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I want to test the effect of enzyme application on decomposing organic waste like palm oil empty fruit bunch, trunks, and fronds. Is it necessary to shred this material to a smaller size?(just like composting)
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Dear Dr. Fahrurrozi Fahrurrozi , Thanks a lot. I appreciate it.
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Cation exchange capacity is a critical indicator of soil health. I would really like to know which nature-based solutions such as biochar, compost, and others can help to increase the soil cation exchange capacity and how this can be done.
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Dear Elaheh Daghighi . This can be done by improving CEC in weathered soils by adding lime and raising the pH. Otherwise, adding organic matter is the most effective way of improving the CEC of your soil. See the useful link: https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/soils/guides/soil-nutrients-and-fertilisers/cec
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I want to know difference between fermentation/biorafinery/ composting and is that fermentation and compostion are the sub-classes of biorefenery?
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Hi Karima,
Your question has been well answered by Christoph Wittmann.
I just wanted to share that composting has been successfully practiced in both aerobic and anaerobic ways, but aerobic systems are most common in practical applications.
In case you want to know more about carbon transformation during composting, pls refer the following document:
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I would like to know: 1. researches and published papers about the probable pollution glass pieces make into the soil, and 2. the successful detection of glass pieces in municipal wastes before the process of compost production.
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Yes absolutely
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I would be glad to know the opinion of soil researchers in determining the optimum amount of chicken manure, which is ideal to be applied in date palm orchards, even direct or mixed with compost, to improve soil health for higher yield of fruits.
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Thank you I.V.Srinivasa Reddy for your useful tips regarding the application of chicken manure in date palm orchard. Could you please give some references for that?
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I have been reading “Handbook of reference methods for plant analysis” (Kalra (ed.), 1998) and other methodological books and papers to learn how to properly dry and analyse samples of vegetables and other sources of organic matter (manure, or compost).
On the drying procedure, it is cleat to me that:
i) Above 60ºC you stop the enzimatic activity and microbial decomposition and the sample is dry enough to be powdered and analysed (Carbon and nitrogen in a CNHS elemental analyzer, and P and K by digestions and mass spectophotometer), but it is not completely dried.
ii) From 80ºC the sample must reach a water content of 2-5%, and thermal decomposition starts, but it can be only problematic in powered samples.
iii) At 105ºC you have lost some elements by volatilization (N and S, and probably a little part of C), therefore it’s not recomended to dry at this temperature for elemental analysis. The sample is completely dried. There’s some thermal decomposition but nobody takes it into account.
In most works, if they want to know the nutrient contents and the dry matter content, they dry a subsample at 60º (and analyse its content in NPK) and other at 105º (and calculate the dry matter content).
My question is: how do you assign the nutrient content obtained with the sample at 60º to the dry matter, if you don’t know the water content of the sample dried at 60º? Should you take another subsample of the 60ºC subsample and dry it at 105º? Other researchers confirmed me that they dry all the samples at 105ºC, even for elemental analysis. How much nitrogen and carbon can we lose at 105ºC? I guess it depends on the element form (if N is in NH3, NO3-... ), but on average for plant tissue, manure, or compost, does anyone know how much it could be?
On the other hand, biomass is matter mainly composed of carbon and hidrogen, with small amounts of other elements. To measure the organic matter content of a sample, it is incinerated at 550º or more, and the difference in mass from the dried sample to the incinerated matter is assumed to be the organic matter.
The question is, why do atoms of P and other elements bonded to carbon structure are not considered as organic matter? Probably it is not easily measurable, but from the definition of organic matter, I understand that these elements are part of it. In addition, some elements like nitrogen or sulphur that don’t stay on the ashes are also considered organic matter (because they contribute to the mass loss when incinerated). I guess that these elements don’t represent too much, but I am surprised that nobody accounts them.
Thank you in advance.
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Air-dried/oven-dried at 105 to 110 °C or sun-dried.
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Over the past five years, I have volunteered with a local youth group in Malawi (https://www.facebook.com/YED22). Among others, we committed thousands of volunteer hours, engaged local leaders, visited schools, organized waste cleanups, and initiated conversations on sustainable waste management in our community. Looking back, this is how the general waste disposal practice in our community has changed after 5 years of our efforts (Note: Nkhuti = composting pit, impact = private waste collection, and Mtsinje = open dumping).
While we are celebrating our success, we also have food for thought or a question for you all.
Here is the question: 'When we started, our assumption was that open waste dumping is practiced by households that do not have any subscription to private waste collection services nor have a waste disposal pit. With this assumption, we expected that the general reduction in the proportion of households that dispose of waste in the river or public places will translate into abandonment and/or reduction in quantities of waste that is disposed of in our communities' waste dumpsites. What do you think our assumption missed? Looking into the next five years, how do you suggest that we can change the logic behind our voluntary work to actually make a more tangible impact in our community?
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The CO2 Evolution rate of a fresh compost sample is measured by using a NaOH trap. Is it either a physicochemical or a biological process parameter?
Thanks in advance.
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Santhoshi Ch In compost, CO2 is formed by microorganisms, and sometimes small animals are also involved. But it is not only respiration (end product of aerobic oxidation). Other metabolic processes producing CO2 are fermentation (anaerobic processes), decarboxylation of poly-carbonic acids, etc. There could also be a release of CO2 from carbonates resulting from metabolic acidification, then it is a mixed case of biology and physical chemistry. Your method with the NaOH trap is really archaic. Try to find the IR gas analyzer.
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Recently, organic amendments such as biochar, compost, and residues are used to treat soil acidity in combination with lime. Lime releases Ca and bicarbonate ions which replace acid cations (H & Al), neutralizing them from the soil solution, and ultimately raising pH.
I need elaboration on the mechanisms of how 'organic amendments' treat soil acidity and raise pH.
Thank you for your information.
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Interesting points Abesh. Biochar is good at reducing acidity. Some authors also indicate that biochar contributes organic acids and CO2, which ultimately unite with water to form carbonic acid. In this cause, biochar increases soil acidity. How do you see this issue?
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There is a current upsurge in research into microbial fertilisers and carriers of microbial inoculants to boost soil fertility, e.g. the use of biochar and compost. After treating the soil, how can we effectively measure the successful establishment of the beneficial microorganisms?
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I am totally agree with @ J.C. Tarafdar Sir. Apparently soil Respiration and dehydrogenase activity measures the microbial activity in soil. For soil Respiration we can go for either alkali trap that has been discussed or we can go for rapid techniques by comprehensive analysis of soil health by Cornell University.
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Soil organic carbon is undoubtedly claimed to be the key driver of soil fertility , the consequential effect of which is visible on a whole range of soil properties , thereby, possibly ensuring the better crop performance . Regulating soil carbon is most stupendous task, though , it looks easy ( many would advocate simple application of composts and manures) . In this background, , i propose following questions to our learned colleagues to please enlighten us with your shear wisdom of knowledge :
* How should we enrich the organic matter content of the soil and to retain it as legacy carbon ?
* How shall we regulate different carbon pools of soil vis-a-vis choice of crop?
* How does fallow period jeopardises the net gain in carbon through preceding crops ?
* What are the options of more recalcitrant forms of carbon and their potential role in long term sustainability in crop production ?
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Soil organic matter is the main component for soil health by means of soil organic carbon enrichment. Besides that more SOM leads to more microbial proliferation as a result more nutrient transformation. However SOM may act as a vital component for soil fertility build up but not necessarily for the crop performance. Because all fertile soils are not productive. Productivity of any crop depends on many factors like climate, water, nutrient availability, optimum soil environment, other anthropogenic activities etc.
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In the field of environmental protection and conversion of waste into compost, I am looking for a method that can reduce or eliminate leachate and eliminate its odor so that it can be easily used in parks and green spaces.
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Dear Mohammad,
The most common cause of bad smell during composting is existence of anaerobic condition. This situation is generally created by the presence of excess moisture. In your case, it is indicated by the occurrence of high amount of leachate.Some of our friends have already suggested several useful measures to overcome the problem. Addition of water absorbing materials like dry leaves, straws etc is likely to give better result. However, if your waste materials contain too high amount of water, you need to reduce them before using for composting.In addition, frequent turning of the substrate helps to add oxygen in the materials. These are a few simple and easily adoptale techniques to reduce the leachate amount and foul odor.
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The price of imported chemical fertilisers reach an all-time high recently due to increased freight costs. It is high time for small-scale farmers to substitute chemical fertilisers with working and effective non-chemical solutions. This question seeks to look for working solutions in substituting chemical fertilisers, without significant reduction in crop yields. For example, via the use of potent bio-fertilisers, composted farmyard manure, and plant growth-promoting bio inoculants, amongst others.
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The best alternative to chemical fertilizers and does not leave negative effects on the growth and yield of plants is bio-fertilizers like (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azospirillum brasilense… etc.)
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Given that coconut fibers absorb 8 times their weight in water, and seeing the results of composting it first hand it definitely seems that a lot of material is produced. A dry chunk of coco looks tiny compared to what I ended up with. It was also a lot faster than composting other sources, possibly from being so absorbent. It really stuck with me especially because most types of life use a lot of water to survive and it composes a lot of their biology, from what I understand soil microbes are technically aquatic lifeforms. Is there reliable evidence and does anyone have experience? If so would the biomass be 8x the dry weight or more like 6x and the rest in temporary water weight? Or could the material simply be lighter and less compact than regular compost and I didn't notice?
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Coir would be a great additive for compost because it mitigates unpleasant smells. Furthermore pests note get attracted for it. In wet status the amount of microorganism produced is high than dry state.
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why does the carbon to nitrogen ratio be important in preparing compost for plant growth? if it is an important parameter to be analysed, what is the standard ratio that should be maintained?
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It should be around 28-30:1. In this C:N ratio microorganisms become active in maximum potential. So this ratio should be stabilize.
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I want to know the simple media based plate count method for determination of autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial count in any mature compost sample
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I do agree with J. C. Tarafdar.
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Hi, can anyone kindly provide material that clearly explains how to determine the enzyme activities in compost or organic fertilizer?
Thank you
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Microbial activity is of great importance forbiological and biochemical soil processes because itdirectly influences the transformation of nutrients andorganic compost. It is also qualitatively and quantitativelyassociated with the presence of extracellular hydrolyticenzymes which are important in the process of decomposition and mineralization of organic matter. The most important general indicators of soilmicrobial activity are microbial biomass C and soilrespiration, while specific indicators are related to theactivity of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such asphosphatase and β−glucosidase, involved in nutrient cycling. Microbial communities in the soil are enhanced and stimulated by the addition of organic waste, especially due to the presence of readily available nutrients and C compounds.
(PDF) Microbial and enzymatic activity in soil after organic composting. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236121600_Microbial_and_enzymatic_activity_in_soil_after_organic_composting
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I am planning a field project to evaluate the effect of biochar and compost application on crop productivity by studying soil fauna. I would like to understand that how much such plans can help us to understand the sustainability in agriculture and soil science.
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Also check please the following useful RG link:
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It is obvious that pesticides constitute one of the most difficult issues that we should deal with in farming activities, I would like to get an idea of the impact of the composting process on pesticides levels in end-composts products.
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Some pesticides are phosphorous compounds. Whereas, others are organic possess Functional groups viz., a halogen, methoxy, C=O, H-C=O, OH... some long carbonic chain could be a target to micro Flora such as Bacteria and fungi, and macrofuana such as insects. Some of them are uptake in weeds and crops. Others are leaked deeply with groundwater. In contrast, biowastes may either increase toxicity of given pesticides or increase certain pesticides degradiation. Given biowastes consisted from many compounds, biochemicals, organic compounds and hodgepodge chemicals resulted in activation chemical reaction. Consequently, these reaction caused adsoption of some chemicals on colloidal clay surfaces. Some of them persist for a long term in soil and groundwater.
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I want to run a field experiment to monitor the success of soil measures by studying soil fauna in defined plots. In this regard, I would like to ask if any soil researchers could help me how I can determine the application rate of biochar and compost I should apply to each plot; also I like to compare different doses.
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I would be grateful if any researchers can recommend a guide reference to this case. It can be a link or article or whatever you think may help me to make up my mind in this issue.
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One new isolated unidentified bacterium growing well on specific agar media but not on broth media of same compostion (except agar). What could be the reason?
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We are same pH as agar media and incubation temp @ Katie A Burnette Chiara Germoni Amlan Jyoti Ghosh
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When the CO2 evolution rate in compost will be considered on the basis of total total solid and organic matter?
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I think that the first formula expresses the quantity of CO2 compared to the organic matter (OC) and the second compared to the dry matter of the compost (TS: total solid). But, but, logically the values ​​must be reversed (2 mg CO2- C per g OC per day ;
1 mg CO2- C per g TS per day)
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It becomes obvious that use of manure composts as organic amendments and adoption of conservation agriculture could improve soil properties (physicochemical and biological properties) and prevent natural resources.
I would like to start this discussion with a large public of researcher from different fields whom are specialized in Soil sciences, composting andAgrienvironmentalist.
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Below you can find the link to two recent published papers:
The first one is recommending the best performing dosage of biochar in co-composting in improving the quality of compost and reducing nitrogen loss. Here it is emphasized on the point that composting can be used to transform the layer manure, nitrogen rich solid wastes generate in poultry breeding and agricultural production, into a environmental-friendly and more stable fertilizer product.
The second one is recommending the best conservation agriculture wheat-rice production strategy accelerating soil carbon pools and hydrolytic enzymatic activities and also the best idea for its overall adaptation to appropriately carry out the ecosystem functions.
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Soil organic carbon is undoubtedly claimed to be the key driver of soil fertility , the consequential effect of which is visible on a whole range of soil properties , thereby, possibly  ensuring the better crop performance . Regulating soil carbon is most stupendous task, though , it looks easy ( many would advocate simple application of composts and manures)  . In this background, , i propose following questions to our learned colleagues to please enlighten us with your shear wisdom of knowledge :
* How should we enrich the organic matter content of the soil and to retain it as legacy carbon ?
* How shall we regulate different  carbon pools of soil vis-a-vis choice of crop?
*  How does fallow period jeopardises the net gain in carbon through preceding crops ?
* What are the options of more recalcitrant forms of carbon and their potential  role in long term sustainability in  crop production ? 
Thanks and kind regards
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Anoop Kumar Srivastava Yes i do feel that Organic Matter is a must and have as Humic materials and Humus is a must and I have personally seen changes in few crops in the agricultural fields and believe me overall enhancement is more than 30-35%
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There are many things that must be known before carrying out the composting process in the field, what are they?
📷
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If you are talking about composting prior seeding or transplanting, better to consider:
1. Field should be free from previous crop.
2. The first ploughing should be already accomplished.
3. FYM must be well decomposed.
4. Do not spread the FYM in the field to prevent from nutrient loss from volatilization and leaching.
5. If you need to store the FYM for few days in the field, cover it with mulching materials, soil or black polythene sheet.
6. Spread the FYM thoroughly/uniformly in the field.
7. Cover the spread FYM with soil properly for efficient use of its nutrients by plants.
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Can someone suggest reference books for the design of various composting units and incinerator.
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I do agree with J. C. Tarafdar.
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Dear All
I would like to assess ammonium content in soil and compost, I wonder whether it exists a simple spectrophotometric method to perform such analysis.
Warm Regards.
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Yes , it does exist..using Nesslers reagent...
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What are the factors that restricts the the survival of earthworm?
What is the efficiency rate of the conversion from waste to the compost in such restricted condition?
What are the supplementary condition that can be given to avoid the death rate of the earthworms?
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The survival of the Earthworms depends on the many factors like the pH of the composting pit should be optimum and the temperature of the pit also 22 to 30 degree. earthworms used in the vermicomposting are epigeic (surface decaying organic material feeder) so the feeding material also a limiting factor for the earthworms survival in the composting pit. several other factor are also responsible for the earthworm survival like humidity/moisture content of the pit, 50% aeration should be required for the pit. in the composting pit the citrus fruits causing the lowering the pH of the pit so during composting the citrus fruits should be avoid for better earthworm survival.
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Hello,
I'm doing a project about consuming domestic food waste into community planting using Bokashi Compost.
This project background is having an organic planting store in the flat community in the future due to the urbanlization while the farmland is is reducing. So having places to planting inside the city and having a store to planting or farming while consuming food waste through Bokashi compost, rooftops planting, eg.
But the Bokashi Compost takes long time to have the organic fertilizer and semi-compost products, so I am looking for a way to speed up the process or another way to do the compost.
If there any suggestion please comment this post, thank you.
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The following reference may be consulted.
Rapid in-situ composting of houdehold food waste
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Soil organic matter is made up of four major pools or fractions – plant residues, particulate organic carbon, humus carbon, and recalcitrant organic carbon. Plant residues and particulate fractions are also called labile soil OC. These pools vary in their chemical composition, stage of decomposition, and role in soil functioning and health. Each of the different carbon pools decomposes, or turns over, at a different rate.
Assume we have added organic amendments such as compost and manure to the soil. So, do the organic amendments decompose within a year to form the different pools or fractions of soil OC such as labile pool, humus, and recalcitrant pools?
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I feel the environmental conditions such as temperature among others may also be a contributing factor
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Sulphate composts are useful for alkaline soils. There are huge amount of sulfur production during refinery processes. Sometimes these amounts of sulfur can not be directly used and should be converted into some other by-products. What is the easiest way to convert organic S into SO4 compost?
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Please find the attachments.
Regards.
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Pulp and paper mill sludge waste Or agro-waste, which one substrate best for vermicomposting and after vermicomposting which compost has more nutritive value?
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This question is interesting but does not account the wide range of variation within both groups of organic resources or as I prefer feedstocks for vermicomposting. Please don't fall into the trap of prejudging resources. There's no black or white if it comes to vermicomposting organic resources.
MyNoke has vermicomposted 1 million t of organic waste in New Zealand form various industries (pulpmill solids, DAF, AS, paunch, wood ash, ...), agriculture, sewage sludge, lake weeds etc.
In both groups you will find extremely 'clean' and 'contaminated' feedstocks. E.g. some paper mills produce a very clean fibre which is cleaner than cardboard (no ink or glues), same applies to milk sludges. On the other side there are some 'agri-wastes, that are high in copper, zinc, pharmaceuticals, and extremely high in ammonia, which makes it difficulty to vermicompost these without harming worm population or leaching of N.
The pH of 'industrial' wastes varies form extreme alkaline to acidic, too.
Even lake weeds can be highly contaminated, e.g. if from geothermal areas.
Please! Do not generalise and judge on 'feedstocks' by their origin.
We are vermicomposting sewage sludge / biosolids which are slightly elevated in metals and finding biosolids with metal concentrations well below soil limits. So even biosolids are different from source to source or WWTP to WWTP.
My advise: be open minded. Do your homework and test and review each source of feedstock for your worms individual. Combine organic waste where possible. Fibre (carbon source) + nutrient + pH buffer. Think of your own dinner where you might have a carbon source, vegetables, fruits ... worms will enjoy a balanced feedstock, too.
Industrial organic by-products are often very consistent and it is much easier to standardise the mixing ratios. Agricultural organic wastes can vary making it more difficulty.
Some agricultural wastes don't require vermicomposting and can be applied to crops and pasture beneficially without costly vermicomposting. Whereas industrial organic by-products often require stabilisation such as through vermicomposting.
Kind regards
Michael
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Hi everyone! I have a question for my farm compost.
So i just do my research and try to look for a compost with :
around 3.5% of Total N Content,
around 5% for my P2O5 content, and
around 1.5% for my K2O content.
And i just wonder, if i just combine :
Cocoa shell meal with 2.5% N, 1% P2O5, and 2.5% of K2O,
with
Worm casting that has 1.5% N, 2.5% P2O5, and 1.3% K2O,
Would it turns my compost into 4% N, 3.5% P2O5, and 5% K2O just like that?
i'm so confused as i'm not really good in both chemistry :D (as a geophysics engineer, chemistry is such a hard subject for me).
Thanks!
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Dear Muhammad Ardhya Wirananggapati,
I do not think that you will get the proportion you intend. It is not a nutrient balance study you are doing. What is lost during your process? What is the process? There I am sure you will not get what you proposed. It is better to look at it at different proportions and then you will reach some rates than this one. That is why combination studies are recommended!
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I am researching about how to accelerate composting of lignocellulosic residues. Through this research, I would like to get PhD degree. Please give me any hints and constructions to let me be able to step up!
Thank you so much,
Linh Nguyen Hoang
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Thank you so much Dr. Prem Baboo and Dr. J. C. Tarafdar for your sharing.
I am grateful your help!
Linh
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Compost is composed of decomposing different organic substances like cow dung, poultry litters, plant debris etc. In contrast, slurry is the remaining substances in the fermentation tank after producing bio-gas. However, which one is more nutrient enriched substance?
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a semi-liquid mixture, typically of fine particles of manure, cement, or coal suspended in water. It might be mire or muck, silt, alluvium, etc.
Meanwhile, compost is a refuse heap or a mixture of ingredients used to fertilise and improve soil. Compost is commonly prepared by decomposing plant and food waste, recycling the organic materials so that the mixture is rich in plant nutrients and beneficial organisms such as worms and fungal mycelium.
Thus, depending on the raw material from which it is made, compost might always be relatively richer than slurry and vise versa. Copost normally contains at least a bit or even a lot of all the nutrients present in slurry.
Slurry might be easily absorbed by plants but will last for a shorter period as compared to compost.
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Diaz, P.. (2016). Consequences of Compost Press Mud as Fertilizers. DJ International Journal of Advances in Microbiology & Microbiological Research. 1. 28-32. 10.18831/djmicro.org/2016011005. Organic fertilizers derived from Sugar Press Mud (SPM) yields better production of crops. Sugar press mud or the sugarcane filter-cake is the residue of sugarcane industry which results from the processing of sugarcane where sugar mud is separated from the crush. The total supply of sugar press mud varies from (1-7) kg from the processing of 100 kg of sugarcane. Sugar filter cake is used as a suitable fertilising agent since it is rich in micro and macro nutrients along with organic carbon. It is eco-friendly and protects the plants from various soil borne diseases. Press mud compost does not include any substances which are unfavourable for microbial action. In certain cases, press mud is mixed with other organic fertilizers to yield enriched compost. Whatever the case, the resultant press mud should not be added to the soil directly as it affects the welfare of human health due to the fast growth rate of pathogenic fungi. These are the disease causing microbes whose growth rate must be inhibited. The review deals with the physical, chemical and microbial functions on the press mud resulting in excellent bio-fertilizers. Enriched press mud is mixed with gibberellic acid to inhibit the growth of toxic chromium which affects the metabolism of plants. The fields which are ineffective by the over use of chemical pesticides can be brought into control by constant use of bio-fertilizers such as press mud. Usage of chemical pesticides may destroy the insects causing damage to the fields, but its impact over the health of living beings is tremendous. Press mud, on the other hand, is safe and very effective in producing income and killing certain insects affecting the crops as well.
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Yes
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I want to understand if compost derived from manure has harmful on plants.
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check :Effects of biochars on the fate of antibiotics and their resistance genes during vermicomposting of dewatered sludge - ScienceDirect
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other than composting.
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Compost from MSW can be used in the agricultural land as a fertilizer supplement. These papers may be beneficial for you.
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We are working on the applications of compost to increase crop yield, for which we have prepared compost and analyzed the N content with in our compost. Then we want to determine the amount of compost required based on the chemical fertilizers (urea and NPS) equivalence ratio. so how can we determine the compost requirement with Urea and NPS fertilizers equivalent?
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Dear colleagues:
I would like to know if anyone knows of a database that gives me the parameters pH, K, K, Mg, P, C, N, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd of common foods. I find a lot of information of proteins, vitamins, lipids, carbohydrates, etc... but not of ALL those elements. I want to compare them with the values of my compost in an approximate way for my students to calculate.
Thanks
D
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I have been seeing that it is not well defined what kind of compost should we put in biofilter, How do we check if its working or Is there any relevant guidance or technical specification for that? Do we have to add any micorbe culture to that?
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There are many materials you can use: from plastic fillings (random), structured plastic and other natural fillings such as bark, wood chips, coarse fraction of composted material, etc. Coarse fraction of compost seems to work quite well to retaining and develop of microorganisms although the long term durabiity is limited.
You can perform a search in internet about this topic and you will find a lot of references. Good luck
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In some European countries, in Africa, in Latin America and even in the Caribbean, individual sanitation by dry litter toilets is practiced by some communities. The residues from these toilets are then composted and used in agriculture.
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I think this paper will help you. Best Regards.
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In many countries, eating vegetables produced with compost from the toilet is prohibited. Is there really a big problem?
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I think this paper will help you. Best Regards.
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I have a research investigation that I got the results, I applied 4 different composting processes to vegetable waste (manure, manure+Effective Microorganisms, Effective Microorganisms and a control) I measured pH, temperature, mass and humid density through 3 months (divided in weeks), knowing this, to get the best and most accurate P value: should I get a P value for every month, or getting a general P value for each treatment and measurement is the best option?
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General p value for all tratments per each componemt
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I am interesting in making compost, especially for farmers.
Composting and metahne fermentation are the good way to reduce organic waste to landfill and good for incineration in terms of energy recovery. If anyone have experiences of producing compost or mathane fermentation from organic waste.
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You must look for biodegradable wastes at your region. Best of all are crop residues (such as sugarcane and corn stalks) and manures (such as cow and chicken manure). However, in most cases a combination of different biodegradable wastes give you the best results. You must notice that the waste used for composting and fermentation must be low in ligno-cellulose, heavy metals, pathogens and other inhibitors.
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what are the effects of composting process on capsulated bacteria???
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interested
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I am currently trying to quantify the viable count of trichoderma spp. in a compost sample. However I do not have much literature on the range for plate count of fungi. should I be following the standard 25-250 colony range for APC or should I follow the the 10-150 colony range as recommended by the american FDA for yeast and mold? thank you so much for answering.
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About 50-100 colonies in one plate, this number can be counted, but if the number of colonies increased more than this number, it can not be counted easily.
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Dear Sir
I came across your paper. First of all, congratulations on your amazing research article. Loved it! Also, I am very interested to know, why is the waste that is collected in the Netherland, shipped to Asia? is it for composting purposes or recycling of it?
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Dear Sir
Thank you very much for such a well-justified answer.
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We know that vermicompost is far better than compost manure and chemical is too exe and deficit too so for marginalized farmer it will be better to promote vermicompost but its production in commercialized scale is limited and not easily available so how will it be effective and what will the way to continue its journey in agronomic crops as a alternative option.
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"Compost" and "vermicompost" are both organic substances which are essentially used in soil for agricultural production. Compost is prepared by fermenting cow dung, liters, crop residues etc., alternatively, vermicompost is prepared with a special type of earthworm mixing in cow dung for a certain time. But which one is better for all kinds of agricultural cultivation?
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Vermicompost is better than compost due to its higher nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content, and its ability to improve the soil structure, and to increase its water-holding capacity.
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Biodegradable or compostable? Which is better for daily consumption? Would a product where composting can be done easily at home is better? Is there much difference between the two? Also, is there a testing to differentiate or identify the two properties?
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Compostable, because it takes shorter time to recycle, and leaves negligible amount of toxins and residues. Whereas, biodegradable may often leaves some toxins-residues and may takes decades to recycle. It is well-known that "Biodegraded material is not necessarily compostable but compostable material is always biodegradable".
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Human fecal- sludges are taken for composting process either by pit or vermi methods.
Will like to assess, how are the efforts are made in the actual process, how long does it take.
Is it advantageous to have co- composting of the bio-solids, using a mix of bio- matter in the form of leaf- litter or cow- dung .
If some field data is available with C:N ratio, moisture in the phase of the process starting from initial to final stage of composting completion.
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Biosolids are usually composted by mixing with wood chips. I think more a coating so to let air keep it from going anaerobic. Sorry I forget the ratio of solids to wood chips but it is a common practice in Southern California.
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Hello, Dear scientists,
I would like to ask you a question. My project is expected to add superphosphate in the composting process. Will it cause secondary pollution of phosphorus? Does it make sense to add superphosphate to compost? Looking forward to your reply.It would be my pleasure if you could share the literature with me. Thank you!
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Dear Meiyang Zhao there are a few relevant publications on this topic available right here on RG, e.g.:
All three papers are available as public full texts on RG.
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Taking food waste from restaurants. After crushing it, steaming it at 130 + degree Celsius. Using a patented biomass based steam generation tech. After cooling, an enzyme is added for odor control and compost. 10 days time, it is becoming very good compost. Wanted to know the scientific effects of steaming - understanding it is nanonizing and neutralizing the waste, whether it will help in reducing the methane emissions.
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Congratulations for the initiative, wish you a bright success! :)
(In a later step, when the system is running, I would try something like on the attached flowchart.)
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Is this reason is sufficient ? It is low in nutrient value, but on both conventional or organic farms, it brings in a good source of micronutrients, building soil biological activity and increase cation exchange capacity .
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If the input comes from the farm itself the process is returning nutrients. If the source is off-farm it's adding them.
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We often receive requests to adding biochar to the vermicomposting process to increase the value of the vermicast or the process itself. Most papers I found to this topic are actually finding that biochar hardly ever adds value to vermicast but vermicast almost always adds value to biochar. I would like to see a comparison of the products as single product (controls) and as of combination and to understand where the value adding aspect is.
As the quality of the compost vermicast and biochar varies a lot we need to compare high quality products against each other. Using a low grade compost and a high grade biochar will of course increase the compost quality (even sawdust might do so). But on the other and a high valuable biochar might be 'misused?
Regarding Terra Preta which is used as a referent for the value of biochar. These soils are high in nutrients, biochar, and earthworms (vermicast). What exactly is adding how much value to the soil fertility?
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Biochar co-adsorb organic pollutants along with native organic matter in the soil. Biochar also may cause secondary pollution. It is necessary to maintain soil organic matter for higher crop yields. So, I suggest to add biochar(less quantity as additive) to suitable compost (more quantity). It gives more total nutrient value to the each other.
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HI Friends,
I'm trying to create Organic Compost using cow dung and other naturally available stuff to create Organic Compost which has the same Nutrients as NPK & DAP. so that we can avoid 60 to 70% usage of the chemical fertilizer in our land.
Please let me know is there any method or substitute available.
Regards,
Ram
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@ Ramanand, it is very difficult to achieve same level of nutrients present in chemical fertilizers. But you can enrich your compost using the following methods:
1. Application of bonemeal or phosphate rock: 1 kg of bonemeal or rock phosphate is applied over each layer of animal dung.
2. Use of animal bones: these can be broken into small pieces, boiled with wood ash leachate or lime water and drained, and the residue applied to the pits.
3. You may also use Azotobacter or Azospirillium culture to enrich nitrogen and PSB or phosphatase and phytase producing (PPF) organisms to enrich phosphorus.
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The composting process is one of the solutions proposed to treat organic waste. However, significant losses of nitrogen are recorded during this process (20-70%), which reduces the agronomic value of the compost.
best regards.
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I agree that the role of microorganisms is essential since they perform the decomposition process of raw organic materials. But then again, the role of the composition of the substrate as well as the storage process is also important.
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We are working on the mathematical modeling of the decomposition of organic residues for the realization of a reactor of a product similar to composting in approximately 24 to 48 hours, although first I would like to know if it is feasible and if there are previous works on this topic. Any response will be of great help. Thank you
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Dear Diego!
Composting per definition is an aerobic, exothermic, controlled biological degradation and conversion process including a thermophilic phase. Organic matter is degraded (mineralisation) and converted into stable humic compounds (humification).
This process needs time! To produce high quality compost a period of 8-12 weeks is necessary.
The problem by speeding up the process is that mineralisation will be enhanced ==> organic matter will be transformed mainly into CO2, H2O and some microbial biomass. Thus no humification will be possible.
The endproduct of speeding up may be (if there is enough moisture and oxygen during processing as well as a balanced nutrient ration in the feedstock mixture) a stable, mineralised material containing some nutrients - but NEVER high quality compost.
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I am building an off-grid home in Tamil Nadu, India and I am researching possible options for Black water, fecal matter and grey water disposal or composting.
Does anyone have any information about the solutions here or has anyone tried doing this before?
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I agree to @ Prof. Tarafdar's comments. ECOSAN is also a good choice. We had a paper, in which Anthropogenic waste were used in agriculture as a manure source . Please find enclosed the same
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We are working on the mathematical modeling of composting for the realization of a composting reactor in approximately 24 to 48 hours, although first I would like to know if it is feasible and if there are previous works on this topic. Any response will be of great help. Thank you
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It's not possible
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These models can be of the different stages of composting, either from the thermophilic or mesophilic stage. Thanks
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Hi everybody,
does anybody have reliable protocol for measuring the protease activity? We would like to establish the protease activity from laboratory compost experiment (made from sawdust) and currently used protocol is not working.
The input material is wet sawdust and we probably use buffer which is not working properly with this material (PBS buffer pH 8 with Triton X-100). Then azoalbumin is added, mixture incubated at 37 °C, the reaction is stopped by 10% trichloric acid, centrifugated, add 1M NaOH and absorbance measured 440 nm. The measured absorbance is from 0-0,004, there is a possibility there is a low level of proteases, but we would like to proove the occurence/absence in our sample with different protocol.
Thank you.
Susan
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Hi Zuzana,
Please follow the link below that might give you some help regarding measurement of protease activity..
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During a composting experiment, it was found that the best results are therefore obtained with a litter made of 100% bagasse, which may be due to the presence of residual sugar, the biodegradation of which must play an important role in the temperature rise. Are there other interesting vegetable waste?
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paddy husk can be a good option
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i have being using the leftover of teabag in my house garden for the past two months and i noticed improvement on plants growth and color of the leaves! , I m interested on research has been done on this, what is the Benefits from compost teas ? what is the effect on soil ?
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You can also see the paper
Taha, M., A. Salama, M. El-Seedy, I. El-Akhdar, M.S. Islam, C. Barutcular and A. El Sabagh (2016). Potential impact of compost tea on soil microbial properties and performance of radish plant under sandy soil conditions – greenhouse experiments. Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 10 (8): 158-165.
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I'm working with the enrichment of an organic compost with PGPR, but this compost is not sterilized. How could I quantify viable cells of Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens in this organic compost 30 days after inoculation? Are there selective media? Is there any other method? For Azospirillum, could I use an indirect method, as NFb?
Cheers,
Artur
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Generally you can quantify by serial dilutions by quantitative means. Regarding to viable cells species, you must have to isolate specific media and pick up the prominent viable cells and observe growth by treaking method and it's increasing size. Then prepare pure culture slant without contamination and identify phylogenetic tree construction by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing under PCR for perticular species identification.
This answer can help you..... thanks.
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I currently study the possibility of an environmental assessment of viable biowaste management systems for São Paulo, Brazil. The objective of the study is to support policy decision making in a strategic scope. This inevitably led me to a life cycle assessment (LCA). Although, several obstacles led me to consider modelling it in Microsoft Excel:
- Softwires and inventories for life cycle are normally paid, a not viable option to non-funded research in developing countries.
- The objective is to develop a viable framework to municipalities/states with low technical and economic capacity. Excel is a simplified, yet the most viable option to make it accessible for policy making.
- Brazil does not have an extensive and consistent life cycle inventories database yet. Thus, most databases have a huge uncertainty about Brazilian conditions, as these are based on different environmental conditions for emission factors (as example use on land emissions of fertilizers in tropical soil). In this context, inventories in national reports, thesis and other sources present as more convincing sources of data.
- LCA softwires and inventories normally are not as transparent as Excel in allowing several changes in programming code, simulation, etc.
So, is it scientific accurate yet or would it not be considered a LCA as do not follow good practices guidelines (as ILCD)?
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Victor Hugo Argentino de Morais Vieira you have yourself included the answer to your question in the end. Here is my take on your points:
- Calculation (not modelling) in excel is possible but has its own limitations. With the help of characterization factors you can at the most calculate carbon and energy footprints but not other impacts. Plus it will not be possible to create all the background processes in excel as mentioned by Edwin.
- You can write to the SimaPro distributor in Brazil who can make the academic version available to you free of cost.
- Yes, excel is easy but would you want the policy makers to see the results and your recommendations or give them the excel to understand ?!
- Unit based (not system based) processes in SimaPro are extremely transparent and you can see every input and output of all the background processes. You can copy and create your own processes if the local inputs are different. I would not be worried about the code and simulations as long as I have all the inventories of background processes in front of me.
- Finally your last point is the key.....Yes it will not be technically accurate to conduct LCA in excel as your results will give the incomplete and biased picture. Plus it will be difficult for you to answer all the queries in case you go for ISO /third party review of your report.
Since you want to conduct it for policy makers, I would suggest to go for a complete and technically correct LCA as per the ISO guideline. All the best!
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I have been working on bioplastic biodegradation under the soil. So after a certain period of incubation in the compost, due to the action of microbes and soil physicochemical parameters, the plastic degrades and breaks down. The products formed as a result of biodegradation are lost in the soil. For example, if there is a kind of additive that persists in the soil for durations longer than usual post degradation, like carbon black, which may pose a threat to the environment. How am I supposed to retrieve them or are there any techniques or soil analysis methods to find out the products of biodegradation in the soil?
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Ecotoxicological test is a good suggestion, however, I understood that you want to analyse the degradation products.If you start directly from the soil extraction, it could be to complex to understand the pathway.
I suggest to star with mixing a selection of microbes, a solid inert support (e.g. sand) and your plastic to test. Be aware that in natur a co-metabolism is ofen used in these pathway. The experiment has to be planned consider all these factors.
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Dear all,
I am trying to figure out how to derive and n parameters of the Van Genuchten equation for compost samples taken from an urban farm. RETC has predefined values for these parameters for different soil textures which are not appropriate for my samples since they have a high percentage of organic carbon. In addition, I cannot use Rosetta because the samples' bulk density is very low (<0.5 %) and I have no data in silt content.
Kind regards,
Stella
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Anoop Kumar Srivastava , Claudio Beni Apologies, I meant 0.5 g cm^3 !!!
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on preparation of substrate for mushroom compost we need the information of Moisture content(MC) of the raw materials. The common way to determine the MC is by using oven-method, but this way takes some hours while we need the info instantly. So I am thinking of using MCmeter but still wondering if it is accurate enough to measure MC of raw material such Paddy Straw.
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I have had the same problem and found out, that the most relevant measurement would be the water activity, because the moisture content is (mostly) not linear compared to the increase of available water in the substrate. I've found that good equipment to measure the water activity of "soft matter" are hygrometers and water activity meters. They are anyhow a bit expensive.
If you, or anyone, has an advice on how to measure the water activity with a "cheap" device, I would also kindly appreciate it!
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During composting of bioplastic under aerobic conditions, there has to be an oxygen inlet. The microbes will use the oxygen to metabolize the bioplastic into carbon dioxide and water. What is the correct setup to estimate CO2 evolution during composting? How can we determine the amount of CO2 evolved? How to supply oxygen for the composting to be aerobic and then at the same time trap the carbon dioxide that is released? Like any kind of opening left for the incoming of oxygen will eventually lead to the escape carbon dioxide released during the process of composting.
Please guide.
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Dear @Disha Pamecha.
To achieve your goal, you need to conduct an incubation experiment on your material. As I mentioned before, you must use respirometry. Set up the assay using 100 g of the material under study (for example, 100 g of the material that is in the compost pile), the control (another bottle containing the only bioplastic) and white (empty bottle containing a NaOH beaker). This type of trial generally lasts 28 to 35 days. And the CO2 readings captured in the NaOH are taken every 7 days. At the end of this period, you will have the courses of degradation of bioplastic and total daily or weekly CO2 evolved.
Please see:
This articles there is methodology detailed to respirometry assays.
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Please I need an answer:
I have a treatment contain enriched compost with microbes. I need to evaluate the microbes but don't want to proceed a CFU. Can I use the t60 uv vis spectrophotometer ?. And if yes what procedure to follow?
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Thank you Dr. Tarafdar
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Hi all,
i want to know what is standard compost (made from mixed plant matrials)needs to be added in per hectare of soil..?? secondly how much of compost will be required for soil in kg (kilograms) in case we are conducting pot experiment.??
Thanks
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It is simply impossible to supplement full dose of RDF through compost , gone are those days for any field or horticultural crops.
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Dear all,
I am working with some composts and potting mixes and was unable to grow plants in some of the pure compost blends.
The EC of those composts was measured to be around 6-8 dS / m and available nitrate was well exceeding the standard curve of >600 mg / kg soil
Are those two measurements an indicator of compost maturity or compost quality? I'm aware that in most situations it is not advisable to grow anything in pure compost. However, would the EC and available nitrate of compost decrease as it matures?
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Safe use of compost in plant cultivation requires the application of mature compost. Quality tests that are closely related to maturity and stability of compost need to be performed before its addition in soil. Some of the quality standard for mature compost are as under
C:N ratio (<25: 1), pH (6.5-7.5 because at this pH, there will be less volatilization of NH3, reduced odor and balanced microbial population), EC (< 3.0 m mhos), phytotoxicity test (germination index >60 %), moisture (25-30 %) and self heating test for compost stability (< 30 o C). Estimate urease activity to test that nitrogenous substrates of raw materials have been fully degraded or not
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It is necessary to clear all the doubts related to the composting of Parthenium weed. So that anyone can prepare and use its compost without any hesitation. As Parthenin and many allochemicals are present in the weed. It will be very helpful if we can prepare an inventory of these chemicals and also tell their fate in as prepared compost.
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This is the area , we are not sure...
Allelochemicals and signaling chemicals , released into the environments playan important roles in regulating the interactions between plants and other organisms. Allelochemicals participate in the defense of plants against microbial attack, herbivore predation, and/or competition with other plants, most notably in allelopathy, which affects the establishment of competing plants. The plant-organism interactions that are mediated by allelochemicals and signaling chemicals take place both aboveground and belowground. In the case of aboveground interactions, mediated air-borne chemicals are well established. Belowground interactions, particularly in the context of soil-borne chemicals driving signaling interactions, are largely unknown, due to the complexity of plant-soil interactions. The lack of effective and reliable methods of identification and clarification their mode of actions is one of the greatest challenges with soil-borne allelochemicals and signaling chemicals. Recent developments in methodological strategies aim at the quality, quantity, and spatiotemporal dynamics of soil-borne chemicals.
Several reports describe the allelopathic significance of microbial metabolism products. For instance, a bacteriumActinetobacter calcoaceticus, can convert 2 (3H)-benzoxazolinone (BOA) to 2,2′-oxo-l,l′-azobenzene (AZOB) which is more inhibitory to some plants. On the contrary, bacteriumPseudomonas putida catabolises juglone in soils beneath walnut trees; otherwise, juglone accumulates at phytotoxic levels. This review article describes the nature of microbially produced allelochemicals, and the ways to mediate microbial degradation of putative allelochemicals. The given information develops an understanding of persistence, fate and phytotoxicity of allelochemicals in the natural environment, and also points out the possible solution of the problems due to microbial interventions in the soil. Source: Annals of Microbiology volume 58, pages351–357(2008)
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I need to know the standard process to maintain water content in the soil during aerobic composting in pots without actually disturbing the set up. Do we need to use any specific instrument or moisture content experiment is the only way to do it?
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The question seems to relate to composting something mixed with soil, but what is being composted? Regardless of the 'what', maintenance of an aerobic state will rely on the relative rates of gas diffusion and microbial decomposition of the 'what'.
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For my co-compost sample kindly need the suitable software/guidelines to interpret the XRD, SEM with EDAX and FTIR results
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Apart from reading relevant articles, the following software packages are considered useful tools for interpretation of your results:
FTIR: IRPal
XRD: Xpert and OriginPro
SEM: ImageJ (for determination of particles ,...)
With warm regards,
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Dear experts,
I am looking for case studies of nitrogen recovery from composting installations. More specifically I am interested in nitrogen recovery as scrubber waters (ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate) via ammonia scrubbing systems (or other air washing pathways).
Thank you in advance,
Claudio
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Perhaps of some interest to this query ― About ammonia gas scrubbing with nitric acid (and related enthalpy balance), at this forum: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_the_heat_reaction_for_Ammonia_gas_scrubbing_in_60_nitric_acid_solution