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Dear Colleagues,
I have a very generic question, more prone to be a discussion. As you know, the number of papers devoted to modular networks (networks with communities or partitioned networks) is increasing. The majority of research is about detection of communities. My curiosity is the following: There are papers dealing with the problem of ranking nodes across communities. For instance, a generic ranking can be obtained as an aggregate form of rankings locally obtained within each community (using some centrality measures). When you aggregate rankings obtained within different communities, you can use for instance "primus inter pares" style. For instance, you can compare nodes in different communities only if they have earned the same rank in their different communities. This is a simple idea and, for sure, not the unique idea. I have been searching for papers dealing with those types of conceptualisation or applications on modular networks but I haven't found very much on this issue. For instance, Something similar is done when they compare teams in different European football leagues (communities) since they have to form "qualification groups" for the final part of the Champions league (across communities). But they use scores obtained within the specific football league. Thanks very much for your attention.
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Thanks everyone. Anna Cristina Brisola I am trying for it. I have discovered that those types of problems have some significance in information retrieval. In that area, you need to rank pages and results and you need to preserve a certain balance among different clusters. Why? You have to optimise searching results against the lack of knowledge of users' preferences. You must play mixed strategies on different clusters and within the cluster you rank by network centrality. Actually, those problems are somehow met also in the theory of fusion or aggregation of simple one-criterion rankings.
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I was once asked to volunteer to teach a philosophy course for U3A. I had to turn down the request because of the excessive time involved in travelling to and from the venue, otherwise I would have been happy to do it. However, I later learned that even volunteer instructors were required to become fee-paying members of their U3A chapter. Since I had no interest in availing myself of their services I thought that policy was a bit much.
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I should emphasize that I don't have a problem with U3A's use of unpaid instructors. I have great respect for pro bono volunteerism. Nor do I have a problem with people who make use of U3A's course offerings and other benefits having to pay a reasonable membership fee; the various U3A chapters do after all have overhead costs to cover. But I was taken askance by the idea that volunteer instructors or tutors should be required to pay U3A membership fees even when they make no use of U3A's services. Also, it likely works as a disincentive for potential volunteers.
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Research can have many different kinds of effects and impact depending on the discipline and the research organisation. Society’s expectations of the impact of science are also different for different disciplines.
Researchers are encouraged to consider how their work is connected with wider issues, extending beyond academia. It is important to ensure that both policy-makers and the general public are aware of the effects and impact of research and the potential it carries.
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I work with decentralized biological wastewater treatment solutions that can be adopted not only by cities and industries but also in needy and isolated communities that do not have sewage collection and treatment services.
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twitter.com the rapid news service is used by the US president to make global politics...
It is said to be a fast, powerful and influential communication tool also for scientists - do you use twitter and if so when and how? Please share your insight and experiences...
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RG is the most usable social network for scientists.
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What would constitute 'Best Practice"? What are the motivators and enablers?
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Ensuring that the participants feel as quick as possible a sense of social inclusion and wellbeing - we have been inspired some research on this in our projects and conducted our own research - see attached
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I am using R package FD in order to calculate functional richness (FRic) in a set 36 species and 10 communities. I am using 4 functional traits: four of them are continuous (class: numeric) and one is ordinal (class: ordered factor). The resulting FRic values are very low (e.g., 1.494876e-16), regardless the correction I applied to the species x species distance matrix and the setting of other parameters. The only way to obtain more "realistic" values (e.g., 3.544822), is to exclude the ordinal trait from the analysis, or to store it as numeric in the data frame of functional traits.
I noticed that the same happens when using the "tussock" dataset, which is provided by the package.
Does anybody have an idea of why are FRic values so low?
Thank you in advance for any suggestion
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Hi all, I've got a similar question with FDis values from 9 mammal assemblages which range from 4.001 to 5.031 (mean ± SD = 4.690 ± 0.290). I'm using a set of 28 traits, mostly binary traits. As far as I know, these values appear to be very high. For the same assemblages, functional evenness ranged from 0.481 to 0.667 (mean ± SD = 0.557 ± 0.048) and and Rao’s square entropy from 17.62 to 26.04 (mean ± SD = 23.150 ± 2.582).
Thank you in advance for any suggestions!
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Any suggetion on what would be a good research topic for a quantitative approach through the followings topics I have interest in?
- Smart Cities – Geographic Information Systems
- Smart Cities and Communities
- Digital Government and Smart Cities
- Volunteered Geographic Information ( VGI )
- Geo-crowdsourcing and Social Media analysis
Thanks in advance
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Vania and Hayder - great ideas.
I was going to propose also the use of AI in smart healthcare as a way to achieve quality personalized health service, while maximizing human personnel use and lowering hospital costs:
The topic has a bright future, but is still in a nascent form. I do not know how much quantitative analysis can you perform in this context.
In terms of already available data that you can work with, out of all the topics you have enumerated, perhaps crowdsourced cartography (e.g. OpenStreetMap, efficient use of water/ land resources in agriculture) provides the best shot.
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Stephen King's name is synonymous with horror stories. Many consider King to be the most successful writer of modern horror fiction today. My question to you all are:
* How did you feel before watch horror movie?
* How did you feel when finishing the movie?
or
* Is there any positive or negative benefits we will get by watching horror movie?
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Dear سالم عبدالله أبو مخدة thank you for sharing your thoughts.
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I'm currently testing the water for a dissertation idea based loosely around the idea of communities being either proactive or reactive. (e.g. a reactive community meets after an 'event' has occurred to try and fix it, a proactive community meets before to discuss how to prevent an 'event').
I have come across community resilience and believe that this is a good way to get into the subject, now all I need is contextual work to look deeper into it.
Thank you very much.
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This might be of your interest
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
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If you have not studied your current science, what would you like to study?
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I liked Maths and Physics a lot. But, when I did tests of professional orientation at the end of my high school (mathematical gymnasium) the psychologists told me that I can't work with people and to chose the occupation connected to numbers and formulas. I was really very angry because of that and decided to become a teacher and to work with people.
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Do you agree with evolutionary theory?
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We need to distinguish between the fact of evolution and Darwin and Wallace's nineteenth-century explanations of the underlying mechanism. Virtually no biologists today doubt the fact that biological evolution took place over the last billion years, since it is the whole basis of modern biology without which the science loses its coherence. Darwin and Wallace's theory, that natural selection is the main mechanism underlying biological evolution, has been fundamentally and extensively confirmed by a vast array of subsequent findings in different fields of geology, chemistry and biology. Of course Darwin and Wallace were not able to provide a full explanation, since in those times genetics as a field did not exist - which actually makes their insight more remarkable. This means that there is now open and legitimate discussion of the details of the mechanisms of natural selection, sexual selection, genetics, etc. None of this discussion, however, puts the fundamental correctness of the theory in doubt and the fact of evolution is as reliable as any other profound set of ideas in any field of science.
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I am seeking for extracting roles of social aspects including social capital in climate change adaptation.
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There really wasn't very much literature on global cooling.
There is a useful study addressing this issue: Peterson, Thomas; Connolley, William; Fleck, John (September 2008). The Myth of the 1970s Global Cooling Scientific Consensus. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. American Meteorological Society. 89 (9): 1325–1337.
By the late 1970s when the popular media captured on the idea of global cooling and deemed that argument headline worthy, the majority of scientific papers on climate change were suggesting warming rather than cooling (see Peterson et al cited above, which found that of the 71 papers published on climate change from 1965 through 1979, 7 [9.86%] suggested cooling; 61.97% predicted warming; and the remaining 28.17% reached no conclusion). Moreover, based on the difference between the scientific literature and the suggestion of global cooling taken up in the media, the World Meteorological Organization issued a statement (a reprint of the article is here: https://enthusiasmscepticismscience.wordpress.com/h-h-lamb/1976_june_22_times_worldstemperaturelikelytorise/) to the media that the current scientific evidence in 1976 that stated "significant rises in global temperature are probable over the next century..."
So, in this example, one could say newspapers and magazines (Time magazine, for example, published an issue in April 1977 with a cover depicting a penguin walking on ice with the bold "headline" that read "How to Survive the Coming Ice Age"), which have some level of established social capital (some level of trust in news-reporting), attempted to play up the cooling findings in a minor portion of the scientific literature. Since newspapers were not, at the same time, reporting that most of the literature was reporting concern about a future warming trend, newspaper publishers/editors were using their social capital to, one could say, manipulate public opinion. Why? Who knows....
In any event, the "famous" scientific paper, which was in part at the center of the cooling claim, was also being mis-represented, (http://science.sciencemag.org/content/173/3992/138). That paper suggested that cooling might result from air pollution related to aerosols if aerosol pollution levels increased by a factor of 4. One of the authors of that article, Stephen Schneider, later argued that he had mis-calculated/over-stated the cooling effect, and underestimated the heating effect of CO-2 by a factor of 3 (see his book, Stephen H. Schneider and Lynne E. Mesirow, The Genesis Strategy: Climate and Global Survival, Plenum, April 1976). Thereafter, as is well known, Schneider published numerous manuscripts on climate change and global warming. Later, Schneider also used his social capital, appearing on TV talk shows and in documentaries to discuss climate change to provide a scientific view.
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I am looking to expand on my own research in this matter and would like to coordinate research anybody else is doing on this subject or possibly collaborate with them.
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Dear friends
which plant communities can be used as optimum and standard community? what about salt marsh plant communities? can they used as optimum and standard? any suggestions?
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thanks Majid..
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The circumstances under which communities, acting independently and without external help, contribute to conservation outcomes remains poorly understood. One of the challenges is that most of their activities go either assumed or unrecognized. In either case the processes are undocumented.  When contributions are detailed in the literature it is often not central to the account and can be hard to find.  I would welcome any suggestions with links to source material. 
I am looking for accounts of what a community did (or does) to address threats to conservation values. I suspect that field workers often observe these things and sometimes document them. I am particularly keen to find examples in the terrestrial tropics. (A summary of what I have already found, and of some observations by my colleagues and myself can be found at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279758180_Unseen_sentinels_Local_monitoring_and_control_in_conservation%27s_blind_spots ).  Thanks for any leads!
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Very interesting subject. I know many examples of monitoring and conservation (as well as management) by indigenous and peasant communities in the Bolivian Amazon, and have tried to write down some examples to be able to alert regional and national policy makers about what you call the “tragedy of unseen sentinels”. However, I’m afraid most documentation is very superficial, and mostly just a small part of publications with much broader focusses. But anyway, I’ll try and suggest some publications that may be of interest to you.
In the ForLive project (Manejo Forestal por Pequeños Productores en la Amazonía) we identified several examples of practices of management of forests and valuable species. The following publications present some of these practices, while suggesting corresponding adaptations in forest policies for the Amazon.
Pokorny, B., J. Godar, L. Hoch, J. Johnson, J. de Koning, G. Medina, R. Steinbrenner, V. Vos & J. Weigelt. 2010. La Producción Familiar como Alternativa de un desarrollo sostenible para la Amazonía: lecciones aprendidas de iniciativas de uso forestal por productores familiares en la Amazonía boliviana, brasilera, ecuatoriana y peruana. CIFOR, Brasil. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49908448_La_produccion_familiar_como_alternativa_de_un_desarrollo_sostenible_para_la_Amazonia_Lecciones_aprendidas_de_iniciativas_de_uso_forestal_por_productores_familiares_en_la_Amazonia_boliviana_brasilera_e
Although the PROMAB Project had a more applied focus, the publication summarizing most of the findings of this Project (in the form of a proposal for community forestry) includes some information on local practices, and the need for their consideration:
Llanque A., & V. Vos (Eds.). 2011. Manejo Forestal Comunitario; Una propuesta para el norte Amazónico Boliviano. Programa Manejo de Bosques de la Amazonía Boliviana. Riberalta, Bolivia. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315114820_Manejo_Forestal_Comunitario_una_propuesta_para_el_norte_amazonico_boliviano
You may also be interested in a study we published with CIPCA. Although it’s more on agroforestery systems promoted by a national NGO, it also includes some information on local practices and the adaptation of the original technical proposal by local producers, while also entering a bit more into the motivations for the managment of these agroforestry systems.
Vos, V.A., O. Vaca Ruiz & A.Cruz. 2015. Sistemas agroforestales en la Amazonía Boliviana, Una valoración de sus múltiples beneficios. Centro de Investigación y Promoción del Campesinado en coordinación con IIFA-UAB. Riberalta, Bolivia. 198 Pp. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280805298_Sistemas_Agroforestales_en_la_Amazonia_Boliviana_una_valorizacion_de_sus_multiples_funciones
Another publication I’d like to suggest is the proposal we elaborated in relation to the brazil nut crisis. This document includes a chapter on local proposals to improve the sustainability of brazil nut populations.
Vos. V.A. 2017. Propuesta para el componente productivo de los planes de mitigación de la crisis de la castaña de la Amazonía boliviana, Aporte técnico como insumo para los planes de emergencia. Centro de Investigación y Promoción del Campesinado Regional Norte Amazónico. Riberalta, Bolivia. Pp. 79. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316120830_Propuesta_para_el_componente_productivo_de_los_planes_de_mitigacion_de_la_crisis_de_la_castana_de_la_Amazonia_boliviana_-_aporte_tecnico_como_insumo_para_los_planes_de_emergencia
A more popular description of some of the local practices for Brazil nut managment and conservation can be found in: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320420919_La_Castana_-_reporte_informativo_CIPCA_NA
Finally I’d like to suggest the article lead by Carolina Levis on domesticated species in the Amazon. Although it doesn’t really enter into the practices that could have shaped the amazon forests, it gives a good idea of the potential long-term impact these activities may have had on shaping the composition of these forests.
Levis, C et al. 2017. Persistent effects of pre-Columbian plant domestication on Amazonian forest composition. Science 355, Pp. 925-931. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314338566_Persistent_effects_of_pre-Columbian_plant_domestication_on_Amazonian_forest_composition
These are just some suggestions, and there is a lot more written and even more non-written information I'd be interested in sharing. Please feel free to contact me at vincentvosbolivia@gmail.com
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I have carried out T-RFLP to determine the diversity of bacterial communities, now I've come to analyse my results I am confused by the plethora of variation used in grouping and disregarding certain peaks. I understand the grouping of closely sized peaks and have gone with grouping any within 2 base pairs but as for disregarding peaks there is great variety in the literature as to what limits should be set. I understand the lower limit, most commonly 50 base pairs to account for any primer dimer but cannot find any explanation for an upper limit and how to decide on what the upper limit should be. Any help greatly appreciated.
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The size (or width) of the bins also depends on the quality of sizing. Are you using data from automatic sequencers or from conventional gels? In our GelQuest/ClusterVis software package (see: http://sequentix.de/software.php) we discriminate bins from 'hyperbins'.
Please refer to the two examples given here: http://sequentix.de/gelquest/help/hyperbinningdetails.htm
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In different papers regarding EFA, I have read that items with loadings under .32 should eliminate in stepwise procedure.
Do I choose the item with the lowest communality or the highest complexity?
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Hi Manuel,
Communality values are more relevant in factor analysis since they account for the variance of the items.
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Science was at the helm of affairs in our country (India) at some point of past time. History says so. But today it is not in the main steam. At best, Indian scientists repeat what has already happened, but they claim: 'we are also that exclusive club ' !. So people do not bother. The final result is that we are going back to older days!! Superstitions, fight between communities, urge to grab what is available, etc. What is the solution?
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Hi Dr. Menon, (Sorry, cannot find your name). So, we in Ukraine have the same problems in science and education that is closely connected with degradation of society. Efforts to provide western values actually leads to losing of traditional culture and appearance of a "new" generation of pseudo-scientists that only imitate some scientific activity to occupy good social position and to integrate into general scheme of state corruption in education and science. So, I even prepare a project about degradation of any principles and simple moral of e.g. biological faculty of UZHGOROD NATIONAL University. I'm publishing the facts and materials in Ukrainian as I'm really ashamed of what happening with my country but what can you say if a dean of biological faculty (!) has no any paper in the SJR-SCOPUS rank journals? Or professors of this faculty that nobody even eared about them in Europe? Post graduates that peaking and publishing results from their chiefs? Preparing diplomas for students for money bribing (and what about exams)?
Some of such professors didn’t make any experiment during last 20 years or even not participated one expedition. But what is the university that doesn’t support financially investigations and expeditions and where scientific advisors of post-graduates didn’t publish a single paper in SJR class journals? So, the name of it is GENERAL DEGRADATION. Moreover - these primitives are trying to destroy every normal scientist that shows their irresponsibility.
But simple peasant doesn’t differ professors and he is thinking that all lectures at the university are corrupted and bribers!
I hope that situation in your country is not worse... But anyway I see some bad signals over the RG as well.
So, first should clean the science from different fakers by improving precise criterions of possibility to occupy important position and to have mechanisms to follow the procedure. LIKE IN UKRAINIAN POLICE NOW WHEN YOU WILL PROPOSE BRIBE WILL BE WARNING IMMEDIATELY OR EVEN ARRESTED!
But returning for yours question. What can we do now is an example of our activity! I'm partially living now in the mountainous village in the Carpathians. I built their solar green tariff station on my roof! So, it is good example for locals how to act. It is the National Park area, and sometimes appear venomous snakes, so I'm catching them and move it into the forest... EXAMPLES. The only way.
Andrey
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I am doing a research on domestic violence and abuse as a silent culture in South asian communities in Australia. I am new to this research field. Please help me by recommending what kind of literature review would fit my research project?
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Hi Sama,
This is a literature review carried out on ethnic communities and family violence in New Zealand. It might be of interest to you.
Kind regards,
Alison Towns
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I am interested in rural Mayan communities in the Ixil region of the central highlands of Guatemala.
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You should read a fantastic dissertation in anthropology by Giovanni Batz, University of Texas at Austin, 2017. He did his research in the Ixil region of Guatemala.
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I am completing my dissertation on the sustainability of professional development through online communities.
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I agree with Samy Azer. This combination of research tools will lend more depth and meaning to the data analysis. I would also recommend your using the CoI survey to gauge faculty's satisfaction with the overall online PD experience.
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Puede alguien recomendar estudios desde la psicología sobre la conservación de bosques nativos por las comunidades? Muchas gracias.
Traditionally, studies have been carried out on the conservation of native forests of other disciplines, other than psychology. I have found related studies in community and environmental psychology, but not about the subject that I investigate.
Thank you very much.
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Muchas gracias estimads César y Dolores!
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I would like to investigate how social aspects influence adoption and permanence of developers on Amazon AWS software Ecosystem. Does anyone recommend AWS communities where I can carry out this study? A survey will probably be used
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any body has any idea where can I find new editions of plant community books with accepted prices?
Regards,
Salem
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thanks Muhammed...
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Diabetes is prevalent in close communities 
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Dear Husam,
I think major cause of diabetes is definitely lifestyle factors and genetic susceptibility BUT it has been seen that some infections are also the causes of Diabetes
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Under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), Chinese government is spending billions of dollars for the development of several important sectors in Pakistan.
I am interested to explore how to conduct an assessment of the socio-economic impacts of these development projects. It is pertinent to mention that few of these projects are completed while many more are in progress.
What empirical models/techniques can be used for assessment of the socio-economic impacts of the these development projects related to energy, infrastructure development, business and education on the local communities?
Thanks
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This is an interesting question and study. I would try to find out firstly by looking at policy documents from government what the aims and intended outputs of these projects are, how long they claim thelife span of these projets is and then undertake case studies with the local communiites and local governemtns abour their view of the intended v. real outcomes. I would also want to know if the local communties were consulted in the setting up of these projects. ie i would use a literature search followed by qualitative methods using semi-structured interviews to gain in-depth knowledge of local views in the regions. You could perhaps look to see how this kind of development has proceeded in other countries.
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I need help finding articles for my topic
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I would recommend searching within the International Journal of Transgenderism and the Transgender Studies Quarterly. Additionally, a quick search of 'transgender rural' in Google turned up a number of good articles to start your search, such as:
  • "Trans broken arm": Health care stories from transgender people in rural areas. 2016. Knutson et al. Journal of Research on Women and Gender, 7, 30-46.
  • ‘You aren’t from around here’: race, masculinity, and rural transgender men. 2016. Abelson. Gender, Place, and Culture, 23 (11), 1535-1546.
  • LGBT students in rural and small towns. GLSEN. 
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I would like to have your views on individualism: what it means, how it shows, and where it comes from. Is it a virtue to be emulated or a vice to be shunned? Is it a healthy trait, or a malady? How does it affect relationships in faith-based communities and/or families? Your responses and contributions of supporting sources will be highly appreciated.
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Being morally virtuous (as Aristotle explains it) involves having a disposition to behave in the right manner and at the mean between extremes of deficiency and excess, which are vices. In that sense, individualism per se is neither a vice nor a virtue. However, acting individualistically may be either vicious or virtuous, depending on one's motives and particular circumstances. 
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In what ways can the federal, state, local governments and its responders can be prepared. 
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Risk communication is an essential tool in health emergencies and disaster preparedness
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Hi,
I am interested in understanding why children from Scheduled Tribes (ST) and other socially backward communities ( apart from  genetic, lack of awareness, medical reach) tend to have higher prevalence of the sickle cell disorder.. Kindly suggest interesting readings on social-geographical research undertaken in this regard.. 
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This applies only the US as I understand it, but may be of interest.
The Unexplained Resistance to Malaria
In addition to their knowledge of rice and cotton growing, enslaved Africans from the “Rice” and “Windward” regions of Africa were valued because they appeared to have a higher resistance to the deadly mosquito-borne malaria disease than Whites and slaves from other regions of Africa. While this turned out to be the case, it was not until the mid-twentieth century the connection between sickle cell disease and resistance to malaria was discovered.
In the human body, normal red blood cells that carry oxygen are in the shape of discs (and are abbreviated HbAA.) However, when a person suffers from sickle cell disease, the cells become sickle shaped, which reduces their oxygen carrying capacity (HbSS). If a single copy of the mutated gene is inherited from one parent, it will result in the sickle cell trait, in which only some of the red blood cells of the individual will be sickle shaped (HbAS). An individual with normal red blood cells (HbAA) is susceptible to death from malaria. A person with sickle cell disease (HbSS) is susceptible to death from the complications relating to sickle cell disease. The individual with sickle cell trait, who has one normal and one abnormal gene (HbAS), has a greater chance of surviving malaria and not suffering the adverse consequences of sickle cell disease. (The first systematic investigation of the malaria trait hypothesis was conducted by Anthony Allison in East Africa in 1953. This required working with children between four months and four years of age, when the morbidity and mortality from malaria is greatest. The study was done in Ugandan villages...and Allison found that children in this age group carrying HbAS had significantly lower malaria parasite counts than in those with HbAA.)
While it was true enslaved Africans had some inherited resistance to tropical diseases, their masters were extremely vulnerable. Because of this, white planters lived miles away from their rice and cotton fields, and visited their plantations only between March and October. A white manager, or overseer, would be in charge of day-to-day operations, and even then, he might delegate that responsibility to a trusted slave working as foreman or “driver.” Thus, the coastal and island enslaved Africans had little contact with Whites, which allowed them to blend together the various African tribal traditions to form their own Gullah language, rituals, customs, religion, music, crafts and diet. The task system of labor would also play an instrumental part in this process.
From: Gullah Culture: 1670 to 1950 Paperback – March 16, 2017 by David B. McCoy Amazon
Gullah Culture: 1670 to 1950 Kindle Edition by David B McCoy. Also B % N.
This is on line.
Allison, AC. "Protection Afforded by Sickle-cell Trait Against Subtertian Malarial Infection". (FEB. 6, 1954). British Medical Journal.
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I calculated TWINSPAN and ISA in PC-Ord. I obtained 14 indicator species for 6 species group. Can I say communities and species group are one? Indicator species are calculated only for one group but some species can locate on two communities.
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Yes, you can – communities are, in fact, the same as 'species groups', whereas populations are comprised of just one species :)
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Dear all,
Because of a review I need to deepen my knowledge of the so called "crowding out" literature. Any suggestions about the most relevant contributions?
The idea behind is that welfare arrangements can undermine less formalizes solidarity practices (religious communities in my case).
thank you for your suggestions!
Francesco Molteni
Many thanks!
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Thanks professor Mazur and Brownlow!
Francesco Molteni
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I would like to make a review. Can anyone please share names/papers of works on the simulation of ancient sites populated with communities of historical virtual characters.
Thank you in advance.
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Dear Luay. Thank you for your input. That is brilliant work (and somehow old now) from a brilliant team. Anything else?
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Aspects like user identity and ethos affect how people negotiate meaning and communicate online. How does having an awareness of one's agency manifest the ability to create change in the world?
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The Cooper article helped me negotiate my understanding of agency. I have read the Gabrill et. al. piece, which shows how agency is situated within a certain context.
Recently, I came across Zappen's article "Digital Rhetoric: Toward an Integrated Theory." He discusses how discourse is modified through the medium of online communication. Speed, reach, anonymity, and interactivity, through online discourse have modified the way in which people think about communication and interaction has changed, since face-to-face rhetorical persuasion was introduced as an art. But more work has to happen for us to better understand the nuances and heightened emotions which the online medium allows us to engage.
Thank you Reza Biria and Dennis Mazur. This is helpful.
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I am researching into the role of Faidherbia albida in agroforestry systems in semi-arid Ghana. I intend to administer questionnaires to agriculture households in selected communities. How do I determine the number of households to administer the questionnaires to?
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You need to determine power. The power of any test of statistical significance is defined as the probability that it will reject a false null hypothesis. Statistical power is inversely related to beta, or the probability of making a Type II error. So, power = 1 – β. 
Statistical power is the likelihood that a study will detect an effect when there is an effect there to be detected. If statistical power is high, the probability of making a Type II error, or concluding there is no effect when, in fact, there is one, decreases.
Statistical power is affected chiefly by the size of the effect and the size of the sample used to detect it. Bigger effects are easier to detect than smaller effects, while large samples offer greater test sensitivity than small samples.
The power of any test of statistical significance will be affected by four main parameters:
1. The effect size
2. The sample size (N)
3. The alpha significance criterion (α)
4. Statistical power, or the chosen or implied beta (β)
All four parameters are mathematically related. If you know any three of them you can figure out the fourth.
So, you can calculate minimum sample size required to have a decent chance of detecting the effect you are studying. For example, if you had a sample of N = 100 households and you expected to find an effect size equivalent to R = 0.30, a quick calculation would reveal that you have an 57% chance of obtaining a statistically significant result using a two-tailed test with alpha set at the conventional level of 0.05. If you had a sample twice as large, the probability that your results will turn out to be statistically significant would be 86%.
I hope this helps :)
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A keystone species reduces the likelihood of competitive exclusion which will in turn increase the number of species that could coexist in communities. Without the keystone species, competitive exclusion will increase and cause the dominance of certain species.
Is it possible for another species to take the role of keystone species by adapting or modifying its diet such that it will primarily consume the resulting dominant species?
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That makes sense: if an entire guild of species is lost, the likelihood of species redundancy would be greatly reduced.  Hypothesis: when a guild is composed of a single species, its loss would be more impactful.
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Dear colleagues
I am working on documentation of TEK of ethenic communities of Hiamalaya. Can anyone suggest me some standard methodology (if any) to document the Traditional knowledge of a community.
Thanks and Regards
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There are many ways to go about documenting TEK, but the heart of it (in my experience) is combining ethnographic and ethnobiological methods. A good place to start will be defining what kind of TEK you want to look at (plants, animals, climate patterns, environment/human relation constructs, etc.), then using methods like free listing, pile sorts, and other structured interviews to understand cultural domains (Puri & Vogl, M. Quinlan, Berlin, Ellen, and many others have great examples of methods/theory here). These are a good jumping off point, and a great way to identify key informants in the field for future participant observation. From there, for more on informal interviews, collecting voucher specimens, etc. look up Nesbitt, Alexiades, or other ethnobotanists and -zoologists for protocol.  Hunn has quite a bit on TEK as well. Participant observation will be key.
All the best to you!
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I am particularly interested in smart communities research in healthcare.  I am also interested in exploring who the key academics are in defining the term
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Read the book; Smart Communities: How Citizens and Local Leaders Can Use Strategic Thinking to Build a Brighter Future by Suzanne W. Morse and published by Jossey-Bass. She is very thorough in defining smart communities.
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Hi!
We are analyzing the bacterial communities of tap water and we ended up with a high percentage of unclassified bacteria. What is the best way to handle them? I Should we treat them like any other taxa? Is it ok to remove them and then normalize all the samples?
Thank you very much!
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 Thank you Steve!
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I am planning to carry on a research on how to about awareness on Female Genital Mutilation. My woman and young girls are subjected to this every year in developing countries and I would like to help be part of the eradicating of this practice. Any ideas on how to best approach the matter sensitively ?
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Hi, for a start, you have to first identify the countries and communities practicing female genital mutilation. As you know, it is not universally practiced. Then you can design a research problem and form research group in these countries to work according to your design. Please see, if this sort of research collaboration is feasible. 
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The health care industry seeks to protect, restore, and enhance health.it is important to adopt an approach to design, construction, and operations and maintenance that supports a healthy environment, both in their facilities and in their communities
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You may find the following WHO publication useful : HEALTHY HOSPITALS,
HEALTHY PLANET, HEALTHY PEOPLE - Addressing climate change
in health care settings.
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I will continue my research about Productive Personality by Oliver V Gilmore in I/O Psychology. My Previous research is about productive personality in communities.
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No problem, good to know you benefitted. Regards
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I am looking to design / plan hybrid energy systems for rural communities from a sustainability perspective. 
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Hi Khanal,
To find a generic methodology for every country community won’t be easy. Since the conditions regarding, the energy system, local planning traditions, amount planning participants or their interests might differ strongly. Here, a generic energy planning approach which might be helpful for you. It have being referred in many papers and used in different cities.
 Mirakyan A, De Guio R (2013) Integrated energy planning in cities and territories: A review of methods and tools. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 22 (0):289-297. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.01.033
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I need a special team of 5 to 7 person who are interested in guiding me in an independent study for developing a global initiative on assessment, intervention, and prevention for trauma care and responses for individuals, families, and communities.  
I would like to have input from people all around the world as we the " team work' on this global trauma care initiative.
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Thank you, Naresh, I will be sharing more details on this study after March 15.  Look forward to having all interested persons involved.
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I am trying to use the Censo Ejidal 2001 and 2007 to know the distribution of land by sex in Oaxaca. I have already worked with the data and I have an important number of municipalities (42) without any information about their ejidatarios or comuneros in both years. I have checked that these municipalities do have ejidos and communities by using other sources…So if anyone have information about it, it would be really helpful.
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Dear Maria, I recommended to seeing a some books about the topic:  Mexican Federal Election Court has a many papers http://www.trife.gob.mx/
Regards
Gonzalo
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Learning communities can be used for learning more about a specific subject. Adults could use a learning community to learn another language.
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In Scandinavia there is a long tradition of "learning communities" called study circles. They have been popular especially among associations and other entities of the so called Liberal Adult Education. One common practice identified e.g. by the Finnish legislation has been a minimum 5 people studying a minimum 10hrs on a theme chosen by the group members themselves while one of the group members (who also can take turns in this) acts as the falicitator of the group (no teachers needed).
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There are 3,000+ TEDx curators in 170 countries around the world, offering events where people present positive ideas on technology, entertainment and design. I'm interesting in learning more about who these curators are, what motivates them and the impact of the work they are doing. I am a TEDx Curator living in Lincoln, Nebraska. 
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Have you got a typology for "type of people" yet? How are you looking at disaggregating "types of people".  Also, is the assumption that it is a good thing that TedX clips get curated. I curate all kinds of stuff, (I use Scoop.it) and I make my students follow me. So are you advancing a curation agenda, or a TedX one?
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In India, a large chunk of government schemes, jobs, and political portfolios is cornered by the socially and economically advanced castes and communities. Even a major portion of the so-called deprived sections' quota is appropriated by the persons and communities with established capabilities. What are the explanations as well as the implications of such a practice, then?
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Any move should be based on authentic data / details regarding various communities. A comprehensive Socio-economic Census (more detailed than the 2011 Census) needs to be conducted. Accordingly, the relative deprivation, socio-economic status etc. of various communities (including SC/ST/OBCs who are enjoying such benefits) should be assessed. Then only any move for changing the present system could be substantiated; say, before the Legislature / Courts of Law, or even the general public.    
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In trying to understand community responses to tourism development, it is common to use the irritation index proposed by Doxey (1975). This model suggests that communities have (or may be in) one of these 4 "irritation" levels: euphoria, apathy, irritation and antagonism. Unfortunately, I haven't found a paper that indicates how to accommodate research results into any of these categories. Does any one know whether there is a mathematical calculation that can do this? How can someone, from the research results, conclude that community responses fall in one of these categories?
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I need a bit more information. First, it sounds like there are five "points" on the response scale for the question (for example., from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree, with a score of 3 in the middle). There is no problem with that.
What I really need to know is how many such questions there are in the overall index.
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I am working with a dataset of six communities that were sampled at two time points. I am looking for a simple way to see whether functional diversity of each community has changed from time point A to time point B.
My functional data is count data [number of species per community with a given functional trait]. As such, my dataset seems too small for most ordination approaches. Overall, I am investigating multiple traits within three different functional categories [growth form, habitat preference, and symbiont status]. At the moment, I am treating each functional category as a separate dataset.
Thank you!
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Dear Klara, it is important to clarify your question:
You could compute functional diversity of each community at time point A and compare to functional diversity of the same communities at time point B. For this I suggest using Rao entropy, for which you will need to compute a dissimilarity matrix between species based on their traits (if the traits are of mixed type, the Gower index may be useful). In this case you can only tell about the temporal change in the overall functional diversity of each community, and nothing about the functional identity of the community components. This is a limitation analogous to when communities are compared by their species diversity (e.g., by using Shannon diversity). 
Another option is to compare the communities based on their functional composition, for which you may consider the definition of fuzzy-weighted community composition. This is described in Pillar et al. (2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2009.05666.x). See also Pillar & Duarte (2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01456.x) in the context of phylogenetic analysis. The fuzzy-weighting requires as input a similarity matrix between species based on their traits (which could be the above mentioned Gower index), which after proper standardisation to unit column will define a fuzzy set matrix U of species by species. The fuzzy-weighted community composition is given by matrix X obtained by matrix multiplication (X = UW), where W is the matrix of species composition in the communities.
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Not many authors propose a formal definition of "community". I need different authors, from different backgrounds, from different countries, from different points of view. Thanks
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There have been many definitions of community over the years, moving from concepts of community as a location to relational to symbolism... to the collapse of community and then postmodern understandings and the influence of the internet.
Some suggested reading - I've highlighted the ones which might be good to start with as a general overview.
Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Refections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, London & New York: Verso.
Bauman, Z. (2001) Community: Seeking safety in an insecure world, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bell, C. & Newby, H. (1974) The Sociology of Community, London: Frank Cass and Company Limited.
Cohen, A. P. (1985) The Symbolic Construction of Community, London: Tavistock.
Crow, G. & Maclean, C. (2006) 'Community', in G. Payne (ed.) Social Divisions. (Second edition). Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Day, G. (2006) Community and Everyday Life, Abingdon: Routledge.
Delanty, G. (2003) Community, London: Routledge.
Elias, N. (1974) 'Towards a theory of communities.', in C. Bell & H. Newby (eds.) The Sociology of Community. London: Frank Cass and Company Limited.
Hillery, G. A. (1955) 'Definitions of Community, Areas of Agreement', Rural Sociology, 20(2), 111-23.
McMillan, D. W. & Chavis, D. M. (1986) 'Sense of community: A definition and theory', Journal of community psychology, 14(1), 6-23.
Pahl, R. & Spencer, L. (2004) 'Capturing personal communities', Social networks and social exclusion: Sociological and policy perspectives, 72-96.
Sarason, S. B. (1974) The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology: Jossey-Bass.
Somerville, P. (2011) Understanding Community: Politics, Policy and Practice, Bristol: The Policy Press.
Blackshaw, T. (2010) Key Concepts in Community Studies, London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Chayko, M. (2002) Connecting: How We Form Social Bonds and Communities in the Internet Age, Albany, NY: State University of New York.
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The idea is to compare nestedness indices of ecological communities such as NODF, I want to know a software or specific methodology, I would appreciate it very much.
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Thank you for your answer. However, the question was about the comparison of indices nestedness of the ecological community, for example NODF.
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I'm trying to understand the barriers to entrepreneurship in deprived fishermen community in rural Kutch. I'm also trying to see the role of State for the same community. How does State role play out vis-a-vis the neoliberal push for entrepreneurship is my interest!
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Nick Williams and myself have conducted research on the barriers to entrepreneurship in deprived communities, published in Local Economy, and Entrepreneurship and Regional Development. You will find it on my ResearchGate page. In addition, I have conducted research on how a greater proportion of entrepreneurship in deprived communities tend to be conducted in the informal economy where start-ups use the informal economy as a test-bed during venture creartion, and many continue to operate on such a basis afterwards.
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I want to compare areas where Lantana camara has remained and where it has been treated with glyphosate. I also have an added element of a despotic species and it's relocation in some areas where Lantana has been treated. We sampled quadrats of 20m x 20m and identified all the plant species in the understorey, midstorey and canopy, along with height and frequency.
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Dear Kathryn,
I do not know why you are treating with glyphosphate?
You need to do some basic data collection.
  1. Before you start your work, in your area, go for a full data collection of all the species available by using the quadrat 20x20 cm. Duplicate the study
  2. Treat the L. camera with glyphosphate....again do the same data collection
  3. Remove the L.camera and do the same data collection.
  4. You need to control the experimental area for other main influencing factor/s
As Rebecca mentioned, do simple statistical analysis. Then you may get some idea regarding the species composition of the study area. It will give you further idea to improve the work. 
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See above
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I can help you to tell about Indian village structure. Write me on vimal_msw@rediffmail.com
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Professional learning communities seem to be 'everywhere' in dutch schools nowadays. However nobody really seems to know what makes a 'good' professional learning community. What is necessary for a professional learning community to really 'learn' and to do it together? I am curious to know about experiences you may have studying learning in PLC's
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Helma, I haven't studied PLCs but have attempted to create them in a teaching environment. I work with 12 to 15 teachers most of the time but am involved beyond that as part of a committee to develop up to 100 teachers. My experience is that being part of a learning group requires intellectual commitment and the only way to get that buy in is by appealing to their professional ethics and goals. My group are mainly teachers of science so I appealed to their belief in experimentation. The way they see learning is through action research. We discuss problems that need working on, ideas to try to improve outcomes, experiments to try in pedagpgy, assessment and curriculum, then action the ideas as indepndant professionals and report back. I keep this fairly informal and often act as  conduit for ideas. In 10 years, I have a fairly active PLC as evidenced by the interactions between staff members, groups and me as their manager. If I want a particular focus now, I insert it into the mix of problems to solve. One important spect is to keep the descriptions of problems, solutions, ideas to experiment with fairly general so individuals can take their own approach. That way they feel in control and we get a wide range of experiments.
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The rate of failure of community based LED projects aimed at creating jobs and alleviating poverty is very high in rural communities. 
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Dear Norman,
your question is very ambitous and komplex, because it's a great challenge to implement LED projects in rural communities.The reports, that I know, emphasise, that LED projects are mainly realised in urban areas, but can be realised in rural areas too.This indicates the great difficulties of your question, and it's clear to me, that rural LED projects are needed urgently in order to alleviate poverty. In addition I don't know your knowledge base and the background of your question (e.g.: Is it for a scientific paper or for practical use?).
For your insight, I added the links and files below. So ILO and world bank have an own website with the topic "LED". There you can perhaps find case studies or best practice examples of successful LED projects. In my opinion the trainer's guide manual is valuable (see below). There you find a "five stage sequence of the LED strategic planning process" (page 1), respectively:
Local Economic Development - The Five Stages of Strategic Planning
Stage 1: Organizing the Effort
Stage 2: Local Economy Assessment
Stage 3: Strategy Making
Stage 4: Strategy Implementation
Stage 5: Strategy Review
So relating to your question of best management models you need at any rate an integrative model like the New St. Gallen Management Model (see below). Such a model integrates different levels (individual micro-, institutional meso- and social macro-level), that you have to consider. In addition you can include the necessary change management or project management modells. Finally you can comprise normative, strategic and operative business management models, because you need them, in order to implement rural LED projects successfully.
I assume, if using such an integrative modell, you will already discover in stage 2 (Local Economy Assessment) differences between urban and rural areas. These differences could be valuable, in order to explain the difficulties with rural LED projects. I expect, you will find worse infrastructural conditions, more traditional values and life-forms as well as more fears of change in rural areas, compared to urban areas. If this hypothesis could be proved, you'll be able to deduce appropriate management models.
Good luck and kind regards
Detlef
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Why is that the jobs in the tourism sector in most African countries offer little to the locals working in the restaurants , hotels etc in terms of career progression or a decent pay . Is it the locals are not educated enough to be given positions such as managers? or the International companies do not trust them (the locals) with authority?
Does international tourism bring with it cultural change to the local community i.e communities  forced to stage their authentic way of life.
And how can communities get the full benefits of tourism and reduce the leakages?
Any help is welcomed 
Thank you 
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Dear Tawanad.
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I animated myself with the question and have not finished giving an answer.
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From my point of view I think that tourism can be seen as a complementary activity to generate foreign exchange and not as a principal or worse, as the only.
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I do not see how important the fight for the locals to top posts as managers, I think the most important use of resources obtained by tourism to develop other activities, such as the modernization of agricultural activities because they see with these activities maintenance of equipment that is a germ for autochthonous industrial activities.
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At this point, simple management policies to stimulate development of small businesses are relatively inexpensive and easily implemented.
.
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Ordination is vital method for analysis community data, but I really don't know how to choose suitable method and these different.
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The choice of ordination methods depends on 1) the type of data you have, 2) the similarity distance matrix you want/can use, and 3) what you want to say. All of these ordination methods are based on similarity distance matrix constructed on your data, using different methods (such as Euclidean, Bray-Curtis (=Sorensen), Jaccard etc.) to calculate the distance between samples. However, the different methods to calculate the similarity matrix will not give the same results. Different ordination methods use different similarity matrix, and can significantly affect the results. For example, PCA and PCoA will use only Euclidean distance, while nMDS use any similarity distance you want.
So, how to choose a method?
- If you have a dataset that include null values (e.g. most dataset from genotyping using fingerprinting methods include null values, when for example a bacterial OTU is present in some samples and not in others), I would advise you to use Bray-Curtis similarity matrix and nMDS ordination. Bray-Curtis distance is chosen because it is not affected by the number of null values between samples like Euclidean distance, and nMDS is chosen because you can choose any similarity matrix, not like PCA.
- if you have a dataset that do not include null values (e.g. environmental variables), you can use Euclidean distance, and use either PCA or nMDS, and you will see that in this case, it will give you the same results.
Many ordination methods exist, such as the ones you mentioned, but also RDA (Redundancy analysis), CAP (canonical analysis of principal coordinates), dbRDA (distance based redundancy analysis), and others… Some methods will be better than others to show complex community or a specific effect of a factor on your data. For example, CAP will be good to show the effect of the interaction between factors on your community. So sometimes, it is good to try different methods if you are not happy about the results, but keep in mind that these methods are “only” ordination, and you need to perform test for significant differences between groups (e.g. ANOSIM, ADONIS, PERMANOVA, MRPP…).
Often different ordination methods and different features/characteristics than you will find interesting, such overlay vectors or extra variables, % explained by each axis, 3D… However, all these details are more software related than truly related to the ordination methods.
You can find more information about ordination methods and also test for significant differences between groups in this review:
A. Ramette (2007) Multivariate analyses in microbial ecology, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 62, 142-160.
Hope that help
Aimeric
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We are having a challenge at a national and European scale on this issue. Does anybody have work or have conceptual ideas on what should be done and potential challenges and opportunities?
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Heazle M., Tangney P., Burton P., Howes M., Grant-Smith D., Reis K., Bosomworth K., 2013. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation: An incremental approach to disaster risk management in Australia. Environmental Science & Policy 33, 162 – 170
Howes M., Tangney P., Reis K., Grant-Smith D., Heazle M., Bosomworth K., Burton P. 2014 Towards networked governance: improving interagency communication and collaboration for disaster risk management and climate change adaptation in Australia. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management
Howes, Michael, Grant-Smith, Deanna, Reis, Kim, Tangney, Peter, Bosomworth, Karyn, Heazle, Michael, et al. (2013) Rethinking disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF), Gold Coast, QLD.
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I am developing research on communication effectiveness by testing how these can be used in real life situations where CC impacts are showing that extreme events will cause real impact in coastal communities. Also, how to communicate adaptation options that open the discussion and motivate people to participate and make part of all the decision-making process.
Thank you!
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There are two approaches, top down and bottom up, in the top down approach, which has been used, first you need to perform climate modeling, and then to go for impacts assessment, based on impacts, you need to plan for adaptation. As for example, let us say, you need to find agricultural policy, you need to first perform regional modeling and then crop modeling, compute future risk and then find the optimum policy...but one of the major limitation is that, scientists don't know what stakeholders like farmers really want. That gives birth to the bottom up approach. Here, farmers will ask certain questions, which they feel really useful for long term planning. Let us say, what is the possibility, that there will be 3 consecutive drought years in a region. The scientists need to find out, under what warming scenario, such situation will happen, and what is the probability. This will also make aware the farmers about the possibility of such occurrences...
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It concerns plant, microbial and/or animal communities. This hypothesis arises from trophic, symbiotic and signalling relationships having evolved to ensure the stability of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. I think that if we are able to discern discontinuities along transects when and where the environment is continuously changing, then this would prove the existence of ecological attractors. Species, when dispersing in a heterogeneous environment, are attracted to places where they can benefit from positive interactions with other species with which they share complementary functional traits. This results in dynamically stable communities. When the environment changes (for instance in the course of global warming) there is a redistribution, species having to find new places. Some can do it, some others cannot, or can do it at a slower rate, depending on their dispersal rate. Best data would be transects (whether marine or terrestrial) with a fine resolution (in order to test for the apparence of biotic discontinuities along a continuously changing abiotic environment) and, if possible (for testing the second part of the hypothesis), repeatedly sampled in time.
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Dear Ulfert,
Yes I know that you have found such discontinuities in the composition of annelid communities (be sure that all your publications are well-known to me). You are one of the few soil animal scientists to have search (and given) evidence that discontinuities exist in the composition of communities and do not results from a priori classificatory systems. However, more remains to be done in this respect, in particular along spatially delimited environmental gradients, i.e; transects. Imagine (as I have the feeling it be true, based on my own field experience) that you pass abruptly from a given community composition to another while environmental conditions change monotonously. This would be a nice demonstration of the existence of ecological attractors at community level, no? There is a dearth of literature (mostly theoretical) on the matter, but nothing definitely demonstrative, to my opinion.
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I'm currently working on an evaluation plan of a project that is creating community engagement and building capacity within a priority neighbourhood (priority neighbourhood meaning an impoverished neighbourhood). One objective of the project is to increase community resilience within this priority neighbourhood. I'm looking to get a baseline measure. Any thoughts?
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We have an article coming out in the next few months in the Journal of Community Psychology that discusses the development of our Index of Perceived Community Resiliency (IPCR). This tool may be helpful to you. Please let me know and we can arrange for you to look at it.