks on Weber’s ancient Judaism: Introductory notes and interpretative resources. Theory, Culture, & Society, 16(1), 1-29. doi:10.1177/026327699016001001
Watson, R. (2009). Analysing practical and professional texts. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Weber, M. (1921/1952). Ancient Judaism. City, State: Publisher.
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I want to investegate what tools and in which ways employers give tasks to their employees.
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I suggest you take a look at Prof. Hans Ladegaard's work. If you look at his full CV you will also find work in Danish.
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I am working on doctor-patient-caregiver alignment from a conversation analysis perspective. Has anybody done the same before? Actually I am facing difficulty in finding enough materials in this regard.
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Hi Maha,
triadic interactions are a very interesting area of investigation, and relatively rarely explored. You might be interested in Alison Pilnick's work on pharmacy consultations with children and their parents. There are clear differences between these interactions and more routine doctor-patient-carer consultations. I briefly commented on these differences in my paper about asymmetry in SSM (2009).
I hope the work goes well.
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But I'm still thinking of the following points
1. What kind of variables can be common to argumentative discourse?
2. What variables should I observe to find differences between spoken, written and online discourse?
The variables can be relevant to register, or may be critical discourse analysis, coherence, I can't decide. I was also looking for relevant readings.
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Wow--this doesn't seem like a project--this seems more like a life's work. The notion of "variables" implies that you're framing your questions using a quantitative (or sociolinguistic) perspective. Discourse analysis don't typically think in terms of 'variables' in quite the same way as, say, quantitative variationist sociolinguists do. You may want to look at the edited volume by Tuen van Dijk called "Discourse as Structure and and process". Chapter 8 deals specifically with argumentation. Also, two communication studies scholars come to mind--Scott Jacobs and Sally Jackson have done quite a bit of work on argumentation discourse. I think the more fundamental question for me is: why would there be any underlying/common argumentative trope common to speech genres as diverse as argumentative essay, online discussion, and oral debates? Whatever similarities there may be seem to pale simply by virtue of the context for each--UNLESS you have some particular topic or subject matter to compare, say, religious freedom or reproductive rights or something. Not sure if that's helpful or not. Good luck!
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I don't know why it is so difficult to explain to my colleages from Poland who work on other theoretical-methodological approaches (sociology, anthropology, discourse analysis) that CA is really a creative approach and a fully valuable method. The situation has not been changed for many years of my attempts.
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Sorry to have missed this interesting dialogue. While I think there are a lot of fascinating connections between CA and other theories/modes of analysis, this thread is no longer about CA. From the training I had, we regarded the folks doing membership categorization as its own form of analysis took a tack towards the ethnomethodological and the cognitive. While both the sequence and the category folks were inspired by Sacks, from the "purist" point of view, the stuff on "category bound activities" was not meant as an alternative to the sequential, but as a further specification of it. Schegloff's 2007 article "A tutorial on membership categorization" illustrates how sequential analyses underpins membership categorization. From a CA perspective, the tension is not between the cognitive/membership categorical and the sequential, but the structure vs. the action components. Specifically, the example Michael uses "Why don't you come and see me?" is ambiguous because the sequential and action components leave room for ambiguity--does its composition & position lead to a "hearing" of a request or an excuse. The main difference between the cognitive/psychological and the CA--in my opinion--is that whereas the former proposes that analysts get to say "what something could mean" the later proposes that participants get to say "what something could mean" where the role of the analyst is to prove it. The HUGE problem with the later (CA), then, is that analysts have to jump through hoops and turn inside out to get to that "read between the lines" part that Michael refers to as the exciting part of psychology.