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Conservation - Restoration - Science topic

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Dear RG Colleagues,
I hope you're doing well.
In my region, I noticed that an area contains a very rich flora and fauna biodiversity. I am trying with a team to establish a complete inventory within a year.
My question is what are the main steps to create a new protected area, whether at the scientific or administrative level.
Creating Protected Areas solution aims to increase the amount of conserved land by establishing new government protected areas, indigenous managed territories and private protected areas.
Best regards
Abdenour
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Julius Riese Grégoire Moutardier Dear Colleagues, Thank you for your contributions.
I am trying to make the best work plan.
Waiting for other contributions.
Thanks
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Hi,
I coordinate the sending of PAID solidarity corps servants by French government for NGO doing direct action for conservation into the world.
The servant (often with M.Sc in science), are paid (480€/months, during 10-12months, get insurance and stipend for the travel).
The NGO provide accommodation and real mission in conservation.
If you know NGO needing free motivated manpower, please contact me.
CONSERVATION in ACTION! =D
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Hi Dr. Beaune,
Take a look at Oceânica NGO from Brazil > https://oceanica.org.br/
As the Oceânica website is only in the Portuguese version I sent the Annual Report 2019 in the English version. If you are interested please contact: contato@oceanica.org.br
Kind regards!
~Guido
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A relict species population is a population that currently occurs in a restricted area, but whose original range was far wider during a previous geologic epoch. Threatened plant species with small geographic range and small population size are most at risk of extinction and the highest priority in urgent conservation programs. As for the relict endemic species, which witnessed during the past 50 years a significant decrease in the geographical area and population size, it is one of the most important primary goals of conservation, whether in situ or ex situ. In some cases, ex situ conservation is the only available solution to protect a species from extinction and to ensure the possibility of an attempt to return to the wild after its extinction after the improvement of the surrounding environmental conditions. Unfortunately, some species depend on the range of environmental variables so small that by changing the organism cannot adapt to and it becomes extinct. For example, in the cases of plants that depend on the availability of a constant and continuous water source throughout the year, they are subject to a significant collapse in the absence of that water, especially in desert environments. The question now is, how can we increase the chances of conserving these species through in situ practices, given the weak opportunities for long-term financing?
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Natural products are capable to adjust with adverse conditions. Yes, the capability of them varies with their species. When we can save the seeds with our technology, we can recreate the condition of their growth. In my point of view, extinction, of course the natural one, is very normal. That is the way of generation of aa new species. But extinction that is done by human greed is the problem creator.
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Some threatened endemic plants, which were more widespread in the cold ages (relict), when the environmental conditions were appropriate, their rehabilitation process is very difficult. These plants are restricted in their survival to the presence of water, as they are spread around springs and wells saturated with water throughout the year. As a result of successive droughts, the plant was confined to the tops of the mountains (which sometimes provides it with a continuous source of water as a result of the snow). In some cases, due to the nature of the confined micro-habitat (steep, water-rich mountain cliffs), it is extremely difficult to use seedlings in the rehabilitation process, and the only opportunity is to grow plants in the wild through previously treated seeds to break dormancy. Although these seeds germinate, their survival rates do not exceed 1%. How can we improve the survival rate of these new plants, taking into account the dry and water-poor desert environment?
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Can you please give us a clue, what plant family this plant is from, and what kind of plant (annual, perennial, herbaceous perennial, shrub, etc.) ?
1.) When you plant, cut terraces in the side of the slope. Do not make the terrace flat, have it sloping very slightly inward towards the slope. And then make drains at either end--so that water from the springs, or in case of a downpour of rain, water can drain out.
2.) Get some soil from around the site that already has some organic matter in it, to put into your "terrace garden" at least 4 cm deep.
3.) Make your own compost, ideally from local native plants like grasses and FORBS, and no shrubs or tree leaves--and add a 1:40 ratio of bone meal and blood meal to the compost, and keep it moist and age it for about three months so all of the herbicide-like allelochemicals in the plant materials have decomposed, so you will not have interference with the seedlings. Only use bone meal whose N-P-K percentage numbers have "0" as the first number, which means zero nitrogen and indicates pure bone meal.
4.) Or you could harvest the surface litter as compost if there is enough, and add the two fertilizers and compost it for 2-3 weeks, to get rid of the fertilizer smell so animals will not be attracted to it. In both cases, you should sift the compost through 1/4 inch (7-8 mm) mesh screen to use.
4.) Sow your seeds on top of your "soil" then cover them with your compost, only 3-4 times as deep as the seed's diameters. Easy to sow seeds too deep, so be very careful when sowing.
Adding compost with a little organic fertilizers added, may solve all of your problems. You can see the difference in sowing seeds in a desert, without and with compost and fertilizers at https://www.ecoseeds.com/good.example.html -- from my classes on Ecological Restoration that I taught here in California.
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I am currently researching a network of species movement between temporary ponds using Least Cost Paths. With Conefor I have calculated the PCnum, EC(PC), and PC (probability of Connectivity, as in Saura & Pascual-Hortal, 2007) for the network situation in 1991 and again in 2020. I would like to compare the two with one another, and somehow the PC is higher in 2020 than in PCnum, despite there being less ponds in 2020. PCnum and EC(PC) are both higher for 1991. I am therefore wondering if I should focus on one of these or multiple of these metrics in my comparison, or if these metrics are at all even comparable in this way?
Secondly, I am creating a prioritization scheme based upon the change of PCnum and PC caused by restoring individual ponds. However, the two metrics result in different orders of priority for the destroyed ponds. I am wondering what would be the conditions for using one of them over the other, or what advantages one may have?
Thank you in advance for your help.
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You must just choose one metric and be confident with it :)
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Has anyone been able to successfully cryopreserve coral oocytes? I've only found one case for a Gorgonian (Junceella juncea) through vitrification (Tsai et al. 2015, attached below). I know that in some cases some researchers (personal communications) have been able to thaw and retrieve from liquid nitrogen, but though they are still 'alive', they loose their ability to be fertilized (infertile).
I appreciate your help providing me with your answers and/or experience in this matter.
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Everything is very simple. They are prepared in the same way as mammalian eggs. Deep freezing takes place in liquid nitrogen. There is also an article, unfortunately in Russian.
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Ha logrado alguno críopreservar exitosamente los ovocitos de alguna especie de coral? Solamente he encontrado un caso para una gorgónea (Junceella juncea) por medio de vitrificación (Tsai et al. 2015, adjunto abajo). Se que algunos investigadores (comunicaciones personales) han logrado en algunos casos descongelarlas y reactivarlas después de realizar las inmersiones o el almacenamiento en nitrógeno líquido, sin embargo, pese a que los ovocitos salen 'vivos', estos pierden su capacidad de ser fertilizados (quedan infértiles).
Agradezco de antemano su apoyo y colaboración compartiendo sus respuestas y experiencia en este asunto.
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They may have been frozen too quick? Slow freeze and fast thaw is best, I think :)
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I have 10 million dollars to invest in biodiversity conservation or restoration. I am looking for an average annual return of 5% over 10 years and can accept a medium level of risk. What financial instruments are available to make such an investment?
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Habitat restoration with indigenous species only. Finding out ways of economic evaluation of various ecosystem services in order to create public awareness about importance of biodiversity conservation. Employment of locals and efficiently training them to protect endangered species.
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I am wondering if it is easy to combine elements of the Multilevel Perspective on transitions and the Social-Ecological Systems framework. Who knows fruitful combinations for studying transitions in or energie transition or nature conservation/restoration?
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Combining them could be based on a multi-scale framework of SES. One starting point for looking at this implementation is the Multiscale Ecosystem Framework (MEF) explained in https://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=1387&context=nrc_faculty_pubs
and Chapter 29 in Commons Handbook
A combination of MLP and SES is being applied by my research team in energy issues in Colombia as a PhD research.
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We suspect single-species conservation interventions are sometimes applied in isolated or highly fragmented and edge of range locations, rather than in continuous or core parts of a species range (or both simultaniously). We are especially interested in whether this is the case for widespread but declining species, such as European farmland birds. Is this true? It will often be inevitable for restricted range species, but does it often happen for widespread species? Do you know of any examples in the literature? We are thinking in the context of spatial consrvation prioritization, to help decide where in a species range conservation resourses are best directed to maintain or increase populations.
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HI Take a look through the myriad examples collected by William J Sutherland at the conservation evidence website: https://www.conservationevidence.com/
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Physically, is it possible the form of those human corpses could be preserved for 18 centuries (it was discovered in 1863) below 15m of ashes and volcanic rocks? What would have forbade stones and ashes to fill this cavity? The human "soul" maybe? Gently preserving the exact form of the body with its so human expressive gesture? How could Guiseppe Fiorelli, the numismatist, could spot those "cavities" under 15m of ashes? See that scholar drawing explaining its "marvellous" discovery.
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Yes, precisely. Some things are not in the usual place (for example teeth in the stomach), that let think those "bodies" (done in the 19th century), if they ever exist, were manipulated some way. On another hand, my question was wondering how this miracle of preservation of the bodies forms for 18 centuries, below 15m of volcanic eruption could physically happen? Because, for what I know, there's no other volcano in the world where bodies or whatever was preserved. So what? Pompeians were a superior kind of beings, heat-resistant ? Because they were from Roman upper class? I'm sure if you give them a Carbone 14 test, it will reveal the truth: they are from the 19th Century...
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I like to get help regarding - some references Books/ Papers that discuss about
Conservation
Restoration
Adaptive reuse
of Heritage Buildings.
Thanks in advances
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Hello Shahriar!
The Adaptative reuse of heritage buildings is a way to preserve historical buildings within contemporary uses apart of the basic services (water, electricity, sanitary and even now internet). Is a strategic way to reintegrate life into the historic context, to protect through a benefit which now must be sustainable (social-enviromental-economic). But to reach that goal is crucial to look at the basic reads of this theme like International Charters of ICOMOS and UNESCO, some examples for this theme are:
The theoretical part of the proces to develop an adaptation in heritage buildings is crucial so the criteria is well founded in order to balance the future with the authenticity and integrity of the heritage and the landscape so the quality of life can be rised in direct or indirect ways.
Greetings!
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Atlantic salmon has been extirpated from many rivers. It seems reintroduction projects progress relatively slowly in Rivers Elbe and Rhine, and a long-running reintroduction program was recently abandoned in Connecticut River. I’m looking for rivers where Atlantic salmon has been successfully reintroduced.
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There was a programme to restore Atlantic salmon to the River Thames, S.E. England - and indeed there is now a wild salmon population established there, but it seems that this came about through natural recolonisation rather that the success of the introduced fish (see https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320711002801). Similarly there is now a thriving salmon population in the River Clyde, W. Scotland, many years after it became extinct due to pollution - but again this is due to natural recolonisation (following extensive efforts to improve water quality and remove obstacles to migration) rather than due to any reintroduction of fish (see here for an early assessment: http://www.gov.scot/Uploads/Documents/Decline%20poster.pdf; the population has continued to expand since this survey).
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Then, this meeting is for you...
The Red Macrolatinos (RML), together with the Society for Freshwater Science (SFS), the Asociación Ecuatoriana de Limnología (AEL), and the Sociedad(e) de Odonatología Latinoamericana (SOL) cordially invite you to the Meeting “Tropical Aquatic Ecosystems in the Anthropocene AQUATROP“, which will be held July 23-26 2018, in Quito, Ecuador (with pre-meeting courses July 21 – 22, and post-meeting excursions starting July 27, 2018).
This will be the fourth meeting of the Red Macrolatinos (RML), the first of the Ecuadorian Association of Limnology (AEL), the first international initiative of the Society for Freshwater Science (SFS) and the second meeting of the the Sociedad(e) de Odonatología Latinoamericana (SOL). The meeting focuses on tropical freshwater ecosystems in the context of the major changes that are occurring due to human interventions. We live on a planet where the human footprint is inevitable and it is for that very reason that we need to understand how our ecosystems function in their natural conditions and when altered by humans. The objective of our meeting is to promote the dissemination of high quality scientific research in any of the areas related to the study of tropical and subtropical aquatic ecosystems in the Americas. We also seek to actively promote communication and collaboration between scientists, stakeholders, and members of the different scientific organizations with similar interests.
It is a great pleasure for us to welcome you to this meeting, which not only brings together the members and participants of the four collaborating associations, but also invites professionals, students and resource managers interested in biology, ecology, hydrology, management, management, conservation and restoration of freshwater ecosystems in the tropics and subtropics of the Americas.
Our meeting includes eight plenary sessions which will be of interest to the meeting participants, but also to the public of the city of Quito and all of Ecuador. We also expect to have over 100 oral presentations in diverse subjects and 100 posters presentations. Our Special Sessions or symposiums will cover a wide range of current and innovative topics relating to tropical freshwater ecosystems.
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Dear JJ
It's a shame not to count with your presence. We will be reporting on relevant news of the congress.
Un abrazo,
Carlos
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Are there papers or studies on conservation vs. conservation conflicts and how to avid and/or manage them? Here in Bulgaria we have at least two such conflicts, where actions to conserve one conservation dependent species are not in favour to other or even worse may further threaten it. For example conservation of the wolf in Bulgaria (especially legislation changes) could lead to illegal actions against wolf (e.g. poison baits use), which do not affect the wolf that much, but are absolutely dangerous to vultures and eagles. This conflict passes through the man-wolf conflict though. The other example is the conservation of the European Suslik (Spermophilus cittelus), which requires well grazed (even may be overgrazed) grasslands to recover and sustain and its conservation, restoration and abundance is fundamental for several other species (e.g. Saker Falcon, Imperial Eagle etc.), but the general nature lovers and botanists are against heavy grazing and keeping grassland in best condition for Susliks. So here is a Conservation-Conservation conflict. To may opinin it should be measured on the base of Conservation value of the species involved, which is not always the case e.g. managers of the Central Balkan National Park in Bulgaria. Any references, notes or discussion will be appreciated.
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The book mentioned above does not give an answer of your question.
Direct conflicts between endangered species present unique challenges to conservation. Solutions to conflicts between endangered species are difficult to apply as recent management plans are typically focused on individual species and recovery actions could directly oppose one another. Unfortunately, the multi-species recovery plans are still not well developed.
I would recommend reading:
" Removing Protected Populations to Save Endangered Species "
" A framework for monitoring multiple-species conservation plans "
doi:10.2193/0022-541X(2005)69[1333:AFFMMC]2.0.CO;2
" Strongly interacting species: conservation policy, management, and ethics "
doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0168:SISCPM]2.0.CO;2
"Conservation and conflict between endangered desert fishes"
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Inquiring in particular into the formation of (national, ethnic, cultural) identities; governance; tourism & cultural heritage (representation, commercialisation, commodification); importance of world heritage 'craze' and national ranking; ancient cities;
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Dear Silvia, I suggest you review Pierre Bourdie's work on place effects, it may be an interesting look at the elaborations in space
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Hi All,
Can someone recommend studies about the investment on the environment (conservation, restoration, etc.) made by subnational governments in developing countries? My paper explores the factors that explain why these investments exist in the first place and why the change overtime. I am working with data from Ecuador, and I am mainly interested in cases from Latin America. I will surely appreciate your thoughts on this.
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Hello,
I hope that among the literature below there is something useful to you
Christopher Fayers
Environment and investment: the role of personal investment choice in creating sustainability
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Sustainable Development
Year:1999
Month:
Day:
Volume:7
Issue:2
First page:64
Last page:76
Peter Newell
Managing multinationals: the governance of investment for the environment
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Journal of International Development
Year:2001
Month:
Day:
Volume:13
Issue:7
First page:907
Last page:919
 Timo Busch; Volker H. Hoffmann
Ecology-Driven Real Options: An Investment Framework for Incorporating Uncertainties in the Context of the Natural Environment
Springer-Verlag
Journal of Business Ethics
Year:2009
Month:12
Day:
Volume:90
Issue:2
First page:295
Last page:310
Kyla Tienhaara
Mineral investment and the regulation of the environment in developing countries: lessons from Ghana
Springer-Verlag
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics
Year:2006
Month:12
Day:
Volume:6
Issue:4
First page:371
Last page:394
L. Baringo; A.J. Conejo
Wind power investment within a market environment
Elsevier
Applied Energy
Year:2011
Month:
Day:
Volume:88
Issue:9
First page:3239
Last page:3247
 
Yafang Su
Urban investment environment information system for China’s coastal port cities
Springer-Verlag
Chinese Geographical Science
Year:1994
Month:
Day:
Volume:4
Issue:4
First page:295
Last page:302
Derek Lyddon
Investment in the environment recent housing, planning and transport policies in Scotland: by Eric Gillett Aberdeen University Press, Aberdeen, UK, 1983, 160 pp, £11
Elsevier
Cities
Year:1984
Month:
Day:
Volume:1
Issue:6
First page:630
Last page:631
 
Thomas Reardon; Stephen A. Vosti
Links between rural poverty and the environment in developing countries: Asset categories and investment poverty
Elsevier
World Development
Year:1995
Month:
Day:
Volume:23
Issue:9
First page:1495
Last page:1506
Fang Lee Cooke; Zhaohong Lin
Chinese firms in Vietnam: investment motives, institutional environment and human resource challenges
Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources
Year:2012
Month:
Day:
Volume:50
Issue:2
First page:205
Last page:226
Kim, Sun G
Is government investment in R&D and market environment needed for indigenous private R&D in less developed countries?: evidence from Korea
Informa UK (Beech Tree Publishing)
Science and Public Policy
Year:2000
Month:
Day:
Volume:27
Issue:1
First page:13
Last page:22
Timo Busch and Volker H. Hoffmann
Ecology-Driven Real Options: An Investment Framework for Incorporating Uncertainties in the Context of the Natural Environment
JSTOR
Journal of Business Ethics
Year:2009
Month:12
Day:
Volume:90
Issue:2
First page:295
Last page:310
 
Corazón M. Siddayao, Lisa A. Griffin, Economic Development Institute (Washington, D.C.)
Energy investments and the environment: a collection of papers prepared for a workshop organized by the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank in October 1990
0821323989, 9780821323984
World Bank Publications
1993
 
Joni Jupesta, Takako Wakiyama (eds.)
Cities and the Global Politics of the Environment
Low Carbon Urban Infrastructure Investment in Asian Cities [1 ed.]
978-1-137-59675-8, 978-1-137-59676-5
Palgrave Macmillan UK
2016
 
Kevin P. Gallagher, Lyuba Zarsky
The Enclave Economy: Foreign Investment and Sustainable Development in Mexico's Silicon Valley (Urban and Industrial Environments) [1 ed.]
2007
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In the Lesser Antilles, Triphasia trifolia has been importated from Asia for ornemental purposes. This shrub forms now thickets and monospecific stands in natural coastal forests. These stands are most often lower than 1 meter high but with some individuals reaching more than 3 meters ! This species re-sprouts from stumps and roots (like Leucaena leucocephala) therefore it appears necessary to re-treat former removal sites. The only long-term solution I found in the literature was to dig around and remove all the vegetal material with heavy machinery, which is impossible in remote locations, too expensive and imply too great impact for other species.
Do you have a tried and tested solution ? or some advices to deal with this species ?
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I don't know this species, but two non-chemical methods which might be worth investigating are mechanical control like Lever and Mulch(TM) (see http://www.highlandbirchwoods.co.uk/userfiles/file%5CIntro%20to%20Lever%20&%20Mulch.pdf) and use of cut and cover techniques like Buckthorn baggies (http://www.buckthornbaggie.com/).
In Scotland, Lever and Mulch has been used against rhododendron, which is difficult to control, as it layers, and re-sprouts from buds around the root collar.  This method includes a variety of manual techniques, but is based on using the trunk as a lever to break the plant up as much as possible, with the dead material left as a mulch to smother remaining layers.  I don't know whether the structure of Triphasia would be suitable for these techniques, but it might be worth trying.
Cut and cover is useful for plants that resprout from a stump - you basically zip-tie thick plastic bags over the stumps to kill the plant.  It has been used in America against buckthorn, and we are testing it in Scotland against beech, but only on small sites where the bags can be collected up again.  It should be possible to develop something like this using a biodegradable material.  However, this is unlikely to be useful for something that spreads via rhizomes.
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Do you have recommendations of artificial burrows for these seabirds, that you experienced:
Polynesian Storm-petrel: Nesofregetta fuliginosa
Herald Petrel: Pterodroma heraldica
Murphy’s Petrel: Pterodroma ultima
Tahiti Petrel: Pseudobulweria rostrata
We would like to attract these species on a new remote nest site.
Literature exist but maybe you discovered something new.
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Hi.
There is also the classic example of use of artificial burrows to promote breeding of the highly endangered Bermuda Petrel (Pterodroma cahow). See these links:
Best regards, and good luck in your work. 
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I am rehabilitating an historic structure (mid Atlantic coastal plain) from the inside. The siding is in top condition (German siding covered with stucco). The resin paper "vapor barrier" has dry-rotted and is ineffective. The choices appear to be: 1. forget any attempt at any vapor barrier. 2. Install barrier against back of siding and wrapping studs. 3. install vapor barrier to inside of studs.
I cannot find an architect who feels comfortable answering the question. There must be a reasonable and logical choice.
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Ruxandra:, Thank you. The subject structure is 115 years old. In this situation there is no water infiltration into the wall cavity. There is no fungal attack on the wood members or siding. As a precaution I am spraying all wood surfaces with Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate (TIMBOR) and allowing it to dry prior to insulating and finishing with dry-wall. I, perhaps, mis-used the word 'dry-rot' as a term to describe the brittleness of the paper and how easily it disintegrates, as most any paper based product would after 100 years. There is no evidence of an actual fungus in the fibers.
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I am looking to collaborate with a project that involve topics in my study field as mammal ecology, camera traps, management, invasive species, ecosystem restoration and conservation. I have a few weeks in May 2017 and I am open to collaborate in any country of southeast Asia.
Thank you.
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Hello Sebastian,
I am a marine mammal researcher based in the University of St. La Salle in Negros Island, Philippines and a friend of Dr. Liao. I've been involved in some terrestrial fauna research as well, and I have colleagues working for a foundation involved in terrestrial fauna conservation. Unfortunately our website has little information as of the moment, but you can e-mail me at makoy28_delapaz@yahoo.com.  
Regards,
Manuel
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is temporary use a viable strategy for the conservation of historic buildings and in what ways can temporary use contravene or contribute to the established principles and priorites in conservation, if you have country specific anecdotes this is also interesting... thank you
Note : Temporary use here is defined as a movement (see Urban Catalyst or Temporary City by Bishop and Williams), rather than an acitivty defined by a specific timeframe. The temporary use movement is based on >intention> : an intentionally time-limited use which, due to financial constraints, promotes maximum adaptability (working wihtin existing conditions) and community enagagement (social versus financial capital). 
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As said above, the best best strategy for the preservation of historical heritage assets to to keep the asset in use. Ideally in place and unchanged. Any adapative (re-)use usually comes with an impost caused by adaptation, and thus usually at some cost to the integrity of the asset.
Most importantly, the cultural significance assessment of the historical heritage assets will drive what activities and management actions (incl. adaptive re-use) are acceptable. Thus there is no hard and fast answer to your question.
The impact of the temporary reuse can be physical, but also intangible  such as in the  the re-use of religious structures by other denominations, other religions and secular parties. A discussion of this aspect can be found in 'The Future of Defunct Religious Buildings: Dutch Approaches to Their Adaptive Reuse' (see below)
The issue here is to what extent the temporary use that is proposed, requires an alteration or adaptation of the existing fabric. If none, then there is no issue. But even if only small, then the cumulative effect may be significant.
Ideally, a set of criteria for temporary use should be developed that govern the acceptance or denial of the proposed use. Also, what is deemed temporary here. This needs some clarification. For example, a  proposed 10-year use period of a 300-year old structure could well  be considered 'temporary' ....
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In restoring ecosystem, nurse plant can be used to facilitate other plants establishment so that successional process can run faster. What I am wondering is, when I need to decide what kind of plant that I should grow under nurse plant, I don't know which one is better, pick shrubs/grass or tree seedlings? I have heard that tree seedling is better because it can cut some successional steps. In the other hand, facilitating shrubs/grass may develop soil so tree will be able to grow in that soil condition.
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I forgot to mention, we tend to sow grass at first time or season possible for growth and trees are planted during dormant season before growth season begins.  In droughty areas, if we do any ripping of soils on the contour, we would plant the trees in the rips and tamp them in good, as they depressions are likely to capture some excess rainfall or surface water.  In consistency wet areas with high water tables, planting trees on the higher areas when possible is going to be beneficial.  Only certain species can handle the driest and wettest areas, so pick them to fit the circumstances.  If soils are mapped or you have questions, discuss with soil scientist, forester and botanist or ecologist.
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From January 2014 to June 2016, through the continuous field trips, I have listed all those butterflies which were spotted. Now, I have analysed the land area management of Dhaka city which contains over 17 million inhabitants. The total species number is 136 and a good number of them are Endangered and Vulnerable according to regional IUCN Red List 2016. How can I synchronize these data? Is it possible to make a conservation management plan with the help of this research? Please help..
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Field data are always useful to draw CM plans. In fact, it often happens that CM plans are incomplete because information that actually existed could was not incorporated to them. The papers below show three such cases (for various taxa) where Management Plans, field data, and literature or IUCN data all had occurrence data that were absent from the other sources, resulting in partial knowledge and therefore less-than-optimal plans. Data synchronization was accomplished through database mining and GIS analytics. Methods are explained in the papers.
The difference between the amount of knowledge in a plan, and the amount of existing knowledge that could have been put in a plan, should become a priority especially when endangered species are present. The fourth reference (link) below is a draft for a document dealing with this type of gap analysis.
Regards
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In the field restoration and reforestation
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Hi Mohandass,
Here are some useful pdf attachments for your persual.
Good Luck
Dr. Arvind Singh
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Hi,
I would like to estimate differences in environmental perception among reared recruits (2 years indoor) and wild recruits of sea urchins.
We are thinking  to estimate differences in perceptions of available food, available shelter  or presence of adults as the time taken by reared recruits versus wild recruits to reach a  rocky habitat covered with algae (food and refuge) from a known distance in the bare sand. what do you think about?
thankyou
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So, what is the hypothesis that you would be testing? that sea urchins in the wild are able to recognize or respond to a wider number of stimuli than those in the lab because they have never been exposed to them??
Then we would have to assume that certain responses are "innate" but others “learnt”, right?? that could be an interesting experiment...
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What are the variables of social capital that should be considered when it comes to conservation of an urban area specifically the historic quarters?
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Artefacts and monuments of the city that are peculiar 
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Contemporary art may have conceptual elements and some materials and textures may not need to be documented. On the other hand, spaces and interactions need documentation. But what 3D acquisition technique to use? Or maybe virtual reality and 3D modelling techniques?
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Photogrammetry (especially the Structure from motion technique) is your low cost answer to 3D digitization projects. The results you can achieve are comparable to the ones obtained by a laser scanner, it depends of course on the equipment you use.
Some drawbacks of the method are that it cannot handle all kind of surfaces. As the first step of the method is to detect features on the surface of the objects which are essential for the method to continue, the lack can yield to either problematic reconstructions or no reconstruction at all. So we could say that very dark, light diffusioning (marble without erosions) and in general surfaces without any features are not SFM-friendly. 
The produced 3D model can be used in a lot of ways, for example the dissemination of the object on the web, in the restoration process, for creating replicas via 3D printing.
hope it helps..
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in most articles i get adding 50g of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation(sand,soil,host root) is sufficient to do AMF inoculation research. is that always true? deos it hold true if i want to inoculate a tree seedling(potted in a 15 cm plastic pot) during planting on the field?
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you can use 3000 AMF spore innoculant per square metre...
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Brush fire usually happened in somewhere during the hottest Summer of Australia.After put out the fire, is there any methods which linked with landscape architecture can used to help the vegetation restoration of the area? Thank you.
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Let me ride on the responses of collegues above. In such case indigenous plants which are known to be tolerant can be used. In some regions such as the Sahel, farmers are aware of plants that can re sprout after fire or damage. These can be used depending on the ecosystem and it's variability. 
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Dear Friends, CLEAN (Coastal Livelihood and Environmental Action Network) has taken an initiative to develop a free and open-sourced online encyclopedia on mangroves named Mangropedia. It is totally a voluntary initiative where University students and web developers started working without any funding.
The encyclopedia will contain everything on mangroves, especially flora, fauna, ecology, tourist spots, biography of mangrovers, administrative issues, categories of mangroves, conservation and restoration techniques, organizations working on mangroves, culture of mangrove areas, legendary stories, literature on mangroves, distribution of mangroves, local name of the mangrove forests, taxonomy, livelihood groups dependent on mangrove forests etc.
If you have any information, biography or sources, please share with us!
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Thank you Gregor C. Falk for your valuable contribution!
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In May 1974, only 4 individuals including a single breeding female were left in the wild.
With an extensive breeding programme, the species was saved from the brink of extinction.
But what concern me the most is their genetic pool; having a single breeding female will this not increase the probability of expression of recessive alleles leading to complication or even death in the future. Resulting in a decrease in kestrel population.
I want to know if my thinking is right and your point of view on this matter.
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I do not think that the 'fitness' oi the surviving individuals is the issue; the hidden deleterious recessive are (and the general lack of heterozygosity).  I agree that inbreeding depression has a tendency to be transient, and that if humans help the population through these 'purging' generations, the species may come out alright with respect to inbreeding depression (although it will still be generally monomorphic).
An additional positive factor: the Mauritian falcon population has probably always been relatively small (a top predator on a small island), and may already have done some of this purging naturally. And as for a lack of heterozygosity, cheetahs have been essentially monomorphic for something like 10,000 years, and were doing just fine until moderns humans started killing them and destroying their habitat over the last couple hundred years.
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We're studying the feasibility of restoring aquatic habitat to a 1.2 km (4,000 ft) length of river pool on the Upper Ohio River. Restoration may include adding large river substrate, terracing the river bank, adding perched wetlands, etc.  We were wondering if there exists any habitat evaluation model/procedure that would allow us to assess potential benefits holistically, i.e., in a linked, perhaps synergistic fashion.  Our evaluation alternatives, at this point, are to use something like time-worn HSI models (e.g., for Smallmouth Bass).
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I might go off on a tangent here, but from my experience (or better: from German/European experiences from the last 30+ years) I would say that things linke adding large substrate and terracing the banks are neither necessary nor advisable. They are usually quite expensive and after a larger flood event or two none of it will remain (or it has to be maintained which costs even more money). In Germany the authorities now like to apply an approach that allows for a self-reinforced development of the river morphology. This include removing the bank fixation and often (where necessary) the removal of parts of the topsoil (in order to decrease the height difference between the water level and the floodplain). In many cases large woody debris (or boulders)  is also fixated in the riverbed in order to guide the current and promote bank erosion. These combined measures usually do not cost more than 150€/m, while more traditional restoration measures (riverbed modelling, planting of riparian trees, 5-years maintenance and so on) add up to usually up to 2000€/m.
My PhD focused on the evaluation of two such self-reinforced restoration measures with a special focus on the riverbed morhphology and the macrozoobenthos and the results show that these simple measures are very effective in enabling a more natural substrate and habitat dynamic, especially if flood event speed up the process.
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I conducted a study on our university's freshwater lake located in our nature preserve. Now, we are in the process of restoring it.
Can anyone recommend any important plants/trees needed to suck up nutrients and filter the water?
The water is very turbid (visibility is low at about 1-2 ft). P is limiting but about 0.04-0.06 mg/L and N is 1.02-1.40 mg/L, dominant aquatic plant spp is FW macroalgae Chara spp., and it is surrounded by Ardesia and Brazilian Pepper. There is a healthy population of eastern mosquitofish and large mouth bass, but there is a high amount of striped tilapia and african jewelfish.
Average depth is about 6 ft, max depth 9 ft. 
Let me know if you need anymore information.
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1.) BIVALVES--I did not see any mention about any of the 50 species of fresh water Florida native clams or fresh water mussels?  They are good filter-feeders.
2.) WHERE IS TURBID WATER COMING FROM?--No mention why the pond is so turbid-- is turbid water coming into the pond, if so, why not produce a kind of native Florida vegetation filter lining the stream into the pond with some native sedges or wiregrass?  It sounds like this pond is being fed by agriculture, road or lawn runoff? You will probably solve 90% of the pond problems when you fix the source of the turbid water going into the pond.
3.) POND EDGES--And what about the pond edges, solid native plants along all of the edges, or are there bare areas?  Three feet above and one foot below the water line should be covered with native vegetation
4.) EXOTIC PLANTS OUT--And chop down all of those exotic Ardesia ( if they are either crenata or elliptica) and the Brazilian peppers if you can, because their leaves dropping into the pond could be having an effect.  However if you have Ardisia escallonioides, that is a Florida native, so keep that.
5.) EXOTIC FISH OUT--And what about fishing out the exotic fish?  Mmmmm, fried tilapia barbeque?
Also, you did not mention the size of this pond? 
Basically you will known that you fixed your pond, when you can see to the bottom.   Keep experimenting and get a Secchi disk and measure the turbidity at least twice a month, to see how well you are doing on the turbidity.
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We are a research group from the CENIM-CSIC and we are carrying out a survey about the methods of cleaning and protection of historical lead. As part of this study, we want to know the methods more applied by professionals and their personal experience about them. 
Thank you in advance
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You need to talk to specialised metals conservators and ask for their help, not archaeologists. Try CoOL (Conservation onLine) and search in their directory for metal conservators.
A conservator can assess the condition of the object, identify the reasons that brought it to its current preservation state, and perform conservation treatment without harming the object.
The questionnaire attached could be improved a lot, as you mention few methods, yet, the treatment depends on the condition of the object, and not all conditions are the same. In addition, I would like to notice that conservators do not perform electrolysis anymore. Our goal is usually to maintain what is left with minimum intervention.
Here are some  links to give you some idea about lead conservation, but be careful . I would not reccommend any conservation work (or cleaning) to be performed by a non specialised metal conservator, because any damage done by inexperienced people o metals is most times irreversible.
Feel free to contact me if you have anymore questions
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I am attempting to identify riparian forests and corridors of connectivity to upland forests. To address the hypothesis that privately owned lands are significant additions to the conservation and restoration of riparian forests and their linkages to upland systems, accurately identifying and quantifying land area is important. At this time I am approaching this dilemma from a process of elimination perspective. I am open to other innovative ideas so long as I can justify the logic. Thanks for your assistance.    Joe
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Hello Joel,
Thank you for your comments. Yes, I am looking at the importance of riparian forest supporting biological diversity across adjoining upland systems. All you stated is true and I appreciate it very much. I am operating on the hypothesis that privately held lands do not enjoy the management and protections that public lands and/or protected areas do. Being able to determine the percentage of privately held lands verses public lands would be important. The implication being that targeted private lands could demonstrate where significant riparian forest lands could be restored or conserved (if incentives were provided), thereby supporting regional ecosystem functions. Finding out where private lands are and what percentage private lands occupy across riparian zones is an important first step. I need a good reliable method of finding this out that does not require the tedious work of going county by county across a large landscape (specifically the east and west Gulf coastal plain of the southern US. Joel, thanks so much for taking the time to help me out.
Best Regards,   Joe
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There is a lake of about 17 acres that about 400 years ago was a natural habitat but now it is a recreational area and the lake is just about constructed and far away it's natural behavior. I want to use Palimpsest as an approach to find out it's former cultural and natural layers to find a clue to restore it. Is there any particular way?
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Well I supposed you could start by making test-pits (if that is possible...) in order to establish the stratigraphy of the site. Since you said that it is now a recreational area, it would be interesting to see which man-made disturbances you can see in the stratigraphy. It also gives you a relative chronology for the site. Besides that you could sample charcoal seeds and so on that have survived in the layers to see how the vegetation of the site has evolved. I hope this is of any use to you?
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There are a number of ancient and medieval historical buildings which are in ruins. The conservation and restoration of these buildings is a challenge for every nation in the world. If we complete them by using 3D softwares, could it be helpful in understating the spatial organisation of spaces in architectural history? Does anybody know what kind of researches may be possible in this field and what kind of soft wares may be useful in this context?   
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The problem we often phase is that accuracy and certainty vary thoughout a site or project. E.g. you might be able to have a "accurate" estimate for a certain Window height, based on construction financial reports, where you base on other comparable buildings for other parts and sometimes on drawings or paintings for other parts. All in the same project. To represent this all as a clean CAD drawing or a detailed 3D model is technically feasible, but it does not follow the rigour of an academic approach.
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Replantation succees is investigated through the measurement (height,diameter) of mangrove seedling/sapling/adult and the analysis of mangrove sediment as well as the environmental factors.
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Dear
Mangroves re-plantation success depends on many factors
  • Elevation of the re-plantation site
  • Salinity variation of the site
  • Fresh water input rate from other sources
  • Physical damage and other factors
  • Reference sites and history of the re-planting sites
  • Normal hydrology (depth, duration, frequency of inundation)
  • Natural disasters (sudden floods, drought)
Those are the main factors that contribute the success story of the replanted mangroves. Choice of species selection is very crucial. This could be done from the history of the proposed planting sites.
Species selection is an important task and it needs to have mixture of species rather than a single species. Mixture of species can selected from the historical evidences, which may more suitable. Single species may not be successful in most of the cases. Single species is more vulnerable to natural disasters. The success rate of mangrove re-plantation was 1.52% in India in 1988.  
Please see my profile. It has some inputs that may help you.
Best of luck.
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Assessment of student's class II Cavity design is based on many features, for example, outline form, retention form, depth, smooth, cavosurface angulation and axial wall of the box. Is this checklist enough to evaluate or does one need more?
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You may add tooth structure preservation (Width). The angulation of the gingival marginal wall and the finishing of the cavity margins to eliminate unsupported enamel 
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Measures of diameters of young mangrove saplings can provide information about their above-/and belowground biomass. How about offering information on actual growth rates at the same time?
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One precise and promising way is to cut and do a stem analysis if it is possible. Otherwise,  if you know the age of the stand or even some individuals, you can cancalculate average growth rate. But yearly data is not achievable by this method. I am not quite familiar with growth strategies and signs of mangroves,  but based on tree architecture,  ssometime it is possible to have a rough estimation of age.
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What is the profile of the vandal? How about statues dedicated to national heroes, that were vandalised by ethnic minorities which predominantly populate the area? Should cities remove such statues in order to protect them? Do cities attempt to sensitize their citizens in order to prevent vandalism of the same monuments? Any answer will be highly appreciated.
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Historic Scotland have some publications on issues such as lead theft, grafitti removal etc. You can download many of these on the technical conservation website. The second link (to a publication) in particular may be of use as it deals with a particular case study of a monument that required major conservation work following decay and vandalism.
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We are currently looking into some fossil samples coming from fossil trees exhibited in situ, and I have come across several microorganisms. Can anyone recommend any papers on monitoring and identification of micro-organisms on fossils located in tropical environments? Is there a chance that some of these micro-organisms have taken part in the fossilisation process (biomineralisation)?
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Thank you for your answer, but we are looking for modern microorganisms living on fossils. Not fossilised ones.
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We are trying to extend the base of anecdotal evidence of damage caused by flood to the fabric and structure of historic building, with the aim to produce a damage scale and correlate with the severity of the floods.
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Dear Christine thank you. This is very useful. i will definitely contact them.
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I just arrived from an Oxford meeting and I have heard many misuses of the term "rewilding".
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Overall, I don't think there is a particularly accepted definition of the term 'rewilding' - after all it is probably a media construct and not a scientific term.
Generally, Pleistocene parks refer to the concept of re-establishing the fauna (and sometimes flora) from a particular epoch. However, rewilding is a more generalist term that can mean reintroducing species that have been exterminated from an area anytime from the past couple of years to thousands of years ago. I've also heard the term rewilding being used to refer to natural recolonisation of degraded or disturbed land, e.g. there has been a recent documentary on the 'rewilding' of the areas surrounding Chernobyl from which humans are excluded (some species naturally colonising and others introduced).
While in some cases, Pleistocene parks have a goal of reintroducing some long extinct species (e.g. mammoths), which would require considerable scientific advances, rewilding usually only involves translocation of existing species to new areas. Although, this is not always the case - suggestions for Pleistocene Parks in the US have proposed introducing cheetah from Africa.
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The main material of the fossil is SiO2.
Average temperatures for April and December, which are the hottest and coldest months respectively, are:
Average highest T for April 39 °C . Average lowest T 31 °C
Average highest T for December 26 °C . Average lowest T 17 °C
Regarding rainfall, September is the wettest month, and January the driest.
September: Precipitation 208.5 mm. Average rainfall days : 18
January: Average rainfall days : 1
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Thank you for your answers and your interest. Let me provide some more information and some of my thoughts...
We are not sure about the exact RH and T levels as these have not been recorded yet in detail. These are readings taken from the internet, and the data they used comes from a metereological station a few km away. We are planning to put dataloggers and meteorological stations at every fossil site soon to see what the real conditions and the micro-climate around each fossil are.
I believe we should expect important fluctuations. I took a few readings during my last reading to the site. To give you an example, On December 31st at noon, RH was about 42%. Eight hours later it was 87%.
The fossils are in Thailand, so there is very heavy rain. The butresses of the trees have actually dissapeared due to heavy rain and flooding.
Analysis of the material has been planned, so at the moment I can not tell you the exact percentage of SiO2. The fossil is quite porous and brittle though...
I will not risk using any materials without testing and I will avoid plasticizing the fossils. For me, reversibulity is very important. And so are the fossils. One of them is the longest fossilised tree trunk in the world and is expected to enter the Guiness book of records soon.
I would not use Paraloids..... Paraloids turn to turn white in contact with water. Put some Paraloid solution in a beaker and then add water and see what will happen. I had tried Paraloids in another petrified forest in the past and I was not happy with the results. Paraloids only work for filling cracks. The whitening effect is minimised with the addition of more materials in the solution. However, the fossil must be protected by a water repellent afterwards. And then, it is difficult to control moisture rising from the ground. The fossil must be able to "breathe", otherwise, the results will be worse.
In the past, as an adhesive, I used Paraloid B67 instead of B72, because I needed a higher glass transition temperature. Fossils store quite an amount of heat in their bodies, the same way that a car does when parked outside on a sunny day... We used to joke with my team about frying eggs on the fossil surfaces. In several occasions, pieces adhered together had fallen apart just a week later, because Paraloid B72 had melted because of the temperature of the fossil surface.
If you are interested about the techniques I have used in the past, I have summarised them in a paper entitled "Conserving the Lesvos Petrified Forest" (Kyriazi and Zouros 2008).
However, I want to test more materials for the petrified forest I am working on now... I would not feel confident suggesting the same materials I had used in Northen Greece.... Don't forget, weather in Greece is quite different than the weather in Thailand. And so is the budget...
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I would like to test how dissimilar are some traits of an intruduced species with respect to an established community.
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Hi Florencia,
R packages are the best tool to deal with FD. try downloading the FD package (that includes the vegan package) and you will find a lot of tools in there. you can also choose the dist function or, if you have also categorical variables the gowdis.
Let me suggest you to use more than two traits as some could be very easy to find or measure yourself. the traits you use really depend on what your hypothesis is and you will get different distances of FD indices by using different traits. Some traits could be:
max height, seed mass, wood density (but I'm guessing you are not working with trees),
max photosynthesis, specific leaf area, nitrogen per mass (for these last three you might want to check this article "The worlwide leaf economics spectrum".
The FD package also tolerates missing values, but sometimes you can fill the missing values. for example you could fill them using the value of phylogenetically near species living in the same environment.
Good luck
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We are looking for publications on fossil conservation and fossil conservators around the world. Could you please recommend any useful links/publications/people?
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Speaking about "general" issues about fossil conservation, I attach an interesting paper about the use of Paraloid as fossil consolidant.
Hoping that you can find it useful.
Marco
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Has anyone restored ponds and lakes using biological means? limited use of other methods may also be employed. Tilapia and Eichhornia were found to be suitable for nutrient removal in many studies.
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First priority must be to decide to invest in local species - and settle for manipulation what is already there or available locally - depending how affected your system already is
Both Tilapia and Eichornia have potentials as invasive species - in short almost ensuring that your system will never return to its original state - so don't use them if they are not already there
By the way - what do you wish to do with this manipulation??
Best regards
SoerenNN
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I'm looking for a Ph.D. and I would like to know what are the European most active Research Centers in the fields of Landscape Ecology and Ecosystem Conservation/Restoration.
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It's good to be in a happening place, but for a PhD, your advisor is at least as important as the department. I would suggest searching on European landscape ecologists who are doing excellent work. For example, have a look at European members of the editorial and advisory boards for Landscape Ecology (http://www.springer.com/life+sciences/ecology/journal/10980?detailsPage=editorialBoard).
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We know that more than a thousand hectares of peat swamp in Indonesia were used for plantation, such as oil palm. In oil palm, the production will decrease after 25 or 30 years. After that, they will replant with rubber plant, but, I don't think that rubber plant should be suitable on peat swamp. If we want to rehabilitate the peat swamp, is there any ideas to rehabilitate it?
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Thank you so much for the information :)
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Over the centuries thousands have gone extinct before humans could properly study them and make attempts at conservation, and many times this extinction was brought about by human intrusion. An example of this is the Quagga (Equus Quagga Quagga), a subspecies of zebra that was driven to extinction in the late 19th century by excessive poaching. The problem was that hardly anyone had noticed that the species was on the brink of extinction until it was too late, settlers treated them as pests because they competed with cattle for grazing grounds; their pelts and meat were also valuable.
Quaggas were thought to be hybrids because the frontal portion of their bodies resembled a zebra's, only chestnut and cream in coloration, while the back resembled a donkey. Currently a project to recreate the Quagga using selective breeding is being led by Reinhold Rau and already it is yielding positive results. The problem is, what if the Quaggas acquired these traits as a result of adaptation? The Quaggas that would be released into the wild would not have these adaptations. Also, these Quaggas could never really be genetically identical to the ones that died out, only ever resembling it. If these Rau Quaggas were reintroduced, would they be able to survive and would they pose a threat to the other grazing species in terms of competition?
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This is a fairly tricky question, which is more complex than it first appears. There are a number of issues about the Quagga project beyond competition of reintroduced individuals with other grazers. Firstly, it is not clear that the Quagga was/is a distinct species. There is a large amount of variability in striping in southern populations of plains zebra, with some individuals showing very light striping patterns similar to documented Quaggas. Moreover, the genetic evidence suggests that there is little genetic distance between Quagga and plains zebra and the former was more likely a race or sub-species (at best), rather than a separate species. Divergence estimates for Quagga are on the order of 100-200ky, suggesting they were only recently been a distinct non-interbreeding population.
Although competition might be a factor, a potentially bigger issue is hybridization between the recreated 'Quagga' and populations of Cape Mountain Zebra where 'quagga' have been released. As far as I know, there are no documented cases of inter-breeding in the wild, although there are cases in captivity. Moreover, mountain zebra have hybridized with horses on farms adjacent to protected areas. In Karoo, mountain and 'quagga' associate together. As the Cape Mountain Zebra is an endangered sub-species, we should be take care to not jeopardize their remaining populations.
Finally, I think there is a philosophical question about whether this type project is a good use of limited conservation resources. In its favour, it is a high profile project, and one that makes us think about extinction, what is a species and how we should make conservation decisions. However, should a project like this receive preferential effort to protecting species that are currently in decline.
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The spectrum for northern European countries (for instance Norway), Brazil, Japan, Portugal and Qatar. The aim is to simulate the exposure of natural stones to the effects of sunlight.
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... Great! Interesting! Solid work! Here we are working with solar simulation software as well. But less in terms of intensity, but more in terms of solar gains for buildings. Heating, radiation and so on. We are using "ecotect" for example. When we can give you a hand at that, please let us know!
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Given the recent and persistant problems in New York, New Jersey and Delaware, what must coastal states do now?
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On a local level, adaptation to climate change and variability – not only to abrupt climate change – is necessary to protect people. This does not mean that I believe mitigation to be irrelevant – mitigation and adaptation have to go hand in hand, but their spatial and temporal scales are very different.
Local mitigation actions are very much needed to minimize further changes in the global and thus regional climates. Nonetheless, those actions do not have an immediate impact on the climate - particularly not on the regional climate. The climate system only slowly reacts to changes in the radiative forcing. Reaching a new equilibrium state takes centuries to millennia. This means that even if we stop all greenhouse gas emissions now, climate change will go on (with a lower rate) for a long time. So people - particularly those in vulnerable areas like coastal zones – will still be at risk and local adaptation actions might help to protect them. Those adaptation options often get active immediately or at least within a much shorter time span as compared to mitigation activities.
Putting all efforts on adaptation is neither THE solution, because if climate change goes on undamped we will certainly reach the limits of adaptation within the 21st century. Adaptation gets more difficult and more expensive for larger rates of global warming. It even gets impossible for some (natural) systems. Crossing some tipping points in the climate system may aggravate the changes to a level that is not manageable on a planet with seven billion people. Furthermore, the adaptive capacity is very unevenly distributed across and within societies. Those with the least resources having the lowest capacity to adapt are often those most severely endangered by climatic changes.
Adaptation and mitigation are complementary to each other and we should not disregard one of them.