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# Control Systems - Science topic

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Questions related to Control Systems

The step response of an MPC control system for a nonlinear plant gives a response with vertical line before it starts tracking. I have been trying to figure out what could be responsible for the vertical line and how to eliminate it. suggestions on how to eliminate the vertical or what could be repsonsible is welcome. I have attached the response below

Dear Colleagues ; I am interested in studying advanced techniques for AC machines and i need to answers some questions they are as follows:

1/ Which basic distinctions set observation techniques apart from control approaches?

2/ Does the application of the type of observation impact the performance of the AC machines when hybridization between advanced techniques approaches occurs?

3/ Is it possible to apply both strategy to the machine by applying different techniques for each strategy?

3/ If we improve the rates of each strategy using advanced artificial intelligence techniques, will this increase the data of the controlled system?

4/ What's the difference between the MRAS, LGI (Kalman filter) and SMO. Are they limited to a specific time for machine systems?.

5/ Is it logical to apply a technique subject to a linear strategy to a nonlinear model of a machine like the Kalman filter or the extended-based adaptive observation?

How can advanced fuzzy logic and machine learning techniques be integrated to enhance decision-making and control systems in complex, uncertain, and dynamic environments, such as autonomous vehicles navigating real-world urban traffic scenarios?

Hello:

I have a question about the definition of adaptive control, since I´m researching about making a model-free adaptive control system. I will appreciate your help.

The definition I found says that an adaptive control modifies its parameters or structure in order to achieve a performance index. Reading about the subject in different sources I noticed that when they refer to an adaptive controller, it always has a model of the plant and implies an adaptation law which is usually obtained by taking the model and manipulating expressions.

My deduction is that when these sources refers to adaptive control, is about a kind of this instead. Am I right? I will really appreciate your support on this.

Thanks.

Pablo.

S. Hasan Saeed treated wrote on Automatic Control Systems (with MATLAB programs) and one of his books has Chapter 12 as Robust Control Systems. If you have the book, kindly take snap shot of chapter 12 only and send to jocianvef2004@gmail.com, please. I am dare in need of his explanation in that topic.

Hello there!

I'm looking for some decent Control System Idea titles that can be used for my undergraduate thesis at the Undergraduate level.

Various domains have methods for compatibility testing. For example: Software, design, electrical (keyword E-Plan), control systems, network technology,

it does not have to be exclusively domains in the mechatronics field

I will like to conduct a study to comparatively assess the internal control system of 2 companies in other to find out which of them is more efficent

What term or name is appropriate for the control system that incorporates a form of feedback from the overall controller signal, which accumulates within a limit and results in a slight adjustment to the system's setpoint, in addition to the typical PID control?

Thank you...

IASC-Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing new special issue “New Advances and Applications in Intelligent Control Systems” is open for submission now.We are calling for papers.Details:https://www.techscience.com/iasc/special_detail/intelligent-control-systems

**Keywords**

1.New theories, methods and performance evaluation of intelligent control systems
2.Advanced neural networks and fuzzy controllers
3.Machine learning and deep learning-based control systems
4.Wireless networked control
5.Automatic control using cyber-physical systems and internet of things (IoT)
6.Advanced control of manipulators and robotics
7.Bio-inspired optimization algorithms for auto-tuning control design
8.Recent intelligent control applications of industrial manufacturing and biomedical systems

I am working on a small wind turbine as part of my internship for my course. The rated capacity of the small wind turbine is 700 watts at a rated wind speed of (…) m/s. The turbine is installed on a (height of the pole) m- steel pole/ tower. Further, the turbine is connected to the local electricity grid.

Challenges faced: At 3 m/s- windspeed, I am observing that the connected sensors/ electronics are consuming 15W

How errors should be manipulated for a PID control system in which control two parameters and as a result it takes two errors to calculate the input signal for the system?

Hey, I’m looking for a thesis topic within blockchain and MCS. Thinking more of how organization can adapt it in their system.

I want to design a control system which can control the fan on all four sides, by this i mean a single fan can be lifted [upwards downwards left and right] ,is this possible ?

The idea i want to use it in the agriculture system for pesticides control.

I am new to MD simulation and as part of my learning I am trying different methods to control temperature and pressure of a system by changing the factors. I am trying to apply velocity rescaling now but I am not sure how it works on lammps. I checked the documentation but I still can't figure it out how can I apply it.

Thanks

Dear all,

Can we say, robust iterative learning control design, in other form is Data driven control design

I have used Casadi in interpreter mode and through mex file. However, the script is not very flexible, especially when the control problem involves tracking of an arbitrary reference signal. Have anyone tried ICLOCS, Acado or other tools in Simulink? Kindly share your experience.

I already saw some examples of GA (genetic algorithm) applications to tune PID parameters, but I (until now) don't know a way to define the bounds. The bounds are always presented in manuscripts, but they appear without great explanations. I suspect that they are obtained in empirical methods.

Could Anyone recommend me research?

Please suggest the most useful of software on Linear Matrix Inequalities to solve Fuzzy control systems?

Hi guys, I am simulating a horizontal axis small scale wind turbine using Ansys Fluent. In order to validate the manufacturing data, I vary the wind speed and its corresponded angular velocity, but unfortunately the obtained results exceeds the experimental ones especially in high wind speeds (15m/s). According to the wind turbine manufacturer the turbine have a pitch control system, but there is no information about the used pitch angle in the experimental results. What must I do in this case? Can I choose the pitch angle that gives the same results as experimental ones ?

Thank you.

Please explain, what is the importance to introduce the disturbances in the process?

Also explain, why most of the disturbances in the process are commonly represented by an impulse function? provide me reference also.

We know that robot pose errors are very common and that robot trajectories are pre-constructed and generated from CAD models in machining scenarios. However, for the trajectory points, there are inherent errors, and we need to compensate for the position and attitude of these trajectory points.

The existing off-line compensation is very common, but it lacks real-time, and the compensation objects are all the results obtained from pre-experiments. In fact such compensation, in a new experiment, the whole process is different from that of the pre-experiment because of the compensation done, so the final compensation also all stay at the level of being able to improve the performance, and theoretically such compensation is also all incomplete.

**How to compensate for the new point errors based on the information obtained in real time, and update the point information of the generated trajectory in real time？**

My robot is an ABB, and it would be great if you could offer some advice on the

**robot control system**,**transmission of data**,**branching of the perception model**, etc. Thanks to all the researchers who discussed and replied.

Especially for industrial/process control systems, there is a lot of resistance to having historized data stored in the cloud as it is seen as much less secure. Is this perception correct and if so is there any evidence for it?

Hi

I am trying to learn control systems for job opportunities.

I have some background bu rather to start from zero and go from there to to infinity and beyond

Also need to work on my matlab coding abilities for this

What are your suggestions?

I am trying to get bode plot for a boost converter with closed loop control. if the input output signals were a certain waveforms, than their phase difference would be easily calculated but in this case how do i determine the phase (lag or lead) for the given frequency? is it related to sampling period of the control loop and how much time would it take to bring the change to output after a certain change in input has been done?

Is it sampling frequency of control loop or some kind of resonance frequency of the system ??

Usually, we analyze the observability of a system through an observability matrix. For example, for a VO/VIO system, we can calculate its observability matrix according to its state space equation and analyze its unobservable dimensions: monocular VO is 7, monocular VIO is 4; however, for the monocular VO based on the optimization method, we can also get its unobservable dimension of 7 by calculating the zero space of its Hessian matrix. Is there any connection between them?

I am working on the real data of the physical property. I have gotten the bode plot data (I am working on frequency domain data). I have tried to identify the data and get the model. But the fitness is very low (40%).

When I checked using state space identification with 10 state, I got a better result around 80%. But the requirement is I have to use second order system.

My question is, how to increase the fitness score of my model with the limitation I have to use second order system?

PID controller is one of the most techniques that are used to improve control system operation, now with control valve how PID controller achieves practically?

**Which SCI/SCIE journals publish work in the field of control systems with a high acceptance rate and also respond fast?**

I made a PID-based control system and now am asked to augment my finding with a prototype. What this prototype refers to? Should I make a total system in Matlab or I will have to implement it physically?

I want to implement Fuzzy Control in an actual production process based on S7-1200 PLC , I have simulated the fuzzy control system in Matlab .But ,When i want to programe the PLC code using Siemens TIA Portral software,

**I found the fuzzy inference and defuzzication is difficult to programme**. I have read many articles and papers disscusing fuzzy control based on PLC, they all omited the key step ,that is how to programme the fuzzy inference and defuzzication, so i still confused about that. I am very long for someone to be able to give me some help or share me some fragments of the PLC code related to this question.My E-mail: 22060897@zju.edu.cn

Thanks for all reading my question!

In control theory, using Routh array test, it can be established that a quadratic polynomial

p(x) = a x^2 + b x + c (where a > 0)

is a Hurwitz polynomial (i.e. it has roots with negative real part) if and only if a > 0, b > 0 and c > 0. In an equivalent way, this can be proved using Hurwitz determinants.

I am looking for a simple proof for this fact. Without loss of generality, we can assume a = 1.

For p(x) = x^2 + b x + c, we can use the root finder formula and discuss various cases.

Is there any simple proof? I welcome your ideas and suggestions. Thank you!

I'm looking for a exhaustive paper (or book) regardind a four (or two) wheeled robot trajectory control system in order to reproduce and fully understand the kinematics and control system equations.

My rover has four motor, one for wheel, and turns through a wheel speed control.

Would be amazing find the PID control design on the angle and speed control as well as the trigonometric equations of the robot trajectory.

Thank you very much

Dear researchers

What is your opinion about the criterion recommended in seismic codes for determining scaling period, which are used to scale ground motion records?

As you know, the mentioned criterion is the period of the structure’s dominant mode, which has the largest modal participating mass ratio (usually the first vibration mode). Hence, the period of the mode with the second largest modal participating mass ratio is not considered in the scaling process. Consequently, although this criterion usually results in the largest value of scaling period, it is not logical ones.

This is especially important when Tuned Mass damper (TMD) or Base-Isolation system is utilized, which cause the modal properties of the structures to change.

I used a new criterion based on the weighted mean value of the periods for the structures equipped with TMD.

Have you used any criteria other than the criterion mentioned in the seismic codes?

*To be specific, the rotation of the aircraft around the three axis can be controlled by several part, the rudder and vertical stabilizer or differential thrust for multi engine aircraft control the yaw , the pitch and the roll are controlled by the wing flaps and elevators.*

*Exactly which of those are controlled by a computer in modern aircraft (military or commercial) and to which extent.*

*And where I can learn the most technical details about this subject (a book is preferred)*

Hi

How can i correct this error?? I think it's about matrix dimensions for port e.

Error in default port dimensions function of S-function 'FeedbackLinearization/Controller'. This function does not fully set the dimensions of output port 2

I'm running a simulation based on feedback linearization control method that comes from a paper attached below.

the model is also attached.

Anyone help me, helps a poor student. (if it makes sense lol)

hi every one

I'm trying to test my protection algorithm with an on-grid PV system (at least 2 parallel strings containing minimum of 4 modules per string).

I would appreciate if anyone can provide me a test simulation file ( matlab is preferred) with its full control system (with mppt)

I have to compare five level MLI in term of efficiency and THD which has less number of switches.

hello,

i work on a controlled Microgrid and i want to test the robustness of my controller againt a white noise that may be added to the output or the input. Is there is any specific condition to follow in order to take a good choise of a noise power ? or it is somthing random ?

- Actually i tried to take it about 3% of the nominal measurement value, is this enough to be good choice ?

- in addition, i tried the two types of noises, but i noticed that the one applied on the output affects much more the system than the one applied on the output (in such a way, my system looses its stability with the output noise, but gives an acceptable performance with the input noise ) , is this reasonnable ? if yes, why ?

thank you in advance

Hi Everyone. what are the hot topics for a theoretical and practical PHD research in control systems. It would be nice if you recommend some, with mentioning some related works through these years.

How can I effectively construct one state-space description, which is in fact a combination of multiple individual state space descriptions? Algebraic relationships between state-variables and input signals, will lead to off-diagonal terms in the resulting state-space matrix. For small systems this can easily be done by hand, but how can this be done effectively for larger systems?

To clarify my question:

suppose there are 2 state-space descriptions: \dot{x}_1 = A1(x1,t) x1 + B1(x1,t) u1 and \dot{x}_2 = A2(x2,t) x2 + B2(x2,t) u2, which are interconnected as described by the algebraic equation: f(x1,x2,u1,u2)=0. How can these two state-space descriptions be integrated efficiently to one big \dot{x} = A(x,t) x + B(x,t) u?

The resulting state-space description will be used for stability analysis purposes. Maybe it is better to analyze DAE system descriptions in order to analyze the stability?

It would be especially helpful if there are any symbolic methods, which also allow for nonlinear state-space descriptions.

If you can provide me with some good references, this would be a great help.

Thanks in advance.

LQR based control system is offline because it is computed once before running of simulation or experiment.

As input-output data we use LQR based optimal control system applied to motor speed tracking application. We would like to estimate K optimal gain based Moorse-Penrose pseudo -inverse derivation. So, this control system is not based on the model, therefore A,B matrices are unknown. Model is black box.

Except the Neural Networks based control system, I would like to know whether it possible to implement online control system when estimated K optimal gain matrix will be updated each instant (each cycle).

Dear friends:

In some calculation in control theory, I need to show that the following matrix

E = I - (C B)^{-1} B C

is a singular matrix. Here, B is (n X 1) column vector and C is (1 X n) row vector. Also, I is the identify matrix of order n. So, the matrix E is well-defined.

I have verified this by trying many examples from MATLAB, but I need a mathematical proof.

This is perhaps a simple calculation in linear algebra, but I don't see it!

Any help on this is highly appreciated.. Thanks..

I want to know that the junctionless GAA MOSFET is used for creating induced source and drain through charge plasma concept but can that junctionless bar of semiconductor be fully intrinsic or it has to be fully doped.

Do we used intrinsic junctionless bar or lightly doped bar for creating induced source and drain?

Can someone explain it in simple words?

Hello, Can we find Kp, Ki, and Kd values of PID, Lead-lag, or Type2/Type3 compensator? I have designed a type2 compensator for my system but now I need a PID controller for the same system can I access Kp and Ki values from the Type2 compensator? Please guide me

We use many mathematical models and state-space models in digital control systems. Before applying these concepts in real life scenarios, how useful (or less useful) it is to do a simulation in MATLAB?

Hi everyone,

I'm currently designing a control system for a swimming pool. Could you please suggest a sensor which can be used to measure the concentration of chlorine in the pool?

Thanks in advance :)

I get some negative vibe from the internet saying root locus is limited to education instrument to study pole and zero in s-plane which then forgotten after the university study. Does this suggest it a useless instrument for control system engineering in industry or alike. I have seen many bode plots and Nyquist analyses from the electronics arena by Analog Device or Texas Instrument website and app notes. Not so much on root locus design (and analysis).

Based on Nise Control System (now on Chapter 11), I gather zero can be placed close to the pole to mitigate the dominant pole to improve transient or steady-state error or both (Darth Vader versa Jedi battle there). I have seen a few comments that pole-zero cancellation is not a practical solution due to system tolerance and drift, is this a realistic issue for an electronic system, given that component's tolerance and precision, could be more precise than some mechanical systems?

I have come across some Nonlinear Control System problems where I need to implement Matlab code but unfortunately, it's getting too tough to start with. I can some of the problems such as,

1. Population Dynamics using Lotka–Volterra differential equations.

2. Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) using van–der–Vusse

reaction scheme.

3. PI Controller for Linear and Nonlinear system

So I'm in my first year Masters program, with option in Automatic Control systems. When I look up research topics, I see plenty ambiguous topics , twisted and I wonder how this topics are formulated or is there a pattern and people are improving on them.

I currently still cannot come up with a topic to work on.

My interest is in control systems engineering and it should address industrial challenges.

I don't want to choose what won't be of importance and impact.

Your input will go a long way to help me decide on what to work on.

Hello !

Was trying to build interleaved PFC architecture in simscape but getting the error (attached) "The following inductors are connected together " after switching has started.

Some matlab answers say its inherent issue. any one can help how to solve it ?

Thanks in Advance

As I know, the ordinary differential equation (ODE), xdot= -x^3+u, where x is the state variable, and u the control variable, is the control system associated to a falling object in atmosphere with viscous drag. I am not sure to be correct on that! Please comment on that!.

**Update 1**: xdot= -x^3+u, is called the hyper-sensitive system.

c.f.: A Collection of Optimal Control Test Problems: John T Betts.

Another example is velocity control for aircrafts in horizontal flight, which has an ODE evolution:

xdot=-x^2+u. Notice the attachment picked from:

Optimal Control with Engineering Applications; By: Hans Peter Geering.

I want to also know the real model associated to the control system described by the ODE: xdot= x^3+u. I guess more probably, this is associated to electrical systems.

**Update 2:**My own intuition says, positively damped systems as:

x_dot+x^3=u

are mechanical. Meanwhile, negatively damped systems as:

x_dot-x^3=u

are electrical.

You can yourself find some other examples in this regard.

Greetings All,

I'm a MSc in Electrical Engineering Student and interested in Control System, anybody has an Idea of Theses Title for Control System where I can implement the concept of AI?

Thanks and Regards.

Thaer Ibrahim.

I am working on a project in which I need to control the duty cycle of the pulse given to mosfet in an AC to DC converter.The mosfets are connected to LCL filter to give a regualted 5V.The output voltage and a reference of 5V error is taken and a compensator is connected.The output is compared using PWM and then sent to mosfet.Do we need mosfet driver in between?What kind of mosfet driver should I use in multisim?Can I get any reference?Should we solve this using bode plot?Should I use PID controller to decrease the error and should I simulate in MATLAB using PID controller ?As I find it easy

I would like to know application of learning and control in MAS setting. And where could I find simulation codes of learning in MAS control

please suggest me to choose a topic in non linear control system . from where i choose and read research papers.

Hi all, I have a question for Control system development specialists.

I compute controllability of linear system through MATLAB function ctrb, and I know that system have 1 uncontrollable state. How to define which state is uncontrollable?

Dear friends:

While one can easily write an *.m file for implementing a sliding mode control,

for example, to stabilize a control system, integral sliding mode control is also

a popular scheme and used in many papers.

I like to know how to write an *.m file for implementing integral sliding mode control?

I like to kindly request Sliding Mode Control (SMC) experts to illustrate this control

and MATLAB code with a simple example of a control system on the plane (with twostates x1, x2) and how to set up the integral sliding mode control in MATLAB.

Thanks a lot!

With best wishes, Sundar

I have two PI controller running in parallel both controls the same output variable, based predefined input conditions I would like to transfer control from Control A to Control B without any variation in the output response. would be great to get any suggestion on efficient way of doing it.

Using Matlab Simulink as implementation plattform

Thanks

Sreeraj A

T1 =

-67.34 s + 1.563e06

----------------------------------------------------------

0.0008762 s^2 + 0.09793 s + 2273

T2 =

2.447e07 s^2 + 7.695e11 s + 2.687e13

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.483e-05 s^4 + 77.99 s^3 + 1364 s^2 + 3.142e06 s

Screen shots of Bode plots for the above transfer functions are attached with respective file names. Yes, I was taught in control system course that both the Gain Margin (GM) and Phase Margin (PM) should be positive for a stable system, but the bode plot of T2 shows that the system is stable even with negative GM. Therefore, I intrepreted this as the system is unstable only when its phase is equal to ± 180

**°**at its open loop gain of unity. Because, only at this condition the closed loop gain becomes infinity.However, my interpretation goes wrong with the system function T1, where both GM and Phase Margine (PM) are negative but its phase is not equal to ± 180

**°**at its open loop gain of unity.Recently I have designed a automated gas leakage detection system using IoT. Now I want to analysis it further. What is the process to design/summarize it's control system.

I have the nonlinear systems of Khalil, however some definitions are no so clear, is there a newer book with Matlab examples

Hello everybody

Despite a few TMD cost models available in the literature, I am searching for more accurate initial and lifetime cost models of translational TMDs for Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) of TMD-equipped structures.

In fact, the provided cost model affiliated with one of the companies designs and manufactures transitional TMD (such as LeMessurier CO.), which this model consists TMD initial cost (construction and installation of the TMD) and TMD damage cost (maintenance and repair losses of TMD before structural collapse)

I design feedback close loop system with a robust static feedback controller using Hinf approach where control low is u(t)=Kx(t). What is the good method to show robustness for this type of system? What plots we can make to show robustness for designed system?

Regards

We all have been accustomed to see a block diagram for a linear control system, where in the forward path, first sits the controller, then actuator, and then plant.

What if we flip the blocks of actuator and plant. I mean what if we place plant before actuator?

We know that, the closed-loop transfer function does not depend on the consecutive order of blocks in forward path, since: C(s)/R(s)=G(s)/(1+G(s)H(s)), where G(s) is the forward-path gain and H(s) is the feedback-path gain (sensor). The forward path gain could be decomposes as:

G(s)=Gcontroller(s)*Gactuator(s)*Gplant(s).

Therefore, since these transfer functions in forward-path are multiplied, then it does not differ what are their consecutive order.

Hence, let's flip the plant and actuator blocks in the forward path: G(s)=Gcontroller(s)*Gplant(s)*Gactuator(s).

What happens next? Nothing about the stability, but a great revamp of the required embedded system and controller design. Because instead of measuring plant out-put to send it into the feedback path, we only need to measure actuator out-put which is more convenient through the control engineering practice. In other words, we have mixed controller and plant blocks together, to establish a new controller which physically controls the actuator.

For stabilization, I think it works well. For example, assume an aircraft autopilot (controller). Through this revamped controller design, instead of measuring and regulating aircraft states as pitch-rate, we only measure and regulate actuator (elevator) deflection. If we can stabilize the elevator angular position to stay at zero, then we have stabilized the aircraft at a level-flight (stabilization), since zero elevator-deflection means level flight has been sustained.

For command following (not stabilization), we may set a mathematical trick as:

G(s)=Gcontroller(s)*Gactuator(s)*[Gplant(s)/Gactuator(s)]*Gactuator(s),

in this way, even for the case of command following (control) we still need to only measure actuator output.

Advantage:

- in the classical loop, we use actuator model as a software block in the controller simulation and design, while using plant as a hardware to be regulated by physical sensing of its output.

-in my revamped controller setup, we use plant model as a software block in the controller simulation and design, while using actuator as a hardware to be regulated by physical sensing of its output.

It seems physically sensing and regulating actuator dynamics, would be much convenient than physically sensing and regulating plant dynamics.

Please share with me, your comments and ideas about my plan.

I want to find PID parameters to regulate my system.

I want to know all the things related and necessary which help me in control system field.

Dear researches

In general, the value of modal participating mass ratio (MPMR) for each vibration mode represents the participation of each mode in the structural responses.

when a structure equipped with TMD, a vibration mode is added to the others. MPMR value of the added vibration mode can be significant even when TMD mass is very small and as a result, TMD has no effect on the structural responses.

How can this contradiction be justified?