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Concepts - Science topic

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New ideas, new concepts in science and art arise as a result of human creativity, innovation, emotional intelligence, the need for self-realization, the need to be appreciated by other people.
These are the values at the very top of Maslov's pyramid. Human higher needs arose through the evolution of human consciousness and intelligence under conditions of multi-generational development of sociobiological and psychosocial determinants.
On the other hand, artificial intelligence is being developed, which will probably be used in various fields of technological information services, including multi-criteria, based on complex data processing algorithms.
In view of the above, the current question is: Can innovations be or can be created by artificial intelligence or only by man?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Leveraging Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data, and Cloud computing — the digital ABCs — throughout the scholarly publishing workflow
AI adoption is achievable, accessible, and empowering. AI can supercharge discovery, enrich content; it can help publishers better understand their audiences, and enable individual researchers to know more, do more, and achieve more — using not necessarily the most advanced solutions, but the right solution to solve a specific problem.
And AI can advance your business, and ultimately our entire industry, from content providers to knowledge providers. For example, if a phone directory is the content, then the address you need at a given moment, for a given purpose, is the knowledge...
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Theory and practise of welfare state is not the same as of welfare society's. What is the difference between these two concepts?
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I do agree with Butler.
With regards
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The concept of an acceptance and respect for different cultures
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Multiculturalism is an interactive process that attempts to respect the differences between different cultures. Seeking mutually enriching, it puts two completely different cultures on an equal footing, rejecting the idea of lower and higher cultures in order to form a new society to keep pace with global development.
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I'm searching for a task which can be used for the abstract words in an fMRI study in block design. Any suggestion?
--> I know for concrete words, topicality judgments works well, but not for abstract.
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The abstract consists of 4 questions? Abstract is in imperfectum.
What did I do?
By means of what did I do this? (fMRI, block design))
What was the result?
To what is this result needed?
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Practical setting in a company. Would like to develop a model to predict future value of customers to the company.
Important is to be able to make a distinction between customer characteristics and product characteristics.
What method is best to use, what CLV method or Customer Equity, CVT (customer valuation theory) etc.?
Anyone that is willing to share some tips with me for implementing such a model into an organization?
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Several studies in the area of Direct Marketing and Customer Relationship Management have shown a strong relationship between future and past pur- chase behavior
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New ideas in art and science contain something of innovation, artistry, creativity, emotional intelligence, higher human needs, etc.
On the other hand, the answer to this question will probably never be complete, because the cognitive and research capabilities of the human brain, the human consciousness are unlimited and creativity.
In view of the above, the current question is: How to define the sources of new concepts in art and science?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Can sources be defined before any discovery?
In science or in art?
What is discovered was there already but nobody knew it.
A source can only be traced after discovery (simple logic).
1 -Somebody sees some difference somewhere, looks twice,
2 -Thinks he/she saw something new, makes this public, and
3 - When the others didn't know it was there his/her name becomes history.
Afterwards the story of this discovery is made.
Afterwards one can speak of "sources"
Was this you question or did I get it wrong?
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I have been reading into the psycho-social literature with my colleague Judy Rose. We have been looking at post-Kleinian work by Winnicott and Bion, particularly concepts such as holding, container-contained. Now the most interesting part of this reading, is that the psychoanalytic writing is about clinical work, and the concepts are ways to think about the work in the psychoanalytic encounter. But Bion suggests that the theory is only useful for about 3 sessions, while the analyst is developing inter-intra-relations (my riff) with the patient. After this time the concepts emerge from the encounter. So what does this mean for adopting a concept? How can a psycho-social methodology work alongside this philosophical work?
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Just about to go and teach a class and mulling the idea of doing "conceptual speed-dating" which I got from Manning and Massumi, Thought in the Act (but which Andrew Murphie came up with). We have smuggled a fair bit of philosophy and sociology into an undergrad teacher ed course so many of the concepts and new and 'big'- so I am looking to work with them a bit and see where we end up.
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I don't really understand the concept of Biorxiv.
What is it?
Why do people use it? Are there any benefits or downsides of preprinting?
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But the problem is that such servers blur the line between peer-reviewed articles and fake news. Many authors and readers treat pre-publications just like peer-reviewed papers accepted by a journal, and so we read twitter messages about „evidence for xyz“ with a link to unreviewed papers with sometimes questionable methodology and conclusions, and laypeople (and I‘m afraid some researchers as well) take that as scientific evidence already. That has the potential to undermine the credibility of our science.
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Hi Dears, Are there differences between Operational Definition and Conceptual definition for variables?
Thank you very much
Regards
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A conceptual definition tells you what the concept means, what your constructs are by explaining how they are related to other constructs, while an operational definition only tells you how to measure it.
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In other words, some ecosystems would ensure their perennity when the original conditions of their genesis no longer exist?
This could explain some observable ecosystem weaknesses of our day in relation to climate change and anthropization
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I think there are many examples of this. For instance, there are regions in northern Canada where shrub forests developed during the Medieval Warm Period and survived through to modern times; these forests were stable as long as they were undisturbed. Disturbance (for example by fire) resulted in reversion to tundra. I am not sure if this more conceptually analogous to the physics concept of inertia (resistance to a change in state) or more to the chemistry concept of metastable states.
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basically, I am going to be looking at the differences in the natural and social sciences in terms of measurement and ways to measure concepts in neoclassical realism such as clarity, strategic culture, leaders' perceptions etc. 
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Dear Saher,
In your question you say that you are working on measurement in social sciences and ask for interesting pieces on this issue. You also say that you are going to be looking at the differences in the natural and social sciences in terms of measurement, conceptual clarity and the like.
As you certainly know, your questions have been, are, and will be highly debated among epistemologists, philosophers of science, philosophers, scientists and researchers.  
As for the differences between the natural and social sciences, D. Zeaman, in 1959, pointed to a common, albeit overlooked, procedure. Whereas in “… the natural sciences, each succeeding generation stands on the shoulders of those that  have gone before …, in the social sciences each generation steps in the face of its predecessors.” (p.167). A couple of years later, critic John Horgan (1991) voiced the same idea when saying that “theories of human nature never really die; they just go in and out of fashion” (pp. 6–7). Note, for example, that there are Piagetian theories, neo-Piagetian theories, post-Piagetian theories, anti-Piagetian theories, and even neo-neo-Piagetian theories. If the number of theories were a token of scientific progress in psychology, let alone other social sciences, then psychology would be the queen of science, which is not the case.
As for measurement in social sciences, social scientists often appeal to questionnaires, surveys, psychological tests, Likert-scales, and the like. By so doing, we get an impression of rigor when an illusion of rigor is  generally the case. For example, on a Likert scale, the same score (50, for example), can be got by answering differently to the several items the focal scale contains. This means that the same score can have different psychological meanings. According to P. Meehl (1978), this illusion of rigor is partly responsible for what he called the slow progress of soft psychology (see his seminal paper published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology). In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein cogently argued that in psychology there are experimental methods but conceptual confusion. Conceptual clarity is a big issue in any science. As J. Laudan (1977) pointed out: “The increase of the conceptual clarity of a theory through careful clarifications and specifications of meaning is.one of the most important ways in which science progresses” (p. 50). Social sciences in general, and psychology in particular, deal most of the time with elusive concepts such as cognitive maps, internal switchers, and the like. For example, it makes good sense to speak of maps in the geographical domain or that we have a roads' map in our car. However, it is misleading and even nonsensical to speak of maps in the cognitive domain for there is no map in our mind or even brain. So, when we say of a child that s/he solves a given intellectual problem because s/he formed a cognitive  map of the problem at hand we are speaking either literally or metaphorically. Literally, it cannot be the case for there is no map in our head/mind in the sense that there is a map in our car. Metaphorically, to say of a child that s/he solves a given intellectual problem because s/he formed a cognitive map of the problem at hand gives us the illusion of an explication, when none is being provided. Note also that the concept of attractor is now a fancy concept in dynamic systems approach to action and cognition. Again, it makes good sense to say that, in physics, a magnet attracts steel. However, when the term attractor is used in a language-game or context other than the physical domain, its meaning in this new context is not exactly the same as that it had in, say, its original domain.
I hope  I has got you posting and that this helps.
Best regards, Oralndo
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Recently i see many papers on elite opposition based algorithms. i am unaware of the concept. anyone can explain me the concept of elite opposition.
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The main idea of opposition based algorithm is that it generates the opposition solution of current solution, evaluates current solution and opposition solution at the same time, and chooses the better one to enter the next iteration.
In general Elite means the choice or best of anything considered collectively
The Elite opposition based algorithm generates the opposition population according to the elite individual and evaluates the current population and the elite population at the same time; in addition, it makes full use of the characteristics of the elite individuals to contain more useful search information than the ordinary individuals which improve the diversity of the population to certain extent. 
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Did they challenge popular understanding of the concept? What was their opposing explanation?
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I would agree with Paula: If anarchism in the strictest sense is about resisting the creation/continuation of the form we call 'the state'-formalized, centralized power through institutionalized government. I believe it is naive to suggest that we could have a Modern/Post-Modern technology without a state--at least for now. Perhaps I'm too anthropological, but when you start talking about doing away with a state, you have to realistically consider a major down-shift in your technology. I say this from the evidences of history: the only really successful anarchistic communities have been small, and much more Mechanical in their solidarity (look at Durkheim for this), suggesting a simpler technology that everyone in the community understands and can operate with near-equal capacity, once given basic skills training.
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Hi,
Strategic architecture is a foundamental concept in the Core Competence view of the corporation (G. Hamel and C.K. Prahalad). I need explainations and examples to a better use of the concept.
Thanks in advance
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Hi
Strategic architecture can be define in so many way but the bottom line of this terminology is to put the architecture framework in its own collective dimension. To explore this you need to establish several strategic steps, namely :
1. Review the factors of architecture that lead to competent theory  
2. Formulate the identified factors
3. Choose independent and dependent variable for competent
4. Run diognosis on competent theory
5. Implementing and control
Check out on this :
Regards
Joe
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I am very interested in knowing more about the concept of "Quality" in higher education And the available assessment methods to measure that.
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The problem with measuring quality in higher education is the elitist nature of the universities themselves. Most strive for excellence. But they often have an ingrained bias that opposes any new ideas that challenge their established educational norms. The "Not Invented Here" syndrome is alive and well in many universities. In Missouri, we have a five and ten year program evaluation of all university academic programs that is conducted by the Missouri Department of Higher Education. We also have regional accreditation by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.     These evaluations are to ensure the the college or university is providing a quality education and makes the school eligible for federal funds. It is considered to be the minimum acceptable standard. Different programs in different universities will of course be stronger than others.  In the US there is no standardized was of evaluating every different academic department beyond accreditation. Some majors do have an additional level of voluntary accreditation in their particular major, others do not. 
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Dear researchers
Whats the exact difference between Reliability, agreement, reproducability, repeat-ability , Inter rater , and intra rater concepts in a computerized test?
Is agreement equal to reproducability ?
Is reliability equal to  agreement?
whats the relation between intra rater and inter rater with such concepts?
sincerely yours.
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Reliability is the probability of failure-free operation.
There are important differences
between the concepts of agreement and reliability. Agreement points to the question, whether diagnoses,
scores, or judgments are identical or similar or the
degree to which they differ. In this situation, the absolute
degree of measurement error is of interest. Consequently,
any variability between subjects or the distribution of the
rated trait in the population does not matter. For instance,
percent agreement for nominal data or limits of agreement
for interval and ratio data are excellent measures because
they provide this very kind of information in a simple manner.
On the other hand, there are the reliability coefficients.
Reliability is typically defined as the ratio of variability between
scores of the same subjects (e.g., by different raters
or at different times) to the total variability of all scores
in the sample. Therefore, reliability coefficients (e.g.,
kappa, intraclass correlation coefficient) provide information
about the ability of the scores to distinguish between
subjects. From this, it also follows that reliability coefficients must be low when there is little variability among
the scores or diagnoses obtained from the instrument under
investigation. This occurs when the range of obtained
scores is restricted or prevalence is very high or very low. (Source: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2010.12.001).
Intra-rater reliability refers to the degree of agreement among multiple repetitions of a diagnostic test performed by a single rater.
In statistics, inter-rater reliability, inter-rater agreement, or concordance is the degree of agreement among raters.
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One of the controversial topics.
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The main diificulties are that different modes of closure are proposed :
- Plasticity induced closure
- Roughness induced closure
- Mode II type of closure
- You even have crcak tip wedge opening due to debris ..
None of these can be predicted !!
One of the biggest aberration is Mode II closure - mode II is sliding mode and you have contact between the surfaces all the time - In this case the crack should not grow as the effective DK is Zero !
You hve now new ideas based on Strain energy relese rate - you can explain quite afew of the crack problemes based on this "more physical concept"
In fact "Closure" killed the imagination of scientists !!
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As I'm thinking about my methodology for researching strengths-based and high performance organizations, I'm struck by two thoughts.  One is the number of studies that are reductionist in scope and methodology yet researching concepts that are, by definition, systems based.  The other is whether, in a doctoral world that demands one researches a problem 
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I think you should review the methodologies that propose working with interdisciplinary approaches related to participatory action research. You know about it?
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I am trying to integrate quantitative approach into GVC research; however, I am struggling on how to measure the effect of governance on upgrading. What should be the measure for the governance of lead firms to the supplier firms that could affect local firm's upgrading?
I tried to look at Gereffi's work (The governance of global value chains) and the paper states that there are 3 factors that affect value chain governance which are 1) complexity of information, 2) the extent to which this information and knowledge can be codified, 3) the capabilities of suppliers.
I believe that the concept of Lall's technological capabilities (1992) can be used to measure the capabilities of suppliers; however, which concept can I use to measure 1) complexity of information, 2) the extent to which this information and knowledge can be codified?
Please kindly help me. Any suggestion would be appreciated.
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Dear Veerasith,
You may find the following article useful: Beasley, M., Chen, A., Nunez, K. and Wright, L. (2006): "Working Hand in Hand: Balanced Scorecards and Enterprise Risk Management", Strategic Finance (March 2006), pp. 49-55. The authors adopt the Balanced Scorecard as a governance mechanism to Supply Chain Management. 
If you are interested in a general analysis of the Balanced Scorecard approach, please feel free to refer to my research paper: "The Balanced Scorecard and Beyond – Applying Theories of Performance Measurement, Employment and Rewards in Management Accounting Education".  In the paper you can find further references. It was published in the International Research Journal of Management Sciences 4 (7), pp. 483-491 and thus can be used for referencing.
Paul
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I want to work on visual saliency detection. I want some good material to learn the concept. Kindly provide if available with any. 
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You can see two of my publications on document image quality assessment. They both use some kind of simple saliency detection (foreground information).
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I am currently working on a memory association tool to help build better understanding of various learning models or concept. Any help will be greatly appreciated. Many thanks 
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Thank you Anastasia for sharing these resources. I will look into all of them. 
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I'm looking for literature on the topic. All I found was on biological, social or natural kinds.
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You can check out "learning theories" and the wokrs of some philosophers on concepts. For example, Aristotle, Plato, Locke, Kant etc.
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Question is : 
Could a subjective concept or an aesthetic perception(like for example : "perspective" that ordinary people have not experienced before) which has been manifested in architectural design, impacts on observer's minds or speed up their perception growth?
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Dear Napoleon Ono Imaah
Thank you so much for your attention.
Can we conclude that architecture could be effective on people's mind even more than other ways(like reading books or high level of social interactions..etc) for improving the culture and perception, because of its visual and attractive features? can architecture be used as the first or one of the most effective approach for improving the way people think؟
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I am currently writing my dissertation and I still find that the distinction between and among the terms is a little too ambiguous. I find myself using the word theme to refer to group of concepts/highest level code that makes up the parts of my theory. I am unsure if this is accurate.
Also, I have developed a concept diagram and unsure whether to call this theory or concept model? 
Expert help is greatly appreciated.
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I am not aware of any version of GT that uses either concepts or models as key terminology. Instead of models, you are likely to find theories. Instead of concepts, you are likely to find categories -- which can be confusing because other approaches to theory building use categories as merely as a basis for organizing codes.
I suggest you pick a particular version of GT to guide your work (e.g., Charmaz, Corbin & Strauss, Glaser, etc.) and then follow the terminology used there.
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On conceptual structure:
Are some concepts built out of (and, therefore, reducible to) other concepts? Is this the case only within particular theories of concepts (e.g. the Classical Theory, Conceptual Atomism) or is it generally accepted?
On conceptual development:
If it is the case that some concepts ("complex concepts" ??) are reducible to their more basic conceptual components ("primitive concepts" ??), can we then say that if children are shown to acquire a given concept (e.g. VOLUME) before another (e.g. DENSITY), that the former is more basic, or more primitive, than the latter?
Nota bene:  VOLUME and DENSITY are arbitrary examples. In order to provide an adequate answer, one needs to imagine that we do not know the relation between volume and density (i.e. we do not know that D = M/V). Imagine that we are trying to solve whether the concept VOLUME is a basic component of the concept DENSITY and we have evidence that children understand VOLUME before they understand DENSITY (and, in fact, they do). Would the order of acquisition of these two concepts be taken as sufficient evidence for their structural relation?
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You ask two intertwined questions. One has to do with conceptual development; the other, with conceptual structure. To begin with, you can benefit from reading the following book: Conceptual development: Piaget's legacy by Scholnik, E., Nelson, K., Gelman, S., & Miller, P. (Eds.) (1999). Mawah; NJ: Erlbaum. Answers to your questions depend on what theoretical framework who adopts: Vygotskian, Piagetian, or Fodorian, to cite three examples. As you certainly know, for J. Fodor and many others (e.g., S. Carey) there is no conceptual development because our concepts are innate. This is an untenable stance. If this were the case, then how does one explain that some concepts (e.g., the volume concept) appear first than others (e.g., the density concept) or that some concepts (e.g., the proportionality concept) appears only at a later point in development (typically at adolescence)? It contradistinction, both for Vygotsky and Piaget there is conceptual development. For instance, Vygotsky sustained that, for example, what he called mediated memory appears only after what he called natural memory. In the same vein, according to Piaget, concrete operational concepts (e.g., the idea that the number of elements in a set remains constant regardless of their spatial arrangement in the set at hand) come only after preoperational concepts (e.g., that number depends on the spatial configuration of its elements in the set in question). Therefore, both Piaget and Vygotsky, just to cite two examples, accept that the more complex concepts are built out of simpler (more primitive, basic?) concepts. However, to accept this stance does not imply that the former are reducible to the latter. Suffice it to say that, for Piaget, for instance, his concrete operational concepts go well beyond his preoperational concepts, and that Vygotsky's mediated memory is much more complex than, and hence irreducible to, his natural memory. More to the point, according to Piaget, the link of formal operational concepts and operations to concrete operational concepts and operations is a logical, and even metaphysical link rather than a psychological and empirical link. This is so, because formal operations are operations on concrete operations. Because of this it would be a waste of time to run an experiment to test such an order of emergence. As formal operations are operations on concrete operations, it is true by definition that formal operations appear in development later than concrete operations. It is a sad reality that in psychology there are many experiments to test what is untestable because the hypotheses underlying such experiments are analytical propositions, and hence, not subject to falsification. This means that when we run an experiment we should examine first if the hypothesis or hypotheses we want to test are in fact testable or untestable hypotheses. As Wittgenstein cogently remarked in his Philosophical Investigations, in psychology there are experimental methods but conceptual confusion. As for conceptual structure, it may be interpreted in functional or structural terms. When the former is the case, conceptual structure is judged to be an antecedent in our brains/minds that is responsible for a certain order of acquisition of some concepts or the simultaneous emergence of concepts judged to be identical or similar to one another in terms of cognitive complexity. When the latter is the case, conceptual structure is judged to be a set of formal or logical characteristics (e.g., equilibrium, integration, differentiation of perspectives, dimensions, and so forth) that lies the heart of certain forms of behavior, thinking, and feeling. Parenthetically, it should be said that Piaget's overarching structures (i.e., structures d’ensemble) have been widely and wrongly interpreted in functional rather than structural terms. See my ideas on the standard (and erroneous) interpretation of Piaget's theory in a coauthored Psychological Review paper, titled. In defense of Piaget's theory: A reply to 10 common criticisms (see my publications in Research Gate).
I hope that these my considerations may be of some help concerning your both interesting questions.
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concept of artistic creativity
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An interesting if slightly dated book is Psychotherapy with people in the arts: Nurturing creativity, Terry S Trepper and Gerald Schoenewolf (Routledge, 2002).
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Reference materials on the explanation of the concept of over-fitting strictly relating to neural networks will be very much appreciated.
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Thank you all for your comments. I appreciate it.
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Just trying to understand if in literature there is a “concept” for difference among protected areas according to the “percentage” of rare and endangered species occurring in the area.
I’m trying to compare PA and I want to use also the rare and endangered species feature
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I don't know if there is a quantitative index of the sort you are looking for, but IUCN (see their webpage) has stuff in habitats as well as species. If you have a high proportion of rare and endemic species, I would go for "biodiversity hot spot".
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Q1. Suppose of an outcome variable anal sex  and independant variable access to pornography - i find the proportion of anal sex is higher in those having access to pornography as compared to not having access to porn but the p value is greater than 0.05 . we interpret it as following 
1. There is association but not a statistically significant one 
Q2.  Null hypothesis : No association between Anal sex and Pornography access
     Alternate hypothesis : Anal sex associated with Pornography 
    The p value turns out to be greater than 0.05 
    As per this concept irrespective of proportion of outcome in independant variable ( even if proportion of anal sex is higher in those accessing pornograph ) there is no association as p value is greater than 0.05 
Kindly resolve this concept 
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Code the answers in a way that you can compute a normal correlation and see if it is significant
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hi dear researchers,
please introduce a good reference for robust design( including concepts, uncertainty modeling method, analyzing methods and ...).
thanks
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If you want to build a good basic understanding, try, Quality by Design, by N Belavendram.
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Considering the concept of linear programming, primal problem and its dual problem, I would like to ask a question which might be naive!
I wonder whether we can represent a decision variable of the primal problem (for instance x_i) in the corresponding dual space (with respect to the data of dual problem).
Any help or discussion is appreciated.
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In Duality Theory, a Dual variable is defined for each of the Primal constraints and conversely for each of the Primal decision variables, a Dual constraint is constructed. Theoretically, a relationship exists between Primal and Dual decision variables.
For e.g. from the viewpoint of Resource allocation problems, a Primal decision variable (say x) represents economic activities, whereas the associated Dual decision variable (say y) represents dual prices which is simply the Worth per unit of resource or the Imputed  cost per unit of resource.
Accordingly, we can say that the required Dual decision variables (y) or the Imputed cost / Worth of the utilized resources required for each of the Primal decision variables(x) have to be defined (should be related) to yield the required objective values per unit of Primal decision variable(x). 
In Economic terms, the system is defined to be Stable when the Objective values (output) yielded for each of the Primal decision variables equals the input or worth of the resources required per unit of primal variable (i.e., the value of Dual decision variables). 
It'll be highly appreciated if you find the above information helpful. Nonetheless, this topic demands thoughtful discussion. Thanks.
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Does anyone happen to have (or know of) data on both features and exemplars for a particular concept combination and also for its two constituents? (e.g. feature and exemplar data on PET, feature and exemplar data on FISH, and feature and exemplar data on PET FISH?) There is lots of partial data but we are looking for a complete data set of this kind. 
 
Many thanks in advance. 
Liane
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James Hampton (City university of London) has done a lot on the conceptual combination issue.
Or Geert Storms in Leuven Belgium. I think that Geert has some norms on this. It sounds familiar.
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 Can you define the responsability and it's relation to the Past, the present, and the futur or maybe also the eternity in the works of Hannah Arendt, Emmanuel Lévinas and Hans Jonas? 
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 the question of time is essential for the three author but you should articulate it to the question of the feminine see my paper levinas et le feminin since the feminine is the present in levinas but the articulated present that allows for anticipation and thus for responsibility
best
mylene botbol baum
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Naturalistic fallacy is an expression found for the first time in Principia Ethica, a work published in 1903 by the English philosopher George Edward Moore. According to it, the concept of good which is at the basis of moral discourse is a simple concept and can not be further defined.
When you claim to identify it with some natural property, such as useful or pleasant, it falls into the naturalistic fallacy, which includes both the naturalistic ethical theories and the ethical metaphysical theories. The choice of a solution can not entirely exclude the other ones.
It is possible to escape this contradiction by adopting the intuitionistic solution by Moore for which the good is sensed as the yellow color: in this way, you will know what it is and there are no alternative solutions. Moore soon realized that his solution, by virtue of intuitionism, could lead to subjectivist drifts: he pleaded this risk by focusing on the fact that the good is absolute, it expresses an intrinsic and universal value.
In this way, any possible subjectivism is reset at the start. However, a new problem showed up: given that the good is universal, absolute and independent, which is its nature? Certainly, it cannot have an empirical nature, because if it did it would fall into the naturalistic fallacy; but neither can it be metaphysical, because otherwise you would re-awaken the metaphysical fallacy. The solution is then advanced  by Moore in recognizing that ‘good’ has an ontological status equal to that of Platonic ideas and numbers, which are absolute and objective without being either empirical or metaphysical: in this sense, the ‘good’ is just as number four.
In later writings, Moore would soften his position, by arguing that the good depends on the intrinsic nature of things; in this way, he will approach Aristotelianism from Platonism... ".
In the explanation of the onset of the 'naturalistic fallacy', one moves from 'having to be' which is the term used by Kant to indicate what is required by the moral law, regardless of any condition of fact and the entire order of nature. The moral law is an expression of reason in its practical use, that is, determining the will. The duty to provide what the law says to man, be reasonable but finite, exposed then to the empirical influences of  subjective motives and subjective inclinations, is expressed in the imperative form.
Therefore, the ‘need to be' indicates "the relationship between the objective laws of the will in general and the subjective imperfection of the will."
Then, since the moral imperative is not subject to any end, nor is placed by the faculty of desire, it addresses people in categorical terms, that is unconditioned, and then it is intended: "because you have to."
It is by virtue of this duty that the possibility of action properly human is deducted: not the physical possibility to act, which belongs - as Kant says – to the order of causes and effects, but it is the moral possibility to fullfil the moral law or not, that qualifies man as a moral entity. Between the world of being - that is, of what is the way it is, according to the laws of nature - and the world of 'having to be'- that is of what is required by the moral law - an absolute hiatus opens up, the same as Hume had pointed out, denouncing the naturalistic fallacy which is to take prescriptive propositions, that is related to having to be, from descriptive propositions, related to what it is .
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The precondition of learning what is good and what is not has caused a lot of problems within human reasoning. When we are born, there is no knowledge of "good" and "evil." Such concepts are learned and can apply to both truthful knowledge and untruthful knowledge. That is to say, anybody can be convinced that something harmful to them is good, at least until they experience the consequences.
Morality is an absolute when it is properly understood, and it has nothing to do with good and evil. Good and evil are judgments of the intellect, but morality is a condition of the body.
Morality is those actions and behaviors that lead to the good health and well-being of individuals and communities. Morality is also applicable to any species of life, and to any group of species.
Morality is the condition required so that life may flourish. Morality is the source of health and happiness, which is required for the living to continue to want to live and to be able to live. Without the condition of morality, life becomes unhealthy, unhappy, and eventually ceases. 
Humans are presently in an incredibly immature state of understanding and consider morality to be judgment. The mere passing of a law to say what is good and bad, acceptable and non-acceptable, is widely considered to be the establishment of morality. However, morality has no dependency on human laws and it has nothing to do with human judgment. Morality is simply those actions and behaviors that lead to the good health and well-being of individuals and communities. Morality exists exactly as the condition for life.
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We know that in differential amplifier which is is based, if we reduce the dimension of pmos transistors gain increases, but I can't able to get the concept behind it. Why does it happen?
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This can be achieved by changing the resistances of voltage divider of operational amplifier.
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The new concept of plasmonics has emerged also in the field of glasses, glass-ceramics and crystals by doping those materials with metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles. For example, the work published by Reza Dousti et al., as attached, demonstrated the effect of silver nanoparticles on the optical and thermal properties of the erbium-doped zinc tellurite glasses. The glass is synthesized in the experimentally common dimensions, not in the nano-size or nano-layers. So, I would like to know that is the "nanoglass" a suitable novel name for those nanostructured materials or not?
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.
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For a steady flow between a fixed & moving plate as shown in Fig 3-1 velocity distribution is u=(U/2)*(1+(y/h)) and friction coefficient is Cf=1/Re(h).
Assumption: Viscosity is constant.
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first of all, the Couette flow in your document is laminar flow. So the Poiseuille no in Churchill's comment is one. Physically, Re in Couette flow is to measure the turbulence intensity. For laminar flow, since it is not turbulent, Reynolds number should not play any role for Couette flow.
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I am looking for publications that explore the Baddeley's hedonic detector, in working memory model. I find out just few papers.
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Renzo, thank you for your reply.
I tried it but I found just a few articles. I looking for publications outside of these database. 
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Blended Learning is viewed by many experts with different interpretations. When we apply this concept in our class room we need certain specific models which provide systematic procedures or steps to be followed while applying the Blended Learning. Hence, details about  the specific models or strategies to be followed in the Blended Learning would be useful in the real situations. Could you provide details about these Models?
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Blended learning
Blended learning is the combination of traditional face-to-face and technology-mediated instruction encouraging the adoption of platforms such as online learning, mobile technologies and resources that exist in the cloud (Moskal, Dziuban and Hartman, 2013). Blended learning can be adopted also in distance learning and with new information and communication technology its will come ‘the new normal model’ (Norberg, Dziuban and Moskal, 2011). Blended learning has emerged by the development of information and communication technology but very few studies provide educational guidance for institutions (Halverson, Graham, Spring and Drysdale, 2012).
Littlejohn and Pegler (2007) expanded the types of blends to include the ‘space blend’ (face-to-face or online), ‘time blend’ (geography and availability), ‘media blend’ (tools, technologies and resources), and ‘activity blend’ (learning and teaching activities, individual or group). It is essential that a higher education institution defines and supports policies and course design processes that ensure all students access to learning regardless their time of study and geographical location. Many higher education institutions teach in multiple modes which includes on campus, at a distance, online or a blend of a number of modes (Taylor and Newton, 2013).
During the development of blended learning, a spectrum has appeared on course-delivery modalities which ranges from traditional face-to-face teaching to complete online teaching. The first step is the technology enhanced education. Thereafter the blended learning is followed by learning mostly online and finally completely online (Graham, Woodfield and Harrison, 2013). The latter phases of the spectrum are useful in distance learning. There are virtually unlimited possible combinations of face-to-face and technology-mediated education. Each of them are no more or less valid than all the others.
Higher education institutions have started blended learning first in part-time adult education, because students are at work, but the new techniques have become more common also in full-time study. Blended learning has become more popular among young full-time students in Finland, because most of the students work while they study. The experience has shown that the fully online courses are very demanding for many students. Institutions need to solve the technical and pedagogical obstacles in the face-to-face education. The development has led to technology enhanced education, blended learning and learning mostly online. Blended learning presumes the increased capacity of the tutoring of students and electronic libraries (Kettunen, 2007).
According to the research evidence there is no singular best model for blended learning that fits for all. The mode of delivery has a very weak statistical correlation with student success or persistence (Dziuban & Moskal, 2011). Each institution has to select the success factors for the mode of delivery to fit for the purpose and improve them continuously over a span of several years to achieve high quality. It is typical that at the beginning of a course there is face-to-face class to meet and build community, but discussing a complex matter that requires reflection may be better accomplished through an asynchronous Internet discussion forum (Garrison and Kanuka, 2004).
The key issue in the literature on blended learning is the combination of face-to-face and technology-mediated instruction. Even though it has been expanded to geographical, technological and activity dimensions there is still room to add new perspectives to blended learning. Blended learning has a tradition of many decades in Finland. It has evolved to distance learning, which includes essays from literature with practical applications and criticism, service to society, practical training, student exchange, entrepreneurship and development tasks among other things. The integration of research and development into education is a new innovation in higher education and creates capabilities for students to participate in development work after graduation.
Innovation pedagogy
Innovation pedagogy was developed to improve the external impact of the universities of applied sciences and support the regional development (Kettunen, 2011). The institutions respond to the development needs of the enterprises and other organisations in the region. Typically these development needs are multidisciplinary. The universities of applied sciences apply for project funding and integrate the projects into education. Students are offered project studies and they able to learn innovation competencies in the research and development projects (Kettunen, Penttilä and Kairisto-Mertanen, 2013). Innovation competencies are gained in international collaboration and they are valuable to promote entrepreneurship and the export of education (Kantola and Kettunen, 2013).
The positive external impact of the universities of applied sciences is created with incremental or radical innovations (Tidd, Bessant and Pavitt, 2001). Incremental innovations are created by continuous improvement of existing products, services or processes. Radical innovations create new products, services or processes.Successful innovation pedagogy promotes the economic growth, employment and welfare in the regions of the universities of applied sciences. The curriculum is developed to reach out and engage with development activities in the region.
 Individual learning is extended to collaborative and networked learning, which are the modes of delivering education in projects and distance education. The students are offered project studies where learning emerges as learners interact (Vygotsky, 1978). Students work together and develop their problem-solving skills to achieve the practical learning goals (Puntambekar, 2006). Advanced learning takes place in professional education when learners are well-connected to their environment. The networks raise the ability of students and staff to participate and interact when they resolve their shared problems (Cross & Parker, 2014). Networked learning can be supported not only by information and communication technology but also social and international networks.
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According to Roelofs and Cardé (1977) "Primary sex pheromone components are those that elicit long-distance upwind anemotaxis, while secundary sex pheromone components are those that are not essential for eliciting upwind anemotaxis, but that in combination with the primary components evoke other aspects of the mating sequence". But some autors use  concepts of Major and Minor components. There is a difference between Primary and Major, and Secundary and minoritary componets? 
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Each pheromone is mixture of many compounds. Major ones are those without which pheromone does not work.Miner ones elicit specific behavior.
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Why is the Endo-Crown concept not widely used while studies showed a significantly higher fracture resistance and more retentive than crown over post and core?
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Dear Alaa, The cuspal deflection is a reality and we have to take this parameter into account as much as the patient occlusion. Having said that i think that the dogma you cited in your statement is not reliable anymore. Each clinical situation is different and moreover this dogma and these old principles were right many years ago. A lot of progress have been made. At the moment, the bonding procedures and the less invasive dentistry permit to perform partial restorations instead of full coverage. Likewise, we try to avoid to place a post which can trigger more problems than advantages. Of course it doesn't concern the most of clinical cases but we have to keep in mind that the crown can be sometimes avoided.  In case of wide cavity and if the occlusion is favorable, you can sometimes indicated a bonded partial restoration with a cuspal coverage (ceramic or composite only or overlay). Sorry not to be in accordance with evidence based dentistry regarding this topic but i believe that we have to preserve the dental tissues and unfortunately the worst enemy of the tooth is often the dentist himself. Finally, the dogma you cited is a good point for the dentist business but not necessary for the patient...but it's an other topic...
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The concept of an "equivalent rounded obstacle" is used to account for radio propagation losses over various possible irregular terrain shapes, including
shapes which cannot easily be described geometrically.
I saw the previous paragraph in the attached paper, but I could not find any other useful document about this concept. Does anyone know more?
Also, I need a picture to see an example for replacing an irregular terrain with a rounded obstacle! I draw my imagination in the attached figures. Are they true?
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This ITU recommendation document may also be helpful.
Search for  FR-REC-P.526-7-200102-S!!MSW-E.doc
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For instance, in physics experimental data are necessarily quantified with rational numbers (the discrete) whereas theory lives in the continuum (real numbers). How is a connection between the two possible?   
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The question of discrete vs. continuous in science is a very active topic.  I can only provide a few related references, from a mathematical perspective, in the answer below, which was recently sent in response to the earlier question at:
·         "This topic is one of my favorites.  An earlier reference to mereology seems to hint at the mathematical and philosophical importance of this topic.  The Polish mathematicians, Leśniewski and Tarski, discussed this topic, and the relationship to set theory, as the foundation of mathematics. See http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mereology
Conceptually, the set is a whole and its elements are the parts.  More recently, John Bell has a brief analysis of the topic.  See http://publish.uwo.ca/~jbell/PARTS.pdf
The results also carry over to ongoing work on the continuum problem, Bell also discusses the topic of the continuum, which is synonymous with "the set of Real numbers".  Can a continuum be considered a whole with numbers as parts?  This can boggle the mind, but the philosophical and epistemological importance is undeniable.   See http://publish.uwo.ca/~jbell/New%20lecture%20on%20infinitesimals.pdf
There is lively debate on these topics and their impact on philosophy.  It is fairly well summarized in Stewart Shapiro's (2005) "The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics".
I hope that you enjoy these references as much as I do."
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For an article on the concept of ecosystem services (and the multiple diverging interpretations of its meaning) I am looking for studies that have investigated the fluidity of concepts, and (ideally) the discursive effects thereof.
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Thanks Nelson