Science topic

Cognitive Task Analysis - Science topic

Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is “the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes, and goal structures that underlies observable task performance” (Schraagen, Chipman, & Shute, 2000, p.4). In contrast to the traditional task analysis techniques, such as Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA), Goals Operators and Selection Rules (GOMS), Verbal Protocol Analysis, which provide a physical description of the activity performed within complex systems, cognitive task analysis extends the traditional methods to describe the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures underlying observable task performance (Stanton, Salmon, & Walker, 2005). According to Wei and Salvendy (2004), cognitive task analysis is used to understand the cognitive elements of job performance, and for designing jobs that support and maximize cognitive skill performance. The cognitive task analysis approach is valuable for investigating tasks that depend on the cognitive aspects of expertise (Klein, Calderwood, & MacGregor, 1989)
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I am interested in exploring the degree to which the typical distractions encountered in offices (e.g. overhearing irrelevant conversations, distractions in visual field) interfere with the typical types of tasks performed in those offices. In other words, I want to be able to predict how much the performance of Task A (primary work activity) will be disrupted by the concurrent performance of Task B (attending to, and trying to ignore, an irrelevant distractor).
I have previously come across Wickens' Multiple Resource Theory and its use as a computational model to predict dual task interference (e.g. Wickens, 2008), and found it to be a very useful framework for describing which cognitive resources are used for which tasks. However, I have only ever seen this applied in contexts such as interface design in visual tasks (e.g. designing cockpits for pilots). Is anyone aware of the application of this theory in more traditional workplace design?
Alternatively, is anyone aware of any other useful frameworks which might help me to predict how a particular type of 'knowledge work' will be disrupted by the presence of a distractor?
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Nadine Sarter at the University of Michigan has done extensive work in interruption management as well as multimodal displays which you may find useful.
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I am currently working on task characteristics and its affect on efficiency. so now looking for some help regarding the work on task size and task structure affect on the performing that task? any help would highly be appreciated.
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 The website measuringu.com offers great information about many usability metrics. 
You might want to read the following:
Each article has contextual links that you might also find useful. Jeff Sauro is an expert in this field.
Hope this helps.
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Hi everyone! I am conducting a cognitive task in the scanner. During my research, I would like to have the scanner TTL pulse trigger the PTB script in matlab. I need to know the timing between behavioral event (during each trial) and fMRI acquisition. Now the host computer running PTB is connected to the GE scanner through USB port using the device (http://www.sinorad.com/), which transforms the button presses to numbers of 1, 2, 3 and 4 registered in the computer. With the psychtoolbox, could our computer receives TTL pulse through USB port? If it could, how to set the interface, and localize the onset time of each button press response to certain slices or pulses? Thank you in advance.
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You could use an Arduino Uno to input the TTL signal. You can program this Arduino to synchronize with PTB. The pins of TTL need to be connected to the relevant pins in Arduino. This Arduino can then interact with your computer using USB port.  
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Just wonder, 
What can be proper and validated task to evaluate in children aged 8-11 and adolescents aged  12-14
1. Executive functions.
2. Resourcefulness.
3. Initiation.
Now, I know there are inventories for these (like the BRIEF for executive functions) but I'm more interested in tasks, preferably the kind of tasks that don't consume more than 5-10 minutes per participant  and doesn't require expert to deliver them. 
Also, when it comes to executive functions I would like to know about tasks that evaluate attentional control, inhibitory control,  and cognitive flexibility, reasoning, problem solving, and planning and working memory each by itself or (and preferably) a combination. 
Thanks!
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Hi Gilad,
With regard to measuring EFs, I would recommend reading the attached paper, Diamond (2013), as it has not only a pediatric focus and a useful theoretical model of EFs, but also recommendations as to tasks to measure specific facets of EFs. As a preview, here are some recommendations based on the constructs you inquired about:
Inhibitory control: Stroop task, Simon task, and Flanker task
Working memory: Digit Span Backward (e.g., from the WISC-V), the Corsi Block task (available as part of the CANTAB, normed for children),
Cognitive flexibility: Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Verbal Fluency tasks (e.g., from the D-KEFS).
Additionally, I would recommend looking at all of the tasks from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. It is a test battery normed on individuals aged 8-89 with tests measuring a wide range of EFs. Also, keep in mind that even tasks that ostensibly measure one dimension of EFs (e.g., the WCST for cognitive flexibility) also measure other components of EFs (e.g., working memory) due to the concept of task impurity (see the attached Miyake papers).
Good luck!
-Ryan
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I am working with n-back paradigm. Participants were presented 0-back, 1-back, 2-back and 3-back conditions three times. Therefore, there are 3 trials for each n-back condition in my experiment for every participant. Participants were required to press the left button if they see a target letter, and right button if they see a non-target letter, based on the instructed condition. There are 10 target and 20 non-target letters in a single n-back condition. So, for example for 0-back condition total number of signal trial is 30, and total number of noise trial is 60. I want to learn whether participants distinguish target letters from non-target letters and also whether they have a bias on responding as target. First of all, I've calculated d' and c, as Stanislaw and Todorov suggested, by using excel commands. What I've see when I've finished my calculation is that, i.e., -0,181, -0,784 values of d' and so on. Generally, d' values are negative. Negative values are very bad for me. Because this means that participants cannot distinguish target and non-target letters. So, they've press the buttons by chance. In addition, before I've made my calculation, I've made a correction which is dubbed loglinear correction, as Hautus suggested, to all of my hits and false alarms. The dissappointing point for me is that I've found a significant effect of condition (i.e., as the n-back condition gets harder, the number of deteceted target letters has decrease). I wonder if is it possible to conduct a signal detection analysis to this type of an experimental design?
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Hello Ilgim,
Signal detection tasks require 'Yes / No' responses. If you can arrange your experimental protocol so that subjects have to indicate whether the target letter was in a certain position or not, then you have data suitable for a SDT analysis.
Regards,
Michael
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What kind of evaluation method you usually use to evaluate Cognitive Performance in an Anesthesiology and ICU Residency Program?
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Simulators as well as Problem solving in a clinical context help to develop knowledge and experience.  Yet,  most traditional examinations for learners do not capture skills that are required in some situations where there is uncertainty about the proper course of action.
A cognitive and noncognitive simulation-based skills assessment that included anesthesia nontechnical skills (ANTS) –identified areas of strength and weakness can be used to guide an anesthesiology residency curriculum.
Such ANTS deficiencies need to be addressed in any training program. Gaps identified during debriefing can be used to adjust learning, and gaps that are recurring themes should inform curriculum development. 
Reference:
1- Sidi A, , Baslanti TO,  Gravenstein N,  Lampotang S. Simulation-Based Assessment to Evaluate Cognitive Performance in an Anesthesiology Residency Program. J Grad Med Educ. 2014 Mar; 6(1): 85–92.
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Hello, I am attempting to design a study that measures potential changes in cognitive performance in individuals who smoke a fixed amount of marijuana over the course of a year. I wanted a test that I can administer to gather a baseline for the subjects before the study begins and then at 3 month intervals through the course of the study. Any suggestions on what test I could use? 
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First off, I agree with Maria - you need to specify the cognitive domains of interest to your study. You should probably begin with a quick review of the existing literature on the effects of marijuana on cognitive performance - or perhaps I should say, on cognitive performance among marijuana users (because most of this will be essentially correlational).
I think you will find that sustained attention/processing speed and learning/memory will be the "prime suspects," so to speak. The challenge you'll face here is that most tests of these constructs will show clear practice effects. That is, people naturally do better when retested. So you want something with at least two parallel forms. You might consider the RBANS (see link below). Although I don't think it includes multiple forms, the cognition battery from the NIH toolkit is also worth checking out (see link below).
You may be able to find parallel forms of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, the Complex Figure Test, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, all of which could be relevant to your work.
Good luck!
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According to Zavalloni, Social identity refers to the representation of social environment just like the nested systems of the development theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner.
It also good to identify the difference between Zavalloni and Tajfel (He views it as a process of social categorization) as  concerning what social identity is.
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Hi,
You can use method of social représentation (Moscovici, 1961) it's good
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Is there a new cognitive task analysis in Phases of flight for pilot?
Please, send me.
Thanks, for your attention
“Phases of flight” means: Pre-flight, Pre-departure, Gate Departure, Taxi-out, Take-off, Terminal Area Departure, Climb, Cruise, Descent, Terminal Area Arrival, Final Approach, Landing and Rollout, Taxi-in, Parking and Post-flight.
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Why is there a difference between an item on a to-do list or calendar that says "Goto gym" versus one that says "Fit into tuxedo in time for wedding - work out at the gym now!"
Which studies can I read that demonstrate this difference?
Thanks
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See research on "implementation intentions" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Implementation_intention
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Would object location be appropriate for this purpose or is some other test known to be more accurate for this region? I know the majority of hippocampal-dependent learning tests are based on dentate gyrus-dependent tasks, and I'm  finding it blurry to select a CA3/CA1-dependent task.
Thank you very much.
Andrea.
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There are always disagreements but a good bet would be a relational memory task (item-location, or sequence learning) in which relations are arbitrary (not a semantic relation), and using materials which also limit the utility of prefrontally mediated memory strategies (e.g., organizational strategies) or processes of unitization/familiarity. 
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Writing with data or statistics.
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I have seen this question for a few days and I guess that I am not sure what you are asking.  There is a growing body of TESOL literature about task-based instructional design.  
See Kennedy, C. & Levy, M. (2009). Sustainability and computer-assisted language learning: factors for success in a context of change. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(5), 445-463. doi: 10.1080/09588220903345218
But I have not been  not sure how you wish to incorporate writing with data or statistics, which is why I did not answer for a few days.  :-) 
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The task would have to be one where headache severity would predict cognitive performance.
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I'm not an expert on chronic headaches, are those patients specifically worse on certain cognitive domains? I could imagine it to be a non-specific problem. If you're searching for an association with a cognitive measure you may need to find a task that results in enough variability. You could use the WAIS-IV Digit Symbol task, for instance. Performance on this measure can range from 0-133.
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For instance can we assume attention/ executive control, semantic and procedural memory would be involved in particular tasks?
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The interdisciplines of cognitive science, and a large portion of the behavioral sciences, are geared towards this. This is a huge question -- even in a limited interpretation there would be 1000s of studies that qualify, and 100s of different version of the question. To narrow it down a bit, however, and to dispute a couple of the previous answers: human experimental neuroscience has not included both cognition and everyday actions in its paradigms. Think fMRI: you are lying in a loud, clanking spinning magnet, mostly unable to move. No everyday action correspondence. Much of psychology is the same: at its worst, in the 1980s, subjects did paper and pencil fictional versions of real scenarios. This is actually the roots of the ACT-R models that another respondent mentioned: that model uses *symbolic*, not embodied, versions of everyday tasks, with only the most abstracted versions of real conditions. I'd classify it as a rather old-school, quasi-propositional, non-biologically grounded approach to modeling. But a lot of current modeling still has some of the same problems.
At any rate: although everyday cognition research and attempts to build ecological validity have been around since the 1970s, there is an increasing body of newer research using cutting edge methods to assess cognitive processes (I include in this perceptual-motor dynamics) during more naturalistic actions. Also, cognitive ethnographic methods (see Ed Hutchins' classic book Cognition in the Wild) has long been concerned with the issues. (Although I would say that task analysis of the individual's cognitive process has not been a focus of most cognitive ethnography work; that approach is more common in traditional cognitive psychology).
Some key terms to look up and search on: active (or mobile) EEG, ecological psychology, embodied cognition, BCI, active vision, everyday cognition, situated cognition, distributed cognition, cognitive ethnography. Even so, you will find 1000s of studies that are relevant to your very broad question. Your first task is actually to sharpen and narrow down the question.