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Hi all academics,
What do you think about the need of melanogenesis research in humans?
Why there is a lack of melanogenesis research in humans?
Thank you.
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Dear Praneeth Silva,
The following info may be helpful:
During the past decade, melanins and melanogenesis have attracted growing interest for a broad range of biomedical and technological applications. The burst of polydopamine-based multifunctional coatings in materials science is just one example, and the list may be expanded to include melanin thin films for organic electronics and bioelectronics, drug delivery systems, functional nanoparticles and biointerfaces, sunscreens, environmental remediation devices. Despite considerable advances, applied research on melanins and melanogenesis is still far from being mature. A closer intersectoral interaction between research centers is essential to raise the interests and increase the awareness of the biomedical, biomaterials science and hi-tech sectors of the manifold opportunities offered by pigment cells and related metabolic pathways. Starting from a survey of biological roles and functions, the present review aims at providing an interdisciplinary perspective of melanin pigments and related pathway with a view to showing how it is possible to translate current knowledge about physical and chemical properties and control mechanisms into new bioinspired solutions for biomedical, dermo-cosmetic, and technological applications.
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I am looking for new clinical studies using enhance brain waves to improve memory impairments and learning capabilities?
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Thank you David. I am curious to go through your article.
Its interesting to know how much we can alter neurobehavioral parameters; especially EEG brain mapping and psychometry in Age - Associated memory impairments.
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Whether it is feasible to adopt covariate adaptive randomization technique in small-sample (n=40) clinical studies.
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No, it is not feasible to adopt covariate adaptive randomization technique in small-sample (n=40) clinical studies. As it is adopted to balance large no. of covariates between the groups. so the sub groups will be small and lose internal validity.
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Recently, using honey 10 ml every 5 minutes po for immediate preoperative protection of the esophagus in children with an esophageal button battery has been proposed and added to guidelines [Mubarak A et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2021]. There is one experimental study that looked at the mitigating, pH-neutralizing effects of a variety of agents, including fruit juices, maple syrup, honey and sucralfate suspentsion, which I guess these recommendations are based upon [Anfang RR et al. Laryngoscope. 2019]. The approach is intriguing but I wonder if anyone has clinical experience the application of honey in this setting, and/or working on clinical studies.
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Honey can reduce esophageal injury in the critical time between ingestion and when a child is able to have the battery properly removed. https://www.chop.edu/news/new-national-guidelines-recommend-ingesting-honey-after-swallowing-button-battery
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Dear Sir/Madam, my question is that as we know we use PICO model in Systematic Literature Review (SLR) mostly for Randomize Clinical Studies. so what model or approach should we use for Observational cohort studies, or case studies or in qualitative research or any other study design? Thank you in advance for kind guidance
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Thanks all of you for your kind answers. I got it because of your support. Thank you guys ,have a blessed life
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As all know, in successful pre clinical cancer experimental studies, only 8% could be successful as well in human studies and clinical trials.
Can you reverse the previous statement, expecting successful data in clinical trials although of failure in pre clinical studies?
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Yes, now I understand what you actually meant Khaled M.E Elawdan . I fully agree with Tomasz Grabowski especially the paragraph below.
Another difficulty is the complex nature of the disease. The more complex target disease in its etiopathogenesis in humans, the more difficult it is to verify a drug candidate in the preclinical phase. Moreover, the etiology of many diseases is not exactly known, therefore many drugs are only symptomatic drugs. The symptoms-effects observed in the models may not be properly selected in the preclinical phase and generate an error. After all, there are many examples of drugs discovered by accident or drugs which, depending on the dose level, have different mechanisms of action. All of this can lead to the situation you are writing about.
Tomasz Grabowski as you mentioned it is going to be risky.
Thank you Khaled M.E Elawdan for a good question.
Best Wishes.
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Hello! I'm looking for anyone who has had any kind of experience with The Fisher Wallace Stimulator. Please specify whether you have tried the device or know someone who has. Any information would be greatly appreciated. I'm also interested in any clinical studies and which diagnosis in particular has a better efficacy rate.
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TMS THERAPY VS. FISHER WALLACE
By TMS & Brain HealthAugust 19, 2020
There are hardly any studies on electrostimulation in low strengths being published in comparison to TMS. So it would be difficult to convince ethics committees about this procedure in protocols.
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If we observe, apart from pre-clinical and clinical studies, researcher in health research usually write Review articles. What's you think regarding contribution/impact of review articles in Research field?
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I strongly agree with the others. I believe that whenever we write a review article we read all the relevant important articles and try to summarize its important findings into one. It helps the readers to read one relevant topic and absorb all the parameters and related matters to the topic.
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I am writing a synopsis for my dissertation on a topic in which I'm comparing 2 endodontic sealers clinically (RCT). there are no clinical studies for their comparison in literature till now. I am having difficulty in calculating sample size. I need guidance.
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I have the primary outcome to measure on reliable scale with intra & inter observer reliability. But unable to find suitable sample size to defend my dissertation.
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The concept of angiogenic therapy emerged in the early 1990s. The method employs genes that encode growth factors to promote formation of new vessels and remodeling of collateral vessels. Since the procedure involved in this therapy usually only consists of local injections of vectors, the process is minimally invasive, quick, and simple to perform. However, since the first clinical evidence of the effects of gene therapy with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was observed in patients with peripheral artery disease, to date only two angiogenic therapy drugs have been approved, one in Russia and another in Japan, which seem a very small number, in view of the large volume of investment made in pre-clinical and clinical studies. After all, can we conclude that angiogenic therapy is a reality?
Keywords: gene therapy; atherosclerosis; peripheral artery disease; limb ischemia.
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Hmmm...the major goal of therapeutic angiogenesis using gene therapy for CLI patients is to deliver relief from ischemic pain, heal ulcers, attenuate amputation risk, and finally ameliorate life quality.
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Dear all,
I would like to conduct the systematic review of stroke studies. I found that the GRADE-CERQual tool is useful to evaluate the strength of qualitative evidence. It is possible if I use this approach for my review?
Thanks for your help
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It is not clear to me if you want to assess the evidence generated by qualitative research OR if want to assess the evidence generated by qualitative synthesis generated by clinical studies.
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I have seen from some review articles which used the EPHPP or the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS), but I can imagine that these are mainly used for clinical studies (cohort studies, case-control studies, etc.). I did a check on the keys used for the assessment to confirm it.
My systematic review however is not related to clinical studies. I am working on a review in the field of environmental pollution, particularly PAH pollution (which reports on the analytical techniques and the PAH concentrations in the different media), and I need to assess the quality of the already selected list of papers (after using PRISMA guidelines or checklist).
Thank you!
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Dear Samuel,
Hello,
First of all, I would like to thank you for the sake of this interesting discussion!
Although many of important criteria have been addressed by the friends participated in this discussion, I would like to add that novelty of the idea, good review of the literature, accurate research method, clarity and presentation of the work, and usefulness of the article contribution can also taken into account.
All the best,
Ali
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Dear Scientists,
I have conducted a Interventional study with pre-post design where outcomes are measure before and after the intervention. In my study, I also have control group (so study design is "Mult-arm pre-post study). I selected patients through block randomization. I have an argument in scientific community that randomization can only be used for Clinical Trials. My study is not clinical trial, its just prospective intervention study. Is randomization in this study appropriate?
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I think it should be in 2 different groups to avo the effect of biases and confounders
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Please help me to find out the recent clinical studies on effect of Pollution on human body and various body systems.Also what parameters/ scoring pattern can be applied in research.
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Do I need a licence to use the Hypoglycemia fear survey-II in a clinical study? If so, who to contact?
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Dear Amélie Roy-Fleming ,
is this question still relevant? The best way to find out and to get access would be to ask the authors directly. Linda Gonder-Frederick also is on ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Linda_Gonder-Frederick
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Is a scenario possible wherein the drug exposure achieved in clinical studies surpass or exceed than the exposure achieved in nonclinical toxicity studies conducted of appropriate duration?
And if so, is the dose selection flawed in that particular clinical study?
And to address that kind of a situation, should more nonclinical toxicity studies be performed that test a higher exposure than what is expected in humans?
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It is possible, but highly unlikely base on current regulatory guidelines. For a given dose value, the human can have a better bioavailability and exposure than the animal model used preclinically. However, the preclinical models are dosed at several multiples until toxicity or maximum acheivable dose is reached. Human Ph1 trials start at a fraction of the NOEL reported preclinically. At these starting doses, exposures are compared to the animal data so guidance is available for the escalating dose studies. So it is unlikely that you would ever be in a position that human clinical trials were achieving exposures that were in excess of any reported for preclinical studies. If preclinical studies are not designed correctly, then it is a possible scenario that clinical doses could provide unexpected exposures but in that case the company has wasted much time and money and should rethink their position as a drug company.
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It seems that a few years ago there were some efforts to develop THz imaging for endoscopic/colonoscopic purposes. Are there any in vivo or, even more interesting, clinical studies that have shown the feasibility of this approach?
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Terahertz (THz) imaging is emerging as a robust platform for myriad applications in the fields of security, health, and material science. Terahertz regime with wavelengths spanning from microns to millimeters has the potential to obtain high-resolution images of an organ effectively combining macroscopic and microscopic information. This book describes the design, development, and practical implementation of a single-channel terahertz endoscope while simultaneously obtaining an overview of the existing technology. Dr. Doradla places a particular emphasis on the design of a miniaturized endoscopic system for cancer detection, among many other facets of the device development including: generation of terahertz radiation from carbon dioxide gas laser, ex-vivo characterization of colorectal tissue in reflection modality, fabrication of flexible terahertz waveguides, and feasibility study of polarization-sensitive endoscopic system for clinical applications. This is an ideal book for applied physicists and biomedical engineers entering the field and this volume offers comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology and medical imaging.
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Does any clinical studies in canine proves that an increase in serum calcium level can be correlated with the occurrence of Mammary tumor in canine patients.
I want to also know whether increased serum calcium level is seen in any other tumor conditions in canines...?
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Paraneoplastic syndromes are complexes symptom that occur at a distinct site from the primary tumor or its metastasis by the production of hormone by the tissue in which the tumor appears. Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia is associated with an abnormal elevation of serum calcium levels and the mainly tumor related to this syndrome in canine is lymphoma, anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma and multiple myeloma. In mammary tumors, the most frequent tumor that affect female dogs, this syndrome was also observed. The aims of this study were to evaluate serum calcium levels in female dogs with malignant mammary tumors and correlate calcium levels with clinicopathological parameters. Materials, Methods & Results: It was evaluated fifty-one female dogs with mammary carcinomas (simple carcinomas and carcinoma in mixed tumors) for serum calcium levels using colorimetric test. Clinical-histopathological data as spray status, pseudopregnancy, tumor size, ulceration, clinical staging, histopathological type and tumor grade were also evaluated in association with serum calcium levels. All dogs were treated with unilateral mastectomy. It was observed that 18 animals (35%) had calcium serum levels increased (>11.5 mg/dL) and 56% (10/18 cases) of these animals had serum calcium levels higher than 12 mg/dL. All dogs with hypercalcemia were asymptomatic, including two female dogs that presented the highest levels (13.43 mg/dL and 14.28 mg/dL). Hypercalcemia of malignancy was related to mammary carcinomas after the exclusion of other causes of hypercalcemia through laboratory tests (complete blood count and serum biochemistry) and abdominal ultrasound. No correlation was verified between the corrected serum calcium values with clinical and histopathological parameters evaluated.
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44: 1386
Paraneoplastic Hypercalcemia Secondary to Canine Mammary Tumors
Talita Mariana Morata Raposo-Ferreira1 , Giovanna Rossi Varallo1 , Sabryna Gouveia Calazans2 , Paulo Cesar Jark1 , Rosana da Cruz Lino Salvador1 , Mirela Tinucci-Costa1 , Andrigo Barboza De Nardi1 , Geovanni Dantas Cassali3 & Renée Laufer-Amorim4
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what is the diffidence between case-control study and cross-sectional study?
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In cross sectional study exposure and outcome are present at one time no follow up is needed
and we can find out Only prevalence in cross sectional studies
while in case control study cases and control groups are assigned and they are followed up for the particular risk and outcome and we calculate odds ratio relative risk attributable risk and hazards ratio and find how much lethal is effect of risk of outcome
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Is there a database for pre-clinical studies? (such as https://clinicaltrials.gov/ which is a database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies conducted around the world)
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Hello everybody,
I know this would be a delayed response, but I just now came across this question. And if you haven't came across with any of the better solutions yet, this could potentially assist you.
Firstly, I suggest you rather than looking for some specific pre-clinical studies database, I would recommend you to go with MEDLINE, NLM, NIH, NCBI etc. As these all databases has separate entity for pre-clinical studies (animal studies), you can just do this by adding filter to your search.
Secondly, yes! There exists a registry for pre-clinical studies which comprises of protocols. (www.preclinicaltrials.eu)
Finally, as far as my knowledge concerned, GOSTAR doesn't deal with pre-clinical stuff. (As one of the researchers mentioned about it)
I hope, I have answered your question and assumes this could aid you.
Regards.
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I want to find a database in which i can draw the chemical structure of the core ring and it will give me all the published structures with their biological activity. For example, the benzimidazole ring can be found in different drugs or compounds under clinical study, so which website can give me all compounds containing benzimidazole associated with its biological activity or target protein.
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I've just started my masters on a clinical trial (n=36) involving supplementation with different fatty acids .My project is looking into if SNPs can influence certain lipid metabolites. I'm wondering what the advantages/disadvantages are for using whole genome sequencing versus a targeted approach.
Any input is much appreciated!
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Hi Lisa,
the best way to start your study will be to have strictly good and precise phenotypic data since you have not an expensive population.
the second point is the bioinformatics skills and helps you'll have to analyse data. whole genome sequencing data can give you millions of variants to analyse, while exome sequencing (which I prefer) will only give you some hundreds of these (I did it for some samples, giving about 60000 for each, some are shared, some not). targeted sequencing would be a good idea but then you need to be sure on the choice of your targets (you cannot see what you're not searching on).
I let you see this post on the termofisher website, it could help you:
fred
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My name is Amandine HUFSCHMITT, I am a sixth-grade dentistry student from the university of Strasbourg (France). With another dentistry student, we would like to realise a research thesis about the using of carisolv and Papacarie for caring axious patient (adult or children). This thesis will be based on actual articles but also based on a clinical study that we would like to realise in our dentistry clinic of the University of Strasbourg. In that way we need some carisolv and papacarie syringe however there is no carisolv and papacarie distributor in France. That is the reason why we contact you to know how collecting some carisolv and papacarie products for our study. This carisolv study will be the first in France and we wish our work will be published. Thank you for your precious help, if anyone have an idea who can I contact for this sample.
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Hello,
we investigated proteolytic enzyms a few years ago for self-limiting caries therapy ()
We had similar problems to get the commercial products. If you cannot get hands on the commercial materials I suggest to mix your own solutions. It is much easier than you might expect.
For example, you can buy Papain from Sigma-Aldrich (https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/metabolomics/enzyme-explorer/analytical-enzymes/papain.html). They have information about the pH-optimum. You will find details about the concentrations in the early publications, probably (See "Buskadory + Papain" in Google or Pubmed ). Or you make several preliminary experiments with varying concentrations.
You can do the same for Carisolv. The recipe is available in the publications or the safety data sheets. In addition, you can look in the published patents of those products.
I would say that for a scientific publication this approach is much better than the use of the commercial products as you know all ingredients.
Just make sure you mix the solutions always fresh.
Good luck and rely on your knowledge about biochemistry from your study. It is no rocket science ;-)
Sincerely
Karl-Heinz
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I have been researching about using dichoptic video games for binocular treatment of amblyopia. We have developed various video games prototypes with the anaglyph technique; but we have not been able to do clinical studies.
Are you interested in to do clinical studies about binocular treatment of amblyopia?
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I would like to collaborate with you in the realization of clinical studies, to evaluate the effectiveness of the binocular treatment of amblyopia with videogames, by provinding know how about design and implementation of the video games.
At this moment we have two video game prototypes an i am working in software for suppression quantifying, using random dot kinematograms and dichoptic global motion task.
My department is strengthening its capabilities for the development of serious educational videogames, which constitutes a great opotunity, becouse it these same video games can be adapted for binocular treatment of amblyopia.
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CPVT is related to an RyR2 mutation which is a calcium channel. Flecainide is a type 1c antiarrhythmic which acts on the sodium channel. There is controversy as to how this is of benefit but it is clear from clinical studies that flecainide can reduce both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias in CPVT. What is the mechanism and what is the evidence for this?
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I conducted a clinical study in which the outcome rate was 26 /200 i.e. 13%. I wanted to do a logistic regression analysis to detect important predictors of this outcome.
Univariate analysis showed that 19 variables had p<0.1, so can be included in the analysis.
My questions are:
1) I was told that in a multivariate logistic analysis, I can only include 1 variable for every 10 events. So, in this case, I should only include 3 variables in every logistic analysis. Is this correct? If so, do I have to repeat the logistic analysis several times in order to enter 3 variables at a time? And which variables should be entered together? Should I choose variable that are related to each other some how? or it doesn't matter, and I can choose any 3 variables that have nothing in common!! Moreover, in the paper, do I write that I performed logistic regression 6 times separately !! I have never seen such a thing in any paper that I read including megatrials !!
2) When I did logistic regression for every 3 variables, I found S.E. was high for some of them, which signals high collinearity. Should I omit one variable with high SE at a time and repeat after replacing it with another variable from the 19?
3) Some variables had high correlations with the constant (p around 0.8 and 0.85), do I omit them too?
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I suggest you read Breslow and Day Vol 1 Statistical Methods in Cancer Research IARC 1980 for an excellent discussion of collinearity and variable selection especially pages 233-236
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Statistical analysis
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You didn't mention about the type of data involved.
Continuous data: 
If between 2 groups: Student's T test (normal distribution) and Mann Whitney U (skewed distribution).
More than 2 groups: ANOVA (normal distribution) and Kruskal Wallis H (skewed distribution). 
Categorical data:
Pearson's chi-square test
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Condylus tertius (also known as third occipital condyle,median occipital condyle, or basilar tubercle) is an extremelyrare condition, named by Merkel in 1815.1 There are veryfew clinical studies of prevalence of condylus tertius in theliterature. In humans it is found in approximately 0.5% ofthe population and may exist as a discrete condyle or an isolated osseous element.
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Hi,
In this case report authors suggests that it can be associated with vertigo. But there is no prevalance 
Presence of an articulating condylus tertius basilar part of the occipital bone- A rare anatomical abnormality. Gülhane Tıp Derg 2013; 55: 217-219
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What are the main differences in terms of assay precision?
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Is using Luminex better than Eliza for Bioequivalence Studies? If so why?
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In vivo or clinical studies
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 thank you Gert Fricker Sir, it is one of the good study on same drug.
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The power or sensitivity of a binary hypothesis test is the probability that the test correctly rejects the null hypothesis (H0) when the alternative hypothesis (H1) is true. should this be addressed before every clinical studies?
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A priori power analysis is intended to avoid studies that can't address their primary question or studies that waste precious resources by being larger than they need to be. They also force you to define your primary question and think about clinically meaningful effect sizes. In that sense, I regard them as mandatory. As a result, I tend to reject grants or papers sent to me for review that don't include a sample size calculation. That said,  most statisticians eschew a posteriori power calculations, since once the study is done, you either saw the effect or didn't. For the latter, it's a matter of taste and philosophy.
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In a block randomisation clinical study, the block length was 10 which was decided and known only by the biostatician. Random allocation sequence was done with a computerized random-number generator. The allocation numbers were random four-digit numbers which were in non-consecutive order in the allocation list.
Question - If the biostatician is aware of the block length, is this of any significance? Does it bring in any bias?
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No, there is no impact on the study if the biostatician is aware of the block length as he has no impact on patient selection, ramdomisation of single patients and treatment.
As a team member has to decide on the block length, the biostatician is a good choice. But even if the project manager decides (and therefore knows, it has no impact. Only the study site team (and best case the monitor)  should not know.
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In a clinical study, what is the difference between an end-point and an outcome measure?
Are they synonyms?
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Hi Kanchan,
There is a delicate equilibrium between an endpoint and an outcome measure, rather than a simple alternative: difference vs synonyms. Just look through basis several clinical circumstances surrounding these terms, in their application to each individual clinical situation.
1)     “Direct” Endpoints. Clinically meaningful endpoints that directly measure how a patient feels, functions, or survives • Endpoints that in themselves represent or characterize the clinical outcome of interest – Objective: survival, disease exacerbation, clinical event (e.g. MI, stroke), etc. – Subjective: symptom score, “health related quality of life” (validated instrument), etc.
2)     Surrogate Endpoints • A surrogate endpoint is a laboratory measure or a physical sign that is intended to be used as a substitute for a clinically meaningful endpoint. • Ideally, the surrogate should exist within the therapeutic pathway between the drug and meaningful benefit – i.e. the drug results in the therapeutic benefit by virtue of its effect on the surrogate • Changes induced by a therapy on a surrogate endpoint are expected to reflect changes in a clinically meaningful endpoint.
3)     Composite Endpoints • A single measure of effect, based on a combination of individual endpoints. • Particularly useful for drugs that can benefit patients in several ways or if component events are infrequent. • Examples: – Cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure – “MACE” (major adverse cardiac events): cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke – “Clinical Worsening” : may include categorical decline in functioning, worsening symptoms, addition of a new medication, hospitalization due to the disease, death, etc. – (HRQOL instruments) • Often analyzed as time to first event, or number of events over the study period.
Considerations: – So, each component should itself be clinically meaningful. – Ideally, each component would be approximately equally meaningful. – “Success” should not be concluded if driven by a less meaningful component, if there is evidence of a therapeutic disadvantage on a more meaningful component. – The composite should not include individual components for which a treatment effect is not expected. – May complicate communication of the established benefit of a drug. • There may often be inadequate evidence to establish a treatment effect on any of the components individually.
4)     As for Patient Reported Outcomes, any report of the status of the patient’s health that comes directly from the patient, without interpretation of the patient’s response by a clinician or anyone else. – e.g. symptoms, functioning, or a more global assessment of the effect of the disease on health and functioning from the patient’s perspective (“health related quality of life”) • Intuitively desirable. A very reasonable goal of therapy would be to make the patient feel better in some way. Sometimes the benefit of a drug may only be detected or described by the patient. • Current standards for PRO instrument development, validation, and application in clinical trials reflect increasing sophistication in the field.
Best wishes,
Ilya
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Preclinical studies suggest carnitine and ALCAR should have antidepressant efficacy, but (to my knowledge) there is a paucity of clinical trials.
i am hoping my RESEARCHGATE colleagues know of clinical studies/reports.
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I think I have had good effects, particularly when combined with R-lipoic acid.
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I am looking at any in vitro on clinical studies that would support the benefits of taking curcumin in this patient population.
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Thanks a lot! 
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Dear folks,
I would like to know if and how it is possible to use Bland-Altmann graph to quantify interobserver variability of measurements done by 3 reseachers. Could you suggest otherwise any alternative statistic methods?
Thank you in advance!
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Interesting question. I have a found previous RG thread related.
Alternative method is calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficient.
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What is/are validated or widely used and accepted tests to score anxiety/depression/stress in clinical studies? (I see HADS, PHQ9, Hamilton in literature)
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If used as an outcome measure, there is actually some indication that the Clinical Global Impression scale is very sensitive to treatment effects. Probably the most evidence-based (and most expensive) thing is to combine multiple sources of information (BMC Psychiatry. 2011 May 14;11:83. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-11-83.)
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I'm trying to compare  research data received from an experimental model of HF with known facts from clinical studies.
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The data exist but you need to go back to the tables inside papers. In some studies where they break down the data by gender, plasma aldosterone can be found. Especially in patients with metabolic syndrome. The RALES and EPHESUS trials are your best chances. They both show that aldosterone receptor antagonist reduce mortality rate of heart failure in women (more than in men). Also, the Framingham Heart Study found higher levels of aldosterone in women than in men before the onset of heart failure. It also found a correlation between increased aldosterone levels and increased ventricular wall thickness in women (http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/43/5/957.long). 
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can anybody share checklist for retrospective & prospective study documents needs to be submitted for approval of clinical trials to conduct study with reference.
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I agree with Mr. Jun Shi For the above information you may refer to IND/CTA requirements per HA in the region /country of your interest,
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Are there certain factors could make the statistical significant ( p value less than 0.05) clinically important as larger sample size or randomized controlled clinical studies?
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To add to Jochen's very thoughtful reply – a p-value is a ratio. It is the result of dividing the effect size by the degree of precision in the measurement of that effect. So it combines two pieces of information in a way that cannot be uncombined. (A half is a half, no matter whether it's 2÷4 or 18÷9). 
The first important figure for clinical significance is the effect size, which, as Jochen says, cannot be read from the p-value. And even here, the size is not the only factor. We need to understand the context.
For example, smoking increases the risk of cancers of the head and neck by a factor of about 20. But these cancers are really rare, so the effect of smoking is to produce just a few extra cases. If you are a smoker, your absolute risk of cancers of the head and neck is still tiny. 
On the other hand, smoking increases the risk of heart disease by a factor of just 2.5. However, because the risk of heart disease is already substantial, a 2.5-fold increase represents a very serious increase in risk both at the level of the population and the level of the individual. 
So without knowing the context, you cannot deduce clinical significance from the measure of effect size, even if you knew it. 
The denominator in the p-value calculation is the precision of measurement. This is also useful information in judging clinical significance. But it is better expressed as a confidence interval around the point estimate of the effect size. The width of the confidence interval allows us to judge which findings are already precisely measured to a degree where we can put them into practice, and which will require more research before we decide to act. 
As I hope you can see, a p-value is the worst possible way of losing two really important pieces of information - effect size and precision. And they are lost irretrievably - you cannot reverse-engineer the process of division without knowing at least one of the terms in the sum. 
Good question, and one which more people should ask themselves!
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there are many protocols using the urine of 24 hours to study the phenomenon of cristatlisation
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There is no better method for estimating all the fluctuations of the composition of the urine depending on the amount of liquid ingested, the type of food eaten, the diurnal variations, the influence of the lying/standing position...
It is essential that urine are properly collected: the patient must be well informed of the procedure
The laboratory also plays an essential  role in the quality of the results:
it is necessary that the entirety of the collected urine are mixed in a suitable sized container and that urine output is measured accurately (for that, use graduated cylinders of different sizes, not just use approximate measurements from some containers)
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like in-vitro studies of urine cristalisation 
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Men have always been treated as standard patients in medicine. Hence, the first trials concerning the atherosclerosis were also describing processes present in men. Many women do not have their heart infarcts properly diagnosed, because infarcts have been perceived as the 'male only' disease. The hormonal differences between men and women may be the reason for using only one sex in clinical studies, and the researchers may have decided to choose men simply because of 'tradition' - more data concerning male patients is available.
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Is that true that there are many clinical studies showing the efficacy of an anticancer treatment with high-dose vitamin C with  total remission and pharmaceutical industries have blocked these clinical trials ?
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It is maybe antioxidant therapy for cancer
dont really know if there is a direct action on cancer progress
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Need suggestion for a simple clinical study.  eg: malignancy in a patient with pancreatic head mass
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Suggest that you please refer to the following article which may be of some help.
Khanna, AK et al, AgNOR Count and Subjective AgNOR Pattern Assessment (SAPA)
Score in Carcinoma of the Pancreatic Head Including Periampullary Tumors, 
JOP. J Pancreas (Online) 2005; 6(6):575-580.
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I am in problem in analysis of two studies. a) In an RCT with 50 patients in each group need three followup at day 0, 28 and 90 days. In every follow up there are missing of some patients. Intension to treat basis analysis I need to apply here(Is it oK?) but I want to know the procedure in SPSS-20. b) In another analytic study with 60 patients with convulsion and 60 patients with headache without convulsion, where TSH, fT3 and fT4( to observe sub clinical hypothyroidism) levels are needed to measure at week o, 12 and 24. Here also there are some patients not coming to follow up. Intention to treat analysis is still applicable here with missing values?
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Missing outcomes due to attrition (loss to attrition) is handled by censoring. I suggest you read up on survival analysis (also known as time-to-event analysis). I am attaching a link to a tutorial paper I wrote on the topic a long time ago.
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Can anyone tell what is the ASTM standard protocol for hydrogel synthesis? And where its used mostly like if you are performing the clinical studies etc. or in general in vitro type of work also you need ASTM standard protocol. Please help?
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Actually my institute don't have university access for this article...I am stuck up in between...
I work with human-derived stem cells and its 3D encapsulated gel.
Share some solution if you have regarding this ASTM problem. Thanks!
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please answer with reliable references
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In terms of analysis, a nested case control study is the same as any case control study. in fact all case control studies could be conceptually regarded as nested within  a cohort.. Odds ratio is the effect measure because true incidence rates are not measured . The controls(referents) when their exposures are ascertained only give the ratios of the sizes of the exposed and unexposed polulations, assuming controls are selected independently of exposure. see Rothman and Greenland 2nd ed 1998 Lippincott  Ch 7 p93. and Breslow and Day Vol 1 1980 IARC sci Pub 32.
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I am the first author of a group responsible for updating a Cochrane systematic review that needs the cooperation of a Chinese co-author. We are looking for a partner for data extraction and evaluation of some clinical studies and we are not able to partner a few months ago. Do you know someone who can help us?
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If you are working with Cochrane, they provide good solutions and assistance with non-English papers.Also you may try Archie.
1. Log into the Archie
2. Go to Search tab
3. Select Advance tab and People
4. From first drop-down menu, select Group Role Assigned
5. From second drop-down menu, select Translator
6. You may or may not select the Cochrane Group and run the search
7. The other way is selecting Role Specification from first menu and search for Chinese
Almost all the people in the search results are volunteer translator but only some are active and maybe some like to do volunteer work.
If you ask the editorial base of the group, they might be able to link you to an active Chinese researcher.
Good Luck
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I don't have any experience in using urine LH ovulation detection strips and wondered if anyone could recommend a particular brand that I ought to consider Or NOT use? I need a testing strip that will reliably measure the LH peak in women. Thank you.
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CUSABIO company providing LH ovulation kit. We are using the same product for identification of ovulation in Buffalo.
thanks
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As far as I know, most of the case studies are based on clinical cases. I wonder whether it is acceptable to do a case study with a supernormal participant. I searched it with Google, but found nothing. Have you seen some studies related to supernormal cases?
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Yes of course you can, but you have to have a good reason for doing so. In qualitative research, there is a sampling strategy where one looks for extreme cases or outlier cases, and this is usually within a context of wanting to better understand a particular phenomenon by investigating the full range of that phenomenon rather than concentrating on typical, usual, or randomly selected cases. Selecting such a a case implies a comparison with "typical" cases, so that difference needs to be clearly elucidated.
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I found out the optimal version for my experiment would be ABBA/BAAB/AABB/BBAA, but it only made sense just to do a ABBA/BAAB.
My question is what properties of the optimum get lost through this reduction of test groups?
is it still uniform and strongly balanced? If yes, what's the disadvantage of this reduction of groups?
At https://onlinecourses.science.psu.edu/stat509/book/export/html/123 are some definitions, but I'm not sure about whether or not these properties also match with my cross over design...
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If you are running a simple A vs B test, randomizing the sequence in which you take samples is important. If you use any 2 of the blocks, you will get good results. I wouldn't worry about the "Optimal" sequence.
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I am looking for individuals who are evaluating information provided from patients during either specific treatments or during clinical trials....My goal is to somehow obtain quality data and then evaluate that information in a quantitative manner.
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We are currently conducting an intervention trial on cancer induced asthenia/fatigue.Evaluation on quality of life scores, depression, sleep quality etc. will be included. We would be glad to share with you the outcome of the study.
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We are conducting research on whether a computer-based training simulation can be used to educate clinical staff on the benefits of applying correctly the clinical safety checklist developed by WHO, and how it must be applied. To measure changes in what are the effects of this training approach, we must measure somehow "frequency of application of the safety checklist" and "correctness of application of the safety checklist". As far as we know, there are no validated tools for this.
Any suggestion? Any related work we should be aware of? I'd like to see, for example, if someone knows of anyone that had tried to improve application of a specific protocol/tool/piece of equipment etc. in the OR and had the same need to repeatedly measure correctness on the application of the target element being studied.
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I think you need to rely on self reporting, but perhaps you can pick out at random some control to estimate the reliability. After introduction of the WHO safety list the missing knowledge about the patients history was frighteningly obvious, many times! That is why I do not believe in self-reporting!
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How can I interpret human laboratory data of various parameters collected from a reputed diagnostic lab in Dhaka, covering a full year database of 2013?
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You will have to look at the rationale, methodology and statistics and use your own common sense. There are some good people there and some that are not the best - just like in your home country.
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Does anyone have any suggestions (pros/cons) with regards to choosing a primary endpoint in a randomized clinical controlled trial with an expected inclusion of 100 patients with pulmonary embolism (intermediate risk, not hemodynamic affected, but with either/or RV involvement an increase in troponins).
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It rather depends on what effect you expect your intervention to have, but with a limitation of 100 patients the chances of observing any differences between two subgroups are pretty low, unless your intervention has a massive effect.