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Conservation - Science topic

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As a sustainable agricultural practice no-till is always recommended by the conservation agriculturist. Most definitely, it changes the soil ecosystem (enhances the microbial community) and the functioning of the soil. Manny researchers observed an increase in organic matter and enhanced water holding capacity. Does it mean that no-till will significantly increase steady-state infiltration rate or (field saturated hydraulic conductivity)? How much regional weather (or climate) could impact the re-building/regeneration of soil?
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I am looking for a theme on sustainable development in my country (Mali). I am looking for a theme that can be explored in this field.
I am looking for a theme that can be explored in this area.
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Reduce waste, increase energy efficiency, use innovative products, create new habitats, etc. :)
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Thank you for your response
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By creating more protected areas in select biodiversity hot spots around the world, national parks, conservancies, and game reserves to protect and conserve plant biodiversity. Further, regular assessment of genetic diversity of plant species and establishing gene banks to preserve seeds of important plant species, and finally community awareness and education of the importance of plant diversity and its role in the environment and for human benefits.
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I am conducting research in the area of heritage planning and conservation. Heritage Impact Assessment(HIA) is necessary before any kind of change or development in the built environment around a heritage site within a defined regulated area to determine its impacts on the potential of heritage. In India, it has now become mandatory by the National Monument Authority (NMA) in case of any centrally protected monument. Visual Impact Assessment is a very important component of an HIA to asses any future impact on the overall landscape of the place around the heritage site. To be precise, according to NMA guidelines, it is required to check the skyline concerning the heritage site, any visual obstruction in views of the heritage site, shadow on the heritage site due to new development, and consideration from building design bye-laws.
Guideline for HIA by NMA can be found here: https://www.nma.gov.in/documents/20126/51838/HIA+Report.pdf
From the available example of HIA reports, I understood that experts are using 3D software, first to model the existing structures and then adding the proposed structure to generate the views in the form of images/renders to visualise the projected development. Sometimes, it is done by only drawing a section and marking the human eye angle. I am not sure how they are validating these views. From these images/renders only, one can not say very definitively whether these are accurate or not. Also, I am unsure about the view/camera point selection.
I have not been able to find any study on the assessment of the overall visual quality of the surrounding area due to new changes.
It would be great if you know of any study or documents or share some light on this.
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check the pdf. below.
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RNA conservation
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It was from Qiagen. It was very useful for fresh young leaves of trees from tropical forests in Cameroun. The samples were conserved during all our stay in room temperature and then transported to the lab in Brussels.
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I am a master's student looking at conservation grazing using White Park cattle for my project. I am trying to decide how to analyse my GPS data alongside habitat shapefiles to look at which habitat areas are used the most by the cattle. The GPS datapoints are from a Nofence collar which pings approximately every 15 minutes but is not always consistent and some times has extra datapoints. Would integrated step selection analysis using the amt package in r be the best way of analysing this data or is there a more appropriate method? If anyone could give me any tips or guidance on this I would be extremely grateful.
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If you want to analyse habitat preferences I recommend to clean the data and then use a habitat use-availability analysis (eg. Cherry 1996 (incl. Baileys 1980), Neu et al. 1974, Jacobs 1974) for a first view (I could send you an Excel-form to run the data). However, as a final step you should run anaylses like a GLMM or other models (depends on your question, you should ask a bio-statistician, which model dioes fit most).
A step-selection function like you mentioned sounds really well for your question!
For a general overview I recommend:
MANLY BFJ, MCDONALD LL, THOMAS DL, MCDONALD TL, ERICKSON P (2002): Resource selection by animals: statistical design and analysis for field studies. 2nd ed. Aufl., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht Boston London.
and here are the above mentioned citations:
NEU CW, BYERS CR, PEEK JM (1974): A technique for analysis of utilization-availability data. J. Wildl. Manage. 38 (3), 541-545.
CHERRY S (1996): A comparison of confidence interval methods for habitat use-availability studies. J. Wildl. Manage. 60 (3), 653-658.
BAILEY BJR (1980): Large sample simultaneous confidence intervals for multinominal probabilities based on transformations of the cell frequencies. Technometrics 22, 583-589.
JACOBS J (1974): Quantitative measurement of food selection. A modification of the forage ratio and Ivlev's electivity index. Oecologia 14, 413-417.
LocH is really well for describing the spatial usage (although I would never say "it is best" as a scientist). to describe the space use you could also use stepwis e calculations of movement patterns.
MORELLE K, BUNNEFELD N, LEJEUNE P, OSWALD SA (2017): From animal tracks to fine-scale movement modes: a straightforward approach for identifying multiple spatial movement patterns. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8 (11), 1488-1498. https://doi.org/doi:10.1111/2041-210X.12787.
some more literature:
BROEKMAN MJE, HILBERS JP, HUIJBREGTS MAJ, MUELLER T, ALI AH, ANDRÉN H, ALTMANN J, ARONSSON M, ATTIAS N, BARTLAM-BROOKS HLA, VAN BEEST FM, BELANT JL, BEYER DE, BIDNER L, BLAUM N, BOONE RB, BOYCE MS, BROWN MB, CAGNACCI F, ČERNE R, CHAMAILLÉ-JAMMES S, DEJID N, DEKKER J, L. J. DESBIEZ A, DÍAZ-MUÑOZ SL, FENNESSY J, FICHTEL C, FISCHER C, FISHER JT, FISCHHOFF I, FORD AT, FRYXELL JM, GEHR B, GOHEEN JR, HAUPTFLEISCH M, HEWISON AJM, HERING R, HEURICH M, ISBELL LA, JANSSEN R, JELTSCH F, KACZENSKY P, KAPPELER PM, KROFEL M, LAPOINT S, LATHAM ADM, LINNELL JDC, MARKHAM AC, MATTISSON J, MEDICI EP, DE MIRANDA MOURÃO G, VAN MOORTER B, MORATO RG, MORELLET N, MYSTERUD A, MWIU S, ODDEN J, OLSON KA, ORNICĀNS A, PAGON N, PANZACCHI M, PERSSON J, PETROELJE T, ROLANDSEN CM, ROSHIER D, RUBENSTEIN DI, SAÏD S, SALEMGAREYEV AR, SAWYER H, SCHMIDT NM, SELVA N, SERGIEL A, STABACH J, STACY-DAWES J, STEWART FEC, STIEGLER J, STRAND O, SUNDARESAN S, SVOBODA NJ, ULLMANN W, VOIGT U, WALL J, WIKELSKI M, WILMERS CC, ZIĘBA F, ZWIJACZ-KOZICA T, SCHIPPER AM, TUCKER MA (2022): Evaluating expert-based habitat suitability information of terrestrial mammals with GPS-tracking data. Global Ecology and Biogeography n/a (n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13523.
MUFF S, SIGNER J, FIEBERG J (2020): Accounting for individual-specific variation in habitat-selection studies: Efficient estimation of mixed-effects models using Bayesian or frequentist computation. J. Anim. Ecol. 89 (1), 80-92. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13087.
RICHTER L, BALKENHOL N, RAAB C, REINECKE H, MEIßNER M, HERZOG S, ISSELSTEIN J, SIGNER J (2020): So close and yet so different: The importance of considering temporal dynamics to understand habitat selection. Basic Appl. Ecol. 43, 99-109. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2020.02.002.
SIGNER J, FIEBERG J, AVGAR T (2019): Animal movement tools (amt): R package for managing tracking data and conducting habitat selection analyses. Ecol. Evol. 9 (2), 880-890. https://doi.org/doi:10.1002/ece3.4823. (For sure you know this, as you mentioned AMT)
THURFJELL H, CIUTI S, BOYCE M (2014): Applications of step-selection functions in ecology and conservation. Movement Ecology 2 (1), 4.
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Hi!
Has anyone find any difference about keeping its slides obtained by cryosection in -80 or -20? I have been trying different combinations as freezing them fast in -80 and then store them at -20, froze them at -20 or directly kept them at -80 without finding any differences. Just curious, as normally we all have the available space in our -80's really limited if we can keep them at -20 without any problem.
Thanks,
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For short and medium-term storage of fixed tissue, it is ok to keep in -20, but for long-term storage and preservation of fresh tissues, it is recommended to keep in -80.
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In the conservative way I feed them with honey and water every two days by wetting a piece of cotton. Thanks a lot!
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Thank you very much for the help Ht. Decemson and Yifei Yu ! I am searching of a way to avoid manual feeding every 2 days, maybe a product or tips&tricks to construct an automated feeder.
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Ensemble docking allow to dock a single ligand or a ligand library against multiple conformations of a single receptor.
Now, imagine we have a group of proteins which are functionally conserved and share similar ligand/s. Moreover, they are highly similar in the structures (Identity rate in AA level is more than 90%) and almost a perfect superimposition of 3D structure can be made by different tools.
Docking analysis was performed for each protein solely and as expected the binding pocket and residues are similar.
Now here is the question: Can we perform Ensembled docking for this situation?
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Usually "ensemble" means "configurational ensemble," i.e., a collection of structures of a single system, with the structures differing only in atomic coordinates. But technically, yes, one can make an ensemble of different systems and dock into them -- if the structures (and pharmacophore features) align well . . .
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It is like Puzzle to all my physics family. If any body gives valid discussion or answer it would be helpful.
let me ask a question: if time is one dimensional background, what is the position of a particle on this one dimensional background of time?
How do you calculate position of a particle without the violation of law of conservation of energy on this one dimensional background of TIME?
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as long as qm continue to use classical variables, instead of its proper ones(unknown yet), it cannot avoid the uncertainity principle@
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I am interested in comparing mean protein levels between 4 groups (Control, Stages 1-3), after controlling for age, gender and a genetic risk factor. My pre-specified comparisons are : Control vs Stage 1, Control vs Stage 2, Control vs Stage 3, and Stage 1 vs Stage 2. I attached a picture to help explain my goal.
I plan on running this analysis for 45 proteins, which have been specifically chosen. Therefore, each protein will have 4 p-values. Ideally, I am interested in adjusting the p-values by using the FDR Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure. Should I adjust each type of comparison (i.e. control vs stage 1, within a column) by 45 tests? A recent suggestion was to adjust the p-values for a given protein by 4 tests (within a row). Finally, I believe adjusting for the total number of tests 45*4 = 180 would be too conservative.
Any suggestions would be appreciated. Thanks !
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It seems to be a screening across 45 genes and 4 contrasts. In this case a correction should consider all 180 tests that are performed.
Note that "being conservative" is not related to the number of tests you correct for (this is just accounted for by the multiple testing correction!), but to the FWER or FDR you are willing to tolerate. If 10% FDR is too conservative for you, then use a 20% FDR.
Ideally, in such experiments you should not dichotomize between "hits" and "misses" or between "candidates" and "non-candidates" based only on a p-value. You can use the estimate together with the standard erros or p-values to rank the list from the "most promising" to the "least promising" candidates to be tested in a following, independent experiment. As confirmatory tests, those would not require adjustments.
And after all, the real story begins where you show experimentally that the gene products (usually proteins) are affected and that the gene regulation (over-expression, knock-out/down) imapacts the biological response in-line with the conjectured model.
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¿Are there datasets about the conservation status of bird species by country? Something similar to the IUCN redlist but at the country level.
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  • European Red List of Birds. 2021 https://www.iucnredlist.org › resources › birdlife2021The European Red List of Birds is a review of the regional extinction risk of all 544 species of birds occurring regularly and naturally in Europe.
  • Threatened Birds of Asia - IUCN Red List https://www.iucnredlist.org › theatened-birds-asiaBooks — Global Red Lists & Red Data Books. Threatened Birds of Asia. This is the last volume of the series previously published jointly by BirdLife and IUCN ...
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Hello everyone!
I am participating in a conservation project related to the illegal harvesting of species of high commercial value (Granadillo, Tzalam, Hormigo, Mahogany, etc.) in the Mayan Forest on the mexican side.
Illegal logging of high-value species is one of the main threats to forest conservation in southeastern Mexico. It is an ultra-complex subject that surely requires several branches of science to understand. Do any of you know if anyone is actually studying the illegal logging occurring in Mexico's tropical forests?
Thank you all in advance for your answers!
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item 7: the present situation of mexican forestry - Fao.org
Deforestation in Mexico has been a collective misfortune caused by poverty, misconceived government policies, greed of some loggers, tree poaching,
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The aim of the sample is a study of parasitic presence in the animal's system, what method of conservation should I use? in order to best preserve the materials, and not influence the results.
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Freeze drying or minus 18 degrees C at low oxygen
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What is the opinion of researchers who work with no-tillage?
Do conservation techniques such as No-tillage, Conservation practices, isolated, fight soil erosion?
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Dear Oswaldo,
This is a good question. In my opinion the combination of these two concepts in agriculture can provide a nature-based solution specially for areas with limited agricultural surfaces and increasing populations. But we should always pay attention to the soil attributes and physical structure of the field area, then we make our decision whether this is a good idea to have such combination or not. I hereby attach three recent publications: first about the role of terraced fields in conserving water, soil nutrients and SOC and evaluating the soil erodibility, second importance of no-tillage adoption, third long-term fertilization evaluation on carbon sequestration on terrace soil.
Best, Elaheh
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This is a shot in the dark question. Conservation of Energy Principle is that energy cannot be created or destroyed (K1 + U1 = K2 + U2 ). Conservation of Energy Principle is that matter cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system. Quantum physics informs that energy and matter can convert to one another (my apologies to the physicists to use it sloppily).
On the other hand, in the cognitive realm, do we see any origination of emotions? Is it possible to destroy an emotion?
This is a complicated question I accept. But the answer I think is complex. Do the hormones that triggers our emotions exclusive? Meaning is it impossible to feel happiness without dopamine? Can the same hormone inflict different emotions?
Finally, if we step out of the neurological realm, there are emergent complexities. Why someone who is afraid of ghosts also can be a horror fan? Why someone continues smoking being well aware of the cautions about cigarettes'? Physical and non-physical correlations can be found.
Originally my questions came out of the Prajna Paramita Sutra of Buddhism. At one point of the sutra it says, "..there is no sufferings, no origination of it" (I am quoting the English translations found in YouTube). And at some point the sutra says no end of suffering. So, they are just changing form, changing actions with them. On the other hand, there is no known way to measure them as we can mathematically measure energy or matter.
Thus came these questions from a philosophical point of view.
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Thank you all for your kind and interesting replies. I see similarities between some abstract aspects of human mind and physical properties. The law of energy conservation and magnetism seems to be able to explain some interactions. But can we call them as the "observer effect"? Do we see such similarities because that is how we have learnt to observe?
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Can you recommend an updated book or scholarly articles on the WTO's Dispute Settlement Body's jurisprudence in relation to GATT Article XX, in particular subsection (a) on public morals, (b) human, animal or plant life; and (g) conservation of exhaustible natural resources.
Thank you!
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First, interpret the actual WTO articles first, which will always be up to date. Then find appropriate articles on Google Scholar, etc. Books are never 'updated' btw and are out of date even on the day of publication :)
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The issue of grazing is a huge concern for the managers of all the conservation reserves (protected areas: national parks, wildlife sanctuaries). I would like to request my colleagues to provide some efficient ways to map high alpine grazing lands.
Thanks and sincere regards
Gowhar Meraj
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Hello,
my name is Carolin Fischer, a sociology student from the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. I am currently writing my Bachelor's Thesis in the field of Cultural and Environmental Sociology. As this will be a qualitative study on environmental topics I am looking for interview partners, who work (or used to work) in the field of environmental and climate change research. The interviews will be held via video chat either in German or English.
If you're interested in being interviewed and in helping me with my thesis please feel free to contact me via Research Gate or mail: fischer.carolin@uni-jena.de
Thank you and kind regards,
Carolin
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Hi there Carolin,
sounds like a great topic for a BA thesis :-) I'm interested in your project - potentially also in participating as an interviewee. What precisely are you investigating in your research?
Feel free to contact me at Julius.Riese@web.de
With best wishes from Berlin,
Julius
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Hi everyone,
I am trying to find solutions to conserve glass superhydrophobic property after it has been plasma cleaned. I've heard that the use of nitrogen might help. Do you have ideas for this problem ?
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Dear Celine,
my experience is mainly referring to float glass as for mikroscope use. After an oxygen plasma, I found some loss of weight and also some change in the alkali ion concentration by ESCA depth profiling. The weight loss was recovering quickly while on the balance, so I assume that it was water. The contact angle after the plasma was not measurable as the droplet was spreading immediately. I could not really conserve his property in the lab for longer than a few minutes and I cannot recommend to try it. Nearly any surface leaving an oxygen plasma has a very high energy and will pick up any dirt from athmosphere. This is a general finding from all my trials for plasma cleaning. A monolayer of hydrocarbons in the air/nitrogen/vacuum is enough to spoil the cleaning effect. If important, please send me an e-mail to my company (surface chemistry)
Best wishes, Heinrich
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We start from the following question: What is the need to use a circular economy to conserve resources instead of a linear economy...
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Dear Dr Eyid Abbas.Abdalltef . See the following useful link:
••Gómez-Sanabria, A., Kiesewetter, G., Klimont, Z. et al. Potential for future reductions of global GHG and air pollutants from circular waste management systems. Nat Commun 13, 106 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27624-7
••Keijer, T., Bakker, V. & Slootweg, J.C. Circular chemistry to enable a circular economy. Nature Chem 11, 190–195 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-019-0226-9
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Strip-till is a conservation system that uses a minimum tillage.Geneally, strip-till can create narrow-width tilled strips, traditionally in the fall, to increase early spring soil moisture evaporation and increase soil temperature in the top 2 inches. But, I want to know dose this tillage is suitable for sandy soil? becasue I saw many farmers use this method in sand soil in some places......
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Strip till are defined as a field tillage system that combines no till and full tillage to produce row crops. Narrow strips 6 to 12 inches wide are tilled in crop stubble, with the area between the rows left undisturbed. Often, fertilizer is injected into the tilled area during the strip tilling operation.
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In 2011 an announcement came out that most Acacia species should be switched to Vachellia ("Conserving Acacia Mill. with a conserved type: What happened in Melbourne?" TAXON 60 (5) • October 2011: 1504–1506 ). A web of science search of "title = Vachellia" & "year =2021" not "affiliation = australia" resulted in 19 results. A web of science search of "title = Acacia" & "year =2021" not "affiliation = australia" resulted in 238 results.
So it seems that most scientists still use Acacia. What is your opinion ?
If you are using Vachellia, is it correct to use acacia with no capital letter as a common name ?
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Dear Elli Groner i agree with Acacia
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I am looking for literature that deals with amphibians in urban areas. Are there studies on threshod values for toxological substances at which amphibians are no longer able to survive? Which species are more sensitive which are less? For example, at what concentration are acidification and contamination by heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead and zinc a problem? What about pharmaceuticals and pesticides? There are a lot of studies for non-urban areas, are the results transferable?
Studies in German are very welcome.
There is a review, but I think it‘s not sufficient for answering this specific question:
Toxicological Threats to Amphibians and Reptiles in Urban Environments (2008)
Maxine C. Croteau, Natacha Hogan, Jennifer C. Gibson, David Lean, and Vance L. Trudeau, In: J.C. Mitchell, R.E. Jung Brown, and B. Bartholomew (editors). Urban Herpetology. Herpetological Conservation 3: 197–209
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I have done herpetological surveys in several urban areas, most notably in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA). Several species are highly tolerant to heavy metal contamination such as Family Ranidae; Lithobates clamitans, L. catesbeiana, L. pipiens, Family Bufonidae; Anaxyrus americanus. Treefrogs (Hylidae) were less tolerant and more common near the periphery of the city (Psuedacris crucifer, Hyla versicolor). See attached report.
(PDF) Milwaukee Estuary Area of Concern Wildlife Population Assessment Report (researchgate.net)
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Taxonomy (a branch of biology), for example, is a basic science discipline that primarily deals with the identification, classification, and nomenclature of plants. It also contributes to biodiversity and conservation. However, it has been largely overlooked in recent times due to the fact that it has been unable to grow broader impacts or, maybe, due to other emerging applied fields. This question is being posed to discuss the broader impacts of basic sciences in general, and taxonomy in particular.
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Basic science are the backbone of all advance research and technology..it will give you a proper insight for the innovative technology.for example if take aquaculture unless and until you are not able to identify the species your future research will be vain.so all basic science should be studied and then future research and enterpinersh I can be developed.
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Dear all,
Can anyone advise me on publications relating to archaeological section conservation?
Publications and usual practices on field advice to backfill, but I am wondering if there are techniques to stabilize the sediment and if it is possible to come back to the initial state.
I am aware of studies on clay minerals, especially smectite, to find solution to stabilize them whatever the percentage of humidity. Has the product used any impact on the primary composition of the deposit? Is there any alteration of the artifact?
Thanks all in advance for your help and answer.
Kind regards,
Millena
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Thanks for your answer and sorry for this very late reply!
I should have been more precise in my former message. The sections, I am talking about, are generally located at the entrance of prehistoric cave/rock shelters. They are thus subject to climatic/biotic forcing (rain, wind, frost, biological development,...). They have not been backfilled as they are used as stratigraphic references.
The main solution we are able to suggest now is to protect them under a roof. Sections will be protected from rain; it will reduce the effects of wind, frost, and biological development. I am nevertheless wondering if another solution is possible.
Thanks in advance for any suggestions.
Regards,
Millena
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Hydrogel has been advocated to conserve soil moisture. To what extent it is effective and whether it is economic to use in field scales.
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Thanks @Dr Sukanta. Actually at field level hydrogel is not effective.
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The Mass Conserving Level Set (MCLS) is used for modeling the dynamics of multi-phase flows. The algorithm is used to study the hybrid phase between two fluids at two different phases. Would someone have the MATLAB code to generalizing this control volume?
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I refer you to two discussions which bear on the two problems of Eulerian two-fluid models closures: Turbulence and momentum interfacial transfer:
(6) Turbulence Closure for Two-Fluid RANS Modeling (researchgate.net)
(6) Interfacial Transfer Closure for Two-Fluid RANS Modeling (researchgate.net)
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How is Post-Truth Discourse Related to Environmentalism?
In what ways does Post-Truth affect environmentalism and environmental conservation?
I'm looking for specific answers / cases.
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Post-truth means that anybody can make any kind of claim and the original claim goes farther and faster than the rebuttal or fact check does.
Therefore, conspiracy theories and false claims are often seen by more people than the truth. This can greatly affect what people believe about environmental issues, such as climate change.
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I would like to know what other people think about this question. In your opinion is there a difference?
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Value is one of the basic criteria when creating conservation plan. All conservation actions (preventive and interventive) should be based on thorough research. This research would include items history, material and function in society (as well as all other possibilities like previous restoration, damage, etc.). This function, then, can be perceived as value.
Value is not something what item have from the beginning. Value is given by people. By people who created the item and also by "us" - conservers, historians and museum curator. Consequently value is variable in time.It is important to evaluate past and current values and create conservation plan on acquired results. Original values, argumentatively, should have priority, but in some cases contemporary values may be preferred (e.g. if only one or few items survived).
Furthermore, there is something called multiplicity of values. Every object have more values. In the most simple examples there is historical value and esthetic value (examples of other values may be religious, social, scientific etc.). Historical value contains history of the object. Esthetic value contain esthetic and artistic qualities. When talking about working objects (like industrial machinery, trains,...) there is also technological qualities.
If object is important for its age and overall historical value, conservation plan should be very careful and should aim for maximal preservation of the object and its fabric and structure.
If object is important for its aesthetic values, conservation plan should aim at restoring the object to its "formal glory", so it can be perceived by visitors in its artistic totality.
If object is important for its technical qualities, conservation plan should aim not only to restore the object, but (if possible) to restore it to working conditions, because to fully understand these types of object, it is important to se the machine in action. Sounds, smells, vibration, visual effect and integral part of the object and should be presented.
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Fisheries resource supplies adequate cheap balanced nutrition to the rural / coastal people. These resources are heavily exploited. New innovations are needed to sustainably exploit these resources. From singly species conservation mangers are moving towards multi-species/ ecosystem based management. World bodies are recommending to manage these dwindling resources by Eco-friendly way and give much emphasis to implement sustainable development goals. Recently, LME and MPA area concepts are evolving. Any innovation in this line shall help to understand and evolve appropriate management principles for the tropical multi-spiecies fisheries resource management.
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eDNA analysis is one innovation, or environmental DNA, all the tiny traces of genetic material that are left behind as living things pass through water or soil :)
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Hi all,
I have a difficulty in determining and fetching out the common/conserved regulator genes from a bunch of species. I fetched out all the regulator genes from each bacteria species according to the GFF annotation. I would like to determine which regulator genes are common/conserved across those bacteria species.
Is there any approach to address this? Any suggestion would be greatly appreciated.
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Plant transcription factors :)
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Hi!
Please tell, does anyone know where to find information on the method of calculating the cost of an hour of work of a restorer or conservator? I've been looking for such a methodology for a long time, but unfortunately I can't find anything.
Thanks in advance for the reply!
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Dear Dr. Olesia Lebedivna ,
When it comes to Manuscript Book Restoration, the time used by a Restorer has no schedule, but it has a soul. The binding covers are cleaned, the wax drops are removed [for centuries they were read by candlelight because there was no other source of Light] with a scalpel and a balm is applied with cotton and tweezers so that the skin recovers its original texture. With the sheets already separated and pressed between blotting paper, the tears in each parchment are healed with very fine dressings, made with very young “calf gut”.
Although today it is somewhat impressive, the making of Medieval Booksrequired a large amount of animal matter, especially bones and skins. In large books such as the Medieval Canticles, each parchment sheet is the entire skin of an animal, so in total the skin of 200 calves or more was used to obtain all the pages. For the smaller Manuscript Books, goatskin was also used or the skin of a cow was divided between three or four sheets. The finer the parchment, the younger the animal, these were very refined and small Manuscript Books and were made with the skins of freshly born calves. For its restoration, the loin is glued with a natural string and pastry gelatin, obtained in turn from cooked and crushed bones, but “natural collagen” can also be used since it tends to adhere as much or more than glue. After so many years, the skin of the Manuscript Book covers is very delicate, which is why their recovery is rarely complete and the damage suffered by the Manuscript Book is almost always observed, but sometimes they are usually replaced by new wooden covers. The sheets that have less consistency are sheathed in transparent plastic so that the pages can be turned without risk of deteriorating their safeguarding, and the remaining sheets are kept uncoated. It is essential to maintain the original appearance of each Manuscript Book as much as possible and the paper should never be sprayed with fungicidesin case they have fungi or bacteria,so it is more convenient to eliminate them in the freezer or in a bag without oxygen, because the fungicides workonly for a time but do not remain on the sheet forever, what is recommended to do is to store the books in an environment without humidity or extreme temperatures. It is always advisable to digitize all content and store it.
There are also in the East the Restoration of palm leaf manuscript:
See the following Scientific Research Papers:
DOI: 10.1109 / ICCV.2001.937649
for restoration of palm leaf manuscript see:
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Land conservation often focuses on endemic species to maximize species-level biodiversity protection. However, younger ecosystems often lack endemic species, yet can contain unique genotypes. Places that have been recently glaciated or exposed from post-glacial falling sea levels often lack species-level endemics, yet might contain novel and developing ecosystems that are worthy of protection. Are there many examples of populations or ecosystems that have been protected for unique genotypes below the species and subspecies level?
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In 1998 co-authored a paper with Dr. Stebbins at https://www.ecoseeds.com/stebbins.html --article No. 267. Stebbins, G. Ledyard and Craig C. Dremann. 1998. Jepson Manual chromosome numbers may indicate new "cryptic" native grass species. GRASSLANDS 8 (3): 4-5 (California Native Grass Association) we wrote, that out of 300 California native grasses already described, because of the changes in chromosome numbers, 100 new species would need to be teased out and described. We really need to put together a taxonomic method to start describing these ecotypes.
My paper about ecotypes at https://www.ecoseeds.com/juicy.gossip.three.html I list the names that the father of ecotypes proposed, Gote Turesson based on the habitats that they were attached to--Table 1--Turesson's environmental extremes that create ecotypes. 1.) Typical local lowland or inland populations that all other ecotypes were compared with = typical. 2.) Limestone or other rock formations (calcareous) = afar. 3.) Shifting dune populations (prostrate, fast-growing stolons to avoid being buried by sand) = arenarius. 4.) Coastal bluffs or stationary dunes, with fast drying soils = campestris 5.) Elevational ecotypic varieties, a.) Subalpine = subalpinus. b.) Alpine = alpinus. 6.) Latitudinal ecotypic variation.= (no name) 7.) Edges of the species range (i.e. the extreme northern and southern points of the area of distribution).= (no name) 8.) Saline soils (fleshy leaves) = salinus.
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Capacity building and sensitization of people particularly young minds towards biodiversity conservation and its sustainable utilization needs more efforts to engage and inspire the large number of people. In this context, the role of conservation education has emerged very effective to address the issues of long term conservation. Considering the importance of education in conservation related issues, various projects have been initiated to involve young generation particularly students in participatory conservation programme all across the globe including India. The aim of the conservation programme was to sensitize the young minds towards science and addressing the issue of biodiversity conservation.
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This practice exists in our country. Here is a link to my book, though it is in Russian
Regards, Sergey
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Nature finds its own way. Even without any management, forest will pave its own way. But manipulation and management can increase the productivity of forest and also can prevent many unwanted events like - wild fire, pest attack, conservation and management of any endangered species. But, while such management practice, the very natural condition of the forest will be disturbed for both flora and faunas; and such disturbance may negatively effect them. So, shall we encourage management and manipulation inside a natural forest - considering the above mentioned aspects ?
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Sumit Kumar Das i can see 2 questions in your single question and very interesting to know the expert views and I do agree with A K Fazlul Hoque the views shared are in line with your question and as far as one part of your question I can say that the link am sharing answers the same
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I am going to assess an ecosystem services in southwest Missouri. What things I need to do for the cultural services to assess in monetary terms???
It includes services like, Recreation, tourism and so on.
How can I assess it in Springfield conservation nature center and valley water mills???
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Ecosystem Services Valuation Database (ESVD) - Official launch of the new ESVD on 14 October 2021, 13:30 CET
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Can anyone share a success story where wetland management and conservation has been achieved using community led co-designing or co-decision making efforts especially in south and south east Asia ?
Thanks for your responses in advance.
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Bangladesh Government has taken a great detailed plan for the development of Bangladeshi wetland but I have no specific data on success story As far as I know, the implementation of plans are on progress.
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In mapping and predicting potential hotspots of wildlife species in a location, what software can be used? and what is the best method that can be used to produce a great results?
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Try Maxent for predicting the potential hotspot of wildlife boss
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Contacting plant researchers based at USA…
Dear All:
Would you please help us identify relevant research groups based in USA focused on the following areas? We are interested in research collaboration.
a) Plant tissue culture in temporary immersion bioreactors, and metabolites produced in vitro.
b) Plant tolerance to abiotic factors (e.g. drought and salinity) in the context of climatic change.
c) Characterization and (cryo-)conservation of plant genetic resources.
d) Plant genetic transformation and evaluation of side effects of transgenesis.
Thanks in advance.
Be safe.
José
--
Prof. Dr. José Carlos Lorenzo Feijoo
Head, Lab for Plant Breeding and Conservation of Genetic Resources,
Bioplant Centre,
University of Ciego de Avila, 69450,
Cuba.
Tel. 53 33 225768/212719
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Dear José Carlos Lorenzo Feijoo,
Plant scientists at the National Laboratory for Genetic Resources Preservation (USDA), in Fort Collins, Colorado.
Best Regards,
Jean
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Hello. My name is Malte. In my master thesis I study assemblages of Meso and Makrofauna associated with arboreal soil in tree-cavities, following an approach of island biogeography. In my study design the two predictors "size of tree cavity (amount of arboreal soil)" and "isolation (distance between tree cavity and terrestrial ground)" are included. Taking samples of twelve trees - sampling 1 tree cavity per each tree, 2 surveys with one year inbetween were conducted, including the following steps: Removal of arboreal soil of tree-cavities, Extraction of Fauna, Sterilization and restoration of arboreal soil into tree-cavities. I determined taxonomic groups to order level and counted the individuals. Having my dataset complete, the first thing I want to look at, analyzing my data, is the occurence probability of the insular groups (those that are bound to the arboreal soil in tree-cavities, e.g. Crassiclitellata) as a function of the predictors described above. I want to perform a zero-inflated regression model as it can consider the two distinct stochastic processes - 1. Colonization and 2. Abundace > 0 (Kéry and Royle 2015).
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Hello, I see that the answer the hypothesis you want to answer is if there are differences in the abundance of your samples according to the different types of trees and cavities, if so, you could test Poison distributions, Sorensen's ordering maps, or multivariate hypothesis tests like PERMANOVA or MANOVA.
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Hi,
I am designing a RCTs with 36 clusters. One of my colleague criticized that my study is severely under-powered and urge me to change the design. It was confirmed when I computed power with power or sampsi command in Stata.
I have found a paper from F.Burlig et al (2020), in which they introduce a new Stata module for power analysis called pcpanel. I have tried pc_simulate command and the results are too good to be true.
It turns out that I am able to run RCTs with 36 clusters. In the text, they basically said that current power approach for short panel is too conservative, and we are recruiting more units than we are actually needed!
However, actually I am doubt with my interpretation. Does anyone here have read this paper and have the same interpretation? Is it true that existing power command produce too conservative outcomes?
Thank you so much for reading the question.
Regards.
Citation:
Burlig, Fiona, Louis Preonas, and Matt Woerman. 2020. Panel data and experimental design. Journal of Development Economics 144:102458.
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The separate on-line appendix they published might be helpful. Its called, "Panel Data and Experimental Design" published Feb 2019 (a PDF download) at this link
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Photon does not violates conservation of energy at any length and time scale, whereas virtual particle does violates the conservation of energy at short time scale using uncertainty principle.. Existence of photon arises due to the time varying of electric and magnetic field. Once the time varying electric and magnetic field ceases, photon can not exist afterward.
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No matter photon is matter or not matter, matter doesn't have to have mass, there is no such connection. To be exact, photons are matter and antimatter at the same time, or alternatively, can be said to stand between matter and antimatter. There is no annihilation between photons and antiphotons, this already tells the truth that photons are not massive; if they were massive, they should have corresponding antimatter photons that they could have annihilated with. The annihilations between photons are never experimentally observed or supported. Photons are studied from very low frequency from Hz to very high frequency of 10^20 Hz over many orders of magnitude, there is nothing to support that photons have mass. Frequency measurements have reached accuracy down to 1 part in 10^15 at lab, nothing has been found to support massive photons.
Please note: photons can be generated by both matter atoms and antimatter atoms in laboratory, their frequencies are equivalent with accuracy at level of 1 part in 10^12. Please research to find out my claim.
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I conducted a questionnaire to evaluate (a part) of ecosystem services. To ask for respondents' WTP I asked them how much money would they pay more in entrance fee in order to contribute to conservation activity in the area from the choice below:
1. $0
2. < $5
3. $5 - $10
4 >$10
Could I use ordinal logistic regression to deal with the data. Or what should I do I get the mean of WTP to get the consumer surplus from the data? I would appreciate if someone could help me. Thank you in advance
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The mean cannot be computed with ordinal data. Finding the mean requires you to perform arithmetic operations like addition and division on the values in the data set. Since the differences between adjacent scores are unknown with ordinal data, these operations cannot be performed for meaningful results
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Hello,
I need to know why having an electric current in Perfect Magnetic Conductor(PMC) violate current conservation. Based on the boundary conditions, I couldn't be successful to prove that surface current can violate current conservation. In addition, I am curious to know what parameter in PMC is infinite( in PEC conductivity is infinite
Thanks
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A perfect magnetic conductor can have no magnetic field H because (by definition) the ratio of flux density B to H is infinite. B=mu H. There can then be no H, so there can be no current density because the field (A/m) on opposite sides of a current differ by the current between them (A/m), so can not be zero on both sides of the current. All the currents are on the surface, to cause the step in magnetic field between the inside and the outside.
This nearly happens with good conductors with alternating currents and with type I superconductors, except that the layer of current is not infinitely thin but extends with exponential fall-off over the skin depth or penetration depth.
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Fisheries have been a vital industry and an employer across the Baltic. The economies of several communities and countries are almost entirely reliant on the sector. There have been drastic changes to the Baltic fish populations, causing ripple effects for the entire Baltic Sea ecosystem. Baltic fisheries could lead to over-exploitation of target species and various effects on non-target species due to Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Also, IUU fishing remains one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems due to its potent ability to undermine national and regional efforts to manage fisheries sustainably and conserve marine biodiversity. This situation calls for more empirical research on IUU fishing in the Baltic Sea for the sake of sustainable fisheries governance.
I am looking for a collaborator or a research group/persons that are working on combating IUU fishing.I would like to work with the research group as a visiting scholar and develop the theme-combating the IUU fishing. Would be glad to know the details of the research group or persons.Thanks in advance.
# IUU fishing #Baltic #Combat# Reesearch Group
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For combating illigal Unreported and Unregulated fishing, the engagement of fishers, governments and consumers for supporting fishery sector for it's fairness, sustainability and governed by government norms/rules is needed.
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Also, how to decide which conservation action to apply in prioritize areas, and How environmental authorities can get involved in what type of conservation actipn?
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It's always tricky to define which area is important or must be prioritised.
Instinctively a top priority protected area must be rich in biodiversity, host a particular threatened or endemic species, or even include a unique landmark. These can, of course, be combined. At this point, and once the limits are defined, you'd have an area of international importance. I'd say, what makes it a priority to protect it, is the presence of imminent threats (poaching, land use etc). Once you know what those threats are, taking immediate action to mitigate the pressure becomes your priority in terms of conservation. Later, actions such as restoration, reintroductions etc may happen. However, remember that the protected environment must be sained before taking any further actions. For instance, there is no need to reintroduce rhinos in a place where poaching is common.
Another way of defining important areas can be found in the ramsar convention on wetland which defines 9 criteria, which can be applied/adapted to pretty much any situation. https://www.ramsar.org/sites/default/files/documents/library/ramsarsites_criteria_eng.pdf
It's only my opinion but I hope it helps.
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Dear RG members!
Wetlands are among the world's most cost-effective ecosystems and major global climate regulators which are rapidly disappearing.
what can we do to conserve wetland?
Warmly welcoming your advice.
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This is a very topical question. I fully agree and support the opinion of my colleague Chuck A Arize. Thanks for the comprehensive answer!
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In cases where prognosis is poor, should laparotomy be offered?
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It would appear that one would consider whether there are other electrocution injuries in addition. Perhaps consider rhabdomyolysis, jejunitis, ileitis, gastritis, ( in view of malaena), renal damage, pancreatitis, and retroperitoneal vascular damage.
Perhaps some imaging may be helpful before considering surgery.
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The yield of plants is found to be increased with the conservation of perennial to annual plants what are the processes, advantages, and disadvantages?
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Firstly, it is next to impossible to make perennial plants behave like annual plants.....secondly , if at all you try , it won't be a sustainable exercise. Bonsai you can try....like perennial ornamental plants into annual plants...But , i doubt for fruit crops...
Good question, out of box thinking....
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In reactive exothermic collisions (A+B-->C+D) masses of the reactants change after collision and some heat is released. Let's assume that the heat released is used in accelerating products (i.e. C and D). How can we compute the post-collision velocities of C and D such that the momentum is conserved. Please note that the masses of C and D are not the same as masses of A and B, however, their sum is.
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In case someone is also facing the same problem that I faced while modeling of the reactive collisions:
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Testing the effect of biopesticides or insecticides on natural enemies under laboratory conditions either it may consider as biosafety or conservation?
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I am wondering, after doing a little research about an interesting topic, if you have heard of any research associated with the possibility of Fibonacci's sequence being a mathematical proof of The Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy?
Scientifically, the Fibonacci mathematical sequences architecturally design and build strong, energy-efficient structures from microscopic diatoms to liquid and gas spirals and waves to astronomical shapes of the universe that obey the Laws of Conservation of Matter and Energy. The Fibonacci sequence of numbers are the numbers represented by the sum of the two preceding numbers of the sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89 144...
Fibonacci's sequence is prolifically represented in nature and in universal matter. Since every continuous symmetry of a physical theory has an associated quantity, then would Fibonacci's sequence be proof of the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy?
Conservation of energy can be rigorously proven by Emmy Noether's theorem as a consequence of continuous time translation symmetry; The theorem states every continuous symmetry of a physical theory has an associated conserved quantity. - Wikipedia 2021
Thank you for thinking about my premise. If you would reply I would like to hear from you. Thank you.
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In addition to
Artur Burzynski
, the conservation of energy in biological systems is not the same (but similar) as conservation of energy in thermodynamics terms. In biology, conservation of energy is to produce enough energy to survive without spending energy. In here you probably can not talk about general conservation of energy like "energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but....."
Similarly, conservation of matter probably is not the reason of any specific law. There is something called geometry and stability. Before thinking so advance or fundamental, that a number or number series proves a law, this is immature and factually incorrect. Number series can follow a law, but not proves it.
Further .....design and build strong, energy-efficient structures..... what is an energy efficient structure? And energy efficient on what basis? There are all sorts of astronomical shapes, if they are following so called Fibonacci's sequence or any law of conservation, why are there so much variation and randomness?
I guess, this is just an idea or question which is formulated based on incomplete knowledge and understanding of anything.
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Most populations of salmonids differ from each other in molecular genetics, morphology, life history, etc., with many populations showing local adaptations. While some populations, or groups of populations, meet the requirements for species designation under an integrative framework, to recognise all populations showing adaptive differences and distinct evolutionary trajectories as distinct species would result in taxonomic chaos. In North America important populations can be identified as Conservation Units (CUs) such as Evolutionarily Significant Units or Designatable Units within the appropriate conservation legislation. With a few exceptions, the CU approach does not appear to be widely used elsewhere, possibly due to difficulties with current legislation.
Effective conservation of trout and char should be based on populations, irrespective of whether they are designated as species, subspecies or simply populations, although CUs need to be rooted in accepted species. Each population can then be assessed as to its biological significance based on: genetic distinctness as determined by genomic techniques especially where this is of adaptive significance; genetically-based tolerance of extreme environmental conditions; unusual genetically-based life history traits; phylogenetics; distinct morphology where this has a genetic and adaptive basis; geographical isolation, especially where adjacent populations are extinct; lack of introgression from non-native conspecifics; occurrence as a member of an unusual or rare native species community; cultural, economic, and recreational importance. This biological significance taken together with potential threats to the population’s continued survival can be used to produce a priority ranking. Such a priority ranking can assist in allocating limited resources for conservation thus ensuring that this is carried out in a focused way.
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Hi Andy,
in my opinion, your question highlights a very "hot" issue, mainly in Italy. In Italy, the introduction of non-native species and/or population was forbidden by National law. Since 2 April 2020 this law was updated and now there is (in theory) the possibility of allochthonous introductions. However, this new law leaves without description the regulation concerning the management and or protection of the local native biodiversity. Therefore, concepts as management units and similars are without any legal values, as far as I know. This scenario opens the window for a "far west" in the field of the management of local native populations of freshwater fish, in particular, Mediterranean trout, marble trout, Adriatic grayling ecc. Further, in Italy, freshwater fish fauna is not considered a state patrimonial good and this implies that the management of local biodiversity is guaranteed only by rare local programs.
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which one is the best idea exploiting the Chure and mountains for construction materials or conserve it for tourism and ecosystem services?
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Which is better from an economic point of view, to keep it or use it for the purposes of construction materials .. But the environmental aspect of the area remains very important and must be taken into consideration with thanks.
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before this, I asked a question about the best lighting application in the museum to prevent as many as possible sensitive artifacts from damage and help more in the conservation. I was thinking of Fiberoptic and OLED, but now I read about graphene light and I think it is used now in the UK and not that much popular around the world. so if anyone has an idea and more information about graphene light and its benefit in conservation please help me as I couldn't find many papers about this topic
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Dear Alaa Al Hamed , there isn´t a single and simple description of the best solution for lighting or artworks, such solution would be dependent on the material and properties of the particular artwork on display. Most of the pieces in display at museums were created for enjoying them with our eyes, so with visible light, and therefore any light source able to produce this kind of light spectrum would be useful to see the works in all their greatness. It happens, however, that many light sources produce an extended spectrum, including UV and IR light, these radiations are not visible to our eyes, but they also reach the materials.
Light can trigger photochemical reactions over the materials, pigments, varnishes, etc. Often the main source of degradative effects are the more energetic radiations, in particular the UV wavelengths, and therefore filters could be used to cut that part of the spectrum of your source or well choosing a source able to emit just light in the Visible range, such as LED´s.
IR radiation also can cause damage by photochemical reactions, but also produce heat, that can induce further degradation of the work.
Visible light can also produce photochemical damage, but cutting some part of the visible spectrum would change the appearance of the artwork, so a kind of equilibrium must be applied, exposing the piece under a mild illumination with the broad visible spectrum or exposing it to light for a limited time.
Sometimes the photochemical effect trigged by light need some other component, like oxigen, and therefore if the work can be exposed in a vacuum or in a inert gas atmosphere the effect of light would be lower or not at all.
About the graphene light bulb, it has the benefit of produce light in a tunable way, and mainly in the visible and IR region of the spectrum, which is good news because you don´t need to use filters to cut the UV, and it is said that this light bulb is very efficient, consuming low energy. This saving of energy (money) should be pondered with the price of such light bulbs, I mean, may be some other technology will offer the same kind of light (white light) without the added cost of this new one.
Note: Some artworks were designed to show fluorescence or phosforescence and they could need a excitation light that often lies in the UV, and in these cases you would need such kind of light in your lighting system.
Please have a look to the following links, about lighting in museums and graphene light that I think could be useful for your work:
To see something about light degradation in modern artworks you can have a look to our work too.
Hope it helps.
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Some researchers argue that total energy is zero when adding all positive and negative energy. This is a Lagrangian type concept tending toward flat space by minimizing the action S in a time integral. Lagrangian is zero when potential energy T including gravity and kinetic energy V are equally partitioned and there is zero action. L = V - T
Lagrangian is not conserved in general. Hamiltonian is conserved within limits of uncertainty. In the Hamiltonian all energy is added together as positive. H = V + T
Conserving Hamiltonian does not support the concept of zero total energy in the universe. What remains for producing energy is the uncertainty of H. In general researchers might expect positive and negative uncertainties of H to cancel out over time. This is generally true of random processes governed by the second law of thermodynamics.
Erwin Schrödinger in the book What is Life demonstrated that localized entropy could decrease in non random processes governed by the third law of thermodynamics. Some such processes are found in magnifying glasses, parabolic reflectors, and gravitational lenses. In such cases uncertainties allow total energy to increase by a tiny fraction for a limited time. This is not significant energy gain in the life time of a universe.
A concept of many universes in sequence is promoted by Roger Penrose and others using faint patterns of temperature differences in the CMB. The possibility of almost no energy gained in almost infinite number of universes leads to a chance of accumulating the observed Hamiltonian within conventional science.
A related question in another thread, but abstract in math, a zero multiplied by infinity may be zero, infinite, or finite depending on how the zero and infinity were developed and approached.
Other researchers have shown how to derive gravity from uncertainty. In principle the uncertainty can be used to derive any physical quantity if the required answer is known in advance.
Maybe researchers have other ways to originate the observed universe energy.
How Does Energy Originate?
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Dear Saeed Shahsavari , dear Saeed Shahsavari dear Stellan Gustafsson and all the other readers,
The best way to make your answer irrelevant is to send the users to articles. People are busy. Nobody would read an article just because you invite to do so. The proper way of introducing an article is to sy in a few lines the idea in the article. If a user would want details she/he would read the article.
With best regards and wishes of health,
Sofia
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Dear connections,
Please suggest recent literature/ technique/movement for conservation of wetland in India.
Thank you
Regards,
Dr. Vinaya Tari
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thank u so much Sir Arbind K. Choudhary your help means a lot to me, sir.
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Dear colleagues,
What are the most prominent ongoing debates in the fields of landscape ecology and biodiversity conservation? I can name several, e.g. SLOSS, habitat amount vs habitat configuration. What are other examples? Maybe some latest controversies in the literature?
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Water and soil pollution
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I know, the question is a bit simplistic. It is also not only about the plants, but more about the photosynthetic organisms ... However, in this time of global biodiversity crisis, we are constantly confronted with prioritizing. Recently I read somewhere that in the Arctic, the photosynthetic algae should be taken care of and not the polar bears. Also in temperate regions, where the habitats are under enormous pressure, shouldn't we pay the greatest attention to the producers/plants? On the local level (local administration, journalists) I am constantly confronted with the question: who do we save first? With this somewhat provocative question, I simply wanted to know/hear what researchers from various fields will say about it (or against it).
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No, all life is essential.
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Does exists a "standard methodology" to define a species like a flagship species?
I know some methodologies are based on surveys, but I would like to know if we have others types of methodologies? (e.g. number of public papers discussing on a species in a country, number of pictures takes in a specific area, etc...)
Actually, I search a methodology based on social data to quantify the interest of species for considering them like flagship/iconic/emblematic species.
Do you think, facebook, instagram, twitter could be sufficient for that?
Does exists a package to search directly keywords in google search?...
Thanks for your help,
PL
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Interesting question. Not sure what you mean by what defines one, as a flagship species is simply any species that generates a strong emotional response and by doing so helps protects many other species or threatened ecosystems, etc. But I'm sure you already know that. I've never heard of any standard methodology for identifying flagship species, but then I've never formally looked either. Seems many current flagship species have that designation as a by product of their long history of generating a strong emotional response in others prior to conservation efforts and conservationists have simply used that knowledge to advantage, e.g. polar bears. Using social media as you suggested might help uncover which species are much loved in various countries/parts of the world then seems one could overlay the ranges of those species with where conservation need is greatest? Kind of like a hotspot approach, i.e. where they looked globally for high rates of endemism then overlaid that with threatened areas due to human impact globally to come up with the hotspots.
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Hi, does anyone know of a method to remove, as possible, plant DNA by conserving as much fungal and protozoan DNA as possible, for metagenomic analysis?
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Humanity has historically not valued common fish in the same ways as other more charismatic species, particularly land and sea mammals. The physical characteristics of an animal, its habitat type, its commercial value, and ideas about property in animals all may have influenced popular perceptions of aquatic versus terrestrial species. These issues have, in turn, greatly influenced regulatory and conservation efforts for some species.
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Dear Francesco Nardelli interesting question. I never thought about this. Please have a look at the following recent link:
Seaspiracy shows why we must treat fish not as seafood, but as wildlife
(published April 7, 2021)
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Please discuss the role 'rain water harvesting' can play in addressing the issue of drinking/ useable water worldwide. What are different 'rain water harvesting' methodologies/ technologies? And other technological alternatives to 'rain water harvesting'.
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Collecting and using rainwater can be a superb way to solve problem of water crisis. Some people use rainwater for watering plants, cleaning, bathing, or drinking. However, it is important that the rainwater system is maintained properly and the water quality is appropriate for addressing the issue of drinking/ useable water worldwide .
Generally, there are two ways of harvesting rainwater, namely; surface runoff harvesting and rooftop rainwater harvesting.
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In vast areas of lowland Asia (sub)tropical forests were cleared long before herbarium specimens were collected, but for accounts in floras only herbarium records are used to define the distribution range of plant species. The consequence is that the distribution range given in floras is often much smaller than the original distribution range before human disturbance. This completely biases any IUCN conservation assessment because the loss of range in the past remains undocumented and is therefore not considered during the conservation assessment. Even worse many species are now considered non native in vast areas of their potential original distribution range because no wild occurrences remain. Very often it can’t be even distinguished anymore whether scattered occurences in human modified landscapes were planted, are potentially of remnant origin or are planted descendants of wild populations, which have disappeared long ago. This is a serious conservation issue contributing to further loss of genetic diversity of already endangered species because occurrences, which are not considered wild/native, usually do not receive any conservation attention by authorities.
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A very good question, and you seem to have the answer already. Your main interest is plants and it should be quite possible to create a model from temperature range, precipitation, soil quality and pH etc.
The latter if the problem for me, I really wish there been an investigation done just some decades earlier before the arrival of acid rain.
Oh there was one, but they expected the behaviour to be the same, but here we got a variant that only calls in the late evening and at night - so they missed both the species entirely - well that's not a problem in botany! =)
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1. A photon hits an atom perpendicularly to its speed v and it is absorbed as is known immediately. So it can not act after the time when it is not perpendicular (e.g. the force is 0 after that). Certainly all its energy goes to the atom when it is perpendicular to v.
2. But the impact (absorption) applies a force on the atom and it is postulated that a perpendicular force can not do work. So work has not been done on the atom. Consequently its energy can not change. Seems like contradiction?
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welcome!
As for the energy and momentum conservation it is always valid.
It is so that there is no mechanical work done in the direction of the motion of the atom but there will be work done in the normal direction which is the direction of the incident electron.
An example of this motion is a large mass moving in the x direction is subjected to a knock of a small mass in the y-direction. The large mass will be slightly deflected from its original path in the y-direction. The large mass will absorb energy and momentum from the small mass.
Best wishes
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When talking to visitors of our museum/zoo, some of the most frequent questions asked are "Why is keeping species from going extinct an activity worthwhile to pursue?" or "Why does it matter if this midge or that tick is going extinct?".
While most biologists will probably reply that species have very specific roles in their ecosystems and thus the extinction of one species can probably affect others, too, or that each species is part of the richness of our nature (a value in itself so to speak), some non-biologists are often not that easily convinced (especially when you refer to species not very attractive to the human eye). What even more hampers an easy answer is that more than 99% of species that ever existed have died out in the course of evolution. So what is all that conservationist effort, to 'preserve the current state' all about? Changes in biodiversity and mass extinctions have always happened, so why don't we let it just happen now (to put it insensibly)? There are also some human related arguments, for example "we breathe air and thus need plants of some sort". But that does not mean I need every plant species on the planet to produce oxygen, crops will do that, too...
I would like to hear your thoughts on this to have some good arguments at hand when dealing with the next inquisitive visitor. ;-)
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A watch can work without the glass covering the clock face. A watch surely can work removing one of the tiny gears from the inside. And will probably still work if you remove a different tiny gear instead the one we mentioned before. You can also wet a bit the clock, and hopefully it will work without much problem...
But a watch will probably fail if we remove too many pieces or damage it too badly... And then you will have to buy a new one.
So, the World is a watch, and biodiversity are the gears that keep it moving.
How many pieces we want to remove or how much damage we want to apply to see if it stop working?
The problem is that buying a new World is not in the immediate schedule!
And so, that is why conserving biodiversity matters.
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I have noticed an increasing trend in reviewing multidisciplinary project funding proposals the exclusion of the associated costs of organism naming, the collection and curation of the research materials, and other taxonomic services such as mounting and preparing specimens for their incorporation into collections. Parallel to this is the now well-established knowledge of the rapid decline in the number of taxonomists, and the huge accumulation of research materials that are sitting in envelopes, cupboards and boxes and not yet incorporated into curated collections (mostly because of lack of financial resources and technicians to process them). Added to this is the well-established evidence of a now quite ageing cohort of experienced taxonomists. Why is this important? Journals are increasingly requiring statements that research material cited in papers (especially molecular papers) actually be available publicly and accessible to other researchers. I will illustrate the importance of this with an example from my own experience. I looked at the characterisation and variation of quinolizidine alkaloids on the Neotropical legume genus Ormosia to see if the chemical variation could provide useful taxonomic insights into relationships. I had been intrigued by Martin Ricker et al's paper ( ) in which they had found that alkaloid diversity in Ormosia was high and that the taxonomic distribution of specific alkaloids was not congruent with morphological taxonomic criteria. What was even more interesting was his earlier work where he had found that to conserve this Ormosia alkaloid diversity one need not have to preserve all the species and that most were already in some protected areas (irrespective of course of the need to conserve as many other species for other reasons). In following up on some other researcher's work I wrote to the authors asking if they had any seeds to send me so I could check the identity of some of the species names as there seemed to be anomalies in the data. Unfortunately, only a few of these studies had actually preserved any seeds or any vouchers and had just used the names of their seed suppliers. Of the few that I could obtain, left in cupboards, three species turned out to represent three unrelated genera. This small example seriously questions the validity of any research which is not based on correctly identified and accessible vouchered materials.
There is an emerging collapse in the taxonomic support system and services that will hinder future research; an increasing loss of university museums and herbaria, a decline in the teaching of taxonomy, etc. Users of taxonomic services need to take this seriously. The credibility of their own work may be questioned in the future. I am at the end o my careers taxonomist and have lived this demise. I would like to hear people's thoughts on this general topic.
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Charles H Stirton, you have raised a very important issue, especially in countries and regions that lag behind in the collection, identification and curation of specimens. There is a clear need for investment in taxonomy because, with the changing climate, we are losing many species before we even describe them. This is a major challenge in Africa where many species in remote locations are yet to be identified and described.
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Biodiversity is a widely used term. What does it mean in the context of preserving natural assets? The conservation biologists are concerned over its misuse in these assessment. Its time to explore the pros and cons and look at some of the trending themes around biodiversity, ecosystem services and natural capital.
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Abhijit Mitra this is a very intersting book ! thank you..
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I am currently studying a group project on an home made Mayonnaise (eggs non pasteurized / and vinegar)
A family consumed an home made mayonnaise after a bad conservation (mayonnaise has stayed on the tables during same days) and after 5/6 days (shelf life expired). It was not the only one who consume it in this way. However, only this family experiences severe symptoms immediatly (fever, diarrheas, and pain.) We were wondering which toxins may be the cause of these symptoms;
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Also, bacteria can grow such as Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. which produce some harm toxins.
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Hi,
I coordinate the sending of PAID solidarity corps servants by French government for NGO doing direct action for conservation into the world.
The servant (often with M.Sc in science), are paid (480€/months, during 10-12months, get insurance and stipend for the travel).
The NGO provide accommodation and real mission in conservation.
If you know NGO needing free motivated manpower, please contact me.
CONSERVATION in ACTION! =D
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Hi Dr. Beaune,
Take a look at Oceânica NGO from Brazil > https://oceanica.org.br/
As the Oceânica website is only in the Portuguese version I sent the Annual Report 2019 in the English version. If you are interested please contact: contato@oceanica.org.br
Kind regards!
~Guido
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I have two very similar homologues of a protein-of-interest. The architecture of the primary functional domain is all but identical; however, there is some difference at the N-terminal end of the peptide rendering the functional domain either cytoplasmic on non-cytoplasmic.
When I have examined the conserved domains of the peptide sequences through Interpro, both have signal peptides and transmembrane domains. However, some difference unknown to me but seemingly in that region identifies the primary functional domain cytoplasmic in one version, and non-cytoplasmic ion the other. As I understand it (though this is probably somewhat facile), this suggests one sits in the intracellular space when membrane bound, the other extracellular .
Why might this be the case when both posses the same function? Why also when extracellular secretion is necessary for its function?
NOTE: Both proteins are from the same species, but they are separate gene products from independent nucleotide sequences, so isoforms and homologue may not be appropriate terms.
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You are raising an interesting point here. If the proteins have different signal peptide sequences, it is very much possible they are sorted differently within the cells, but I am not sure if signal peptide will dictate/affect their secretory capability because generally the signal peptide is removed as the protein enters a certain destined organelle.
Anoop
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When an adaptive null/ notch is placed in the antenna pattern - towards let's say in the direction of interference or any specific target - where does the original energy in the artificially created null go? Is it distributed in the side lobes? Or completely eliminated? In case of complete elimination, how do we justify the law of conservation of energy?
Many thanks
Anum
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welcome!
I think that I answered previous questions for you.
Assume that the radiated power is kept constant while distributing the radiation in the space then when nulls are created in some directions the rest of the power will be redistributed in the other directions.
From the antenna array point of view normally the radiation pattern contains a major lobe and many side lobes which are separated by dips in the space around the lobes. This is dictated by phase relationship between the different antennas.
Accordingly there will be space maxima and minima in the radiation.
Best wishes