Questions related to Comparative Anatomy
I have used Allen Mouse Brain Explorer for years and it was awesome but it no longer works on my Mac and its super depressing. Any recommendations for anatomy/ comparative anatomy atlases with advanced features or photos as apposed to illustrations ?
Many Thanks in advance
I am studying bat brains through endocranial casts and I cannot identify which structure could be present in sort of a canal located dorsally to the cribriform plate. It is like olfactory nerves exit the olfactory bulbs through the punctuated cribriform plate, while another thing exit the olfactory bulbs more dorsally, going over the cribriform plate. It's really bizarre because it's like a plate of space starting at the antero-dorsal top of the olfactory bulbs, and depending on the taxa it can variate in thickness (sometimes thinner at the center of the bulbs, sometimes the reverse).
I tried to search in the literature but I didn't find anything satisfying. I eliminated the possibility that these structures may be vomeronasal nerves (they originate at the dorsal top of the accessory olfactory bulb, so rather in the middle of the main olfactory bulb ; see Fig. 6 of
Could anyone help me ? Even if you don't work on bats especially, but on other mammalian groups, any idea would be helpful.
Thanks a lot,
Vets have wide-ranging training in comparative anatomy, pathology and therapeutics. At a time when zoonotic diseases are on everybody's mind and when animal models of human disease remain critical conduits of research discoveries, we want to understand how veterinary knowledge can be leveraged to benefit both humans and animals. Please share your input using the form below. You will be able to see what everybody else has said at the end, unless you're the first respondent!
Dear earthworm taxonomist,
Does any of you would have the "Cognetti de Martiis, L., 1927. Lumbricidi dei Carpazi. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia e Anatomia comparata della R. Universita di Genova, VII(10): 1-8. " ? A few species are described in there and I would need the informations...
Many thanks in advance !
A renowned dentist Howard Ferran opined that "Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth, usually but not always in pairs, that protrude well beyond the mouth of certain mammal species. They are most commonly canine teeth, as with warthogs, pigs, and walruses, or, in the case of elephants, elongated incisors". What is your view on this issue?
Is the preserving fluid formalin based, alcohol based, kaiserling's fluid or wet mounted specimens have been replaced by plastinated specimens?
is identification of complicated appendicitis still an unexplored part in our journey of managing appendicitis or there are some variables that we have finally found out? kindly give references for what you say. Thanks.
I am currently trying to calculate the angular variance of microwear on mammal teeth, in order to show how well orientated the microwear is on the tooth surface, and apply this to their diet. I have my dataset of all the microwear angles, now i just need to know how to calculate their variance/deviation.
Thanks in advance
Could anyone please suggest bibliographic references about the second metacarpal bones of neanderthal and paleolithic human? Thank you!
The spheno-occipital synchondrosis is frequently used for estimation of age in humans, with complete fusion of that synchondrosis denoting an adult (it fuses during adolescence). The literature on the subject is abundant in the fields of forensic anthropology, reconstructive surgery, bioarchaeology, etc. However, I fail to find any literature for estimating age in non-human animals using fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis. I am particularly curious to know whether this trait can be used to tell adults apart from subadults/juveniles in Ungulates (also in Carnivores and non-human Primates, by the way). Does anyone know anything about the subject, or at least point me to some papers/books?
Are there comparative studies of enamel thickness among Macaca spp & related monkeys? Macaques are omnivores who seem to have dispersed out of Africa along the Indian Ocean coastal forests unto SE.Asia, even Sulawesi. I have hypothesised that mid-Miocene hominoids followed the Indian Ocean coasts (first hylobatids, later pongids) and the Western Tethys coasts (hominids in coastal forests of the archipelagoes of the later Medit.-Black-Caspian Seas). Many early great hominoids had thick enamel, possibly for hard-object feeding (durophagy), which might also explain why all great apes (sometimes or often) use tools. Is durophagy to be expected more frequently in coastal than in inland forests?
In the protocol, "remove the skin of the telecephalic bulb and skull gently from the head by holding the neck region with a forceps. Squeeze off the telecephalic bulb by 45o angled Dumont forceps".
I don't understand well the meaning of "squeeze off". And whether the skin and skull of brain are removed from cephalic or dorsal part firstly.
Veller et al. (2002) classified the biogeographic methods in a priori, which allow data modification in cladograms, cutting and add taxa to getting a maximum adjustment of general area cladogram, and a posteriori methods with not allow alteration of cladograms and explain the incongruences after the analysis. In this classification BPA (Brooks Parsimony Analysis) is put in a posteriori method. Thus, is possible apply the time-slicing method of Upchurch et al. (2002) to a BPA of fossils taxa?
Here's a question for the ICZN buffs out there:
If a species is described from a whole specimen that is split into separate museum lots, is the holotype both of the lots, or just one?
For example: I describe a novel species of snail from a specimen, and the description includes a description of the shell, the soft parts, and the radular anatomy. When depositing the specimen, I separate the shell and it gets a dry catalogue number. I separate the radula as well and it gets a separate catalogue number. The soft tissues get their own number and go into the wet collection. Are all of these lots still the holotype? Are they syntypes? They are all parts of the same organism but are obviously separate museum objects if they are prepared this way.
Mosasaurs have different types of teeth (see attached figure from Bardet et. al, 2014.)
But so do crocodiles...So, How to distinguish in general mosasaurian teeth from crocodilian? (for example the first picture shows Crocodyliformes tooth, and the second Prognathodon sp. (Mosasauridae))
Many extant birds use mechanical sounds, or sonations, intentionally as communicative signals; most often in the context of courtship, and usually made by the wings or other feathers.
Behaviour does not fossilize particularly well, so we are pretty clueless about what the courtship displays of avian ancestors and primitive birds may have sounded like, or been produced by. But for fun, does anyone think that wings (and other feathers) could have been used to produce acoustic signals during courtship? What might they have sounded like? What might this tell us about the use of sonations, and evolution of vocalization and vocal learning among other reptiles and birds respectively?
The hagfish (Mixinidae) are seemingly the descendents of the most ancient animals on the planet developed the gallbladder. It would be interesting to learn more of the oldest gallbladder anatomy, function, and histological traits. This may shed also some light both to its normal function and the spectrum of its congenital disorders. The sketch drawn (after Gorham & Ivy, 1938, with changes) and provided below is my attempt to show the putative evolutionary tree of the gallbladder having about 500 million years.
Comments to the picture:
- a horizontal bar - for the orders lack the organ completely
- a single GB shape - for the orders having the organ in some species and lacking in others (partly devoided the gallbladder)
- a double GB shape - for the orders possess the organ obligately
- a dotted GB shape - for the extint orders (putatively possessed the organ)
- a red GB colour - for the completely carnivorous orders
- a green GB colour - for the completely herbivorous orders
- a brown GB colour - for the omnivorous orders
- a patched GB - if the order included both carnivorous and herbivorous species
I would like to know if there has been a comparison of the differences between dogs, wolves, monkeys, or any mammals in the specific brain areas, primarily the pre-frontal cortex.
It is my understanding that neurological studies are usually conducted first on specimens such as mice, rats, or flies. I am aware that these animals are model organisms, and that findings collected from studies conducted on their genes and physiology would shed hints on the workings of human genes and physiology.
That being said, I am sure that there are still several differences, and that just because finding A was shown to be the case for Mus musculus, it would not always be as similar in the case of a human subject. What information should one ascertain, now, in order to justify that studies on a model organism would be applicable to human biology, particularly in the field of neuroscience?
Is there a database or resources that contains the surface area, or length of mammalian pinnae? I am looking for data for a meta-analysis, either measurement would be fine. Thanks
I'm leaving my research comfort zone (movement ecology) to explore potential braincase changes in mammals. Specifically, I'd like to measure how the shape of a mammal's skull changes throughout it's life post-parturition. As I am quite naive to this topic, I'm asking my peers to suggest papers or other sources for me to familiarize myself with.
Have others quantified size changes in mammalian skulls before? Do mice skulls become 'flatter' with age? Besides sagital crest development, do carnivore skulls become wider with age? These are the sort of questions that I'm looking into.
Any suggestions would be helpful. Thanks in advance!
There are many contradictions in the literature as to the origin of the omo-cervicalis (aka, atlanto-cervicalis, levator claviculae) muscle in non-human primates. Miller 1932 reports it's on the spinous process but all images (including his) appear to depict its origin on the lateral aspect of the pars interarticularis. Any informed knowledge on this from dissection or otherwise? Not from the usual literature citing Miller (ie., Aiello, Wood).
This question is provided to Comparative Anatomists, Embryologists, Developmental Biologists and especially those who called themselves Evolutionary Biologists.
I’ve got a cervical vertebrae from what I expect to be a Mustelidae Mammal.
However, I’m having trouble pinning down a more exact identification.
The most curious feature is the reduction and overlapping of the specimens neural spines…
I thought it was an armadillo for a while, but comparative anatomy and the literature is getting me no where.
I really hope you can shed light on the mystery,
A gallery of pictures of the specimen is here; http://imgur.com/a/POpoX/
I am a histologist and I am currently delving into the area of facial development of vertebrates (specifically the origin and route of the nasolacrimal duct). Thus far, I have published rabbit, lizard and snake. I have Mongolian gerbil in prep and Albatross and Alligator in the wings with Coqui frog lined up. I am preparing my sabbatical proposal, and I am trying to find where I can get more of such series. Any suggestions/volunteers for potential sources?
Good day. I am interested on how one can accurately measure the Q-angle on cadavers, if this is even possible. Also, if possible, state the name of the article that supports this notion.
Can anyone please help in providing different techniques for dissection of the Nodal arteries in order to determine their origin.
I am currently doing it according to the attached article but I have seen that the procedure doesn't work on every specimen.
If you have experience in these type of dissections please elaborate on your technique.
How the environment the prey has been caught in, and prey itself can affect snake’s cranial morphology? Which bones and their features (length, width, height) affect snakes adaptation (fitness)? I'm particularly interested in data on the core Macrostomata group (pythons and boas).
I encountered m1's of Microtus oeconomus (n=3) and m1's of Microtus gregalis (n=4) in a small faunule, also containing Lemmus sp. and Dicrostonyx sp., in the Netherlands. From 3 upper M2, 1 has a posterior appendage, completely isolated from T3, looking like a M2 of Microtus agrestis.
Gromov and Polyakov (1977) mention on page 397 of the english edition(1992) about Microtus gregalis, the following: "M1-M2 in individuals of some populations tend toward formation of additional lobes at posterior end and on M1 toward isolation of complete triangles from second lobe of paraconid section."
No figure or picture is presented with this phenomenon. So I don't know if this looks like a M. agrestis loop. Does anyone know a picture of a M2 of M. gregalis with the above mentioned features? Then I can compare and perhaps see if the M2 is of M.agrestis or M. gregalis.
Character 13 from Bell, 1997 matrix, or Character 12 from Leblanc et al., 2012 matrix.
Frontal ala shape: sharply accuminate (0), or more broadly pointed or rounded (1). In state 0, the anterolateral edge of the ala is smoothly concave, thus helping to form the sharply pointed and laterally oriented posterior corners.
So why, for example, don't Plioplatecarpus houzeaui have sharply accuminated ala (after Konishi, 2011)?
I am looking specifically for nuthatch skeletons from the Middle East and Asia. No species are rare in their distributions, just in Western museum collections.
Some fossil teeth of small mammals, especially sciurids, present enamel crenulations that can be more or less developed. This feature is sometimes used for subdividing subfamilies as a diagnostic feature or apomorphy. I want to know if ontogeny can concur in the creation of such a pattern in the enamel teeth.
Vasomotor tone can be represented with vascular wall tension. The question refers to whether males for example have a bigger wall tension than females, based on differences between the genders.
We are looking for a general allometric equation or a table with relevant data to predict brain size when skull size is known.
By developmental cell lineages, I mean a tree-like structure connecting the zygote to all the cells (preferrably >100) at certain stages of development, describing their ontogeny/descendant relationships. The cells at the "Terminal" of the tree would also better to be classified into functional types like "muscle/neuron" or "liver/kidney".
I'm aware of developmental cell lineages in C.elegans (by Dr Sulston) and some other nematodes(by Dr Houthoofd and Dr Borgonie from U Ghent) that suits my needs, as well as an ascidians (the "sea pineapple").
So I wonder if there's such information for other species, especially those model organisms for developmental biology. For example zebrafish, leeches, sea urchin, etc.
If you're aware of some incomplete develpmental lineages (meaning not all "terminal" cells are covered, like Dr Eran Segal in Weizmann Institute done in mouse), or lineages without terminal cell classification information, please also listed here with notes of corresponding issues.
Essential sameness across taxonomic/evolutionary variations is underlined by the concept of 'homology'. Some authors prefer to fundament it topologically, referring to invariant morphologic loci within a Bauplan, whereas others emphasize a sharing of developmental causal mechanisms, due to inheritance of conserved aspects of genomic control of morphogenesis. Commonly single homologies are 'discovered', but I pose for discussion the issue whether we should not conceive that, if the Bauplan is shared, some general sort of homology should automatically apply to all body parts, so that variation and emergence of novel features are part of the potential loss of similarity, which does not affect homology.