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In his name is the judge
Hi
There is a fuzzy logic control system in python. The system contain 2 inouts and 18 outputs.
inference of system is mamdani and shape function used to be guassian.
Then in term of refine performance of the controller I need to optimize specifications belong to shape functions of both input and output. In order to that I need to use multi objective optimization.
We have 2 input and 1 output in case of this problem. I have developed 3 shape functions for each entrance and 3 for output and the shape function is gaussian so we have 18 parameters totally.
I defined my problem as a function in python. But notice this I there is not any clear relationship between input and output of function. It’s just a function which is so complicated with 2 inputs and 18 outputs.
I made my decision to use NSGAII algorithm and I really don't want to change the algorithm.
So I try every way to optimize my function but I didn’t find any success. By searching about python library which can do multiobjective optimization I find Pymoo as the best solution but I really failed to optimize my function which is complicated custom function, with it.
So It’s really my pleasure if you can introduce me a library in python or suggest me a way that I can use Pymoo in order to this aim.
wish you best
Take refuge in the right.
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Dear Good people,
Is it applicable to perform in vitro assays on a Particular cancer cell line that differs from a normal cell line?
for example to work on colon cancer cell line and have normal liver cell line as a control!
Thanks In advance
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Let me explain to you with an example.
If you are going to work on invitro cytotoxicity assay using colon cancer cell line to test the cytotoxic effect of the candidate drug, you will use a drug that is already known to cause cytotoxic effect on colon cancer cell line, as a positive control.
Your negative control for this invitro assay will be colon cancer cells left untreated with the candidate drug.
You will not use a normal cell line as a control in this assay.
Usually, a normal cell line is used to test the cytotoxic effect of the candidate drug on normal cells. This is done when one is interested in calculating the selective index (SI) of the candidate drug. SI will indicate how selective is the candidate drug in killing the cancer cells.
SI= CC50/IC50
Where,
CC50 is the concentration of the candidate drug required to reduce cell viability by 50% using normal cell line.
IC50 indicates how much candidate drug is needed to inhibit a biological process by half using cancer cell line.
The higher the SI ratio, the more effective and safer is the candidate drug.
Hope this will help answer your question!
Best.
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What are the types of controls needed when using LIVE/DEAD viability kit (PI and SYTO9) to quantify bacteria in flow cytometry and what is the function of each?
Also welcome to recommend papers on this for my writing.
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Sudeep Kumar Maurya Thanks a lot, Dr. Maurya! This really helps.
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Dear all,
I have a question about how to optimally determine the value of active power droop gain mp in islanded microgrid which shares a certain load.
I use this formula: w=wnominal -mp*p and I put P=the load connected to each inverter and I assume the value of w which is the minimum frequency that I do not want to go below it and from these values I calculate mp. Are these steps correct ?
I am using SIMULINK software and I would like to know how to determine the power rating of each VSI and if that is related to the DC link voltage. what is the criteria to choose the values of mp and nq to share the connected load between the different DGs ?
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thank you for sharing the links @veera mani
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In his name is the judge
Hi
for using matlab facilities especially matlab controller like fuzzy have to sending and receiving data between matlab and opensees, in fact i want send two data as fuzzy controller form opensees to matlab after each time history step in opensees and then matlab send back one output to opensees.
to achieve this i have to connect matlab and opensees with openfresco it means i do hybrid simulation.
first is this possible to do this?
second is there any one do work like this, do hybrid simulation generally or specifically do hybrid simulation between matlab and opensees. if yes i am very thankful to share work with me or for some aim.
have to say i prefer not to use openseespy and i almost read all example and guide in openfresco site and even on each site but i cant do this right.
Any help is greatly appreciated.
Take refuge in the right.
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dear Abolfazl Najafi thanks a lot for this suggestion
i think there is a lack time between opensees anb matlab run time it means when tcl try to write text file, matlab needs to read more data in text file and give error
after all i think working with python and openseespy library is the best choice for this goal.
wish you best
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What is event triggered control?
Is there any books that explains it in details.
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Is it possible that at "some moments" the calculation time of loop or algorithm increases more than the sampling time of the system ??
or it is completely wrong ?!!
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It depends on your case study and method, there are some methods for such situations, for instance if you are working in some MPC methods you can check for multiple horizon and consider second or third optimal control instead of first one. Following paper may help you about this problem.
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In his name is the judge
Hi everyone
In order to use controller for structure with absorber, have to connect matlab and opensees in real time :
it means in each loop in opensees data must send to matlab and then matlab do some prossess with controller like fuzzy then send back data to opensees
Relying on researching and consulting the only way is use hybrid simulation (like openfresco),
do you have any other idea or way to connect these two programs without using openfresco?
Translation results
star_border
Consult
Wish you best.
Take refuge in the right.
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dear Eknara Junda thank you
i have to do optimization and design controller and for both of them i use matlab toolbox and i learned them fully, becuase of this i prefer to link matlab and opensees in real time.
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Hi there,
I am looking at the technical reasons why torque control is better then position control for biped, quadruped...
If the research gate community can provide insights I iwll greatly appreciate
thank you very much
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The chrome azurol sulphonate media has been prepared following the method covered in Schwyn and Neiland's 1987 publication titled "Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophores".
Need a control that can grow on the CAS Agar but does NOT produce siderophores, the reason being so we can determine if any color change is truly from siderophore chelation and not another type of chemical breakdown.
The concentration of HDTMA in the CAS media is toxic to gram-positive bacteria and fungi.
I only have access to BSL 1 and BSL 2 labs.
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I'm seem to recall that lab strains of E. coli K-12 do not produce siderophores. Strains like DH5alpha or MG1655, or pretty much any K12 strain used for cloning.
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In his name is the judge
Hi
In order to design controler for my damper ( wich is tlcgd), i want to use fuzzy system.
So i have to optimize rules for fuzzy controler. i want to know for optimizition rules of fuzzy systems wich one is the best genetiz algorithm or Artificial neural network?
Wish you best
Take refuge in the right.
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I strongly recommend the usage of a floating fuzzy control algorithm since it allows you to change the range of your membership function in real-time so you can adapt your controller at each time step.
Regards.
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I have just designed a fuzzy system, and now I want to redesign it based on the fractional order. However, I have no idea where to start from and what to do. Could you please tell me what I should do and mention any related sources to study?
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Dear s.Milad:
You can benefit from this valuable article about your topic:
"Fuzzy Fractional-Order PID Controller for Fractional Model of Pneumatic Pressure System".
Abstract:
This article presents a fuzzy fractional-order PID (FFOPID) controller scheme for a pneumatic pressure regulating system. The industrial pneumatic pressure systems are having strong dynamic and nonlinearity characteristics; further, these systems come across frequent load variations and external disturbances. Hence, for the smooth and trouble-free operation of the industrial pressure system, an effective control mechanism could be adopted. The objective of this work is to design an intelligent fuzzy-based fractional-order PID control scheme to ensure a robust performance with respect to load variation and external disturbances. A novel model of a pilot pressure regulating system is developed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Simulation studies are carried out in a delayed nonlinear pressure regulating system under different operating conditions using fractional-order PID (FOPID) controller with fuzzy online gain tuning mechanism. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed strategy and confirm the performance improvement for the pneumatic pressure system. To highlight the advantages of the proposed scheme a comparative study with conventional PID and FOPID control schemes is made.
I hope it will be helpful...
Best wishes....
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I am looking for information about non-chemical control methods of invasive species in Europe. Thanks for your help.
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Thank you for your interesting suggestions.
There is not much published about the control of tree species sprouting whit this method, although some grey literature publications suggest these methods as available for species like Eucalyptus spp. DiTomaso et al. (2013) https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwjVxIzflfj1AhXoxoUKHRd7BFQQFnoECAgQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwric.ucdavis.edu%2Finformation%2Fnatural%2520areas%2Fwr_E%2FEucalyptus.pdf&usg=AOvVaw20Eb2foNQ0auen8j7syDb7
Black plastic was used for the control of some herbaceous species like Arundo donax, Tradescantia fluminensis etc. with very good results.
I'm looking for research papers or books that describe and analyse the effects of this method on tree species.
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I have tried the methods of institutes in Nurmberg/Erlangen and Torino, but get failures to the worths of Ld(id,iq) and Lq(id,iq) the producer gives to us.
I want to create a Lookup-Tables of Ld(id,iq),Lq(id,iq), PsiPM(id,iq).
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if i know the value of Ld and Lq then how can i calculate value of machine total inductance
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As we know, the watershed of the optimal problem is convexity and non-convexity. So, what is the watershed of control problem?
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Watersheds offer vital livelihoods for their residents, but their natural resources are limited, frequently under strain, and at risk of destruction. The main issue is generally degradation induced by unsustainable use of natural resources. Poverty, food insecurity, and social unrest result.
Serious socioeconomic issues can be significant impediments to carrying out watershed work in undeveloped nations. Any major issues should be highlighted at the start of the planning stage. These may include issues such as land tenure, poverty, education, low acceptance of innovations, seasonal labor shortages, and so on.
Every day, save water. Reduce the length of your showers, repair leaks, and switch off the water when not in use. Do not flush poisonous home chemicals down the drain; instead, take them to a hazardous waste disposal facility. In your yard, use resilient plants that require little or no watering, fertilizer, or pesticides.
A watershed is a geographical area that has a common collection of streams and rivers that all flow into a single wider body of water, such as a larger river, a lake, or the ocean. The Mississippi River watershed, for example, is massive. Small watersheds are frequently a portion of bigger watersheds.
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RNA input without adding the anti-m6A antibody would be enough?
Thank you in advance,
Alexandre Magno Vicente
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Great question! Did it work? Or did you solve it, develop any protocol? Please share some advice.
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Has prescribed convergence superiority compared to fixed-time convergence? In light of the fact that fixed-time convergence can do so.
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1. Finite-time is not uniform with respect to initial conditions even in compact sets. See
Bhat, D.Bernstein,Finite time stability of continuous autonomous systems, SIAM J.Control Optim.38(3) (2000) 751–766.
For the homogeneous systems with negative homogeneity degrees the convergence time is growing together with the norm of the initial conditions.
A MAIN PROBLEM IN USAGE OF ADVANTAGES OF FINITE-TIME CONVERGENT CONTROLLERS WHOSE CONVERGENCE TIME IS ESTIMATED BY LYAPUNOV FUNCTIONS IS THAT ESTIMATED CONVERGENCE TIME IS VERY CONSERVATIVE.
The finite-time convergence in the bi-limit have been introduced in
A. Andrieu, L. Praly, A. Astolfi, Homogeneous approximation, recursive observer and output feedback, SIAMJ. Control Optim.47(2008)1814–1850.
2. Uniform finite-time convergence for the systems with bounded uncertainties haS been introduced in
E. Cruz- Zavala, J.Moreno, L.Fridman, Uniform robust exact differentiator, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 56(11) (2011) 2727–2733.
In this paper we proposed a differentiator with a finite-time convergence in which an upper bound of the settling time is given that does not depend on initial conditions nor from initial time moment.
3. Than this type of convergence later called fixed-type convergence in
A. Polyakov, Nonlinear feedback design for fixed-time stabilization of
linear control systems, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 57(99)(2012)2106–2110.
See also
A. Polyakov, L. Fridman, Stability notions and Lyapunov functions for sliding mode control systems. Journal of Franklin Institute, Volume 351, Issue 4, 2014, pp. 1831-1865, doi :10.1016/j.jfranklin.2014.01.002.
IT SHOULD BE NOTICED THAT FIXED TIME IS AN ABSTRACT MATHEMATICAL PROPERTY OF THE SYSTEM, IT DOES NOT HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH CONTROL PROBLEMS.
Moreover, it cannot be used for control of real systems because of 2 main reasons:
- Any system model is valid in compact sets only, no model is valid in whole state space.
- To acquaint for the finite-time escape to infinity, actuators with infinite capacity are needed and such actuators do not exist.
UNIFORM FINITE-TIME CONTROLLERS with respect to compact sets, valid for systems models and actuators capacities, ARE SUFFICIENT for the solution of real control problems.
Design of the DIFFERENTIATORS WITH FIXED(UNFORM)-TIME CONVERGENCE is the only control problem for which the model is valid for the whole space and the role of actuators is just a computer program.
3. The next natural stage of development for fixed-time convergence based on bi-limit homogeneous convergence was to solve the following control problem: to propose a controller gain ensuring a priori defined (predefined) time of convergence.
To the best of my knowledge this is better defined in
Esteban Jiménez-Rodríguez , Aldo Jonathan Muñoz-Vázquez , Juan Diego Sánchez-Torres, Michael Defoort , and Alexander G. Loukianov. A Lyapunov-Like Characterization of Predefined-Time Stability. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 65, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2020
and references therein.
The main problems of the predefined-time convergent controllers are:
a. It is not feasible (no model in whole space, need of the actuators with infinite capacity)
b.The estimation of the settling time is very conservative.
c. Theoretically they need the knowledge of the upper bound of uncertainties (could depend on state variables)
d. Need of a special numerical methods (see Levant 2013, Brogliato and Polyakov, Maximilian Wetzlinger;Markus Reichhartinger)
4. Prescribed time convergence is based on idea of Proportional Navigation Function methodology. See
P. Zarchan, Tactical and Strategic Missile Guidance, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 2012
Song, Y., Wang, Y., Holloway, J., & Krstic, M. (2017). Time-varying feedback for regulation of normal-form nonlinear systems in prescribed finite time. Automatica, 83, 243–251.
Wang, Y., & Song, Y. (2018). Leader-following control of high-order multiagent
systems under directed graphs: Pre-specified finite time approach. Automatica, 87, 113–120.
Y. Chitour, R. Ushirobira, and H. Bouhemou. Stabilization for a perturbed chain of integrators in prescribed time. SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization, 58(2):1022{1048, 2020.
and an extension of the solutions for the time interval [t_0, \infty). See, for exaple
Aldana-López, R., Gómez-Gutiérrez, D., Trujillo, M. A., A.Loukyanov, Ruiz-León, J., Becerra, H. M. A predefined-time first-order exact differentiator based on time-varying gains, International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control 31(1), April , 2021
A. K. Pal, S. Kamal, S. K. Nagar, B. Bandyopadhyay, and L. Fridman, Design of controllers with arbitrary convergence time, Automatica, 112, pp. 4135-4148.
The main advantages of this approach are that
- A settling time is precisely known in advance.
- To ensure prescribed-time convergence the knowledge of the upper bound for uncertainties is not needed. But it is needed to maintain the system in the sliding mode.
- They are feasible and they are really applied (see Zarchan) ensuring PRACTICAL prescribed stability in real navigation systems.
The main disadvantages of prescribed time convergent controllers are:
-Numerical problems corresponding to the fact that near to the prescribed time moment the controller gain grows to infinity even when the control law is bounded.
- In the presence of measurement noise of the state, the controller is given as the product of unbounded gain with a state that does not goes to zero. Thus, in general, solution blows up as time tends to the prescribed time, or in simplest cases, convergence to the origin is lost and only practical stability can be ensured.
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I have made two controls and exposed them to the same conditions , but I found a problem in which that one is smeared and the other is not.
Condition : 20 min under UV radiation then incubation for 3 hr. in water bath 37c then I have loaded the sample .
Can UV make this change ?
Does UV has a random effect?
The controls contains cDNA
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UV light will nick dna strands and the damage is worse with shorter wavelength UV light and also with increasing time of irradiation. In addition incubation at 37 risks DNASE degradation of dna if the incubation medium is not sterile and this may have made the difference between your 2 samples
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Today, sensors are usually interpreted as devices which convert different sorts of quantities (e.g. pressure, light intensity, temperature, acceleration, humidity, etc.), into an electrical quantity (e.g. current, voltage, charge, resistance, capacitance, etc.), which make them useful to detect the states or changes of events of the real world in order to convey the information to the relevant electronic circuits (which perform the signal processing and computation tasks required for control, decision taking, data storage, etc.).
If we think in a simple way, we can assume that actuators work the opposite direction to avail an "action" interface between the signal processing circuits and the real world.
If the signal processing and computation becomes based on "light" signals instead of electrical signals, we may need to replace today's sensors and actuators with some others (and probably the sensor and actuator definitions will also be modified).
  • Let's assume a case that we need to convert pressure to light: One can prefer the simplest (hybrid) approach, which is to use a pressure sensor and then an electrical-to-optical transducer (.e.g. an LED) for obtaining the required new type of sensor. However, instead of this indirect conversion, if a more efficient or faster direct pressure-to-light converter (new type of pressure sensor) is available, it might be more favorable. In near future, we may need to use such direct transducer devices for low-noise and/or high-speed realizations.
(The example may not be a proper one but I just needed to provide a scenario. If you can provide better examples, you are welcome)
Most probably there are research studies ongoing in these fields, but I am not familiar with them. I would like to know about your thoughts and/or your information about this issue.
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After seeing your and other respectable researchers' answers, I am glad I asked this question.
I am really delighted to hear from you the history of an ever-lasting discussion about sensor and actuator definitions. I have always found it annoying that the sensor definition has usually been preferred as a "too specific" definition to serve only for an interface of an electrical/electronic system and an "other" system/medium with different form of signal(s).
Besides, that diiscussion, I can start another one:
There are many commercial integrated devices which are called "sensor"s, although in fact they are not basic sensors but are more complicated small systems which may also include electronic amplifier(s), filter(s), analog-digital-converter, indicators etc. For sure, these are very convenient devices for electronic design, but I think it is not correct to call them "sensor". Such a device employs a basic sensor but besides it provides other supporting electronic stages to aid the electronic designer. I don't know if there is a specific name for such devices.
Thank you again for your additional explanations.
Best regards...
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Is there a practical MATLAB implementation for controller synthesis?
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Yes, it is possible. In the following paper, they do it predefined grid. You can first design a controller stable for your grid points and verify your controller stability on the refined grid.
A nonlinear model predictive control framework using reference generic terminal ingredients
(LMIs in the equations 19)
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hello,
i work on a controlled Microgrid and i want to test the robustness of my controller againt a white noise that may be added to the output or the input. Is there is any specific condition to follow in order to take a good choise of a noise power ? or it is somthing random ?
- Actually i tried to take it about 3% of the nominal measurement value, is this enough to be good choice ?
- in addition, i tried the two types of noises, but i noticed that the one applied on the output affects much more the system than the one applied on the output (in such a way, my system looses its stability with the output noise, but gives an acceptable performance with the input noise ) , is this reasonnable ? if yes, why ?
thank you in advance
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Hi Sarah
The Microgrid controller design and its' robustness testing is different from communication system or control system. The white noise concept will not work here. The controlled Microgrid testing depends on operational scenarios and several robustness metrics are proposed by researchers for those scenarios.
One of the testing protocol is published by IEEE Standards--
2030.8-2018 - IEEE Standard for the Testing of Microgrid Controllers
DOI: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2018.8444947
It is useful to simulate operational scenarios and testing of designed controlled Microgrid.
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Generic schematic is shown below for understanding.
Answer to the aforesaid question is requested from the experts, while considering the power flow equation i.e P = [Vs*Vr*Sin(theeta)]/X
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Markus Pöller Thank you Markus. Current loops are there to limit current through the converter. is there any role played by this current loop in synchronizing the DSTATCOM at PCC?
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If the data that can be observed is only the data set point or reference point and the output data from the close loop system, then the transfer function that can be identified is only the close loop system, without knowing the type of control used, is there a way to predict the transfer function of the plant??
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You should be able to observe just the behavior of the plant when you look at the transient solution of the system (plant + controller), if the initial conditions of the plant are nonzero. In control theory, the transfer function of the system (plant + controller) is usually assumed to be measured either after the transients (caused by nonzero initial conditions) have died out, or in the absence of any transients (caused by all zero initial conditions). Another way of saying the same thing is to consider solving for the behavior of the system (plant + controller) by solving the system's differential equation (DE). The general solution of a DE is the sum of the complementary and particular solutions. The complementary solution assumes no input to the system just intial conditions of the plant, while the particular solution just looks at the behavior of the system with inputs present.
Sometimes, the transient behavior of a plant can overwhelm the controller even when you employ perfect pole-zero cancellation, see .
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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Hello, Can we find Kp, Ki, and Kd values of PID, Lead-lag, or Type2/Type3 compensator? I have designed a type2 compensator for my system but now I need a PID controller for the same system can I access Kp and Ki values from the Type2 compensator? Please guide me
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Regards
I'm try to conect a MFC card edge brooks 5850e at the control box 0254 brooks... somebody have a skecht about the connections (mfc card edge to box control) and if the brooks 0254 cotnrol need a special power supply. In thats moment my 0254 work with a 24V power supply.
Thanks and good day.
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I am running a real-time hybrid simulation by using an electric linear motor. I am trying to perform the free vibration test and in this process, I am measuring the inertia force of the specimen with a load cell. If I do not feed the force in the system it becomes a cyclic test. Under the cyclic test, the system delay is around 2ms and the measured frequency and the input frequency are the same and no damping is observed. However, When I am feeding the measured force into the system then observing a higher delay around 10/12ms and a higher frequency than the input frequency. Can anyone help me with the problem?
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Hello Sir,
What are you trying to do ?. Built a servo system ?.
- For a servo system, conventional technique is to do the design in the frequency domain, using a Bode diagram.
- As far as I can see, you have following system equations.
1. F = k*<input> (force produced by the actuator is proportional to the input signal.)
2. F = m*a (Newtons law. Force equals mass*acceleration.)
3. a = d2 x/dt2 (the accelerations is equal to the second derivative of the positinon)
4. a = (jw)**2 * x (same, but in the frequency domain.)
5. m * (jw)**2 * x = k * <input> (combining 1, 2 and 4.)
- Typically, when you want to make a control loop, you have a sensor, producing delta-x
(the deviation of the intended position of the mass.)
- As you see, the 'problem' here is the response of the system (in Bode diagram) goes down with
slope -2, and phase is constant at -180 degree.
- The controller used of this, is typically a PID-controller.
input (to actuator) =
k1 * Integral(delta-x) + k2 * delta-x + k3 * d(delta-x)/dt.
k1: integral term
k2 : proportional term
k3 : differential term.
On top, to limit noise, there usually is a low-pass filter to limit the differentiator producing
too much noise.
Best Regards,
Henri.
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I have implemented a 3-Ph PLL block in simulink as shown in the picture. The output contains a lot of spikes. Can anyone try to explain why I am getting the spikes?
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The output of the phase detector is a necessarily fast discrete-time signal i.e. rapid pulses. The derivative part of the PI block (PID controller) is detecting the edges in that output. The (1/s) block is a standalone integrator which you may be hoping (?) to recover the error signal. You could try one or all these following steps to remove the spikes:
1. tune the PI block parameters with reduced derivative gain
2. insert a low-pass filter with a cut-off frequency lower than the repetition rate of the spikes. Place the LP right after the phase comparator (before the PI).
regards,
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The problem is this: there is model of robot, created in Simscape. And knee of this robot is made of "pin-slot-joint", which allows one transnational and one rotational degree of freedom. In transnational motion, it is imposed the stiffness and damping factor, which gives influence also to rotational torque. My aim is to write optimization or control algorithm in such a way that this algorithm should provide such stiffness(in linear direction), which will reduce the rotational torque. By the way, rotational reference motion of knee is provided in advance(as input), and appropriate torque is computed inside of the joint by inverse dynamics. But to create such algorithm, I have no deep information about block dynamics, because block is provided by simscape, and the source code and other information is hidden. By having signals of input stiffness, input motion, and output torque, I need to optimize the torque.  I will be truly grateful if you suggest me something. (I tried to obtain equation, by using my knowledge in mechanics, but there are lots of details are needed such as the mass of the joint actuator, it's radius, the length of the spring and etc. AND I HAVE NO THIS INFORMATION.) If you suggest me something, I will be truly grateful.
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very interesting
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I'v used some matlab functions (based on mfiles) in my simulink. In order to decrease simulink running time I want to replace these blocks with a new toolbox.
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My real system (buck converter) can only take an input of 0 to 1 (duty ratio) and I need to constrain the system so the controller action keeps within this bounds. How can I do this?
The code for the project is below in three images, it is Steve bruntons genetic algorithm coding. https://youtu.be/S5C_z1nVaSg?t=470
I assume the u variable is the duty ratio but I am not sure.
The last image is the control system attempted to be controlled. The transfer function is an adequate fit for the system.
Thanks in advance, if anymore information is desired please ask away.
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hi Muhammad Abbas Khan That is my post on the Matlab forums, no one has answered it.
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Hi everyone,
I am writing a research proposal for my masters applications and am in dire need of guidance.
I suggest to quantitatively investigate the potential correlation between feminist attitudes and support of antiracism, so that the higher one's feminist attitudes is hypothesized to predict a stronger support for the recent Black Lives Matter movement.
I think it would make a lot of sense to control for various sociodemographic factors such as political leaning and race, however, to what extent do I need to expand on the rationale behind this decision in my proposal? I am already running over the word limit and really cannot afford to justify it thoroughly in my literature review...How much would it require me to show that those factors have been found to influence feminist attitudes & support for antiracism if I want to include them? Is it necessary that the covariate influences both variables, or is its effect on 1 of them enough to control for it?
Alternatively, how problematic would it be for me not to control for those variables? Would it affect the quality of my proposal?
Thanks a lot for your help! Looking forward to reading your thoughts on this.
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Hello, Noémie Bourguignon. This is an interesting idea for a study! There are several ways to approach controlling for variables that might have an influence on your results. You mention one, which is controlling for them statistically. Another is to restrict your sampling in the first place. To reduce the number of potentially confounding factors, have you thought of restricting your study to a specific population of people? Limiting your sample may lead to challenges with generalizing your results, but it will help in terms of having so many confounds to address.
Wishing you the best!
Brooke Hallowell
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Hi all,
Currently, I'm working on my Thesis as applying a Multi-Objective Optimization method on a MIMO system, so error (IAE) of outputs become minimum. Average and tolerance of IAE is chosen as objective function.
First, just main outputs (Y1 and Y2) have been considered to optimizing. But there were some answers which have a bad interaction although their main-outputs seems great. Probably because outputs cancel each other out, so there is not any sign in main-outputs.
Now my question is:
Is it right to consider main (Y1,Y2) and sub-outputs(Y12,Y21) together as optimization objective?
Can i claim that Controller is handling interaction between loops and error of Outputs simultaneously ?
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Thank you very much, that helped a lot
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I wonder if the positive control primers and probes authorized by the US CDC for amplifying human RNAse P are specific to the RNAse P chromosomal DNA. My thought process is that if primers are created that are specific to cDNA for RNAse P (i.e. the primer crosses a region between two exons, eliminating it's ability to bind to the chormosomal gene) then those primers could be used to validate the reverse transcription step in RT-PCR.
#covid19 #RT-qPCR #diagnostics
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it appears that RNAse P is all one exon, which to me makes it seem like a poor candidate for discriminating between gDNA and cDNA products from a PCR reaction...
This has led me to the idea of designing primers that amplify cDNA, but not gDNA in order to control for the the reverse transcription step in diagnostic RT-PCR including those for detecting COVID. I found this paper that outlines a list of human housekeeping genes (that have similar expression levels across cell types) and that have similar isoforms expressed across cell types (i.e. the mature mRNA transcripts are made up of the same exons)
My new idea is to design PCR primers that will only anneal to the cDNA template, and not gDNA template. The way that I would do this is to design primers that anneal to a region that includes an exon junction, and empirically test whether those primers work to successfully discriminate between cDNA and gDNA of those human genes.
Does this seem like a good approach?
Why or why not?
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It's a question you created to reveal the hidden tools of control in the classroom.
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It is a very interesting and intriguing question in that it invites us to examine the nature of schooling. Such fundamental examinations are rare and the "school improvement" policies of governments are too often simplistic and designed to foster popular approval in elections or they are focused on "strategies" and "initiatives" designed to yield measurable outcomes in grades etc. in the short term
If we were to consider schooling (not 'education'...that's a different thing!) as a 'technology' in the sense that Foucault talks about technologies, we could imagine ourselves as "school engineers" taking a part the school machine placing the parts on the table and trying to work out what each element or component is and what it does.
The "wall clock" is one of the elements of the school machine. Just like to desks, chairs, whiteboards etc. they are parts of the 'material culture' of the 'learning engine'. Other 'cogs' and 'springs' we find in the machine are human, actual, conceptual and process. We call these elements such names as "lesson", "course", "teacher", "pupils", "examination", "skills", "knowledge" and "understanding" etc. One sub-element of the schooling machine is "the lesson" which might be seen as a black box with the dimensions of time (60 min?) and space (the classroom). In this time/space a range of variables and components combine with the objective usually of leading to a specified learning outcome. In this 60 min knowledge is largely "transferred from teacher to learner". The other time related component of the school machine is the calendar. This mediates and regulates the sequence with which the lessons will "delivered" in order to see a gradual accumulation of knowledge.
As such "the wall clock in the classroom" (and the calendar) are material symbols which tell us how we see learning take place and so what learning is.
Whilst some might see this as a "sensible" description of schooling it poses a fundamental question......................
Is the 'knowledge and understanding" we each have of the word the result of an accumulation of knowledge transferred to us as a sequence either in lessons or experiences? Alternatively is learning non-linear? Does it take place more quickly and then sometime more slowly. Do we sometimes "learn" when we go backwards and realise that our assumed views and understanding are flawed and so we must begin to build our understanding again? Is the typical school a machine built in the 19th century to "transfer" relatively simple factual knowledge as a means of educating "workers" with the basic skills they need to be productive and promote a view of society which legitimizes the status quo?
The clock on the wall - a most powerful symbol of power!
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The Coriolis matrix S(q,q') in the Lagrangian formulation is a coupled n*1 matrix. But in many mathematical models, an n*n Coriolis matrix S(q,q') multiplied by q' is used. I need to understand how to transform the former into later. Also, are the q and q' values in the matrix, the desired values, or the instantaneous values?
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I have summarized the answer in a pdf file, so you have some mathematical passages that I hope will be helpful.
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Cultivation of off-season vegetables are required controle condition in poly houses. Have any cost effective or supplementary techniques to reduce the cost of production?
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Please read these articles:
1- Low-Cost Polyhouse Technologies For Higher Income and Nutritional Security R.K.Yadav, P.Kalia, H. Choudhary, Zakir Husainand BrihamaDev
2- Polyhouse Subsidy, Cost, Profit, Project Report | Agri Farming
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Dear all,
Can you please tell me the ways to measure differential pressures across utility sides of the heat exchangers.
Unlike process side, the utility side pressure drops may not be measured. What can be done in such cases ? Are there indirect ways to measure it?
Thank you.
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There are many gages all over the place on most refinery units. Many send signals to the control room and many others must be read in the field. Each gage will have a small bias/error they are rarely identical. So if you want an accurate indication of the pressure drop from field gages you do a survey of the pressure at all points of interest with the same gage to eliminate the error between different gages
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PID controller is reportedly widely built and used in control systems engineering for industrial applications. The PID-controller has a transfer function as: (Kd*s^2+Kp*s+Ki)/s.
Therefore, it seems such a transfer function box, could be built in terms of an electronic circuit component.
Meanwhile, the order of an observer-based controller is higher than a PID-controller, as for example you see in the snap-shot from Ogata control engineering book, attached. Since Ogata is a practical engineering text-book, therefore I guess such an observer-based controller could be practically built as an electronic circuit and then embedded as a controller.
Moreover, we usually build transfer function blocks, simply in Matlab Simulink. But is it possible, practical, simple, and convenient to build such blocks as an integrated electronic element in a circuit, while they are of high order?
My main question:
There is a controller, with a transfer-function:
H_controller(s)=N(s)/D(s),
Where:
N(s)=b0*s^m+b1*s^(m-1)+b2*s^(m-2)+…+bm,
And:
D(s)=a0*s^n+a1*s^(n-1)+a2*s^(n-2)+…+an.
Moreover, m=10, n=10, or, n=11.
The digested question:
Is it possible, and practical to design an electronic circuitry for a box, with the transfer function: H_box=H_controller(s)=N(s)/D(s)?
Warning: I have no experience to build a real electronic circuitry, and my question is only the possibility and practicality of designing a circuit for such a transfer function box. Do not mind about the performance of the controller or any other stability concern with regard to that. Only the possibility and practicality of designing an electronic box which has an equivalent transfer function: H_box=H_controller(s)=N(s)/D(s).
The box is in feed-forward path.
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The transfer function H(s)= N(s)/D(s)
has the form of filter characteristics.
Such general transfer characteristics has zeros and poles.
The filter which contains zeros and poles are elliptic filters.
Such filters can be implemented by using op amps+ discrete RC elements
They can be built completely integrated using switched capacitor filters
They can be also implemented by using gm-C filters.
For such filter design using active filters please follow the reference: https://www.sciencedirect.com/book/9780750675475/analog-and-digital-filter-design
Bestwishes
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Dear colleagues, friends, and professors,
As we know, we have very strong analytical approaches to control theory. Any dynamic decision-making process that its variables change in time could be characterized by state-space and/or state-action representations. However, we see very few control viewpoints for solving electricity market problems. I would like to invite you to share your thoughts about the opportunities, and limitations of such a viewpoint.
Thank you and kind regards,
Reza.
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Hi I have a data set of S&P 500 companies for 20 years. I am testing for mediation in Stata and wanted to add further control variables to my set up:
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Dear Izza Zahir,
I suggest you to see links and attached files on topic.
Best regards
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Dear scientists,
When should we have sham in mtt assay?
What is the sham dose?
How should we use its data for mtt assay analysis?
I heard that if my drug solvent is PBS should take a dose of it and add to my cells like control, is it correct?
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You're welcome. Yes, it doesn't matter what your solvent is, you just want to do everything the same to have a comparison of 'cells treated only with solvent'.
Good luck! Kind regards,
Jasper
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Hi everyone,
I hope you are well today,
OK, let me go straight forward, I really like to implement the new control techniques, but I'm having to much problem in the concepts, it will be really helpful if I can see some codes about RL in Control Theory.
So I will be really thankful if you can share me some codes, whether you wrote it or you see them somewhere else.
Thanks a lot,
Sincerely,
Arash.
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I didn't find a chapter about the nonlinear system in MRAS authentic books. It would be appreciated if you could help me with this.
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Hello, you can also use simple dynamic model (ex. second order) to represent the behaviour of your system.
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Dear friend,
These days, I'm trying to finish my Ph.D. in electrical engineering (control engineering). I'm specialized in Extended-Kalman fitter application, fault detection, neural network, digital transportation, digital twins and machine learning respectively. It is necessary to say that, my thesis about industry 4.0 at pipeline performance management (software). I'm enthusiastic to join a team for my postdoc. And I struggle to study at the edge of science topics for my postdoc.
Would you help me please to join in the on the team for my postdoc, study abroad or a way to join in this kind of program?
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Is ECU connected to can? Can we program it through AUTOSAR?
And if we have up to 70's ECU in car so it means we don't have a brain here?
What is sbw-Center ECU then?
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Dear Fatemeh Pourhashem,
The ECU( Engine Control Unit (ECU) uses the camshaft and crankshaft position sensors to determine where the pistons and valves in the engine are at any given time. The ECU uses all of this information to start and keep the engine running.
ROM displaying method of automatically identifying sensor locations in an ECU’s can be effective. This can be able to create a data representation of the functions within a binary and their internal control flow graphs. Adding ECU can be effective for engine family. Addition can be able to successfully locate 95% of all candidate functions and was able to successfully recover 100% of likely sensor addresses within each of those functions.
Ashish
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Hello dear academicians,
I control my system with a LQR . My input (u) is torque produced by 3 reaction wheels. These wheels are connected to DC Motors. Reaction wheels inertias are already added as a B matrix without motors. I want to integrate the wheel's DC Motor's dynamic model into the system. But I am confused a lot. You can see my system's Simulink diagram below.
Can you help me please?
Sincerely.
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Most likely you have solved this problem few months ago. I guess you were confused because the flywheel is driven by the DC motor and both have different inertias. So, you were unsure of how to unify the dynamics for the LQR design. I have uploaded a method. If you are interested, you can find it here:
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I have data from several different frequency responses of the same open-loop system. This data has been put together to plot a Bode plot and Nyquist plot using MATLAB. I now need to find a transfer function that best represents the system. How would I go about deriving the transfer function? It can be done mathematically or using MATLAB, or trial and error though this is the less favourable approach.
I need to trial at least 1 first order and 1 second order transfer function using their standard forms to find which is the most suitable.
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I think Tree Po should get some basics in control theory and modeling in the frequency domain, and then a brief course in System Identification. If he knows what Optimization and ARX are from the beginning, he probably won't ask this question. There is no shortcut to achievement.
Tutorial on Introduction to System Identification by MATLAB
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Dear ResaerchGate Members,
I would like to check the observability and controlability of a system that has 200 states. When I use the conventional method ofobservability based rank, the Matrix of A^(n-1) (A^199 , where A has 200x200 arrays) will have the array of infinity.
I would be thankful to have your recommendations?
Best regards, Reza
#Observability ; #Controlability ; #Control
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Dear all,
thank you very much for your answers and help.
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control Coronavirus infection
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Since coronavirus (COVID-19) has no treatment, therefore 'lockdown' is the best strategy for prevention and control of this infectious disease.
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While most governments try to hide the facts and manipulate statistics about COVOD-19 due to political/economical/stupidity reasons, many physicians and scientists are currently working on finding cures for COVOD-19. I am curious whether there is any center/platform to use experts from different areas of research in this fight.
To be clearer, let me ask this:
I work in biomedical engineering department. I, my colleagues and our students are familiar with optimization, data analysis, artificial intelligence, time-series analysis, modeling, control and …
I hope there might be a center which can provide some data, plus some tasks, so we can do some real and useful research and have a share in this fight.
Just a saying: maybe a proper deep neural network can suggest best combination of drugs according to the available history.
-----------------------
P.S.
My question is about the direct fight. I don’t mean helping in e.g. producing masks, cloths and …
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Stay at home. :-)
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Hello,
I am using a BLDC motor and I am controlling it with Field Oriented Control method.
I would like to tune my PI current and PID speed control loops but I don't know how.
Could you explain me how to do it or give me some links which could help me?
I have already searched but I am a bit lost.
Thank you in advance for your help.
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I want to disable PI controller action for some time when certain if-else conditions are satisfied. I tried using the reset option but it's not suppose to achieve my objective I guess; it just resets the integrator action.
Regards,
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You can switch the controllers by using the clock block. I attached an example. Inside action blocks, there are PI controllers with different P and I parameter values.
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I want to learn how to imlement any optimization algorithm that is not in the Matlab Toolbox in the S-Function block in Simulink.I want to do this with matlab codes, not in languages like C, C ++. (So I want to do it with the first type S-function).
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For me it is necessary to add MPC controller in order to regulate (minimize) power in pin slot joint, produced by torque. But the problem is: How to understand the dynamic function of internal mechanics in Pin Slot Joint?
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I`M ALSO INTERESTED IN THIS
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In the P-f Droop control strategy for a three-phase Voltage Source Inverter using ABC-dq0, why is the current measured before as well as after the filter circuit or in other words why is the current before filtration taken as a parameter?
Is there any alternative to avoid measuring the current before the filter if one used a different inverter topology (like Z source converters)?
Figure source: Bouzid, A.E., Sicard, P., Yamane, A., & Paquin, J. (2016). Simulation of droop control strategy for parallel inverters in autonomous AC microgrids. 2016 8th International Conference on Modelling, Identification, and Control (ICMIC), 701-706.
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This is because your filter increases the order of your controlled system and the filter output current no longer obeys the VSI's output voltage according to a first order delay. This is only the case for the filter input current.
So for a robust state control of your system you need the output and the input current of the filter (you might replace one of these currents by the capacitor current of the filter) and the capacitor voltage of the filter.
So you have three state variables as feedback from your third order system - which is appropriate for controlling it and to command the VSI's switching states in a robust manner.
If you use only one state variable (e.g. filter output current) fas feedback for your control system you risk to excite resonance oscillations in your filter.
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Are the dominant economic and political forces seeking to create similar patterns of knowledge and ideas to create similar patterns of behaviors that serve their interests?
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To quote from James Clapper: "no, not wittingly" ;)
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Dear friend,
These days, I'm trying to finish my Ph.D. in electrical engineering (control engineering). I'm specialized in Extended-Kalman fitter application, fault detection, neural network, digital transportation, digital twins and machine learning respectively. It is necessary to say that, my thesis about Industry 4.0 at pipeline performance management (software). I'm enthusiastic to join a team for my postdoc. And I struggle to study at the edge of science topics for my postdoc.
Would you help me please to join in the on the team for my postdoc, study abroad or a way to join in this kind of program?
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Hi Syed Ali,
You may follow: https://www.timeshighereducation.com/ which for all PostDoc jobs and my be helpful for you.
Good Luck
Ali
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Dear friend
I want to design software for measuring the valuable information (pressure and flow) of the pipeline to detect faults like corrosion and leakage.
I'm working on the algorithm that used for extended kalman filter for pipeline leak detection systems.
I follow the low-priced method to design this kind of hardware for pipeline fault detection. Could you tell me some approaches to designing? Which instrument need for fabrication which doesn’t need expensive devices?
Thank you for your consideration
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I am engaged in modeling of computer central processing papeline. Problems of pape in other spheres are not my area.
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What is the best way to tune cascaded PI controllers? Take decoupled current-mode control in three-phase inverters as an example.
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Mohamed Azab how can someone use the algorithm to tune more than one PI controllers in a model simultaneously?
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I am working on Power system modles in MATLAB with some adaptive controllers. The simulation run for different time duration like 8,10, and 15 sec. Now i need to get the computational time taken by the computer to solve the iteration behind theses simulations. I found tic and toc command but need more detailed explanation to use it. Thanks
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% For Simulink model
tic, sim('Simmulink_model_Name'), toc
% It is strongly recommended that you run the model at least min once before
% this test because it compiled before start.
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Hi all,
What reference strains that I can use as a positive control for detecting fluoroquinolone-resistance genes?
Thank you in advance.
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You can find many ATCC cultures which harbor this resistant gene. I have found this one (Klebsiella pneumoniae (Schroeter) Trevisan (ATCC® BAA-2788™)) which have shown to be resistant to fluoroquinolone (Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin etc.). The strain have been positive for many resistant genes.
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What's the similarity of these systems? How can I identify them?
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Dear Liming,
I suggest you tackle this using root locus (RL). First, for practical reasons, do not think of a purely D control action (which is not implementable). I suggest, for the sake of investigation, to think of a phase-lead controller. If you put the zero of this phase-lead at frequency \omega=0 rad/s, then you have a pure derivative term plus one pole at higher frequencies to end up with a proper rational function (or even two poles, to become strictly proper). Now think of a system with one unstable open-loop pole and draw the RL. Then you immediately see that this phase-lead controller is able to stabilize the system for a sufficiently *large* gain. You can test other classes of systems in this insightful way.
Regards.
Luis
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Hello !
I am doing a research about input shaping control in crane system.
The picture below shows that the nonlinear crane system and the input shaping filter I set, and the output are position and angle, input shaping filter can effectively reduce the swing angle when it move to the position I command.
Here is my question :
The input shaping parameter are calculated from the linear system, so it's not complete in nonlinear. So I want to use the optimization function to find the input shaping parameter.
How could I use GA to find the parameter of the filter I design in simulink ?
Thanks.
Ray.
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All I know is that you modeled your system in Simulink, so if you want to use an optimization method in Matlab you should define the inputs and equations of your optimization methods as the output of your Simulink simulation. In this case, if you want to use GA, first you have to define the fitness function of GA in Matlab script, then needed variables and constraints for your optimization program. It depends on the part that you want your optimization to be run. If your optimization is a in-stage procedure you should use the related blocks in Simulink for defining the inputs of your script.
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I have been trying to simulate my system whose Simulink schematic is attached, and also I have attached my results.
The issue is, even though the wind is having sufficient generation, the power demand of the load is not absorbed from the wind, instead, the grid instantly delivers the power. My system comprises of PMSG based wind generator, Battery, Load Connected before the Isolation Transformer and Grid.
Can you please suggest where I am going wrong? I want the power of the load must be supplied by the wind generator. (my results are attached)
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I think the Grid power should be -10 kW. have you checked the 'three phase VI measurement block' direction to measure power from/to grid? Captial letter ABC of the 'three phase VI measurement blocks' should be at the grid side.
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But when i just increased the controller gains by a fold of 100 the system was seem to be controlled. The system was measured with a difference of (0.002 milliseconds)
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You may have to adjust the integral along with those gains because the integral may be too fast for the type of calculation.
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How measure the settling and rising time of a sine wave signal ?
if I have a output signal that should be sine wave or whatever .. during the transient period at the beginning, I need to measure the rising and settling time .. how I can do that ?
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for a sinwave like Asin(wt+p), period is 2π/w
normally we write A*sin(2πf+p) in this case you can write T=1/f
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Dear Researchers,
I would like to kindly ask to introduce different fuzzy-based hybrid control algorithms and the salient features of each technique.
Thank you.
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Dear Dr. Yew-Chung Chak
Thank you very much for your comment.
You've done a lot of research on fuzzy-based controllers. I would greatly appreciate it if you can share your great experiences.
Thank you again.
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What analysis tool is most suitable for transient-state analysis and designing control to mitigate those transients in power distribution system? I am planning to carry out transient analysis caused by sudden increase in load on distribution feeder and want to control those transient by charging/discharging the battery storage system. Our load has a high ramp rate and high magnitude which could cause these transients in the distribution grid voltage profile.
Regards
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Mechanical to Electrical to Mechanical ( Generator/Motor) are via electromagnetic(reactive power)....