• Fawad Sadiq added an answer:
    What are the operational measures of Dynamic Managerial Capabilities?

    What the operational measures of Dynamic Managerial Capabilities i.e. Managerial Cognition, Social Capital and Human Capital? Any references.

    Fawad Sadiq

    Harshvardhan Singh, thank you for quick response and useful links. I am actually looking for the Managerial Dynamic Capabilities introduced by
    (Adner & Helfat, 2003). The conceptual papers are available in this area but I haven't been able to find any Operational Measures so far. Cheers.

  • Marianne Levon Shahsuvaryan added an answer:
    What is the relationship between persistent cognitive stimulation in the elderly and delaying of dementia?
    Preliminary research suggests that persistent cognitive stimulation in the elderly results in greater retention of cognitive functions and concomitantly prevents or delays
    dementing illness.
    Marianne Levon Shahsuvaryan

    New research published Feb. 2 in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that older adults with a major risk gene for Alzheimer's disease known as APOE-ε4 who ate at least one seafood serving per week showed fewer signs of Alzheimer's-related brain changes. In contrast, this association was not found in the brains of volunteers who ate fish weekly but did not carry the risk gene.

    The researchers also examined the brains for levels of mercury, which can be found in seafood and is known to be harmful to the brain and nervous system. They found that seafood consumption was associated with increased mercury levels in the brains but not the amount of beta amyloid protein plaques and tau protein tangles, the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.

  • Brandon Thomas added an answer:
    How can I make a prospective memory task more difficult?

    My ongoing task is to count the number of small and large squares, separately. My prospective memory task is to have participants respond with a different key press when they encounter a green square. 

    How can I make it harder for participants to identify PM targets (green squares) in this task?



    Brandon Thomas

    Thanks, Drew! There are 6 colors (not including the green target squares). I think that you are right. Maybe, the task would be harder with more possible colors, particularly colors that are similar to green.

    Thank you as well, Luke. I think this is would definitely lower accuracy as well.

    You are right about that, Serban. All these PM paradigms are awful!


  • Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist added an answer:
    Is it possible to convert scores between the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Clinician Administered Rating Scale for Mania?

    Does anyone know of any papers in which the authors converted scores between the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Clinician Administered Rating Scale for Mania, or between the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression?

    I'm looking to compare scores across datasets, in which different measures have been used. I know this type of conversion has been done with the BPRS/PANSS (Leucht et al., 2013). Is it possible to do the same with the above mentioned scales?

    Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist

    Do a correlation between the two scales

  • Christopher A Was added an answer:
    How to interface E-Prime with eye-tracker (ASL-6000)?
    I want to start a trial when subject is fixating on the fixation cross. I want to combine the signal of fixation given by the eye-tracker to use in the e-prime program.
    Christopher A Was

    it turns out E-prime 2.0 can interface with more simple code.  Create an inline object and use the followiing

    ObjectName.OnsetSignalEnabled = True
    ObjectName.OnsetSignalPort = &H378
    ObjectName.OnsetSignalData = 1

    OffestSignal = True 

    will turn it off, but I am using WritePort & H379, 0 

    to send a 0 to the xdat.

    you can create attributes and replace the 1at the end of the last line with c.GetAttribute("AttributeName")

  • Joseph A. Sandford added an answer:
    What is the typical cognition rehibitation used in clinical practices for AD patients?

    Examples of cognitive rehibitation therapy for AD. Are they effective or not?

  • Frederick Keller added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend software to use for a two-tone audio response task or a simple way to set one up?

    I need to use an audio-response task for a dual-task protocol where the participant will be required to identify whether a sound is of high or low pitch and I will need to record the response time/accuracy. Can anyone please recommend a good piece of software that can be used for this or a simple way to set it up? Thanks!

    Frederick Keller

    If you are looking for a go/nogo paradigm look at our Continuous Performance Test. It supports multi tone binaural presentation of stimuli with a signal detection analysis of the data. It is not  free however, but an evaluation copy can be downloaded from our site.  

  • Joaquin M Fuster added an answer:
    Does past experience affect what we see or what we do?

    As we trundle along through our life's pursuits, there are causal forces at work that determine our future thoughts and actions.

    Given some of the work that highlights the central role of exploratory movement for perception (that we act to detect information about the environment), it is possible that these constraints from the past determine solely our behavioral patterns, which in turn constrain the aspects of the environment that we perceive.

    The case can also be made that past experience determines our interpretations of sensory stimulation and thus the actions engaged to select those sensations (following along the lines of Helmholtz' theory of unconscious inference). Of course both of these hypotheses may also be false!

    Does past experience affect

    1. Our cognition (thoughts, ideas, beliefs, etc.)

    2. Our actions (which in turn determine the aspects of the environment we attend)

    3. Both our actions and cognition

    (a). Independent of each other

    (b). Interdependently or cyclically

    4. ...something else

    + 3 more attachments

    Joaquin M Fuster

     Dear Shamseddin,
    Many thanks for your comment.  I am happy that you found my answer helpful (if you have not done it yet, please upvote it).  Cheers, Joaquín Fuster

  • Philip Hineline added an answer:
    How does cognitive psychologists view behavior analysis?

    I am currently researching within a field called behavior analysis, which is essentially modern behaviorism. Researchers in this field tend to emphasize different methodologies, such as single-case designs, and often avoid statistical methods.

    In terms of psychology, behavior analysts are not interested in cognitive phenomena. This is not because they reject the existence of private events, but because they argue that cognitive events cannot be observed; only its behavioral outcomes.

    There are several papers that address how behavior analysis sees cognitive psychology. They often refer to the misuse of hypothetical constructs and unnecessary group designs. However, I was wondering if there are papers discussing behavioral analysis from the cognitive psychologists point of view?

    Most psychology textbooks will refer to behaviorism as dead, often with reference to Chomsky's critique of Skinner. According to behavior analysts, Chomsky's critique is flawed, but in mainstream psychology, behavior analysis remain a minority subdiscipline.

    So, I was wondering if there are any good articles discussing cognitive/internal/private events, and behavior analysis/behaviorism, that are written from a cognitive psychologist point of view? There are plenty such articles in behavior analysis journals, but I am wondering if the issue of cognition vs. externally observed behavior have been discussed elsewhere, from a cognitive viewpoint?

    I guess what I am asking is, what papers from cognitive psychology exist that address why behavior analysis is obsolete, and internal, private events are perfectly acceptable to investigate?

    Philip Hineline

    It is gratifying to see that paper noticed.   Several years ago, Wanchisen and I wrote a more detailed comparison of the behavior-analytic and cognitivist viewpoints.  It is cited in the paper you mention, but as a book chapter it may be difficult to obtain.  I can supply a pdf upon request.


  • Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist added an answer:
    What is the basic theoretical assumptions behind Affect Balance conceptions?

    What is the characteristics of the data collected by Affect Balance measures?

    How mentally positive and negative affects information processed?

    how Affect Balance state related to cognition?

    What is the criteria for affect Balance state?

    Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist

    Dear  Saleh Abdulaziz S. Al Zahrani, 

    In case I understood your question correctly, these papers will shed some light on your question: 

    + 4 more attachments

  • Harry Friedmann added an answer:
    From subjection to passions, switching at a world governed by affections. How does this transition happen?

    The affects are the active forces which, instead of countering with rationality or intellectual love, allow us to expand our power to exist. A central point in Spinoza is this: our power and our freedom as autonomy, the more they grow, the more develop our vis existendi or vis agendi.

    But Spinoza here is problematic. He scandalized by saying that something we do not want because it is good, but it's good because we desire it, and therefore are our wishes, the desires of man as a craving animal that establish what is good. Now, why the passions are evil? Not for a reason of moralistic character, because no longer coincide, such as in the Christian tradition, with sin.

    There are passions that drag us down to unhappiness, that force us to remain in a condition of minority, mental and physical, that is, to be dependent on external forces; and passions that instead are able to regenerate and become active forces - favoring reason, for example.

    These passions are, for instance, laetitia - or joy, as normally results. But in the passions that become affections the fanciful element never disappears: the passions that become affections are not, in itself, separated from the external causes that produce them.

    At this point, I wish to tell a story.

    One day, a centipede that lived happily met a toad which asked him jokingly: "Tell me a bit ': which leg do you move first and what next?". And so he put it in such confusion that the centipede was stuck in the ditch, reflecting on what should be the method of walking.

    Two and antithetical are the considerations that bloom from this fable. On the one hand, there is the risk of immobility if we are taken by doubts, scruples, from the excesses of verification. Reflection can, in fact, "wrap” on itself and I think we all know people who are rigorously undecided. It is a behavior that leads to inertia and, in some respects, is a risk that emerges in the life of every person. Fought the temptation of toad that blocks the centipede with reflection, on the other hand you have to report the opposite defect, that of the relentless decisiveness, an attitude in very high regard today, to the point of becoming a social and political virtue.

    Without 'chaos', says Feyerabend, there 'is no knowledge, there is no progress if we do not leave the narrow path of reason. "Ideas that today form the very basis of science exist only because there were things like prejudice, opinion, passion; because these things opposed to reason; and because they were allowed to operate in their own way. Therefore we must conclude that reason can not and should not dominate everything and often must 'be defeated, or eliminated, in favor of other instances. There is not even a rule that remains valid in all circumstances and there is nothing that you can always make an appeal. Science, then, is not the single point of view that can give a reliable explanation of reality: there are myths, metaphysical dogmas of theology, other conceptions of the world with a solid philosophical and empirical basis- "It is clear that - says Feyerabend - cross-fertilization between science and these conceptions of the world 'unscientific' will need anarchism even more than it needs science.

    Having said that, there are researches on the topic of decision making and memory which further highlight the importance of emotion-cognition integration. Integration refers to a combination of parts that work together or form a whole that better achieves a common objective or set of objectives. I recall having said in a previous contribution to RG that results of the research in this area would indicate that affect and cognitions are stored separately in the brain, but that emotion influences cognition and vice versa in selective ways.

    For example, when emotional functioning is compromised, social reasoning may be impaired. Damasio and colleagues’ studies of patients with lesions to neural networks supporting emotional functioning show that social decision making is severely compromised in these patients (Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio, 1991). Other researches show that economic decision making is actually enhanced among more emotionally reactive individuals (Seo & Barrett, 2007) and that emotion bolsters both memory accuracy and a subjective sense of recollection.

    Harry Friedmann

    If i am not mistaken, Spinoza's ethics does not consist in eliminating all the passions or in sublimating them into active forces, I believe that he distinguishes between positive passions (or instincts) which increase our vitality and the negative ones which have the opposite effect. Sublimation and suppression (not repression) should be applied only to thw negative passions,

  • Françoise Schenk added an answer:
    Which test should I choose to assess cognition in juvenile (P25-30) mice?

    I am looking for the proper test to assess cognition (non social) in juvenile mice (between 25 and 30 post-natal days).

    Françoise Schenk

    just a small add: specifying the type of cognition to test requires as an indispensable complement : for what (scientific) goal.

    yours -Françoise

  • Manuel Morales added an answer:
    Are there real laws in cognitive science?
    The goal of any science is to establish natural laws. A natural law can be defined as follows: if certain conditions are present a particular phenomenon always occurs. Following this defimition, a law in psychology (cognitive science) obviously can be formulated so: under certain circumstances all people always do one thing (the term “do one thing” includes not only behavior but also cognition). However, if an individual is aware of such a law, he/she is able not do this. Hence, there are no laws in psychology. One may argue that there are certain laws in psychology such as the Weber-Fechner law or the changes associated with maturation and ageing. However, these examples describe processes which are beyond conscious influence. Therefore, such processes can be related to the neural and biological rather than cognitive level of the functioning of the organism. Are there cognitive mechanisms which are potentially under conscious influence but cannot be affected deliberately?
    Manuel Morales

    "Consciousness is also the emergence and result of a complex selection of signals that occur in the deep brain. It cannot be restricted to frontal neural activity and metacognition"

    Paul Vaucher, you have touched upon the surface of the matter but did not dig deeper by not asking how emergence takes place? What causes the effect of emergence?

    With the discovery of Einstein's nonlocal hidden variables (see "A Flawed Scientific Method"), science based on knowledge of Nature's effects (effectual science) is now history. Enter the dawn of the study of the cause and effects of Nature (causal science).

    On that note, the advancement of science has begun in earnest. Prof. Vladimir A. Kulchitsky, Research Director of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Institute of Physiology has formed a new hypothesis in the field of neural communication based on my research (see link).

    + 2 more attachments

  • John E Morley added an answer:
    What are the best cognitive tests for detecting early changes prior to the onset of dementia?
    A traditional approach is to use tests of global cognitive function such as the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE: Folstein et al., 1975) or the Blessed-Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC: Blessed et al., 1968) to assess the severity of cognitive impairment (Tombaugh and McIntyre, 1992). But are these tests sensitive enough? Most studies show either ceiling or floor effects according to the time progression into disease.
    John E Morley

    The Rapid Cognitive Screen(RCS) can be done in 3 minutes and picks up most people with MCI as well as dementia. The SLUMS at 6 and a half minutes is very good for cognition, visual spatial and executive function. Both are better than the MMSE and equivalent to the MOCA a. The AD8 picks up dementia  but not MCI. the St Louis University Lewy Body Screen can be used for Lewy Body Dementia

  • Geoffrey Blondelle added an answer:
    What prospective memory tasks yield the most accurate performance?

    Which prospective memory/ongoing task combinations result in the highest proportion of correct prospective memory responses?

    Geoffrey Blondelle

    No, not to my knowledge. Contact authors remains, in my view, the best option.

    Good continuation Brandon.

  • Otto Lappi added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a visual task that is not cognitive?

    It is possible to have a non-visual task that is cognitive, but I was wondering whether it was possible to have a task that was visual but not cognitive? Is this even possible?

    It's likely that all tasks are, to some extent, cognitive. In that case, what are the some of the least cognitively demanding visual tasks?

    Otto Lappi

    Depends on what you view as "cognitive", of course, but if it means processes that are 1. "controlled" (require executive attention, not highly automatic), 2. subject to visual short term memory/working memory capacity limitations and 3. relatively slow, then I would suggest that "pre-attentive" visual feature pop-out in a Treisman-type visual search task is a prime example of "non-cognitive" visual processing. 

  • Richard Traub added an answer:
    Can anyone please cite any studies they know on the following?

    Namely, studies specifically investigating and positively evidencing associatedness of high expertise with predominantly "bottom-up" cognitive learning-strategies? (My thanks to all !)

    Richard Traub

    Dear Béatrice,

    Thank you! You are so kind, and I'm deeply grateful.

    Very best wishes,


  • Jennifer de Beyer added an answer:
    Does anyone have a rating scale for meta-analysis?
    When conducting a meta-analyses, all the works included are rated on the basis of their methodological qualities. Which rates, scales, or criteria should be used? Does anyone have a rating scale available?
    Jennifer de Beyer

    Many people are suggesting the use of the STROBE checklist to assess methodological quality.

    STROBE and the rest of the reporting guidelines included on the EQUATOR Network ( are not designed to assess methodological quality. Instead, they are designed to improve reporting. They guide researchers when writing articles, listing all of the information that should be included in an article to allow its methods to be replicated or judged.

  • Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad added an answer:
    What is the safe level of uridine consumption from edible mushrooms?

    Uridine is one of the building blocks or precursor components to ribonucleic acid.

    edible mushrooms are rich in uridine.

    Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four nucleosides (adenosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine) and three nucleotides (guanosine-5′-monophosphate (GMP), adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and uridine-5′-monophosphate (UMP)) in nine edible mushrooms including Lasiosphaera Seu Calvatia (puffball), Agrocybe aegerita, Boletus nigricans, Boletus fulvus, Tricholoma matsutake, edible tree fungus (Auricularia auricula), Tuckahoe (Poria cocos), white fungus (Tremella fuciformis) and Polyporus umbellatus.

  • Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist added an answer:
    What is a simple inhibitory control task (to use on MediaLab)?

    Trying to decide between the Spatial Stroop, Flanker, and Simon Task. Any Advice on which might be the best/easiest to use?

    Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist

    Dear Shayna, 

    Check these out:

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Would it be helpful to inform a driver about when a conflicting traffic situation is going to occur? We tested whether temporal orienting of attention could enhance executive control to select among conflicting stimuli and responses. Temporal orienting was induced by presenting explicit cues predicting the most probable interval for target onset, which could be short (400 ms) or long (1,300 ms). Executive control was measured both by flanker and Simon tasks involving conflict between incompatible responses and by the spatial Stroop task involving conflict between perceptual stimulus features. The results showed that temporal orienting facilitated the resolution of perceptual conflict by reducing the spatial Stroop effect, whereas it interfered with the resolution of response conflict by increasing flanker and Simon effects. Such opposite effects suggest that temporal orienting of attention modulates executive control through dissociable mechanisms, depending on whether the competition between conflicting representations is located at perceptual or response levels.
      Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Experimental Psychology

    + 3 more attachments

  • Marc Le Goc added an answer:
    How can I operationalize Conceptual Integration Theory (CIT) (Fauconnier & Turner) for Information Extraction (IE)?

    There are a few computational models of CIT for concept invention out there (eg. Pereira, 2007; Li, Zook, Davis & Riedl, 2012). I was wondering whether this idea could be turned on its head and repurposed in streamlining information extraction from corpora. Any suggestions on how one could go about it?

    Marc Le Goc

    @Asterio: 2 remarks.

    First, only time introduces an order in a dynamic system. The notion of state (or mode, if you prefer) has been introduced by humans to model the behaviors of dynamic systems. In other words, there is no state in artificial or natural artifact but only in models.

    And second, an innovation is a modification of the current state of affairs that must be coherent to be new and so, subversive: if the modification does not bring its own and new coherence, it is only an effect of the stochastic properties of a dynamic system (nothing new, nothing subversive, nothing can be learned)


  • Ofir Yakobi added an answer:
    EEG during continuous pursuit tracking task - ideas for reducing artifacts?

    I'd like to collect EEG data during a computerized tracking task, using a 2-axis joystick. 

    My main concern is that EMG (especially jerks) and EOG contamination is much greater in these settings. Any thought or experience with the above?

    Ofir Yakobi

    Thank you Ross, it is helpful.

    I might consider a compensatory tracking task instead, that way head and eyes movements and will be minimized.

  • Christin Köber added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest where I could find research which looks at context-dependent memory and flashbulb/autobiographical memories?

    I am writing a piece of coursework whereby I am exploring my own personal flashbulb memory and situations whereby I have returned to the area and experienced similar feelings of the situation and also imagery of the situation. I am exploring if flashbulb memories are related in any way to the context that you were in. The rest of the essay explores how flashbulb memories differ in their accuracy of recall depending on whether the event was negative or positive, in my situation this particular event of discussion was negative.

    Thanks in advance!

    Christin Köber

    And you may want to check out their work:

    It's about the malleability of flashbulb memories.

    Good luck with the coursework!

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Within a week of the attack of September 11, 2001, a consortium of researchers from across the United States distributed a survey asking about the circumstances in which respondents learned of the attack (their flashbulb memories) and the facts about the attack itself (their event memories). Follow-up surveys were distributed 11, 25, and 119 months after the attack. The study, therefore, examines retention of flashbulb memories and event memories at a substantially longer retention interval than any previous study using a test-retest methodology, allowing for the study of such memories over the long term. There was rapid forgetting of both flashbulb and event memories within the first year, but the forgetting curves leveled off after that, not significantly changing even after a 10-year delay. Despite the initial rapid forgetting, confidence remained high throughout the 10-year period. Five putative factors affecting flashbulb memory consistency and event memory accuracy were examined: (a) attention to media, (b) the amount of discussion, (c) residency, (d) personal loss and/or inconvenience, and (e) emotional intensity. After 10 years, none of these factors predicted flashbulb memory consistency; media attention and ensuing conversation predicted event memory accuracy. Inconsistent flashbulb memories were more likely to be repeated rather than corrected over the 10-year period; inaccurate event memories, however, were more likely to be corrected. The findings suggest that even traumatic memories and those implicated in a community's collective identity may be inconsistent over time and these inconsistencies can persist without the corrective force of external influences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
      Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Experimental Psychology General
  • Milad Amini added an answer:
    Does anyone have a simple reaction time task in E-Prime?
    I'm using the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in my research at the moment and it requires a simple competitive reaction time task in which participants indicate when a stimulus in the centre of the screen changes colour (e.g. a blue square become red), and are given immediate feedback on their performance.

    The nature of the stimulus isn't really important, as long as some sort of obvious change occurs.

    I was planning to create this task using E-Prime (which I'm entirely new to), but does anyone have a similar task already set up that I could maybe 'recycle'? Or if not, any tips for setting one up in E-Prime?
    Milad Amini

    Dear Zara

    I'm working on Lateralization of emotion word in the  brain . I nead a task with a  go/no-go procedure for 3 kind of words. I woud be grateful if you could help me. 


    Milad amini

  • David Paulo Catela added an answer:
    Who knows commentaries, opinions on Gregory Hickoks "The myth of mirror neurons"?

    As a psychotherapist I am interested in research on embodied, situated, grounded cognition. Hickoks critique of these approaches seems to be sound. Since I am not an expert in the field of neuropsychology I would like to know if there are arguments to question his position. How do the protagonists of embodied cognition object to his arguments?

    Thanks for your ideas, Michael

    David Paulo Catela

    perception and action have neural paths that simplify information processing Milner & Goodale, 1991, 1992). maybe mirror neurons benefit from those paths, making interpretation and understanding of action a different way.

  • Lasse Bang added an answer:
    Can I use corrected gray matter volume (GM volume/intracranial volume(ICV)) as a covariate when examining predictive value of ICV on cognition?

    I'm currently working on a project to identify possible predictors for the level of cognitive functioning in patients matched for the degree of cerebral atrophy. I was planning on operationalizing cerebral atrophy as gray matter volumes. But to account for head size, I would correct this gray matter volume by intracranial volume which gives the fraction of the total volume which consitutes gray matter and thus corrected gray matter volume..

    The problem is that I want to examine intracranial volume itself as a possible predictor for cognitive function with corrected gray matter volume as a covariate. Is it valid to use intracranial volume and corrected gray matter volume (GM/ICV) in one regression model as predictors or would this somehow lead to statistical difficulties?

    Lasse Bang

    Not sure I understand completely what it is that you want to do. But it seems you're interested in ICV, gray matter, and white matter (if you use ICV as a predictor, and covary out gray matter volume, you're left With white matter, right?). If this is the case, why not convert both GM and WM to fractions (by dividing them With the ICV), and run separate analysis for GM, WM and ICV? Or alternatively put GM and WM in the same model. It seems that Your suggestion of ICV With GM as a covariate is in reality an Exploration of WM (and possibly CSF) volume...? It seems weird to run an analysis where the covariate is partly a function of Your predictor.

  • Arnold Trehub added an answer:
    How does the human brain ask itself a question?
    How does the human brain ask itself a question? Asking questions is essential for scientific progress. How does our brain do this job? In *The Cognitive Brain* I have detailed the neuronal mechanisms that enable us to ask ourself questions about our world - self-query. Chapters 6 and 8, in particular, deal with this aspect of human experience. Have any other kinds of brain mechanisms been proposed that can perform self-query?
    Arnold Trehub
    Wilfried: "Is an inconsistent representation a cause for such a self-query?"

    It depends on the personality of the individual. I think that in most people an "inconsistent representation" would induce self-query.
  • Alfredo Campos added an answer:
    Does the Method of Loci (MOL) interact with Working Memory (WM)?

    I investigated MOL in relation to WM:

    1. There were two groups: participants (a) exposed to MOL and (b) not exposed.
    2. I assessed the WM using a psychometrical instrument based on the multi-modal model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) that returns two indicators:
    • participant’s preference towards using a specific component of the WM: (1) the visual sketchpad or (2) the phonological loop;
    • WM Quotient – a general quotient reflecting the functioning of all three components described in the model (executive administrator included).

    The data was analyzed in two ways: strict scoring (serial recall) and lenient scoring (free recall).

    I could not identify an interaction between MOL exposure * Participant’s preference towards a specific component of the WM. This makes sense, as MOL is a highly complex mnemonic device and evidence from neuroimaging studies suggest that it rather reflects a general functioning of the WM than a higher score for one of its components.

    When I looked for an interaction between MOL exposure * the WM Quotient I found these surprising results:

    1. For strict scoring
    • participants exposed to MOL with a quotient lower than 109 recalled more words when compared with an uninstructed control (p < 0.05, d = 0.74)
    • participants exposed to MOL with a quotient higher than 120 recalled fewer words when compared with an uninstructed control (p < 0.05, d = 0.79)
    1. For lenient scoring the same pattern emerged:
    • participants exposed to MOL with a quotient lower than 109 recalled more words when compared with an uninstructed control (p < 0.01, d = 0.91)
    • participants with a quotient higher than 120 exposed to MOL tend to recall fewer words than those exposed to MOL (this was not significant at 0.05 => p = .07, d = 0.31).

    I dare to say that the results are meaningful, pointing out that MOL works exactly for those who need it the most, but this is intriguing as MOL efficiency is hypothesized to be related with superior functioning of the WM.

    Do you have any idea why this occurred? Or, can you point me to papers that obtained similar results?

    Thank you!

    Alfredo Campos

    Hello, Constantin,

    The method of loci is very effective method but has conditions to be effective. For example, it takes a while to process each item.

    The method needs to be used with many items. If we use a few items, the participants use onlyt he method of repetition. If the participant is intelligent, he can dare to use the method of repetition.

    For the participant to choose the method of repetition or method of loci, it is necessary that he has experience of having properly used the two methods, and he has seen the effectiveness of the two methos.

    The method of loci requires training to be used.

    I researched much the keyword method.

    Good luck

  • Jose Hernandez-Orallo added an answer:
    If you could measure machine intelligence like a humans IQ, what would you measure and how?

    What level of intelligence do machines actually need/posses and how can this be compared. If the community is to create a Machine Quotient (MQ), how would this be compared to human cognition?

    Jose Hernandez-Orallo

    Dear all,

    This question has been around for decades, and is still open.

    In my opinion, the notion of IQ is not very appropriate for machines, basically because there is no normative population of machines to derive any meaningful score. Also, the (re)use of items found in IQ tests for machine evaluation doesn't seem to be very appropriate:

    Nonetheless, I also think that machine intelligence evaluation is possible, but it must be based on different principles. If you are interested in some of these ideas, you can have a look at

    and for a more comprehensive view of the evaluation of cognitive abilities:

    In any case, it is a fascinating problem that will become more and more relevant in the near future.

    Best wishes,


About Cognition

Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism becomes aware of or obtains knowledge.

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