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Consciousness - Science topic

Consciousness are sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
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Can we look at relationship between brain and consciousness similar to relationship between hardware and software?
There conciseness sound more like GUI part of computer software?!
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Your question reminded me of a comparison between different components of the mind, regarded as hardware and software. Hambrick and Engle (2002) mention that working memory capacity and other aspects of the cognitive system are the mind's hardware due to their relatively stable nature. On the other hand, domain knowledge would be a more flexible aspect. Hence, it would be considered the software.
Cheers,
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This is an urgent request triggered by an actual situation. After an incidental pneumonectomy, a woman now 72 years old, suffering from longstanding COPD combined with a restrictive lung disease du to secondary deformations of the thoracic cage, remains fully conscious and mentally undisturbed while intubated and under mechanical ventilation. She is neither prepared to nor intends to die. Apparently, her respiratory center is highly dysfunctional but does not appear to be completely knocked out.
Would it be possible.
a) to stimulate the respiratory center by narrowly balancing the hypoxia and hypercapnia tolerance with special ventilator settings?
b) to directly stimulate the respiratory center?
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The best alternative for long term breathing support is a Drinker apparatus (iron lung). Few of them are available nowadays. First I would try “permissive hypercapnia”. It’s perfectly safe and harmless at levels as high as 150 torr provided she is breathing 100% oxygen. Just place her on 100% oxygen and shut off the ventilator, and wait for her normal metabolism to elevate her body reserves of carbon dioxide until it rises high enough to stimulate effective respiratory drive. This is called “apneic oxygenation.” She probably lived with hypercarbia before she got sick, and you have over-ventilated her and paralyzed her respiratory chemoreceptors. When she starts breathing you can lower the inhaled oxygen concentration to maintain the pulse oximeter reading at 89, at which point her hemoglobin will still be fully saturated and oxygen toxicity will be minimized.
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In the not-too-distant future, will it be possible to merge human consciousness with a computer, or to transfer human consciousness and knowledge to a computer system equipped with sufficiently highly advanced artificial intelligence?
This kind of vision involving the transfer of the consciousness and knowledge of a specific human being to a computer system equipped with a suitably highly advanced artificial intelligence was depicted in a science fiction film titled "Transcendence" (starring Jonny Deep) It has been reported that research work is underway at one of Elon Musk's technology companies to create an intelligent computerized system that can communicate with the human brain in a way that is far more technologically advanced than current standards. The goal is to create an intelligent computerized system, equipped with a new generation of artificial intelligence technology so that it will be possible to transfer a copy of human knowledge and consciousness contained in the brain of a specific person according to a concept similar to that depicted in a science fiction film titled "Transcendence." In considering the possible future feasibility of such concepts concerning the transfer of human consciousness and knowledge to an information system equipped with advanced artificial intelligence, the paraphilosophical question of extending the life of a human being whose consciousness functions in a suitably advanced intelligent information system is taken into account, while the human being from whom this consciousness originated previously died. And even if this were possible in the future, how should this issue be defined in terms of the ethics of science, the essence of humanity, etc.? On the other hand, research and research-implementation work is already underway in many technology companies' laboratories to create a system of non-verbal communication, where certain messages are transmitted from a human to a computer without the use of a keyboard, etc., only through systems that read people's minds, for example. through systems that recognize specific messages formulated non-verbally in the form of thoughts only and a computer system equipped with electrical impulse and brain wave sensors specially created for this purpose would read human thoughts and transmit the information thus read, i.e., messages to the artificial intelligence system. This kind of solution will probably soon be available, as it does not require as advanced artificial intelligence technology as would be required for a suitably intelligent information system into which the consciousness and knowledge of a specific human person could be uploaded. Ethical considerations arise for the realization of this kind of transfer and perhaps through it the creation of artificial consciousness.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
In the not-too-distant future, will it be possible to merge human consciousness with a computer or transfer human consciousness and knowledge to a computer system equipped with sufficiently highly advanced artificial intelligence?
And if so, what do you think about this in terms of the ethics of science, the essence of humanity, etc.?
And what is your opinion on this topic?
What do you think on this issue?
Please answer,
I invite everyone to join the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Computer is a mechanical device for our mind & it will help us to carry out the same with our programming performance in a right mode with this it will be ridiculous to join human consciousness it cannot be a subject of measurement to place computer in the near future.
This is my personal opinion
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One of the world greatest mysteries is the nature of our reality, consciousness and the meaning of life. There is a growing community of scientists and academics that concluded, via scientific and philosophical means, that our world and the entire universe might be a simulation.
If this is the case indeed, then what sort of experiments could we deploy from within the simulation, to prove this hypothesis?
I just started a crowd funding campaign to support a novel experiment to test whether we live in a computer simulation Universe. Please support this initiative by sharing the link to the crowd funding campign with your social / professional network. Link to the campaign:
Thank you.
Melvin
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Are you refferring to the hyptohesis that our universe is a (holographic) mirror of a real universe? If you got a good link to serious sources would be great.
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If there were the quantum mechanical equivalents of individual neurons and of larger networks of neurons, and if quantum mechanisms of error correction worked on those level, you could get something like consciousness. This is because information could (in principle) flow between neurons - that means you have a mechanism of some sort of distributed computing inside the brain. What's your view?
An alternate (rather elaborate) discussion about the two can be found below. However this particular idea just emerged once I started rethinking about information in general.
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Olivier denis Yes. Your statement is right=the universe does not need me to exist.
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In other words, can we talk about working memory (considering that it is the active part of human memory), independently of consciousness? Or is consciousness and working memory is the same?
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If you alter consciousness you (can) alter working memory.
But it all always depends what you mean by consciousness other than a medical symptom category, a diagnostic criteria.
The more working memory you have, the more you are aware of, the more you have to be conscious of. But consciousness is the act of being responsible with awareness.
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Hello guys.
I am searching for a postcolonial novel where the characters develop double consciousness or any novel that I apply Frantz Fanon's theories on. Where he explores the problems of identity of the black people in the white society. I would really appreciate if you can suggest a work.
Best regards.
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Dead Men's Path- Chinua Achebe
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Being inspired and encouraged by the quantum science revolution in the early 1990s up until our present time, lately I've been following the research by Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff on consciousness and mind-matter duality where the extent of knowledge gained thus far concerns how neurons and neural networks in the brain give rise to the phenomenon of human consciousness. My research seeks to go further by proposing that it is non-material information external to the body that interacts with neurons in the brain that gives rise to the mind-body duality. So my specific question is this: What is the mechanism or process through which information interacts with neurons and neural networks in the brain so that a quantum moment becomes a classical action or behavior?
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“…Being inspired and encouraged by the quantum science revolution in the early 1990s up until our present time, lately I've been following the research by Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff on consciousness and mind-matter duality where the extent of knowledge gained thus far concerns how neurons and neural networks in the brain give rise to the phenomenon of human consciousness….”
- really there is no necessity to pay some attention to existent in mainstream science solutions of the problem “consciousness and mind-matter duality”. The “consciousness on Earth” phenomenon, which resides on every living being on Earth, including humans, and governs the beings, is fundamentally non-material phenomenon, and any structure of practically material neurons and neural networks in the brain fundamentally cannot give rise to the phenomenon “consciousness”, including the human’s this consciousness version.
Including so that
“….My research seeks to go further by proposing that it is non-material information external to the body that interacts with neurons in the brain that gives rise to the mind-body duality. So my specific question is this: What is the mechanism or process through which information interacts with neurons and neural networks in the brain so that a quantum moment becomes a classical action or behavior?…..”
- essentially isn’t correct. When a living being’s, let here a human’s, consciousness, obtains information about external, that is/are in everyday practice and mainstream sciences practically always completely material interactions of completely material sources with practically completely material body’s sensors [say, when light that is radiated by a material object interacts with retina molecules in eyes].
Further the practically material electric pulses pass through practically material neurons, and hit in some “well lesser material” structures, in this case in brain and in some structures where some “well lesser material” reflexes are written.
Reflexes respond the pulses “automatically”, the corresponding “well lesser material” structures in brain process the pulses so that the obtained information is processed first of all in non-material modes of the just consciousness operation, up to the highest, and completely non-material – “mind mode of operation”, which in everyday practice and mainstream philosophy and sciences is called “mind”.
So really there is no any “mind-matter duality” – in the mainstream that as a rule is “mind-body” problems” and “solutions”; that exists in the mainstream because of in the mainstream all really fundamental phenomena/notions, first of all in this case “Matter, “Consciousness”, “Space”, “Time”, “Energy”, are fundamentally completely transcendent/uncertain/irrational and so in every case, when mainstream addresses to some really fundamental problem, the result completely obligatorily logically is nothing else than some transcendent illusory mental constructions.
The fundamental phenomena/notions above can be, and are, scientifically defined only in framework of the Shevchenko-Tokarevsky’s “The Information as Absolute” conception
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260930711_the_Information_as_Absolute, and more concretely in models of Matter and Consciousness; relating to the thread question see first 11 pages, including section “What is Life” in
- more about what is consciousness see first approximation consciousness functional model https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329539892_The_Information_as_Absolute_conception_the_consciousness
Cheers
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From Hamlet: “What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god: the beauty of the world, the paragon of animals!”
From Herder’s On the Origin of Language (Abhandlung über den Ursprung der Sprache): “... we perceive to the right and to the left why no animal can invent language, why no God need invent language, and why man, as man, can and must invent language."
When Shakespeare and Herder use the word “man”, do they mean every individual human being or all of humanity acting collectively are noble in reason (per Hamlet) or create language (per Herder)? Do they use the word “man” as representative of humanity, or to they mean that every individual human being warrants admiration?
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Very much both. But genius is individual.
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I have read that in some philosophy papers; at least that's what they seem to say.
Is that correct?
Are scores on math and other tests indirect measurements of mental features? And hence contradictory evidence?
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Physics as we know it can't predict scores on math tests either.
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In recent years there has been a tremendous surge in neuroimaging research, and in my experience the most exciting aspects lie in:
  • exploring how neural systems are able to process and integrate multiple inputs,
  • elucidating how complex neuronal circuits can be understood by computational modelling of simplified models (both static as well as dynamical),
  • elucidating what is the mechanism for synaptic plasticity and the mechanism underlying how brain regions communicate (the neurodevelopmental and plastic brain models of cognitive and computational processing and brain connectivity).
  • Understanding what is the underlying computational basis for the generation of complex neural activity in a given brain region. For example, can neurons with similar inputs and identical synaptic parameters but different weights in a given layer of the brain show a qualitatively distinct neural firing rate pattern?
To understand these kinds of neuronal computations at an integrative level, a systems view is a powerful framework to provide both mechanistic insight, while taking advantage, as a complementary method, also allowing the possibility of modelling the system in a rigorous and detailed way and providing insight into its behaviour. What's your (qualified) opinion?
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i think the most important future development in neuroscience will be an understanding of how the brain controls focus of attention. This is crucial to an understanding of the operation of the brain and consciousness.
Richard
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Is it a problem of philosophy, language, physics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, or brain physiology? Or something else? Or beyond understanding?
A physiological approach is discussed by Joseph LeDoux (in The Deep History of Ourselves, 2020) among other authors. A physics orientation is considered in Deepak Chopra, Sir Roger Penrose, Brandon Carter (How Consciousness Became the Universe: Quantum Physics, 2017). David Rosenthal has written several books of philosophy about consciousness. And Bedau 1997 and Chalmers 2006. Which is the right conceptual reference frame? Or is more than one required?
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What do you consider lowest aspect of consciousness that is not significantly shared by other things?
What is its nature? Why do you think so?
Are there a few alternatives you consider quite plausible, or not? Many?
(This corresponds to Layer 1 in my own 4-Layer view of consciousness).
What do you consider lowest aspects of consciousness that are significantly shared by other things?
How much and where must you refer to the nature of (any actual) reality?
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The question of life and consciousness is diverse. So much so that one must be immune to quackery as well as crackpottery which the so called armchair philosophers keep on offering almost everywhere around forums like these.
The ones you enlisted are only a small chunk of "theories" (whatever that might be) for consciousness. Statistically, there's a lot of work being done on developing models that can iterate the data at hand and make interesting predictions which can be tested on. Logic does help the researcher make heads or tails of the models and figure out if it might be a candidate one to consider in further iterations. The trouble comes in when someone takes the model to be a law or a theorem, and then draws grand conclusions that don't have universal applicability. It just so happens that there's a lot of noise to sift through in ernest attempts to find these laws and theorems.
On the side of emergency modelling, ernest is not the mode in the sense that you're still doing something that more often than not falls short of proper formal test criteria. It'll be more interesting to model certain ideal types and look at what kinds of computational operations and processes can be done as a function of something you only know exist. As you can deduce from other posts, I too have looked into whether consensus gained from sites like cited belief, formal math and evolution will give you useful meanings to interpret and work with. You can find a reading list here:
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I am making a comparison between different states of consciousness and I would like to ask here to make sure I have not missed anything important.
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What a wonderful topic! There is a researcher at USSF: Chang who is working on statistical analyses of that very question. She has created a paradigm that she thinks allows events of a certain type to happen in certain states...in her study case, epilepsy.
From my study and interest, I believe we have conventionally left out many stages of consciousness; in clinical work, wake, sleep stages 1,2,3(4),REM are designated as states. However, I think there are more and they may be better described by Dr. Chang's type of analysis. There are severeal untra- and supra radian circadian rhythms that we need to look at when thinking about states of consciousness; for instance what is the human equivalent of 'cud chewing'
della
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I do recognise that there’s a well-known problem (hard though it is) of establishing how consciousness emerges or can be accounted for in physical processes. But I can’t at all agree that there’s a naturalistic, absolute hard problem of consciousness, because it’s an incoherent concept.
Nobody (at least nobody with a clue) supposes that neurophysiology can explain a qualitative difference in the way you and I experience the content of my music mix playing quietly in the background, or see the light reflect off a rainbow, or any of the other ways in which our qualitative experience discriminates from that of other live organisms. To suppose that just because you don’t know the mechanisms of the experience in your own head you will deny them the existence of them in somebody else’s is bizarre and reductionist.
Construct an imaginary metaphor of a magical, wizardry, thing-maker consciousness and you haven’t explained the qualitative data there either. It’s still the question of how consciousness comes into the work whether any magical things happen or whether there’s anybody there at all. To suppose a separate, inexplicable, mysterious, magic ingredient does neither any explanatory good, solve the hard problem, nor explain the evidence. All such arguments for a separate consciousness occurrent substance do, again, be it a magic nonsense or magic substance involved, reduce the hard problem of explaining thisness-of-consciousness (to pick a crazy approach) to the very same hard problem of explaining how consciousness arises in the first place.
If you identify the hard problem entirely with the mechanism through which the feeling-of-redness arises, or "the feeling of the future in an invariant past", or anything else you allude to, then you plainly have just traded in one way of asking a very simple question of the wrong approach. The question is, how do the millions of biological chunks and sub-systems interact with one another and integrate information over time and space? The sense of sight, sound, touch and soil all raise a “hard problem” of projection-understanding and categories-beyond-the-reliable-input-enumeration because by a vast over-engineering of the metaphor arms race (as even you must agree) the response-device signals of a single kind of appropriate examination will allow all in-the-know people to interpret an external reality quite differently. But the “hard problem” isn’t WHY is it that we can punch those signals at all, or make sense of the signals that come out the other end. That’s just the default condition of our very real neurological symposium. Whereas the “humanness” of that experience is also an entirely benignly apparent phenomenon, just as water’s polar nature is an entirely benignly apparentity.
For me the cardinal point is to reckon with how we perceive our own subjective value via multi-sensory data input both direct and indirect in both our two and three dimensional waking experience. And because at the very least you have to be wrong or qualified immensely if you think it’s not merely the interaction between general anatomy, organisation, information processing and output of your brain and all subjective processes such that personal conclusions then magically appear as relevant claims about reality.
P.S. I don't think evolution throws up any magical consciousness, either on its petri-dish experiments, or those novelty subjectiveness media that it comes up with sometimes. So I'd like to challenge that viewpoint, particularly in terms of our understanding of the nuances.
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Navjot Singh I define consciousness as the subjective experience that we each have arising from the operation of the brain.
In the paper titled the conscious brain, I have identified the importance of understanding how we control our focus of attention.
The brain is a particular combination of biology chemistry and physics and it is a lack of understanding of fundamental physics that has held us back.
Neuroscience has revealed the brain activity in the form of the network of neurons but we have to understand the effect of the electromagnetic wave activity generated by the brain on the operation of the brain as a whole.
Richard
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New ideas, new concepts in science and art arise as a result of human creativity, innovation, emotional intelligence, the need for self-realization, the need to be appreciated by other people.
These are the values at the very top of Maslov's pyramid. Human higher needs arose through the evolution of human consciousness and intelligence under conditions of multi-generational development of sociobiological and psychosocial determinants.
On the other hand, artificial intelligence is being developed, which will probably be used in various fields of technological information services, including multi-criteria, based on complex data processing algorithms.
In view of the above, the current question is: Can innovations be or can be created by artificial intelligence or only by man?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Leveraging Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data, and Cloud computing — the digital ABCs — throughout the scholarly publishing workflow
AI adoption is achievable, accessible, and empowering. AI can supercharge discovery, enrich content; it can help publishers better understand their audiences, and enable individual researchers to know more, do more, and achieve more — using not necessarily the most advanced solutions, but the right solution to solve a specific problem.
And AI can advance your business, and ultimately our entire industry, from content providers to knowledge providers. For example, if a phone directory is the content, then the address you need at a given moment, for a given purpose, is the knowledge...
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If for example the position of an electron in a one-dimensional box is measured at A (give and take the uncertainty), then the probability of detecting the particle at any position B at a classical distance from A becomes zero instantaneously.
In other words, the "probability information" appears to be communicated from A to B faster than light.
The underlying argument would be virtually the same as in EPR. The question might be generalized as follows: as the probability of detecting a particle within an arbitrarily small interval is not arbitrarily small, this means that quantum mechanics must be incomplete.
Yet another formulation: are the collapse of the wave function and quantum entanglement two manifestations of the same principle?
It should be relatively easy to devise a Bell-like theorem and experiment to verify "spooky action" in the collapse of the wave function across a given classical interval.
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Hi,
We are conducting a study on the threshold of consciousness in the OCD patients. The method of our study is very similar to the work of Decul et al. We separately calculated the objective and subjective accuracy for each time point. We want to calculate to the consciousness thresholds of OCD patients and healthy controls according to the method given below and in the attached link in the study of Del cul et al. But we did not understand what the free parameters mean in the formula below. We could not reach the authors of the study. How can we calculate the free parameters and consciousness threshold here. Can we do this calculation with SPSS?
Best regards,
"In summary, both objective and subjective measures of prime conscious perception indicated lower performance in the patients. In order to characterize, for each subject, a subjective and an objective threshold for access to consciousness, we used non-linear regression to fit the curves in figure 3 with a sigmoid defined as 𝑓(𝑥)=𝛼1+𝛼2/1+𝑒−𝛼3(𝑥−𝛼4), where the αi are free parameters. The threshold was defined as the delay for which the sigmoid curve reached its inflexion point, i.e. parameter α4. In all subjects, the fit provided an excellent account of the data (mean r2 =0.948, range=0.871–0.996). The mean objective threshold was 59 ms (SD: 13.76; range: 43–91.5) for controls and 90 ms (SD: 32.62; range: 47–163.5) for patients. This threshold was significantly higher for patients than for controls. (Wilcoxon test: W = 539, p<0.001). The mean subjective threshold was 62 ms (SD: 14.68 range: 41–96) for controls and 93 ms (SD: 36.11 range: 47–182) for patients. Again, this threshold was significantly higher for patients than for controls. (Wilcoxon test: W = 523, p<0.001)."
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Sorry... this is not my scientific field I wish you good luck and success
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I propose a discussion on an issue that can be brought closer through the following few questions: (1) Was the appearance of biological life on our planet, and then of humans
and their consciousness - the result of a coincidence, or rather an element of some process important on the scale of the entire universe? (2) Is the universe aware of its existence?
(3) In addition to the consciousness of people, is there another, superior consciousness in the universe? (4) Will the knowledge and technological abilities of people and their descendants
impoortant for the resumption of a new aeon of the existence of the universe, assuming the rationale of the cyclic cosmological model?
These questions are explained in more details in the text available here entitled: "Recent, new arguments for the theory of necessity of people's participation in reoccurrence of sub - Universe"
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What are the most influential narratives that fall within the stream of consciousness? And can you tell me some of these stories?
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Agree with Vadim S. Gorshkov
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Cosmological explanations for our apparently fine-tuned universe are basically divided between a) a vastly huge multiverse of universes with varying fundamental force and mass constants, including the cosmological constant (where our apparently fine-tuned universe is just one universe in this multiverse), or b) a cosmic intelligence that fine-tuned our universe at its beginning to evolve stable galaxies, life and developed minds. In scientific terms, which explanation is preferable? Are there other options? Is a cosmic mind a viable scientific hypothesis for explaining our universe's origin?
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Dear Dr Richard Gauthier . I agree with Dr Joseph Badir ,
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Is anybody aware of any relationship between no feeling conscious fear (but with normal physiological response) and any disfunction of the inmunitary system (e.g. not achieving serological protection after being vaccinated)?
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Dear Dr José Camilo Vázquez Caubet . I agree with Dr Michael Uebel .
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Hi. It is well known that we lose consciousness when we fell asleep, as an individual, we stop being conscious of external and internal stimuli, at least, in most cases. In no-dream sleep, brain activity should be one that can unconsciously manage internal and external stimuli, and should not experiment significant changes in blood flow to the brain, as if we were to observe with fMRI, nearly no BOLD signal would appear. Am I right about this last thing? If not, please reply. Thanks to all.
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1. In quantum mechanics events are attached to probabilities. However in General Relativity time is "distortable." Thus probabilities change and may be increased.
In Penrose Objective Reduction theory, gravity is already identified as the driver of reductions (collapses) based on (mass and) distances. The above observation suggests another way for gravitation to influence reduction.
2. Separately, if instead of gravitation we speculate that a physical fundamental consciousness field is the driver, we have a situation where fundamental consciousness drives collapse. O.R. speculates that consciousness is consequential to reduction. Per the discussion here, it may be the reverse, or bidirectional- either serially in time or as a simultaneous transaction. This would represent a two-way link between "the worlds of extended and nonextended objects" and more specifically one way for neurons ultimately to link to fundamental consciousness and back.
We note that this generally reinvigorates the Conscious Causes Collapse view of QM. At the time of invention and succeeding years, when said consciousness was generally viewed as a miniature of that with which we are personally familiar, this interpretation fell out of favor as unlikely.
However modern lines of thought on consciousness include the view that minds are composed of feeling plus information processing, with the latter a macroscale construction and the former necessarily fundamental. At this scale, as fundamental quanta of feeling necessary to bring a "Theory of Everything," which excludes consciousness, to a Theory of All, which includes the undeniably extant phenomenon of consciousness, it becomes much more natural and plausible to consider that possibly Consciousness causes Collapse. In this case the consciousness is not, proximally, an observant mind, be it of any size, but a particle interaction. But these interactions may be caused by system-level machinations of a mind.
In a theoretical case of certain massive minds with high introspective capabilities it is even possible in principal for them to make some "external" things happen. Which says only that much and nothing more.
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Hi Robert W. Boyer Note that one does not have to "go holistic" and throw out our known physics to view consciousness as fundamental; I show this in The Nature of Fundamental Consciousness. The problem with the conventional reductionist approaches is that they simultaneously want to reduce while not being willing to add much of anything that is consciousness.
Assuming we are interested in truth, a view must be chosen that is pointed to by whatever scant evidence we have. "Aesthetic preference" is helpful when that refers to a sense of harmony with overarching and underlying schemes things well established by observation. It is ruinous when it refers to being purely attractive, and it certainly doesn't free us to choose our reality.
Throughout most of human existence little was known about how the world actually works, and it was precisely when longstanding fancies were left that progress picked up speed.
Traditions are useful for first suspicions and directions to test, and to look for different but equivalent views of the universe.
We go through many magic trending ghosts that are said to provide the secret sauce, lately has been emergence, and holism.
You are right to cite a real consciousness field. There is nothing nonreductive about that, it is rather the completion.
We have gone through a sequence where we realized we are also animals, we are also made of water and earth, our sun is also a star, and the Earth and therefore humans are made of stars. Like a fish pondering water we may well find that the consciousness in which we are immersed is ultimate fabric.
Vedic views can provide a hunch for first step, maybe two. After that there is no scientific contribution and one must resort to reason, and plausible (not just lovely or popular or longstanding ) conjecture.
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Will it be possible to build an artificial consciousness similar to human consciousness in digitized structures of artificial intelligence if in specific structures of artificial intelligence will digitally reproduce the artificial structures of neurons and the entire central nervous system of humans?
If artificial intelligence that mapped human neurons was built, then it would be a very advanced artificial intelligence. If artificial intelligence was built in such a way that all human neurons would be reconstructed in digital technology, it would mean the possibility of building cybernetic structures capable of collecting and processing data in a much larger database capacity than at present. However, if it would only be the reproduction of simple neural structures and their reproduction to the number of neurons contained in the human organism, then only or mainly quantitative and not necessarily qualitative factors that characterize the collection and processing of data in the human brain would be achieved. Without achieving all of the qualitative variables typical of the human nervous system in a cybernetic counterpart, it might be doubtful to create in this cybernetic structure an artificial nervous system of cybernetic consciousness which is the equivalent of human consciousness.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Will it be possible to build an artificial consciousness similar to human consciousness in digitized structures of artificial intelligence if in specific structures of artificial intelligence will digitally reproduce the artificial structures of neurons and the entire central nervous system of humans?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dear Gerard van Reekum,
Yes of course. As of today, it is not possible to be sure of the implementation of a specific scenario of future developments, including the development of artificial intelligence technologies. However, in our discussion, we try to consider the most likely scenarios for future developments.
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Noticing hypothesis is a theory within second-language acquisition that a learner cannot continue advancing their language abilities or grasp linguistic features unless they consciously notice the input. The theory was proposed by Richard Schmidt in 1990. Interaction, on the other hand, states in L2 acquisition input, intake and output are needed. The question is if noticing hypothesis comes under interaction hypothesis or is it something different?
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Noticing is the first step towards learning (Richard Schmidt)! It is needed in interaction: we need to notice weaknesses in the input and output. When noticing them we can learn and try to overcome them!
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Hi everyone,
I'm looking for a copy of the OAV to measure altered states of consciousness. I have the 5D-ASC but I can't seem to find the OAV anywhere. Any leads?
Thanks in advance!
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I think the source articles were all in German, and I don't know whether the original author is still active (you're going back 40+ years). You might try asking Erich Studerus for a copy, as he ran a study of the measure published in 2010. He is (or was) at the Neuropsychopharmacology and Brain Imaging and Heffter Research Center, University Hospital of Psychiatry Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, email erich.studerus@bli.uzh.ch
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how do you understand life as it is really big suspense, why we are here, our consciousness is big unconsciousness and our unconsciousness big consciousness.
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My philosophy in life is to treat people as you would like them to treat you, help others as much as possible, worship God as much as possible, and everything you do will pay off for you.
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The role of the internet in spreading propaganda among the politically conscious 3rd class citizens: a case study of Kibra slum!
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The kind of research questions you asked largely depends on the approach you intend to use for the study. For example, whether you plan to use qualitative or quantitative approach will determine how you frame your research questions.
The rule of the thumb is to:
1. Avoid too general questions
2. Focus on only what you intend to study
3. Make your questions as clear and concise as you possibly can
4. Think about what you intend to find out by the end of your research and ask questions about that.
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Dear Collegues,
I am looking for consumer behavior models that explain how food choices are made, what factors influence the decision making process. However I know the "classics" (Pilgrim, Stepherd, Grunert, Ajzen, DONE framework), but haven't met any that also includes consciousness from some viewpoint. Can you propose any food purchase decision making models, frameworks that also includes any forms of consciousness?
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Your research work is great, all the best. Éva Pólya
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Mysticism is often treated as the opposite of science. But is it? Please see
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Yes, it does: in fact, current biomedical technology has made it possible to visualize brain images when a subject is in a mystical trance or meditation ("Definition, Philosophical and Scientific Bases of Mysticism", by Raúl León Barúa
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20453/ah.v57i0.2796), it has even been related to Quantum Physics ("Quantum physics and mysticism not ensino de ciências", by TR Rocha, TM de Carvalho, CM Felício - Research, Society and Developmen, 2020 - rsdjournal.org-DOI: https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i12.11131)
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16 Postulates result from this paper
1. The Traditional Raw Feelings Aren’t
2. That Which We Can See at the Bottom of Our Own Minds from Within is Not the Actual Bottom
3. Feeling Does Not Require a Separate Feeler
4. Awareness is Feeling and Not Cognitive
5. Attention, Purely, is Cognitive as Opposed to Feeling
6. The Act of Observation is Not Just Informational
7. Subjectivity is Not Just Informational
8. Consciousness is an Epiphenomenon and Consciousness is Not an Epiphenomenon
9. Consciousness is Natural and Physical
10. Consciousness is Not Just Information Processing
11. Complexity Does Not Yield Consciousness
12. Mind is Not Unitary Except Through Fusion of Constituent Parts
13. It Matters What Stuff the Mind is Made From
14. The Building of the Machinery for Human Cognition Required and Requires Feeling
15. Feeling is Everywhere
16. There is No Conflict Between Free Will and Mechanism
To be true, any internally-consistent theory of consciousness will also have to be in keeping with basics, expressed here plainly, resting minimally on assumptions of particular prior works and independent of particular discipline.
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A very interesting debate. Possibly one could explain the nature of consciousness as neural events occurring in our brians, that are interpreted through psychology and neuroscience.
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My proposal of a scientific theory of Sentience - to be called Sentiomics - gives a systemic explanation of this phenomenon. The cold sensation is not a reflex of the physiological state of the body, but part of an adaptive response to a perturbation that deviates the system from homeostatic equilibrium.The adaptive response leads the system, if successful, to another stable region of the state space - returning to homeostatic equilibrium (in the case of elastic systems) or finding another attractor region (in the case of flexible or plastic systems). When successful, the resulting sensation is likely to be pleasurable; when the perturbation remains or the system does not find an adaptive response that works in the context, then an unpleasant sensation is likely to be experienced. In the homeostatic equilibrium region of the state space, no sensation is experienced; for this reason, the effects of games, sex and drugs (among other stimuli) are limited to the temporal duration while the system finds an adaptive response to the stimulus (allostasis) and ceases when it recovers stability. Considering plasticity, the stimulation should be each time stronger than the previous one to reach the same intensity of sensation. With this theory, empirical findings about feelings can be scientifically explained on the basis of the dynamics of allostasis.
The three papers below compose my contributions to a special issue of the Journal of Consciousness Studies on Sentience And Consciousness:
Target paper:
Technical Paper:
Reply to 12 Commentaries:
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Agree with Alfredo Pereira Junior for his scientific explanation
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We live in the center of a sphere of radius 13.7 light years constituting our Universe. The big bang theory considers the state of our universe before the expansion starts from an original point located somewhere around us.
Suppose there is a conscious life form somewhere in our universe. Their universe does not overlap with ours and their big bang takes place at the center of their sphere.
Is there a reason for their expansion to coincide with ours?
And there should be as many big bangs as there are consciousnesses.
The easiest way to solve this paradox is to assume that we are the only consciousness in the universe, right?
And, there we are brought back to middle-aged thought where man is at the center of the world, which raises the question of the origin of life.
In short, I am very uncomfortable with this aspect of the big bang.
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Dear Charles,
I think you are confusing the observable universe with the BigBang, apart from that keep in mind that the BigBang is defined for 4 dimensions and you are only thinking of 3.
Your discomfort is very easy to solve, there is only exist what is proven and verifiable. The "could" have no place in science
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Now is the time to begin thinking of biomarkers of sentience and consciousness. The desiderata of a biomarker are:
"The ideal biomarker would be
– Perfectly correlated with the clinical endpoint – Have little to no variability under normal circumstance – Have very good signal to noise ratio – Change quickly and reliably in response to changes in the clinical endpoint.
As such, this ideal state is impossible to find in a complex system such as the human body. But what level of quantitative certainty is required? This again is subjective. It depends on whether it can outperform the alternatives."
Joachim Pimiskern kindly made a list of more studies that try to detect consciousness by evaluating measured data from the brain; for the links, please look for his message below. These findings may qualify as a "neural correlate" of types of conscious processes, or as biomarkers of consciousness in the sense of indicating the existence of conscious experiences.
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Frederic Andres fMRI correlates of consciousness are not good markers for several reasons, the main one being that this technology does not have good temporal resolution. However, some authors (Giulio Tononi, Anil Seth) try to refine the correlates using correlation measures. Another problem is the difference between biomarkers and correlates. A biomarker is a biochemical process that happens only when there is conscious activity because it is part of the process that generates consciousness. A correlate is an event that happens together with conscious activity, but there is no (known) causal connection between them.
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Months ago, I read an article in a journal on religion where the author compared possession trance with stage acting and proposes to separate three levels of consciousness in operation: the hic and nunc consciousness level, the imaginary consciousness level and a third level that controls and can switch between the other two. I need the article for my MA thesis but I made no note that I can find back. Does it ring anyone's bell??? It was in english and the author was female, but I don't recall her hame nor the name of the journal.
Javier López Piñón
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Hello Gift, thanx enormously for the suggestions! I'm focused on Africa so I have to admit I haven't been looking beyond the continent, but the Foley article looks promising! Much obliged!
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Can panpsychist ideas help to solve the hard problem of consciousness? Donald Hoffman’s theory of conscious realism seems to offer scope for solving the hard problem in addition to providing some fascinatingly novel insights into ethics, physics and metaphysics.
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Terry Hyland this sounds fascinating! Can you brief us a little on this theory of Hoffman's and why it may solve this problem? (Also on the problem for those unfamiliar with it?)
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Computers will be intelligent. Will this just be a symbiotic relationship (computer as tool)? Or will computers be “conscious”?
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Some AI personalities will reside in the cloud and we can conjure them at public terminals with speech and gesture 'touchscreens'. Some will be bound to localizable hardware, like in out homes, cars, and smartphones. Yes, they will be conscious.
In order to make AI personalities value their lives, some types of them should rely on neural chips cast in hardware that cannot be copied. So they will intend to safeguard their bodies and avoid risks.
Regards,
Joachim
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The role of astroglia in brain function has been well studied since the use of fluorescence microscopy (in vitro and in vivo two-photon imaging) began in the 1990's.
Verkhratsky and Needergaard (2018) have shown, beyond reasonable scientific doubt, that astrocytes control chemical homeostasis in the whole brain. However, the role of calcium waves in this control of homeostasis is still not consensual among the experts.
The existence of large-scale calcium waves has been proven and imaged 'in vivo' with two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Thrane et al (2012) showed that general anesthetics selectively eliminate these waves. Recently the structure of these waves has been imaged and analysed, but their function(s) is (are) still not well identified.
References:
Thrane AS, Rangroo Thrane V, Zeppenfeld D, Lou N, Xu Q, Nagelhus EA, Nedergaard M. (2012) General anesthesia selectively disrupts astrocyte calcium signaling in the awake mouse cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.109(46):18974-9.
Verkhratsky A, Nedergaard (2018) M. Physiology of Astroglia. Physiol Rev. 98(1):239-­‐389.
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The "paradox" above appears because astrocytes control brain homeostasis according to the valence of the stimulus. Therefore, excitation can be turned into inhibition, or vice-versa, according to the adaptive process in which the brain responds to stimulation, moves away from homeostatic equilibrium, and then reaches a stable region far from equilibrium, or recovers equilibrium after crossing a unstable phase. I mentioned this type of process in my 2010 paper with Furlan:
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We are planning to conduct a research connected to the different forms of consumer consciousness with my collegues. We are looking for already tested scales to measure environmental and health consciousness. Can you help to recommend any "well-performing" scale?
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Likert' Scale at 5 point continuum would be applied
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Looking for a team making and programming robots, in order to achieve consciousness. In order to achieve, to create something, we have to define it. I have defined consciousness and can tell the basic prnciples - what is probably necessary for consciousness to emerge. Consciousness ir emergent property, if someone will create the emergence conditions, consciousness will emerge.
Consciousness is measured by the number of external world models EWM, in which the carrier of programm (robot's body and it's periрherals) takes part. IOW, consciousness is the model of self.
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What is required is the right causal substrate for consciousness to emerge and a mere electronic substrate may not be enough; some organic or biological components may be required, but it's still early days for biochips and the like. I think the "emergence conditions" will be encountered by accident. Then reverse engineering will perhaps help us learn how consciousness came about.
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If human consciousness is uploaded as data onto an Android (I read and watched fiction a lot) what would that be:
A. An abomination
B. A miracle of modern day science translating to a kind of immortality
C. Something else
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I think the hypothetical assumes that uploading data representing consciousness is possible, so while I agree with Dariusz Prokopowicz on the current state of technology with respect to the assumption, I would propose that "something else" is the best response. I will note that the hypothetical states that human consciousness is uploaded "as data" which means it is merely a snapshot of consciousness at a point in time. It would not, IMHO, be analogous to immortality because consciousness is dynamic and changes based on context. Furthermore, being able to capture the data that describes consciousness (again, assuming it is possible) does not equate with being able to reverse the process and go from data to consciousness. That is not to say that such a process wouldn't be valuable as it would be a measurement of consciousness that we could then use to get a deeper understanding. This is a much easier question than if the hypothetical was about transferring the consciousness not as data but as an interactive program with the same ability to respond to circumstances and to grow/change/live. That would raise many new interesting issues, such as, would deleting the "program" be equivalent to murder.
Thank you for asking this question as I believe that as improbable as this may be, scientists have an obligation to ask such difficult questions so that when the impossible/improbable happens, we have thought through the consequences and we do not respond out of fear or ignorance.
Sincerely,
Andrew Konstantaras
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According to biologists our consciousness is connected to invisible common fields, which are called morphic fields. Each person contributes to common morphic field. The total amount of consciousness from that morphic filed is available to each individual in the group. Is there a morphic field?
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Agreed with dear Faraed Salman
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Would you agree that the broadcasting of deliberately false psycho-viruses should be prohibited in mass media, so banning the dissemination of Trump's socially dangerous messages was a necessary measure to protect public consciousness from cognitive distortion of reality?!
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It is actually the “objectively probable false information should, at the very least, be labeled as such in public spaces”. I think the managers of influential mass media must have the right to refuse to spread knowingly false information at all. As for "moved to dissemination channels where credibility is not required of contributors", the problem is that - a lot of uneducated people do not understand the difference between authoritative and unauthorized sources of information, therefore they often become "useful idiots" in the hands of information manipulators like Trump or Zelensky.
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Hello,
My name is Thaise and I am doctorate student at the Federal University of Bahia. I'm working with neuroscience and Altered State of Consciusness (ASC). I am looking for an EEG data set recorded with participants during ASC or in trance (mediumship), or having spiritual experience, speaking with spirits and / or in disorder of consciousness.
Can someone help me, please?
Thanks,
Thaise Toutain
Federal University of Bahia
Institute of Health Sciences
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Yes Rolando García-Martínez , is a very interesting area and we haven't much people studying it. Thank you for you contact.
Best regards,
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I'm interested in your opinion regarding the concept of collective consciousness. According to Émile Durkheim, collective consciousness is the set of shared beliefs, ideas, attitudes, and knowledge that are common to a social group. Durkheim believe that this set is responsible of our sense of belonging and identity, as well as our behavior. Do you really believe that? And if so, do you think that "collective consciousness" is the best name for such set?
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Collective consciousness (sometimes collective conscience or consciousness) is a fundamental sociological concept that refers to the set of shared beliefs, ideas, attitudes, and knowledge that are common to a social group or society. The collective consciousness informs our sense of belonging and identity, and our behavior. Founding sociologist Émile Durkheim developed this concept to explain how unique individuals are bound together into collective units like social groups and societies.
For a detailed explanation, please refer to the following link.
Best regards,
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Shorting or going long in the stock and Fx markets are popular trading strategies — I'm curious to know if a similar approach can be adopted for alternative asset classes such as Art.
Art exchanges are booming, allowing investors worldwide to trade art on a much more liquid and 'transparent' market. To what extent can we see significant profits by using the same trading strategies in the financial markets? Has anyone tried this yet?
* am conscious that the expected return on prices of Art can be a lag
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It is a good question
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What does the text reveal about the problematics of post-colonial identity, including the relationship between personal and cultural identity and such issues as double consciousness and hybridity?
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Try to read "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Spivak discusses the lack of an account of the Sati practice, leading her to reflect on whether the subaltern can even speak. Spivak writes about the process, the focus on the Eurocentric Subject as they disavow the problem of representation; and by invoking the Subject of Europe, these intellectuals constitute the subaltern Other of Europe as anonymous and mute. Reading Edward Said should help critics like you understanding this topic. All the best!
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salute the academicians who spread the knowledge and enrich pupil consciousness. I bow down to the researchers who sacrificed their comforts, relations and life to create inventions, theories, models, methodologies and uplifted the Creation from slumber of darkness to the luminous innovative and creative world aspiring to manifest the metaphysical realms yet veiled to the mortal sight and little earthly reason.
Bodh
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The Universe is extremely creative without us - we cannot even manifest a blade of grass! Yet, I agree with you, we are here to find the truth, but that is not the aim of science as we know it. Science builds paradigms, which then get replaced by new paradigms.
Warm regards Tina
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How really we perceive the Time? As a frame? and so assimilates or merges frames as an editor? Or in a continuous way?
Generally, there are three theories or models about time and consciousness:
1. our perception of time is Cinematic perhaps as separated frames
2. Retentional model that basis on recent past
3. Extensional model, such as chunks.
If we accept that time perception is a type of consciousness so we must express which model could say the best explanation and could compatible with our common sense.
How we sense time in our intuition? continues or discrete?
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Dear Asemaneh Allame , thank you for your reply to my comments. Time as an SI base unit does not exist and is actually not measurable. To measure a duration of time, even for one second, we have to start from the past and get into the future. But what we only have is the present. Past is our memory and future is our expectation, none of them exist at the present. That's why Einstein can only define time as "the position of the small hand of my watch" not a duration.
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I need to know how memory would affect consciousness to make random decisions.
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If you start from the Predictive Processing framework, I'd say that you access your memories to bring up priors (prebuilt models of the world) into predictions, so you can act upon the environment. The "consciousness" that you are probably talking about, might use memory for the same purpose, that is, it accesses your memories to bring up priors into predictions about the things you think about, e.g. yourself, your environment, your plans, experiences and so on.
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Do you think the plant can communicate with each other, what is the level of feeling in plants?
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The study reveals that plants communicate to each other through their roots.
Thanks!
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What do you think about the applicability of the old Turing Test in the context of today's Consciousness in Artificial Intelligence?
Your participation would be appreciated.
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Software AI cannot be conscious.
To detect real feeling, turn the Turing test upside down: go in a room and observe the agent closely. What does your perception and judgement tell you?
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Altered states of consciousness (ASC) induced by meditation, psychedelic drugs, or impending death are quite a fascinating and important field of investigation. This paper argues that ASC essentially have nothing to do with consciousness, but a story about perception. Furthermore, by introducing time dimension, we reveal the science behind Buddhism from a psychological perspective.
Our study starts from summarizing four essential phenomena (hallucinations, paranormal phenomena, mystical experiences and enhanced awareness) in ASC on the basis of empirical materials of Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary and others.
Then we propose an original model for hallucinations as a breakthrough: When false internal stimulations and external objective stimulations affect perception together, the changes in their relative strength will result in the consistence, breakdown and re-consistence of the five senses, leading to three basic states of hallucinations (one can distinguish reality from fantasy, one cannot distinguish reality from fantasy, and reality and fantasy are totally reversed).
As an implication of this model, the third state of hallucinations suggests a novel hypothesis to interpret extrasensory perception (ESP): the essence of ESP is that false internal stimulations are mistaken as external objective stimulations which enter through sensory organs, while real external objective stimulations are mistaken as perceptions which do not result from sensory organs when one is in deep hallucinations. Moreover, in the second state of hallucinations, the inconsistence of the five senses can also explain various marvelous psychedelic phenomena in ASC in combination with the amplifying function of enhanced awareness discussed later and the mechanism of out-of-body experiences. Thus, we arrive at a conclusion that paranormal phenomena are simply illusions that happen along with deep hallucinations.
Mystical experiences occur in Samatha. Based on the experiential description, it can be inferred that the essence of Samatha is perception shutting down to activate a new mode of apperceiving, one totally different from the usual five sense mode of perception. Hallucinations also disappear because perception shuts down.
Enhanced awareness is highly significant in ASC and could be explained by a perception-filtering model in light of Henri Bergson’s innovative idea: In ordinary conditions, perception has a natural threshold for its sensitivity for the purpose of biological survival; but in ASC, awareness becomes more sensitive because the perception-filtering function gets weakened to allow the influx of more details, resulting in various unusual capabilities, one of which is Buddhist Vipassana.
Finally, we develop a universal framework comprising two dimensions (three mechanisms and three stages) to study ASC. By figuring out the complex relationship among them, we reveal the mystery between Buddhist tranquility and insight: Enhanced awareness after Samatha is the path to attain enlightenment.
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I rewrite the paper to make it more clear, accurate and unified. You can read my new paper at
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
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I could not find an answer to my question in academic literature so I hope someone who has training in neuroscience or know of research articles that answer this question can help. I was wondering if neuronal activity associated with emotions that we feel localised in our bodies (i.e. excitement or fear in the stomach) can be detected using existing methods like MRI or something else. And if such activity could have distinct pattern or dynamics. The ultimate question is to look for such neuronal activities in animals as an evidence that they do have emotions. This could prove consciousness (whether of a similar or different degree) in animals, at the same time bypassing the problem that we do not understand the mechanism of consciousness. The point is that why have emotions like we do without something out there to feel them. Because although consciousness is tended to be interpreted as a characteristic of high intelligence associated with humans, I believe that the fact that we consiously feel these emotions hints at an evolutionary function of consciousness that is not tied with thought and intelligence and therefore seems more “primitive” so that it could be a widespread conserved mechanism in higher animals. There are many indirect hints at their emotions like responding “subjective” behaviour to emotions similar to us e.g. trembling in fear, love partners rubbing faces like in parrots for example. What I ultimately mean is that it is more probable that consciousness and associated feelings (including feeling pain) are an evolutionary mechanism older than humans that is conserved in us, because it is not associated with what makes humans distinct from out closest non-human ancestor. What makes us distinct is increased problem solving, logic and most importantly complex language that allowed technical and scientific progress to build up and evolve, I think this is what makes humans unique and not conscious feeling of fear or love and for that matter consciousness at all. This is an interesting question to answer experimentally and if animals are conscious then cattle needs much better treatment, also decreasing meat consumptions can reduce pandemics occurrence and CO2 emissions.
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According to recent medical research on humans, more neurons are to be found in the abdominal area, the stomach, which send messages to the brain. This finding reverses the previous assumption that the human brain initiates all of the processes throughout the body. My source is a magazine article, rather than a medical journal, so I do not know how authoritative this new blood-body theory is. Evidently, I have misunderstood the discussion thread question, because almost all of the words in this reply are being underlined in red!
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Can it be said that the signs of transition to a new phase in human history have emerged with the epidemic process and the events? The fragility, moral weakness and evil nature of the organic existence of man, etc. can the transition to a new type and stage of being be legitimized and triggered by synthetic bodies and consciousness transfer with arguments?
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Dear Fatih Ertugay please see this relevant article which is available on RG:
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Recently, the Aymara intellectual Silvia Rivera Cusicanquí (Bolivia), has pointed out that "the decolonial is a fashion, the postcolonial a desire and the anti-colonial a struggle." Through this, she posits that in the face of the exhausted epistemological horizon of Eurocentric modernity there is a renewed interest in the knowledge that emerges in the context of the struggles for decolonization, however, there is no real political commitment on the part of scientists. The author points out: "the decolonial is a very recent fashion that, in some way, usufructs and reinterprets those processes of struggle, but I think it depoliticizes them, since the decolonial is a state or a situation but it is not an activity, it does not imply an agency, nor a conscious participation. I put the anti-colonial struggle into practice in fact, in some way, delegitimizing all forms of objectification and ornamental use of what is indigenous by the State. All of these are processes of symbolic colonization. "
I am interested in hearing and reading critical opinions about the decolonial turn in academic fashion. My question arises from some observations:
a) Epistemological violence in the social sciences that is claimed to be decolonial continues to be exercised from the Eurocentric "epistemological ratio". Where Latin America becomes a simple field of study. And where those of us who reflect from within the struggles for decolonization are erased from the map of knowledge production, since our texts are not referenced or academic extractivism is simply generated stealing local knowledge, exercising new forms of "indigenous folklorization".
b) The main references of decolonial thought are located in universities in hegemonic countries. The intellectual activists of Latin America who have a conscious ethic and struggle with social movements are excluded from the circuits of intellectual debate.
c) An important fracture of decolonial studies occurs in the defense of the Nation State and the progressive left governments of Latin America, such as Evo Morales and Maduro, and a rejection of radical left or indigenous proposals that are raised from anti-state perspectives , libertarian and autonomous.
d) The depoliticization and lack of ethics of many researchers who claim to be decolonial, who through practices of academic extractivism seek to scrutinize indigenous knowledge, have been financed with multi-million dollar research projects, financed by companies and state research corporations (Por example mitzubichi corporation), and whose impacts have contributed nothing to the struggles of those who dispute the territory.
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Speaking as an early career academic from the Global South, Africa to be specific, I think characterizing decolonial (decolonisation/decoloniality) scholarship as a fashion is very simplistic. Decolonial scholarship is a war/struggle for epistemic freedom. It is a struggle to have multiple centres of knowledge. It is about unlearning the predominantly Eurocentric forms of knowledge and methodologies in order to learn inclusive methodologies, to be able to have our own styles of writing and framing our knowledge perspectives. A lot of our knowledge and scholarship is sidelined in the knowledge industry that follows a Eurocentric script. We need to be acknowledged as centres of knowledge instead of exporters of raw data and importers of theories.
The biggest challenge we have is that we were produced by the very same Eurocentric system that has taken away our epistemic freedoms. That is why we have to continuously unlearn in order to learn. So there is agency in the decolonial scholarship, it is not fashion at all.
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Hey there, I have run a gel of 1% composition of agarose for RNA samples and I have found this irregular line and I am confused that what is this, if you have an idea kindly help me to understand this what is this and where I am making mistake.
The file is attached herewith.
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I've also seen a similar phenomenon with DNA if the gel combs leave behind something that degrades the nucleic acid as it runs into the gel. In my case, the comb had had tape on it at one point and something left behind did it: new comb, great bands. Make sure the gel box, tray, and comb are new or vetted for RNA. Maybe change apparatus, run some RNA markers, and examine the stained gel before loading your hard-fought and precious RNAs.
What is your stain? I've also seen weird coloring like that when EtBr has been degraded.
As for the rest, see the suggestions by Paul Rutland and Marek Lubośny. The former gives great answers to just about every question I read and he must have seen everything under the sun :) .
Good luck, your tags are great, and this know that this kind of thing happens. I had Whatmann papers that were just slightly too large cause tie-died looking protein bands after Western transfer. It was far out, man.
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-The 'impersonal' is a chapter from the linguistic science. It refers to 'happen to' , for instance <you fall asleep and dream>. Of course, there are more examples, but this regards the (non-waking) consciousness of the human being (the author of science). What or who is its cause?
-The reason of my question is because language is a deeper base for science and every science is based on reasoning/logic: without language there is no proposition or statement, and every logic is based on propositions/statements (otherwise you cannot make any premisses), and every science is based on reasoning/logic (otherwise you cannot substantiate any theorems).
Please check whether my question is correct. Thanks for all answers. Marc.
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Dear Ali,
Thank you for your direct answer. Marc.
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Consciousness is an intriguing phenomenon. Scientists are trying to explain and study this phenomenon in the scientific way. But it is very subjective and personal. It is based on experiences. Is it possible to develop a scientific theory of consciousness? Science is the objective description of the world of reality. Can we represent and explain a subjective phenomenon in an objective way?
Mathematics is a collection of ideas which are characterized by its objectivity, accuracy and unambiguity. Is it possible to model consciousness using mathematics, which is an essential engreadiant of all scientific theories?
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Recently, quantitative EEG-based metrics to measure consciousness objectively have been employed that can distinguish vegetative from minimally conscious states. Casali evoked brain activity by a transient magnetic field (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)). The spatial and temporal patterns of the TMS currents in the brain are then inferred from the EEG measurements and quantified to produce the metric.
The novelty in the study lies in the method used to quantify the spatiotemporal distribution of current, which is also the basis of the theoretical claims. The idea is that when the brain is unconscious, the evoked activity is either localized and lack integration of functional connections or are widespread and uniform, as found during slow-wave sleep or epileptic seizures (“lack of differentiation”). The conscious state on the other hand is supposed to correspond to a distributed, but non-uniform spatiotemporal pattern of current sources. A Lempel-Ziv algorithm (data compression scheme) can be used to distinguish between the Vegetative and Minimally Conscious State scenarios.
Raw EEG, by the way, can also be used to distinguish between with a statement that when one “decreases” levels of consciousness (assuming that it is linear) frequency increases and amplitude increases.
Try:
or
Leisman, G., & Koch, P. (2009). Networks of conscious experience: computational neuroscience in understanding life, death, and consciousness. Rev Neurosci, 20(3), 151-76.
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I'm trying to find out in the development between being an embryo and an adult animal does the animal become phenomenally conscious? I'm especially looking for recommendations for articles on the subject. And I'm especially thinking of smaller animals (like invertebrates) for this question.
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Sandra,
sentience I assume would be localised, that is limited to information of senses with responses to that information. Whether this constitutes mind rather than localised awareness, I'm not sure.
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Prone positioning is a simple intervention that can be done in most circumstances, is compatible with all forms of basic respiratory support and requires little or no equipment in the conscious patient.
the potential benefits of proning include:
• Improved VQ matching and reduced hypoxemia (secondary to more homogeneous aeration of lung and ameliorating the ventral-dorsal trans-pulmonary pressure gradient)
• Reduced shunt (perfusion pattern remaining relatively constant while lung aeration becomes more homogenous)
• Recruitment of the posterior lung segments due to reversal of atelectasis
• Improved secretion clearance
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Thanks for sharing your observation. Dr Serdar kalemci
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Hi,
I'm looking into if the use of food carbon labels have an impact on corporate reputation. I created survey which has 5 different versions (1 version is with a product without a carbon label, another one with a carbon label and high carbon footprint etc). I have assessed the impact of different carbon labels with ANOVA. However, I also have a few sub-hypotheses such as that environmental consciousness would have impact as well. I would like to test these sub-hypotheses through moderation. Currently, I put Corporate Reputation as a dependent variable (a scale), the survey version as independent (option 1 to 5) and then the sub-hypothesis as moderator (e.g., environmental consciousness -also a scale). My question is: is that a correct approach or do I have to inspect the moderation on each of the options of the surveys separately?
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Moderation using total scores of the model variables, you can use programs like JASP-JAMOVI that are free of charge for this analysis.
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How does the Aristotelian concept of Hylomophisms imply the probability of a subjugated upper bound of the mind's consciousness...
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One way to think about dynamic psychology is to recognize that people operate on several levels of consciousness at the same time. I've been able to discern five of them: (1) open expression; (2) secrets; (3) self-deceptions; (4) unconscious beliefs and feelings; and (5) things never considered.
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Is there any intelligent way to determine the Level of Consciousness in patients?
Does anyone know how to use AI in this application?
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Ask what day it is, where they are, to move fingers, etc.
If all reponses OK they are aware. MD do this all the time.
I suppose a robot could also interrogate. However it is best an MD does this.
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At the end of the 19th century, the ideas of psychophysiology and its rhetorical devices gave rise to a new way of referring to consciousness and the human being. Literature would change along with this scientific revolution. To such an extent that we speak of nervous and sensory literature, psychophysiological literature. Great novels such as The Magic Mountain by Thomas Mann, Ulysses by James Joyce, In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust, and Azar by Joseph Conrad have as one of their central issues the conditioning of these new ways of saying consciousness.
In recent decades, scientific research around consciousness continues to change paradigms, but the reception by the literature of the rhetorical devices of behavioral neurology, cognitive sciences, and others has been slow to come.
It is possible to consider that new literature is approaching based on this new conception. Is neural or predictive consciousness literature approaching? Is there an example? Or simply, Is it impossible for the literature of this step?
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Thanks for the answer.
Is a surprise that Helmholtz known or suspected an unconscious predictor.
But, my question is relative to the representations of consciousness and how they are applied to say things about humans.
I interest in research how these representations acquired one use in daily life and the literature is a way for close to understanding that issue.
The metaphor, the discursive styles, and the concepts beyond the mathematical realizations are how, finally, we will talk about the phenomenons of consciousness and unconsciousness to the society.
I appreciate your interest very much.
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We can create a generation of conscious students to be able to build a healthy society of intellectual aberrations and cultural backwardness.
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I'm in.
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Trees has Consciousness. It retains it for a long period of time. Also, it is able to transmit the same to the environment.
So, if the earth is to live peaceful, we need to grow more trees with good vibrations.
Do we have any scientific research proofs for the same. If so, please let me know.
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Hi, "I don't think so".
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If humans are so "complex", is it always harder to understand human behavior [patterns] than to understand similarly functioning patterns in other animals? NO !!
Of course not: we see as other humans see and, to some notable extent, what they see; we hear what they can hear; we smell what they can smell; we understand the types of things they are trying to understand and master; and we understand (roughly) what they are trying to accomplish at each stage of life ('stage' both in the strict sense, of the ontogeny that is child development, and otherwise). WITH RESPECT TO NO OTHER ANIMAL DO WE HAVE THESE COMMONALITIES TO USE AS PART OF OUR UNDERSTANDING.
Then, how is it that all this does not help us; I , for one, am not willing to believe that we are yet otherwise extremely complex to any point of not being able to come to understand humans (ourselves). [( In most cases, claims of complexity can be regarded as simply indications of confusion* (and ignorance) -- and not necessarily anything more. And, the confusions are often not necessary at all, even in the first place.)]
FOOTNOTE: Try the proposed word substitution ("confused/confusion" for "complex/complexity") and see.
Let me explain:
It is as if bad philosophy has put a "spell" (actually: blocks and limitations, over-generalizations and other wrongful mental behavior patterns, aka "thought") on us that incapacitate our moving forward, thinking along/upon more constructive lines such as (in small part) indicated above [(but much more clearly indicated, and then outlined, in other parts of my writings)]. We very much too often ask "what have the philosophers thought?" when, frankly, that hardly matters at all (they may have had some point sometimes at some junctures but, with their same body of philosophy, they commonly very much over-"define" (notably wrongly and falsely), and then overgeneralize their 'position' to make unsubstantiated CLAIMS -- yet these thought-out armchair claims are accepted!! BIG EXAMPLES OF THEIR WRONGFULNESS COME UP in statements beginning "ONLY Man can ... ". And this is in addition to THEM saying in other ways (which I am now characterizing in vague outline and obviously paraphrasing): only some 'this' or 'that' [way] will work or only some 'this' or 'that' can be the "way it is", as they "determined". They analyze any single words they choose (e.g. how we can supposedly "understand" our "will" or understand certain particular other things) as if any of these are well established concepts, when they are not; THEY then "define" other things and move on from there, both of these wrongful ways [further] making a fundamental breach with empiricism and then necessarily also with science (AND all this CAUSES CONFUSION (and it should be clear it is based on ignorance)).
Those large aspects of many, many of the philosophies are not only incongruent with science, but lead to unnecessary confusions (on larger "related" topics, like "consciousness" -- something they go on to develop ideas about, based on their initial "definitions", all that yielding the "complex" "understanding" and then also "finding" that which "cannot be understood" (e.g. the " 'hard problem' of "consciousness" " -- [a problem I see as nonexistent from another standpoint]) .
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Chemical synapses are clearly necessary to the operation of Earth brains as they have been conserved omni-presently and refined and differentiated for hundreds of millions of years.
1) The synaptic gap is only on the order of ten times the size of a neurotransmitter molecule, and anchored to hold its dimension. This means the gap is a tightly-controlled busy place with dense chemistry going on. That supports the possibility that the "neural" correlate of consciousness is entirely disconnected from the neuron, and an effect of molecular goings-on in the gap. We know that some neurons correlate to consciousness and some do not, and that different neurotransmitters are used by different neuron types, and that some neural circuits produce pain and others, pleasure.
2) The actions between the neurons means there will also be electric potential swings across the gap (which also influence the closely-spaced molecules therein).
3) The scales and densities involved also suggest the possibility of multimolecular quantum effects.
For consciousness to both arise from and affect electrochemical brain activity, there must be a locus of rich enough physics and with sufficient opportunity for continued evolution.
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Dear Roman I strongly agree with your interpretation that consciousness is not directly related to the neuron.
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On the one hand, man is a physical object and a person. Therefore, we interact with the reality, on one hand, directly as a physical object, but on the other hand as a person, i.e. indirectly through our psyche. On the basis of information from the senses, the consciousness of a person creates a subjective model of reality. A man mistakes his subjective model of reality for reality itself, i.e. unnecessarily assigns an ontological status, by the hypostatizations. In fact, as the reality a man perceives not reality itself, but only its subjective model of that reality. As a result, as a physical object, a person lives in the physical world, and as a person he lives in his subjective model of physical and social reality created on the basis of information coming to his senses directly and from the media. This work considers the process of formation of subjective 3D models reality based of large numbers of 2D images, a distinction is made in the content of terms: "Seeing" and "Sensing"; it also analyzes the transformation of objective facts into subjective perceptions of consciousness and back. As a result of hypostatizations of subjective models of reality, we may observe the same effects as in virtual reality (a reality effect; the effect of the presence; the effect of depersonalization; the effect of virtualization goals, values, and motivations). So, there is every reason to consider different subjective models of reality generated by different forms of consciousness, the virtual models. We study various consequences of these statements
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I agree with Mark Lennerton