Science topic

Communicable Diseases - Science topic

An illness caused by an infectious agent or its toxins that occurs through the direct or indirect transmission of the infectious agent or its products from an infected individual or via an animal, vector or the inanimate environment to a susceptible animal or human host.
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Publications related to Communicable Diseases (10,000)
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Article
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Background: A remarkable drop in tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been achieved in China, although in 2019 it was still considered the second most communicable disease. However, TB's spatial features and risk factors in urban areas remain poorly understood. This study aims to identify the spatial differentiations and potential influencing factors o...
Article
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Monkeypox has a very prominent regional epidemic. It has been confined to Western and Central African countries. Sporadic cases found in countries outside Africa generally have a history of sojourn in endemic areas. However, the recent multinational outbreak of monkeypox cases in Europe in early May 2022 has revealed a changing epidemiological tren...
Article
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Background Substantial research is underway to develop next-generation interventions that address current malaria control challenges. As there is limited testing in their early development, it is difficult to predefine intervention properties such as efficacy that achieve target health goals, and therefore challenging to prioritize selection of nov...
Article
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Background: Behaviour change communication is a proven health communication strategy among used in promoting changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours', especially for communicable diseases. Few studies have been conducted on its effectiveness for non-communicable diseases prevention and control. This study was conducted as an evalu...
Article
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Histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylation constitutes an important epigenetic mechanism of gene activation. It is mediated by the Jumonji C domain-containing lysine demethylases KDM6A and KDM6B, both of which have been implicated in a wide myriad of diseases, including blood and solid tumours, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and infectious d...
Article
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Background In-person mass gathering events (MGE) are returning after a period of restrictions, yet few prospective scientific evaluations of their safety are available. Methods Prospective observational study, including both attendees of the French Intensive Care Society (FICS) annual meeting held in Paris between June the 9th and June the 11th, 2...
Article
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Background The impact of informal caregiving is increasingly recognised as an important but often particularly neglected area of research in low and middle income countries. It is important to understand not only the effect of care on patient outcomes, but also the impact of caring on caregivers’ health and wellbeing. Methods Guided by the Arksey...
Article
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Objective To disseminate the portable sequencer MinION in developing countries for the main purpose of battling infectious diseases, we found a consortium called Global Research Alliance in Infectious Diseases (GRAID). By holding and inviting researchers both from developed and developing countries, we aim to train the participants with MinION’s op...
Article
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Objectives Overcrowded housing is a sociodemographic variable associated with increased infection and mortality rates from communicable diseases. It is not well understood if this association exists for COVID-19. Our objective was hence to determine the association between household overcrowding and risk of mortality from COVID-19, and this was don...
Article
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Background Forecasting healthcare demand is essential in epidemic settings, both to inform situational awareness and facilitate resource planning. Ideally, forecasts should be robust across time and locations. During the COVID-19 pandemic in England, it is an ongoing concern that demand for hospital care for COVID-19 patients in England will exceed...
Article
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Infectious Disease Surveillance (IDS) in the community is essential to prevent, control, and detect outbreaks. A strong surveillance system is a need of time for low to middle-income countries like Pakistan where around half of the reported deaths are due to infections that can be easily prevented in the presence of a surveillance system. Although...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted how structural social inequities fundamentally shape disease dynamics, yet these concepts are often at the margins of the computational modeling community. Building on recent research studies in the area of digital and computational epidemiology, we provide a set of practical and methodological recommendations...
Article
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Background: During the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, antibiotic usage among COVID-19 patients was noted to be high in many countries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic usage and factors affecting antibiotic usage among COVID-19 patients during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. Me...
Article
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Disease resilience, defined as an animal’s ability to maintain productive performance in the face of infection, provides opportunities to manage the polymicrobial challenge common in pig production. Disease resilience can deliver a number of benefits, including more sustainable production as well as improved animal health and the potential for redu...
Article
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Infectious diseases in livestock are well-known to infect multiple hosts and persist through a combination of within- and between-host transmission pathways. Uncertainty remains about the epidemic dynamics of diseases being introduced on farms with more than one susceptible host species. Here, we describe multi-host contact networks and elucidate t...
Article
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Comorbid diabetes with depression is a challenging and often under-recognized clinical problem. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, a communicable disease is thriving on the increasing incidences of these non-communicable diseases. These three different health problems are bidirectionally connected forming a vicious cycle. Firstly, depressed indi...
Article
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People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular disease in part due to inflammation and immune dysregulation. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), the age-related acquisition and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells due to leukemogenic driver mutations, increases risk f...
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of infectious diseases on trade and economic growth in 88 countries (44 developed countries and 44 developing countries). Annual panel data from 1996 to 2018 are examined using the Pedroni panel cointegration test in order to check the existence of a long-run relationship; FMOLS, DOLS, and the VECM...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted implementation of health interventions and set back priority programs aiming to control and eliminate communicable diseases. At the same time, the pandemic has opened up opportunities to expedite innovations in health service delivery to increase effectiveness and position health on the development and political...
Article
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Purpose of review: Many new concepts in diagnosis, management, and risk stratification of patients with pneumonia have been described recently. The COVID pandemic made importance of viruses as dangerous pathogens of pneumonia quite clear while several non-invasive measures for patients with respiratory failure gained a more wide-spread usage. Rec...
Article
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Introduction Bowel perforation is a relatively rare presentation of abdominal tuberculosis, whose diagnosis is challenging but fundamental to minimize morbidity and mortality. Laparoscopy is considered an effective modality for diagnosis, but its role in surgical treatment is still not established. We reported the first worldwide case of totally la...
Article
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Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Successful treatment requires strict adherence to drug regimens for prolonged periods of time. Long-acting (LA) delivery systems have the potential to improve adherence. Here, we show the development of LA inject...
Preprint
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The increasing threat of emerging infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance requires more efficient, high-quality research. Perpetual Observational Studies (POS) nested within a clinical research network can improve planning, quality and efficiency of interventional and observational studies, although real-life benefits and challenges need t...
Article
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Background . During the COVID-19 pandemic, mobile sensing and data analytics techniques have demonstrated their capabilities in monitoring the trajectories of the pandemic, by collecting behavioral, physiological, and mobility data on individual, neighborhood, city, and national scales. Notably, mobile sensing has become a promising way to detect i...
Poster
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By 2050, 2 out of every 5 children in the world will be born on the African continent. Globally, inadequate attention has been given to understanding the development of young children in sub-Saharan Africa, who are surviving within an environment of risk and resilience. This scoping review was conducted to describe common family routines occurring...
Article
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Objectives When resources are strained during communicable disease outbreaks, novel palliative care interventions may be required to optimally support people who use substances with life-limiting illnesses. Therefore, we asked the question, ‘what is known about communicable disease outbreaks, palliative care and people who use substances?’, such a...
Article
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Introduction Health care professionals working in primary and specialized care typically search for medical information from Internet sources. In Finland, Physician’s Databases are online portals aimed at professionals seeking medical information. As dosage errors may occur when prescribing medication to children, professionals’ need for reliable m...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of reported tuberculosis (TB) infections in a western prefecture (Nagasaki Prefecture) from 2007 to 2018, and to identify the high-risk group for TB infection. The characteristics of 12 years of reported TB infections from the Nagasaki Prefectural Informational Center of Infectious Diseas...
Article
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Dengue is a highly prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. The majority of dengue cases are benign but rare complications and presentations are seen increasingly due to the rising burden of the disease mainly in tropical countries. In dengue, clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic infection to...
Article
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Objective The objective of this study was the visualization of hot spots and evolving trends in research on the association between vitamin D and infections through the use of bibliometric analysis. Methods Based on 3046 relevant articles collected in the Web of Science Core Collection for the period of 2001–2021, the data were processed using Cit...
Preprint
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The logically deduced conception of the pathological manifestations that follow infection with SARS-CoV-2 as manifestations of a single transmissible disease that this coronavirus causes disagrees with experience and poses insurmountable difficulties. But a new concept of the nature of infectious diseases emerges upon illustrating reality with a su...
Article
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Background and objectives The confinement by COVID-19 has affected the food chain and environments, which added to factors such as anxiety, frustration, fear and stress have modified the quality of the diet in the population around the world. The purpose of this study was to explore diet quality during the COVID-19 pandemic in 11 Latin American cou...
Article
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Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide, more especially in low and middle-income countries, particularly in young children. It has been reported that in Africa, more than 70.0% of deaths among children under 5 are caused by infectious diseases.
Article
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The study presented in this article is about the role played by imagination when national and international organisations convey the idea of a dystopian crisis involved in the real transition to a postantibiotic era. The present is an era that can be defined as a time when no new antibiotics are discovered or developed, and existing antibiotics sim...
Article
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Purpose As COVID-19 disease progresses, the host inflammatory response contributes to hypoxemia and severe and critical illness. In these latter stages of disease, patients may benefit from immunomodulatory therapies to control the aberrant host inflammatory response. In this review, we provide an overview of these therapies and provide summaries o...
Article
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Naskah ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan signifikansi Islamisme dalam ilmu kesehatan terutama pada pandemi kontemporer COVID-19. Tujuan pertama dan terpenting dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bahwa amalan Islam sehari-hari adalah pencegahan yang lebih baik bagi orang-orang untuk dibebaskan dari penyakit yang disebabkan oleh COVID-19 dan...
Article
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Background Empiric prescription to treat infectious diseases in community care settings has caused antibiotics to be overprescribed, increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). To reduce antibiotics prescription, the use of point-of-care diagnostic testing (POCT) has been suggested. Methods We present a stylized static theoretical economic model to...
Article
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Since the end of June 2022, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of monkeypox cases worldwide. Given the potential spread of this epidemic, WHO has declared the monkeypox epidemic a global public health emergency. In the face of the changing epidemiology during this monkeypox outbreak, vaccines and preventive measures are being research...
Article
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Communicable diseases, alone or in combination with malnutrition, account for most deaths in complex emergencies including refugee settings. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS are increasingly becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in refugee settings. We described the treatment outcomes of TB patients and explored factors associated with tr...
Article
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Mesay Arkew,1 Kabtamu Gemechu,1 Kassahun Haile,2 Haftu Asmerom1 1School of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wolkite University, Wolkite, EthiopiaCorrespondence: Mesay Arkew, School of Medical...
Article
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Lilin Liu,1,* Huiqin Wu,2,* Jianghong Liang,3,* Wenhao Wu,3 Ye Peng,4 Hua Zhou,5 Xi Li3 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310016, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Third Hospital of Quzhou, Quzhou, Zhejiang, 321000, People’s...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has created increased need for telehealth appointments. To assess differences in appointment adherence for telehealth compared to in-person HIV medical care visits, we conducted a cross-sectional study of patients receiving HIV care in a safety-net hospital-based outpatient infectious disease clinic in a large urban area (Chic...
Article
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COVID-19 has a mild clinical course with low mortality rate in general pediatric population, while variable outcomes have been described in children with cancer. Infectious diseases working party of the AIEOP collected data on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infections in pediatric oncology/hematology patients from April 202...
Article
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Background: Since December 2019, the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has challenged the world. In this descriptive study, we aim to share the clinical information of 427 Iranian COVID-19 patients. Methods: The different information on COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized from 24 February 2020 to 1 April 2020 was anal...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in widespread telehealth expansion. To determine telehealth uptake and potential sociodemographic differences in utilization among people with HIV (PwH), we examined HIV care appointments at the University of Chicago Medicine, an urban tertiary hospital. Visits between March 15th and September 9th for 2019 and 2020 we...
Article
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To recover from the adverse impacts of COVID-19 on construction and to avoid further losses to the industry in future pandemics, the resilience of construction industry needs to be enhanced against infectious diseases. Currently, there is a gap for modelling frameworks to simulate the spread of infectious diseases in construction projects at micro-...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of a reaction‐diffusion SI (susceptible‐infectious) epidemic model with a nonlinear incidence rate describing the transmission of a communicable disease between individuals. We prove that the proposed model has two steady states under one condition. By analyzing the eigenvalues and using the linearizat...
Article
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BACKGROUND AND AIM: Vaccination has been appraised to be one of the most significant public health achievements in human history. However, in countries like Nigeria, vaccine hesitancy is a public health challenge that has consistently forestalled concerted efforts made by health authorities to curb the spread of communicable diseases such as COVID‑...
Article
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Introduction: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Africa is generally higher than global averages. Moreover, the management of patients with CKD suffers huge disparities compared to the rest of the world. We reviewed the literature on the major challenges in the management of kidney disease in Africa and suggest ways to bridge the gap...
Article
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Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is considered as one of the major public health problems globally. Health education strategies can help in managing blood glucose level and complications among DM patients. Health education intervention is effective to manage and control the blood glucose levels among diabetic patients. This study explored the ef...
Article
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Background Financial risk protection (FRP), defined as households’ access to needed healthcare services without experiencing undue financial hardship, is a critical health systems target, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Given the remarkable growth in FRP literature in recent times, we conducted a scoping review of the lite...
Book
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Key Features: • Describes various applications of novel biotechnology approaches in healthcare • Presents applications of biotechnology in primary and secondary healthcare and in public health. • Discusses government initiatives, challenges and opportunities, and entrepreneurship development in the area of healthcare biotechnology. Biotechnology in...
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Infectious diseases drive countries to provide vaccines to individuals. Due to the limited supply of vaccines, individuals prioritize receiving vaccinations worldwide. Although, priority groups are formed based on age groupings due to the restricted decision-making time. Governments usually ordain different health protocols such as lockdown policy,...
Article
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Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common febrile illness caused by enteroviruses in the Picornaviridae family. The major symptoms of HFMD are fever and a vesicular rash on the hand, foot, or oral mucosa. Acute meningitis and encephalitis are observed in rare cases. HFMD epidemics occur annually in Japan, usually in the summer season. Relati...
Article
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Background This study compares the health gains, costs, and cost-effectiveness of hundreds of Australian and New Zealand (NZ) health interventions conducted with comparable methods in an online interactive league table designed to inform policy. Methods A literature review was conducted to identify peer-reviewed evaluations (2010 to 2018) arising...
Article
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Background: Tuberculosis is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria spread by droplet infection. India is classified to be among those with a high TB burden, contributing 26% of the total TB cases, globally. The objective of this study is to access the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with tuberculos...
Cover Page
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This book has been written with the aim of providing adequate knowledge for the healthcare provider to identify, diagnose and treat the conditions effectively, thereby, preventing and reducing infections and infectious diseases. This book has 12 chapters that detail the conditions and future course of management. Each chapter can be used independen...
Article
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Recently, violence, racism, and their coexistence have been very common issues in most nations in the world. In this newly social science discipline mathematical modelling approach study, we developed and examined a new violence and racism coexistence mathematical model with eight distinct classes of human population (susceptible, violence infected...
Article
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Quarantine imposed due to COVID-19 infection can exacerbate psychological distress, and it is important for a public mental health agency to identify factors that are predictive of high psychological distress in such situation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gender, age, and the presence or absence of infectious disease symptoms a...
Article
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Foodborne infections represent a real public health problem and are classified as notifiable communicable diseases. Their frequency remains high despite the surveillance and prevention measures taken during the production, distribution, and conservation of food. Consequently, the control of these infections must be a priority in terms of food safet...