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For example, I am particularly interested in the consequences of the UK's new global policy for India, China, and Australia. Could a well-designed agent-based computer model, using appropriate data including about individual world leaders, help predict any dangerous consequences of this new policy?
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As promised, reactions to the sceptical points raised in the previous post.
Computers do not need feelings. Computer based models can have knowledge of the preconditions for the appearance of eg anger or guilt, in an agent and knowledge of the corresponding behaviour that typically follows.
All models are pitched at a level of abstraction/simplification which must be such that the model is both tractable as regardes its complexity and effective as regards its usefulness. There may not exist such a level of abstraction, but one cannot knew in advance. To a considerable degree, one must "suck it and see".
The danger of weaponisation of such a project is very real I feel (compare war-gaming). Key are independent funding, full publicity and openness at all stages, and an unswerving comitment to global neutrality. United Nations??
As ever, all comments welcomed, even those of the "Total Garbage!" variety.
James
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This is a theoretical question that endeavors to address contemporary issues. My frame of reference is that world peace is the ideal. In conflict situations, what form of geopolitical combat might be the best or the most effective pathway to peace and national and international security?
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"To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the height of excellence. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the height of excellence."
- Sun Tzu, The Art of War
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I am looking for some possible explanations about why international relations scholars failed to predict the end of the Cold War. Additionally, I'm searching for texts that address this question, and I'd love to know where to begin looking.
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I am not sure whether you wish to see the theoretical limits as exposed in academic debates or a more sociological analysis of the habitus of the field of IR (in the sense of its wider expert system). For the first, there had been early books that tried to expose the limits of some IR theories. As Ross Smith rightly says, this may not be smething that theories would be ever able to predict or anticipate. This said, some theories had far more troubles even understanding the type of change that was going on. Hence, an interesting issue is not only why scholars failed to predict it, but which theories would them even allow to conceive and understand such change. Invariably, structural realism was considered simply unable to understand change. For early volumes which expose this critique, see Patomäki, Heikki. 1992. "What Is It That Changed with the End of the Cold War? An Analysis of the problem of Identifying and Explaining Change." In The End of the Cold War: Evaluating Theories of International Relations, edited by Pierre Allan and Kjell Goldmann, 179-225. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff. See also the book in general and Lebow, Richard Ned, and Thomas Risse-Kappen, eds. 1995. International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War. New York: Columbia University Press.
As for the debates and rebuttals around realism, there was an exchange between William Wohlforth and Mark Kramer in the Review of International Studies. Kramer, Mark. 1999. "Ideology and the Cold War." Review of International Studies 25 (4):539-576. Wohlforth, William C. 2000. "Ideology and the Cold War." Review of International Studies 26 (2):327-331. Kramer, Mark. 2001. "Realism, ideology, and the end of the Cold War." Review of International Studies 27 (1):119-130.
Wphlforth returned to it more generally: Wohlforth, William C. 1998. "Reality Check: Revising Theories of World Politics in Response to the End of the Cold War." World Politics 50 (4):650-680. For a synthesis of those debates, see Petrova, Margarita H. 2003. "The End of the Cold War: A Battle or Bridging Ground Between Rationalist and Ideational Approaches to International Relations?" European Journal of International Relations 9 (1):115-163.
For the question, whether there is some predisposition in the way the field's expertise is organised, there is a more general literature, not necessarily tied to the COld War (see Inanna Hamati-Ataya on reflexivity for instance). What is truly important is that the discipline is close to the language of practice. I.e. if it did not occur to a diplomat to anticipate it, as Nicholas Kitchen mentions, that would be the habitus more generally.
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An article by Irek Sabitov, a Russian journalist, and myself will appear in the Winter 2020 edition of the U.S. Navy War College Review. Our article concerns the April 1969 North Korean downing of a U.S. Navy EC-121 spy plane in the Sea of Japan.
It’s a well-known Cold War story, but seen from both the U.S. and Soviet sides... with a twist.
On April 15, 1969, the U.S. and Soviet Union took part in a rare, 4-day, joint search-and-rescue (SAR) operation to locate and retrieve the bodies off a U.S. Navy EC-121 spy plane that was shot out of the sky by North Korean fighters.
And yet, despite the fact that three Soviet destroyers took part in this SAR operation, and a Soviet sailor (who we interviewed) said he personally placed human remains into plastic bags and then transferred those body parts to a U.S. ship (USS Turner), the Russians were never given credit for recovering of the dead airmen’s remains and their transfer to U.S. custody.
The draft of a speech to be given by President Nixon five days after the shootdown failed to mention the Russians.
Following the incident, the U.S. Navy handed out photos of the recovered wreckage and coffins of the two EC-121 crewmen’s bodies pulled from the sea. But again, none of the photos’ captions mentioned the Russians.
The photo of a Soviet destroyer (taken by a U.S. Air Force Reserve aircraft) appeared on the front page of the New York Times on April 17, 1969. There was mention of how the destroyer’s whaleboat was to pick up “debris,” but nothing about human remains.
After the recovery effort had ended, a newly-declassified top-secret DIA (Defense Intelligence Agency) memorandum described the SAR operation. But, once again, there was no mention of the Russians.
Had the President of the United States and the U.S. Navy deliberately kept the Soviet role in this episode of Cold War history from the American public?
Editorial Board, Journal of Oriental Studies (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) Editorial Board, Journal "Vostok”
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سيدي العزيز بيل
لو لم تكن مؤامره لانتهت الحرب بينهما ولم تستمر لأكثر من سنتان على الأكثر ولكنهم عملوا على تقسيم العالم بينهما ليسيطروا عليه
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How much does scientific sources provided through the black market contribute to scientific research?
Are there specific countries or political powers who lead this kind of market? Can it be considered a kind of an ongoing cold war?
I don't mean to discuss the ethical implications of the issue as much as the de facto status of the case. How would you feel as a researcher about someone who has written their entire thesis or dissertation using sources obtained from the black market?
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You can't go wrong if you publish in HI journals in North America , Europe or Oceania
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The current international world order established in the last days of WWII is showing signs of collapses. China is now moving to the first economic power and is rapidly becoming a significant military power that is now being firmly extended in the south china sea. The resistance on the part of many western nations for the entrance of China in the 5G is being justified for security reason against the CPC. Can the western powers continue any further the rise of the totalitarian power of the CPC as they did with a business as usual attitude in the last 30 years. Last but not the least, the US security military industrial complex needs feeding, needs a new cold war.
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Louis Brassard Dictatorships and democracies are generally hostile "in principle" to each other. Though there are many reasons to cooperate with dictatorships or be in competition with other democracies.
Those in democracies are forever patting themselves on the back for living under the best form of government and feeling sorry for those who don't have one of their own.
There are instances where "more-or-less" democratically elected government are opposed, as in Venezuela now or Mosaddegh (though there still was a Shah in Iran at the time.) Even today in Iran, the country has "elected" officials but it is not presented as a "democracy." The Ayatollahs effectively just replaced the Shahs.
So, the transition from autocracy to democracy is halting ... two steps forward and one back. But with increasing production and trade these nation will transition eventually.
As far as your observation that military technologies are too advanced to be used politically. ...
I hope you are right but I think you will be proven wrong over time.
When the machine gun was first developed there was talk that it was so effective and efficient that it would make war fighting obsolete.
And no weapon, once developed, has ever NOT been used eventually.
Recall, atomic weapons have already been used in war by the U.S.
Most wars are started by over-confident and over-righteous politicians who dream they will be short and victorious...
Look at Athens attacking Sicily
Look at WWI
Look at Hitler attacking the U.S.S.R.
Look at George W. Bush in Iraq & Afghanistan
Look at Castro during the Cuban missile crises. He was an ideologue and openly prepared to have his nation incinerated in a thermonuclear exchange between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. for the good of the world-wide communist movement!
My guess (and I hope I am wrong) is that someday, some other fanatic will come to power in a nation that has a nuclear capability and he will convince himself and his people that a quick attack with nukes will assure them an easy victory.
Who knows who that will be or what nation he will be leading.
And my guess is, when that happens, most of his people will be waiving flags and cheering him on...
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There has been two paradigm shifts recently, one in the former red socialist countries(shift from red socialism to socially friendly capitalism in 1991), and one in the former pure capitalist countries(shift from traditional market to green market in 2012), if you think outside the box these two shifts have the structures that  will be key to the future cold war....Has anybody thought about what this future paradigm clash structure is or will be? Has anybody wondered who will win the next cold war this time around and why?
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An interesting question. Considering current research problems important for science, I think that the question concerns particularly important issues. I believe that research on this topic should be continued. There was an interesting discussion. Greetings
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discuss in detail
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Hassan Syed is completely ON POINT Ma'am!
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When I searched on this I got nothing. On some click, I got an analysis of the journal, Cold War History, but couldn't find the article within that page, even after sorting through 5 pages of articles. I was offered no more pages, even though I know that there were more articles.
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Thank you. Rebecca Bowman
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During the Cold War between the USA and the Soviet Union, the common man was afforded many opportunities (e.g., low-interest student loans and increased funding of university programs in science, math, and engineering through the The National Defense Education Act). True meritocracy prevailed, where technically-trained individuals from humble backgrounds could quickly rise into positions of great responsibilities with very generous salaries, based solely on their achievements in solving difficult problems. Once the threat to the US oligarchs vanished with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the common man was no longer afforded such largesse - the US oligarchs no longer were so dependent on the common man. The job opportunities then shifted primarily to the business arena, where advancement was commonly based on your relationship with your boss. University tuitions increased exponentially and the interest rates on student loans also increased significantly.
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USA many times is saved by common man .
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THe world-war 2 took place between Europe and United states. I am looking for the answer as to how it serves as an example for Neorealism.
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Dear Aqsa,
politically correct (no harm meant!), the Second World War was a global war involving fighting in many parts of the world and many countries; not merely in/between Europe and the USA, but rather between the Axis Powers and the Allied Powers. Fyi , some Asian countries were also involved in the Second World War, remember the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Thailand vs France or China and Thailand vs Japan later on?
So now my two cents to your question: The Cold War was the definition for a period in which conflict, tension and ideological competition between the United States (along with its allies called the Western Bloc) and the Soviet Union (and its allies called the Eastern Bloc) occurred between 1947-1991.
As is well known, the very important countries in determining the changes in the international structure were the powerful states at that period. The balance of power between states can be achieved, but war has always been a possibility in the anarchist system. Waltz distinguished between the bipolar system (*Neo-Realism) as it befell during the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the multipolar system (*Realism) that took place before or after the Cold War. Waltz believed that the bipolar system was more stable because it provided better peace and security guarantees than multipolar systems. "With only two powerful states, both can be expected to act to maintain the system." This is because in maintaining the system they maintain themselves at the same time. According to Robert Jackson & Georg Sorensen, the Cold War was a period of "stability and international peace."
I hope to have helped you understand the Neo-Realism in the context of the Second World War.
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The Nuclear Arms Non - Proliferation and Prohibition Treaty is a United Nations document aimed at prohibiting, preventing and controlling nations from manufacturing and stock piling of nuclear weapons to be used aggressively on other nations.
Unfortunately this is 73 years after the end of the second world war, and 27 years after the end of the cold war between the United States and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Yet in the 21st century, Iran and North Korea are posing threats to the international community through manufacturing, stockpiling of nuclear arsenals in the violation of UN treaties. Let's believe North Korea that they are suspending tests of their nuclear sites, but we would appreciate if they also dismantle their Nuclear technologies. That is a very big step in the truce agreement.
In as much as we are joining "Vision 2030" , the peace, unity and safety of the universe should be promoted and highlighted in our individual and collective endeavours.
There should be a clarion call to protect, preserve and save the human race from extinction. We should all call humanity to rise up and care for our environment from environmental degradation, pollution, and from biological and nuclear warfare which is starring at us waiting for whom to strike first. The issue of climate change should be a concern to all and sundry. those who bear the brunt of the whole problem in the society are the majority of the poor masses and the down - trodden in the society.
The United Nations Security Council should convene a conference for all its member states, and stress the need for global peace in this millenium starting with individual peace. If we fail to have individual peace which is a tranquility of the mind, we can't have world peace.
The fight and talk about the stock piling of nuclear and biological arsenals should not be left alone for the US and its Allies. It should involve us all, because its everyone's concern.
Those nations that violate the Nuclear Arms Non - Proliferation and Prohibition Treaty should be placed on sanctions and ostracised by The united Nations.
All nations should team up against against potential aggressors, so as to avoid the mistakes of the League of Nations that gave rise to the United Nations.
The United Nations should rise to its responsibilities by the maintenance of international peace and security.
If the US, NATO and its Allies could fight together and oust an Aggressor from his seat during Late Saddam Hussein's annexation of Kuwait, firing inter- continental ballistic and scud missiles into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Israel, thereby threatening the peace and security in the Middle East, how much less Iran, Syria, North Korea et al.
There's need for the United Nations Security Council to act as a globo - cop in putting pressure on nations that fail to ratify the Conventions on The Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), because a lot of atrocities take place in the countries concerned.
Can one imagine over - qualified women barred from getting choice jobs because they refuse to be bed - matted to get their fundamental human right?
Can one imagine women suffering violence from their family members et al - being refused care and money for their health needs and challenges?
Can one imagine husbands and family members refusing to take care of their sexual partners, that are in labour leading to death?
Can one imagine half - baked mediocre women being placed in very high positions to boss their superiors in education, knowledge and otherwise because they met men's conditions?
Can one imagine victimization of women in the academia not minding the intelligibility of people concerned because they refused to meet men's conditions?
Can one imagine some women working without being able to satisfy their socio - economic and political conditions?
There is no need ratifying the CEDAW document at public notice without implementing it, ie behind the scene violate the human rights of women.
There are countries that satisfy their women's needs CEDAW or No CEDAW.
May it suffice us to note that world peace starts with upholding the human rights of women, children and everyone. If women and children are happy, then the family is happy and no - one will think of doing evil because women's opinion will be sought for the good of the society.
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Dear Anthonia,
These are, among others, some of the measures that should be adopted by the international community to maintenance world peace and security according to the UN Charter:
1- To promote the beginning of the negotiations among all nuclear weapons states (nine countries) with the aim of destroying all nuclear weapons in their possession as well as all nuclear weapon production facilities in their possession.
2- The universalization of all weapons of mass destruction treaties (NPT, CWC, BWC, CTBT and the new nuclear weapon convention adopted recently by the UN).
3- To promote the reduction of all military forces by the main military powers, specially forces and weapons that have a clear offensive character, with the aim of impeding the unilaterally use of military forces by these states against any other state, without the explicit authorization of the UN Security Council.
4- Increase the membership of UN Security Council with the aim of increasing the representation of some regions in this important UN organ.
5- The elimination of the so-called “veto right” already in the hands of 5 states within the UN Security Council. This measure should allow the approval by this organ of sanctions to all states that violates the UN Chapter.
6- The promotion of the establishment of an UN military forces that can be used by the Security Council to restore peace and security in specific countries or for peace-keeping activities.
7- The adoption of strong measures to fight terrorism al world level and to impose strong sanctions to counties that support terrorism activities in any form and country.
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The genius and or bright minds may be born in most unexpected places. With access to education and proper training they may become masters of the most challenging subjects and become future genius capable to drive research, innovation and development of next generation smart technologies.
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Especially over the last 100 years, wars have tended to accelerate technological development. (The number of technological innovations that World War I, World War II, and the Cold War sparked is astonishing. Even today, national security budgets continue to play a big part in technological development.) It would take a cynic to suggest that we owe all our inspirations to conflict; but, it is a curious (and sad) fact of modern society that civilian life is in such large part powered by the technology of war. (Interestingly, empirical research concerned with the causal effect of war on innovation is scarce.)
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Why Does Saudi Arabia Consider Iran as a Threat? what do Arabian people think about Iran? is this cold war between Iran and Arab countries?  What is the relationship between jihadism and Saudi Arabia?
How  two countries can contribute to stability and peace in the Middle East?
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There are several factors that should be considered. The most important of them are:
1- Iran is the country leading the Shia community within the Muslim community and Saudi Arabia is the country leading the Sunni community within the same community. These two main branches of the Islam have a strong religious confrontation a very long time ago, and the confrontation still exists today.
2- As the leader of these two different Muslim communities, Iran and Saudi Arabia wishes to be the dominant forces in the Middle East, and this is the reason for the strong confrontation between these two countries.
3- Saudi Arabia is one of the most relevant allied of the USA in the Middle East, and Iran is the strongest enemy of the USA in the same region.
4- The position of both countries against Israel is different.  Iran has a strong opposition to the existence of Israel in the region, while Saudi Arabia has a more tolerant position against the existence of this country.
The only way that these two countries could contribute to the stability in the Middle East is if both countries find a solution to their differences and stop supporting other countries with the same position. Taking into account the current situation in the region this is not going to happen any time soon.
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I am looking for information about the USA foreign politics and how this got involved in the Russian-Georgian war and the relationship that USA has with Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Also how did these politic affect the Russian-USA relations?
Thank you in advance.
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write letter to USA embassy in Georgia, also, you can find many sources at Georgian university libraries. 
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The Soviet Union had a short period of influence in Africa during the Cold-War, however the questions of the Suez Crisis, the Casablanca Bloc and the proxy war in Angola put the Soviets as one of the principal actors in that continent.
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The Suez Crisis created our current problems in the Middle East.
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I am new to this field of study.
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Google Cold War International History Project at the Woodrow Wilson Center, then look under Publications. The newsletter has autobiographical updates from time to time.
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Doing research paper on how Rocky IV reflected cold war sentiments and the film's effects on public opinion regarding the cold war. Need this info for context.
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Well, first of all Rocky IV is a pretty dumb movie. I hope you got in for free. I'm a senior with my final semester coming up. I'm also a senior, 64 years old, a boomer. Those were Pres. Reagan's years in office, served two terms and got the bums rush out of office because of the Iran-Contra Affair. He was guilty but a very slippery politician. At that moment in history, America was bluffing the Soviets with very legal diplomatic B.S.
It was called Stars Wars,. It was driving the Russians into bankruptcy, along with their war with Afganistan. America backed the Afganis, costing the Russians too much in lives and rubles. Reagan's Star Wars put-on, a fake pile of lies making the US's abilities with technical weaponry seem almost magical, because it wasn't true. America drove in the final nails in Communist Russia's coffin. Their economic policies broke up the power of the communists. Reagan met with Michail Gorbachev for four summits. He finally signed a treaty marking the backing up, and slowing down of the worlds nuclear weapons. Reagan sold Americans a policy of economic spending and something called Reaganomics, more B'S. In his last meeting with the Russians, in Iceland I believe, The Russian diplomats thought Ronnie Reagan had gone nuts. The Russians came to do some real changing of nuclear  weaponry. Appearently he just kept on spitting out the old Rhetorical message over and over again.
No, Rocky IV didn't scare me at all. 
When I was five years old in 1955 , sitting all alone in front of our new black and white TV, the announcer, Walter Cronkite had me running around in circles when he showed the newest in A-bombs. The Hydrogen bomb. That still fucks me up. Don't reprint that. I was also in the Vietnam war. I'm a history major, could have graduated 3 semesters ago, but fell in love with English. Want to write a few things down before I leave. That's a lie, I'm not leaving. Changing shapes when the Singularity arrives. War is my specialty. You can thank Ronnie for bringing back major penalties for marijuana. People liked him, I didn't . I don't think he ever had an original thought. Sorry for going off on you. Sterling O'Hickey  
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I'm working with the Brazilian case, and I like to know some different theorical perspectives.
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Hola Caroline,
En el caso de Chile, los trabajos conjuntos de Elizabeth Lira & Brian Loveman son ineludibles. Parte importante de sus publicaciones están en español, pero hay bastante traducido. 
También vale la pena mirar los trabajos de Priscilla Hayner y Elizabeth Jelin, así como el número especial de Radical History Review, recomendado por Matine más arriba. Hay pistas teóricas en cada artículo.
Saludos.
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Browsing international press of the later 1940s, I found out there were fears/rumours about the Soviets about to mobilize substantial number of German PoWs in their custody in some kind of a Red Wehrmacht.
Any research/reading available? How much or how little substance was there? Where did the news originate?
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Have a look on these:
DECAUX, A. "THE RED WEHRMACHT+ GERMAN PRISONERS-OF-WAR COOPERATING WITH RUSSIA." <i>HISTORIA</i> 470 (1986): 4-15.
Biess, Frank. Homecomings: Returning POWs and the Legacies of Defeat in Postwar Germany. Princeton University Press, 2006.
Ginsburgs, George. "Light Shed on the Story of Wehrmacht Generals in Soviet Captivity." Criminal Law Forum. Vol. 11. No. 1. Springer Netherlands, 2000.