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For example, I just read an excellent article:
Galderisi S, Mucci A, Dollfus S, et al. EPA guidance on assessment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry. 2021;64(1):e23.
There are four assessment instruments discussed in that article that I wish to download or consider purchasing:
Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS)
Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS)
Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (SDS)
Self-evaluation of Negative Symptoms (SNS)
After nearly an hour searching Google and other databases, I found one of the four scales - thank you Prof. Ann Kring for posting them on your lab's website!
Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS)
But what about the other three scales? Are they simply not available? How do you find out?
And in general, do you have a method for finding tests, scales, measures, etc. that you read about in the literature?
Thanks!
Mark
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It is highly dependent on the scales you are looking for (as some are free and some are not). It will be best to look at articles as some are attached at the end of the articles. If not, then I will recommend to contact the author(s) for permission.
Hope it helps. Cheers!
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Hello!
I am looking for resources to learn more about detailed muscle innervation related to its function. For example, the general knowledge about innervation for rectus abdominis is that it is innervated by intercostal nerve (T6-T11) and subcostal nerve (T12). I am looking for a bit deeper knowledge. For instance, would the innervation from the two different nerves into the rectus abdominis make different parts of the rectus abdominis function differently? Some people say lower and upper parts of the rectus abdominis should be assessed differently due to different fascial arrangement between these two parts. Are these two parts actually innervated differently? If so, I think this is quite a compelling and useful argument. It is not just about rectus abdominis. Similar arguments have been made for the hamstring groups. Some say that long head of the biceps femoris and short heads should be treated like two different muscles due to completely different innervation. I find such arguments fascinating and would love to learn more about the details.
Thank you so much for your time!
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Skeletal Muscle structure, function and plasticity by @RichardLieber
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Has this been done with current vaccines and do you have links to the research to provide us with?
Double-blind clinical trials for coronavirus COVID 19.
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Mutasem Z. Bani-Fwaz Good question
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I am writing a paper and I just need to look at a copy of the manual to see how to communicate the findings and some of the information that is included in the manual. It will be used strictly for the purposes of this paper and not for clinical use with clients.
I know this doesn't allow for a lot of back and forth commentary if you can help me with this please reach out on here or I can be reached by email ba926@msstate.edu
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Childhood trauma questionnaire : a retrospective self-report : manual
Author:David P Bernstein; Laura Fink Publisher:Orlando : Psychological Corporation, 1998.
Ask this from your library
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The lifetime learning of illiterate and low-educated individuals shapes their cognitive skills, which are challenging to grade by the current available neuropsychological tools. Which is the best available cognitive screening tools validated in the illiterate and low-educated subjects to assess language impairments?
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Through a battery of tests?
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Given the constraints of COVID-19, our IRB is limiting data collection that can be completed in-person. Thus I am looking to utilize teleadministration and comparing that to previously collected data. With that said, this means we have two separate groups that we are comparing. Is there a way to evaluate agreement between administration modality similar to that of an ICC or Bland-Altman plot?
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I was thinking if one can adapt Limits of agreement (LoA) estimate to compare the two method agreement. i.e., the interval within which a proportion of the differences between measurements of the two modality lie.
Given the limit of information you provided, and also about different subjects. Alternative is a non parametric approach, [comparing the results for each administrative modality] given that the responses maybe on likert scale, (ie., If you need to compare the 5-point scales one at a time, then non-parametric statistics) and perhabs the average of several Likert scale items which should gives you a scale that "approaches" interval-scale properties. You can use regular parametric statistics, and with three or more groups, ANOVA.
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Hi everyone, I am looking for ways to quantify psychiatric comorbidity / comorbidity severity in our sample** (primary diagnosis of interest: major depression) more elaborately, rather than simply reporting the average number of present comorbid psychiatric conditions. Are you familiar with indices/scores I could calculate for each patient, that, for example, allow weighing different conditions differently (I would perhaps naively assume that personality disorders would receive a greater weight with respect to comorbidity severity than, let's say, a specific phobia). Data collection has already been completed, so unfortunately I'm unable to apply additional questionnaires/assessments. (Comorbid) Diagnoses have been established by SKID-interviews and I am hoping to find a way to build on those.
Any ideas are greatly appreciated, thanks so much in advance!
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While your data collection completed, now you need to use suitable software (like SPSS) to help you in running your data in order to get the results.
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Can anyone suggest any research where errors were not corrected on the trail making test? thank you
Are there any advantages and disadvantages of not correcting participants?
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Depending on the version of the TMT you are using (and the associated norms), you are supposed to correct errors as the examinee progresses during the task. For example, if you are using the HRB version of TMT and Heaton's or MOANS norms to correct scores, there is a standardized proceedure for correcting errosr that should be followed; the time that correcting the errors adds to the task contributes to the degree of impairment detected by the measur. The same holds true for Color Trails as well. If you are not correcting the examinee as you go, this confounds their ability to complete the task as they progress. See Reitan and Wolfson (1993) for the proceedures.
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Hi,
Just wondering if anyone might have a PDF copy of Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry? Specifically I am looking for Chapter 8. I have a hard copy somewhere, but cannot put my hand on it at the minute.
Many thanks.
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Many thanks for this - but unfortunately this version skips chapter 8 (skips from chapter 6 to 14). I can’t find it anywhere on the internet. Anne
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Hi,
I would be thankful for any piece of literature introducing short, accessible and uncomputerised psychological tests for executive functioning and visual-motor processing. I am most interested in assessment of spatial and hierarchical planning.
Thank you
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Stephen, thank you for the reply. I didn't correctly express myself and have now corrected the question. I am not interested in one test which would merge all the functions but in all the tests available which cover the mentioned (not all in one test).
I am familiar with the Tower of Hanoi and I saw that the set can be bought online for a reasonable price, but was still hoping that other planning assessment tasks would be available.
Thank you for suggesting the Porteus Maze test, I will look into it.
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Why do almost all the guidelines (WHO) choose urinary iodine to define iodine deficiency but not blood iodine?
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reply of Ken Andrew Sikaris is absolutely right. Spot Urinary Iodine excretion is utilized for epidemiological study which cannot be translated into individual iodine status.UIE is determined for assessment of IDD in a given population who reside in a defined geographical location.
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I need to know if a new method of measurement is equivalent to an established one already in clinical use. I used Bland-Altman  method and calculated bias, limits of agreements and percentage error.
The percentage error is elevated (sup. to 50%). Do you know if the "critchley criteria" (percentage error acceptable if inf. to 30%) are only true for assessing cardiac output measurement or more generally accepted?
Thank you!
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I am currently writin a literature review on several tools for assessing prospective memory. Would you have the normative data (sample characteristics, reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity, etc.) of the RBMT-III and the CAMPROMPT (Wilson et al., 2008;2005) ? 
Thanks in advance for your help.
Regards,
Geoffrey.
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Your question contains links to the best sources. The tests will come with detailed Manuals. If you don't have a budget to purchase, then try contacting a Pearson Clinical representative; I know they want to facilitate research/publications regarding their products.
Another good source would be the Mental Measurements Yearbook, published by the Buros Institute. Your library may have a subscription; otherwise, you have to pay about $15 US per article. These are commissioned reviews by assessment experts. I know they published one about the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test in 2005, and I think the most recent review of the Rivermead was in 2008.
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24 year old man with deforming arthropathy and limitation of hip movement. He also has features of aortic stenosis and allergy to food in a way that he develop vomiting from certain foods with irritability, impairment in memory, forgetting, and nervousness.
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Careful assessment of AS severity. Consultation at a center with experience in percutaneous approaches to management of aortic stenosis.
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I need to compare groups based on their pornography consumption. Those groups differ on this scale, but I do not know if any of them is clinicaly distinct from the general population.
I could also use an article who made an estimation of that cut-off score. 
Thanks ! 
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Hi Alexandre,
To have valid cutoffs you need a valid dichotomous (or other categorical) outcome variable - which is not likely in areas like this. So, you would need a valid 'satisfied' vs. 'not satisfied' response - ignoring all the variation in between. Because of all the variation in between those extremes, the cutoffs will never be really true, and many people will be included in the wrong outcome group.
That is a huge problem that colleagues and I are currently working on, as we often need cutoffs. So, if possible, always use continuous measures and outcomes for naturally continuous variables.
Good luck!
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Hello everyone,
I would like to discuss a little about proposed cut-points for physical activity in individuals with functional impairment (eg. Patients with peripheral arterial disease). Is there a more appropriate proposition?
A good part of the available studies is based on cut-points proposed by Freedson et al. 1998 (young adults) and Copeland et al. 2009 (elderly without functional changes). To what extent these propositions may be underestimating the physical activity intensity in elderly individuals with functional limitations?
Best, Bruno.
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I used the GT3X to compare the level of activity of nonfrail and frail elderly and many of the frail ones had functional limitations. I understand that the accelerometer might underestimate the level of energy expenditure of the activity, but not the intensity. Even though we found good relationships between the accelerometer variables and the VO2 peak of the participants.
Best Regards, 
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I've encountered publications which demonstrated the agreement between assay methods for the clinical classification of the results through Cohen's kappa values obtained over 0.6 or 0.8. I have failed, however, to find documents which validate its use for the comparison of the performance of chemical assays. I wonder if Cohen's kappa is thought to be a valid indicator for method agreement in the clinical laboratory by others.
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Yes, the thresholds are essentially arbitrary - a matter of convention. Basically, kappa and its cousins tell you how much more closely your judges agreed than would have been expected by chance alone. In other words, it's similar to percentage agreement, but controlling for the base rate of the target condition. It's up to you (and the rest of the scientific community) to decide how much better is good enough. As you noticed, there isn't perfect consensus on this score yet.
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For example, two treatments could be statistically significantly different, but their clinical effects may irrelevant ?. In this case how should we interpret the results?
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Please see below for my previous discussion on this: 
Dear Editor,
We read with interest the article by Gibbs and Gibbs on the misuse of the word trend to describe ‘almost’ significant p values [1]. However, we believe this discussion of semantics is clouding a somewhat greater issue in the reporting of statistics in the scientific literature. As Gibbs and Gibbs noted, p values are inferential statistics that give the probability of obtaining a value the same or greater than that found if the null hypothesis was true. However, we argue that p values are outdated and for clinical studies in particular, their use should be avoided. This is not a new concept, however, we hope this letter will serve to remind the readership of the flaws in null hypothesis statistical testing. We will first highlight the problems related with the [mis]use of p values, and then discuss the advantages of estimation-based methods, illustrating this with a theoretical example.
Firstly, the use of p values can often detract from a more important issue when conducting a clinical study, the assessment of clinical significance. The misinterpretation of p values means that readers may mistake ‘statistical significance’ as ‘clinical significance’. As the calculation of p values is heavily dependent on sample size, large studies may demonstrate very small p values that are not clinically significant. In fact, such small p values may in fact be evidence against the use of a particular treatment, as it can make us more confident that a treatment will not have a clinically significant effect (see later example). Secondly, the choice of a significance level of p<0.05 is arbitrary. Such a level may have originated from statistician Ronald Fisher who suggested this as a sensible cut-off, although he never advocated this as an absolute rule [2]. It is absurd to suggest a study that reports a p value of 0.04 is ‘positive’ and another that reports a p value of 0.06 is negative [3]. Such ‘negative’ p values promote fear in researchers and students while also rendering a study less likely to be published [4].
Ever since the end of the 1970’s, the use of confidence intervals (CI) was proposed as an alternative to p values [5]. Confidence intervals present a range of values with which the population mean is likely to lie. More specifically, a 95% confidence interval states that should the experiment be repeated 100 times, the mean of 95 of these experiments would fall within this interval [6]. Such an approach is advocated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors who state ‘When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as P values, which fail to convey important information about effect size and precision of estimates’.
Confidence intervals contain a wealth of information as well as including all the information of a traditional p value. If the extreme limit of the confidence interval traverses the null result, then the p value is >0.05 (if 95% CI are used) [7]. Moreover, confidence intervals can be better used to assess the likelihood an intervention has a clinically significant effect. Consider an example, we wish to know the efficacy of two different analgesic agents (x and y) for treating postoperative pain. We undertake two randomised controlled trials (RCT) with both agents and pre-determine a clinically significant reduction in pain as 15mm (on a 100mm VAS) [8]. The first RCT with agent x enrols a large number of participants and demonstrates a mean difference of -5mm (95% CI -3mm to -7mm; p<0.001). The second study with agent y recruits much fewer participants and demonstrates a mean difference of -12mm (95% CI 0.1mm to -24.1mm; p=0.06). Although the p value of the first study is very low, the results indicate that we can be confident this agent does not produce a clinically significant effect and should therefore not be used. The second study, although not statistically significant, does not exclude a clinically significant effect and requires more studies to be conducted in order to increase power and narrow the confidence interval. If we had relied solely on statistical significance, widely different and erroneous conclusions would be made.
We accept that this argument is not new and we applaud the British Journal of Anaesthesia for promoting confidence intervals in their instructions for authors page. However, we feel that this letter should serve as a reminder to the readership both the flaws of p values and the advantages of confidence intervals. We hope this will also encourage authors to report confidence intervals wherever possible.
References
[1] Gibbs NM, Gibbs SV. Misuse of ‘trend’ to describe ‘almost significant’ differences in anaesthesia research. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2015: aev149.
[2] Sterne JA, Smith GD. Sifting the evidence—what's wrong with significance tests? Physical Therapy 2001; 81: 1464-1469.
[3] Rosnow RL, Rosenthal R. Statistical procedures and the justification of knowledge in psychological science. American Psychologist 1989; 44: 1276.
[4] Stern JM, Simes RJ. Publication bias: evidence of delayed publication in a cohort study of clinical research projects. British Medical Journal 1997; 315: 640-645.
[5] Rothman K. A show of confidence. New England Journal of Medicine 1978; 299: 1362-3.
[6] Gardner MJ, Altman DG. Confidence intervals rather than P values: estimation rather than hypothesis testing. British Medical Journal 1986; 292: 746-750.
[7] Cohen J. The earth is round (p < .05). American Psychologist 1994; 49: 997-1003, p. 997.
[8] Gallagher EJ, Liebman M, Bijur PE. Prospective validation of clinically important changes in pain severity measured on a visual analog scale. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2001; 38: 633–638.
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I am looking for questionnaires and tests that apply to clinical assessment of novel psychoactive substances addiction.  Is there visual analogue scale for craving?
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Dear Dr. Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist
Thank you very much!
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I'm exploring deaths in elders attributable to neglect such as the withholding of medications that would likely improve health (antibiotics, diuretics). I have two trajectories of interest. First to explore hidden euthanasia of the elderly believed to be "bed blockers". Second, to explore whether these incidents are dealt with through the professional bodies or whether they make it to actual criminal cases. Thanks.
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Dear Sharon,
Even though your trajectories are right. It is very difficult to put down any physicians because of their great team work and support for each other no matter how wrong they are. That is why some of them are so smug (not all) even though they could not even insert an IV plug because of the licence that they "earned" by "sheer medical training"
It is never easy fighting over establishments who need their professionals more than their patients. 
Given their huge income and the institutions "lucrative income" are way beyond any elderly "assets" put together - it is difficult to pin down on any negligence because of so many reasons / tools / knowledge the physicians could use too.
I have yet to see the elderly being euthanized personally but I have seen many being abused right under my own nose. And the physicians are left to continue to be abusive openly. But what could I do? Who would listen to me? Who would ever believe me? I am but just a small fry.
That is why euthanasia is a very intricate issue because the physicians have the power to heal and will kill (not all) depending on the situations, advanced medical directories, the family or even the patient's advance request to be euthanized when they are found to be terminally ill or mentally deficit owing to reason(s) beyond their further existence.
Please tread this issue safely, because the repercussions outweigh the benefits of doing such research openly.
Best regards - Mariam
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Could you help?
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Dear Lizzy,
“The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) assesses the types of activities typically chosen by older adults (walking, recreational activities, exercise, housework, yard work, and caring for others. It uses frequency, duration, and intensity level of activity over the previous week to assign a score, ranging from 0 to 793, with higher scores indicating greater physical activity.
Washburn RA, Smith KW, Jette AM, Janney CA. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE): development and evaluation. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993;46(2):153-62. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/14762341_The_Physical_Activity_Scale_for_the_Elderly_PASE_Development_and_evaluation
Washburn RA, McAuley E, Katula J, Mihalko SL, Boileau RA. The physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE): evidence for validity. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999;52(7):643-51. http://www.jclinepi.com/article/S0895-4356%2899%2900049-9/abstract
Logan SL, Gottlieb BH, Maitland SB, Meegan D, Spriet LL. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire; does it predict physical health? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Aug 30;10(9):3967-86. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3799529/pdf/ijerph-10-03967.pdf 
Best wishes from Germany
Martin
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Need evidence with validity and reliability.
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Fingertip-to-floor test and Schober's test are the classic measurements for lumbar spine mobility. They are reproducible and still valid today for the range of lumbar flexion. Rotation and side bending of the lumbar spine are difficult to measure separately from the total spinal rotation and side bending. They are usually measured in toto. 
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This should be the endpoint of our work and maybe give us useful information how to modify our work in the future.
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You should have several (blinded) physicians evaluating the images and/or clinical condition and then compare the results on there decisions.
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I'm searching for any prevalence study that shows a prevalence of 6 sets of clinical criteria to classify Alzheimer's disease (DSM). Thank you.
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Dear Oriol,
Nowadays, I do not believe we have data about the "6 sets" separately. There is no reason to build up studies going like this if you are thinking in dementia appropriately diagnosed in clinical pratice only. Besides, the disease's progressing could be quite different among the  subtipes, with early and late onset dementia having very distinct facets. 
But you should try looking for "stages in dementia prevalence", in the link  nia.nih.gov.
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The patient has Hypothyroidism, Hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes, & Vitiligo. 
He had an episode of SIADH 2 months ago. 
Can someone help interpret his investigations?
His CBC is as follows:
White Blood Cells 10.15x103/uL
Red Blood Cells 4.34x106/uL
Hemoglobin 13.1 g/dL
Hematocrit 40.9 %
MCV 94.2 fL
MCH 30.1 pg
MCHC 31.9 g/dL
RDW 14.6 %
Platelets 349x103/DL
MPV 9.5 fL
Neutrophils 72.7 %
Lymphocytes 19.7 % 
Monocytes 4.3 %
Eosinophils 0.5 %
Basophils 1.1 %
Large Unstained Cells 1.6 % 
Neutrophils Abs 7.38x103/uL
Lymphocytes Abs 2.00x103/uL 
Monocytes Abs 0.44x103/uL
Eosinophils Abs 0.06x103/uL 
Basophils Abs 0.11x103uL
LUC Abs 0.16 103/uL [*] 0.00 0.50
His Chemistry
Glucose 129 mg/dL
Phosphorus 3.4 mg/dL
Uric Acid 7.7 mg/dL
Creatinine Serum 0.95 mg/dL
Urea 22.1 mg/dL
Total Protein 7.68 g/dL
Albumin 4.70 g/dL 
Globulin 2.98 g/dL
SGOT(AST) 28 U/L 
SGPT(ALT) 33 U/L
Gamma GT 14 U/L
Alkaline Phosphatase 85 U/L
LDH 356 U/L 
Bilirubin Total 0.56 mg/dL
CPK 61 U/L
Calcium 10.56 mg/dL 
Sodium 140 mmol/L
Potassium 5.0 mmol/L 
Chloride 100 mmol/L 
His Lipid Profile:
Cholesterol Total 173 mg/dL
Triglycerides 120 mg/dL 
HDL Cholesterol 53.9 mg/dL 
LDL (Calculated) 95 mg/dL 
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Back pain can be due to mechanical causes , which is common or due to inflammatory diseases or malignancy . The investigations are fine . In case , you are worried about calcium level , please check for Parathyroid hormone ( PTH ) level . His back pain seems to have improved & he is asymptomatic at present .
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I intend to measure nurses' competence in interpreting an ECG and their ability to quickly recognise a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia. In order to accurately do so, I am going to set up a series of scenarios with an associated ECG that the candidates will have to interpret.
As these scenarios will be focused on the assessment of an acutely-ill patient, I was wondering if anybody knew whether there is a consensus on the amount of time nurses should take to determine the existence of a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia.
How long do you think it should take a qualified nurse to interpret an ECG? (not taking into consideration the amount of time needed for the recording process)
Thanks in advance.
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Hi Jose,
Since this is a Basic beginners class and not an advanced class, I would try doing a couple "games" and give them 10-15 seconds.  See how many can get the answer correctly and you will be able to evaluate their understanding prior to give the actual quiz.  Students can sometimes get overwhelmed with looking at too many things at once when first learning and thus lose the focus. This may be a way to get them on the right track. Make it fun - they will retain more!
Good Luck,
Melody
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Your comments can be useful to many patients. It helps to justify the very difficult and the repeated trials to get a correct shunt.
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Respected Dr. Sunil,
Your answer clarifies to me very clearly the importance of using accepted abbreviations. This what Dr. Adria Arboix  mentioned to me in his answer on the same question above. I will edit and correct my question immediately so that we will be talking about the same thing. I will put it "IIH" which refers to idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
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We are planning some studies assaying tissue collected by a minimally invasive muscle biopsy method. We have two scientists and a clinician working on this project. The clinician is not in a position to perform these biospsies on our patients. We are unclear as to the relevant regultion surrounding the ability of non-clinically trained scientific personnel to peform these tasks as ideally the two scientists would perform the biopsies. Further what are the costs involved in this proceedure (per patient) and what other consumables are needed?
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Currently our muscle biopsies involve a significant incision in the thigh, any advance on this would be welcome. Certainly the procedure as it stands has to be done by a surgeon. Can you describe your minimally invasive method?
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I am taking part in a research team preparing a systematic review about the psychometric instruments used in the assessment of PTSD in earthquake or tsunami survivors (in the last ten years). I’m looking for advice about the relevant data bases and search strategies (free terms, Mesh, filters). We’ll start with Medline, Cinahl, PsycInfo, PILOTS and manual reference search of the retrieved papers. What do you think?
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The PTSD checklist is a commonly used well normed instrument with a military and civilian version. Rates self report of symptoms over past month.  When used as a change measure this is a concern as therapeutic change may have been over the last couple weeks before administration. To my knowledge this "over the last month" issue has not be addressed. 
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Patients with several somatic diseases tend to listen closely to their bodies for signals of potential harm. For instance, those with cardiac pacemakers may feel like having arrhythmia while everything is correct. This mechanism is known to influence the onset of panic attacks. I have recently encountered a now to me group of patients, with so called inappropriate sinus tachycardia. This condition is poorly studied and, of course, there are suspicions that it may be psychosomatic. Any ideas?
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For example ectopic pregnancy, Reactive arthritis
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Interesting question with no interesting answer. There are some some indications that host mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism is related to susceptibility to chlamydia induced inflammation. Though I am not sure that it is not related to susceptibility to coinfection.
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I would like to ask if someone had seen specific pattern in caloric vestibular examination: 12-years old boy with walking instability, on ENG OKN hyporeflexia, caloric exam 4-times within 1,5 year, always strong DP to left, ie. reaction practically only in CR and WL tests, but changing intensity - twice greater on the left side, once greater on the right side. Once was caloric normal with all four reactions. Clinical symptoms dint change during this whole time.
I wonder, if you have ever seen similar fluctuation in caloric reactivity? Thanks
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It is an gain asymetry pattern also knwn as isolated directional preponderance.
I've seen it sometimes in Meniere's Disease patients, but without such fluctuation you comment.
It's also described in migraine patients:
Does the patient has any migraine or migraine-equivalent symptom, ?
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Also based on what criteria? What number of locations, as well as the recruitment of number of participants, are selected to perform clinical trials for medical devices?
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The regulations for investigational drugs and investigational devices are not the same, though both are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  The regulations, guidances, and FDA warning letters can be found on line at http://www.fda.gov/.
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Inspired by an interesting case report, I am trying to assess the proportion of patients that directly benefit from participating in clinical trials - in terms of uncovering their covert diseases and subclinical disorders.
Does anyone know any statistics or has an article on that?
Thank you!
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Finally a short note: Another approach would be to search for data on the estimated number of unreported cases for specific diseases and to examine the evidence for the estimation of the number of unreported cases.
In German we use also the term "Dunkelziffer" (engl. dark figure) in public health care. In the figurative sense "Dunkelziffer" refers to a disproportion of diagnosed (or even statistically recorded or reported) disease cases to actual disease frequency.
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Is anyone using a valid and reliable audit tool to assess the quality of the clinical learning environment for student undergraduate nurses?
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Perhaps these papers help you:
Kettunen, J. (2010). Cross-evaluation of degree programmes in higher education, Quality Assurance in Education, 18(1), 34-46.
Kettunen, J. (2012). External and internal quality assurance in higher education, The TQM Journal, 24(6), 518-528.
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A 78-year-old Caucasian women presented fever (39°C) and a large, moderately painful ulceration on her right breast which had begun about 10 days ago after quadrantectomy and extended rapidly. Wound and blood cultures yielded negative results. Laboratory investigations: erythrocyte sedimentationrate was 73mm/h, WBC was 22890 mmc; C-reactive protein (CRP) was 25 mg/dl; Protein electrophoresis showed a increase in alfa 2 globulin 15.6%. No clinical response with different antibiotics (imipenem plus teicoplanin; daptomicin + levofloxacin;  piperacillin/tazobactam + trimetoprim/sulfamexazole + tigecicline + fluconazole. What is your diagnosis?  What do you suggest?
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consider pyoderma gangrenosum , and treatment is steroids
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I am looking for an available tool to perform an adaptation in Polish.
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There are a few good self-report measures designed to get at DSM personality disorders. The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI-III) is very good; the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is also said to be quite good, though I haven't used it. Each would include a Paranoid Personality scale. There is a Paranoia subscale on the SCL-90-R that has good items, though it doesn't ask specifically about DSM criteria.
One problem with inventories that ask explicitly about DSM criteria is that they are both transparent and obviously pathological. This is especially problematic with paranoid people! Lesley Morey developed personality disorder scales for the MMPI-2 about 25 years ago. This scale wouldn't have the criteria, but was designed to differentiate paranoids from "normals."
These are all commercially available measures.
There also are measures of "subclinical" paranoid ideation. These could be useful for you. They may be transparent, but won't be as obviously pathological or undesirable.
I don't know much about it, but Fenigstein and Vanable published one in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology in 1992 that has been used in a number of studies. I'll attach a copy of the article.
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Heart rate is a simple clinical parameter. However, it varies with respiration and autonomic sympatho-vagal balance. A huge number of studies has evidenced usefulness of heart rate variability for diagnosing (diabetic neuropathy, sick sinus syndrome, OSAS) or prognosing (myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke etc.) reasons. As yet, HR is usually reported in many clinical trials, while HRV is not. Does HRV really mean nothing?
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Sorry if I insert here such my suggestion.
I am not here to outline you the importance of the HRV current studies and I have not to remember you that the current linear or non linear methodologies are not completely satisfactory. Of course every day we find papers published also in valuable international journals that continue to use standard linear indexes and FFT or DFT for their clinical investigations and conclusions. Non linear methodologies have their valuable content also if currently they still do not find a continuous clinical appreciation. Usually three bands are considered in the frequency domain , as you well know, the VLF, the LF , and the HF for short 5-6 minutes recording. We need to remain in this framework, we need to use such bands for our estimations but my modest opinion is that the basic methodology as well as the physiological setting need to be advanced. This is the reason because we have studied for several years a new method, called the CZF method. We have verified, however, that such method, although of great interest, results of difficult interpretation for some clinicians. Consequently we have elaborated a new method, the new CZF version , that , in addition to the rigour of the previous formulation , gives results that give immediate clinical interpretation.
The method as well the software for your experimentation are given in our site www.saistmp.com Consequently I invite all you to visit the site and go to use such new method in your experimental as well as clinical conditions and verify directly its interest. The present software is the primary elaboration. Within a brief time we will give the complete version responding to all the formulation of the method. All the researchers that , at this time, will result using currently such new CZF method will receive obviously automatically the updates.
A final question. We have experienced the method on a large number of subjects and in some different pathological conditions. Consequently don’t hesitate to contact me if you need help, suggestions, questions, previous results that may help you in your use of the method (stmp@saistmp.com)
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I'm at a teaching college with tiny research support. I am currently using Achenbach's ASEBA self reports for adults. Any other suggestions?
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Have a look on www.psychiatry.org/dsm5 for a first and second screening along the lines of DSM-5: questionnaires can be freely downloaded.
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I want to screen social phobia among students and also measure the changes during SE therapy.
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The classical measures are LSAS (Liebowitz), SPS (Social Phobia Scale) and SIAS (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale), of which the LSAS is the most frequently used for treatment outcome.
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I am looking for the questionnaires with good psychometric parameters, which: 1) maybe used in clinical or non-clinical populations; 2) may be based on categorical or dimensional models of personality disorders.
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Since you specify those two personality disorders, I'm guessing that you want to test certain psychodynamic formulations (see, for example, Storr's book Neurotic Styles, or Mardi Horowitz's work on short-term dynamic psychotherapy of stress response syndromes). Lazare et al. (1966) developed a simple checklist measuring these two personality styles (along with an "oral" style). A version of this known as the Basic Character Inventory (Svenn Torgersen, 1980?) has been used in a number of studies over the years. I don't have a copy, but one of the researchers who has used it might be able to help.
Sid Blatt's Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) gets at a similar distinction (here termed "anaclitic" vs. "introjective" depression), as does Beck's distinction between "sociotropy" and "autonomy" (the Personal Styles Questionnaire, I think?). The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) is another promising direction. Some of the literature on the DEQ, IIP, and Personal Styles Questionnaire was reviewed by Mattias Desmet in a 2007 dissertation: http://www.psychoanalysis.ugent.be/pages/nl/artikels/artikels%20Mattias%20Desmet/Doctoraat%20Mattias%20Desmet.pdf
I agree with an earlier commentator that the MCMI-III might work, though it is very strongly linked to the DSM criteria. So might the Anxiety and Repression scales of the MMPI-2, though they are totally unlinked with the DSM. (I'm not sure how closely you want to adhere to the DSM here, as opposed to underlying psychodynamics.)
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This is not an area of expertise for me, so any suggestions would be helpful.
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I recommend the Borderline Personality Inventory developed by Leichsenring (1999). I use the Polish adaptation of it and it works really well. Maybe you should contact with the author?
Leichsenring, F. (1999). Development and first results of the Borderline Personality Inventory: a self – report instrument for assessing Borderline Personality Organization. Journal of Personality Assessment, 73, 1, 45-63.
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A psychological test was carried out, but of the kind that I do not know. The test was carried out by a psychologist face to face, but there was no questionnaire.
The time required for the test was approximately 30 minutes. The following are the main contents of the test.
・Language association (for example, the subject associates a word with one vowel sound)
・Imitation of the posing (the subject imitates the movement of the psychologist's hand)
・Imitation of the rhythm (the subject imitates the hand claps of the psychologist)
・in the last part of the test the subject matches both palms with a psychologist (sense of distance is dependent on the subject )
Can anyone tell me the name of this test ? And what is the purpose of such analysis?
If there are not applicable test, please guess what is the purpose such this psychology test, analyzes for patients. This is a test that actually took place.
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Dear Yasuko,
Thank you for the additional information. There are many differing tests that can measure essentially the same thing, but from different perspectives. Often a psychologist will use a full battery assessment instrument such as the Wechsler Scales and, if some portions of the test do not produce expected results, other tests are administered to reassess those areas in a slightly different format. This is used sort of like ‘double checking’ the results. Language, of course, plays a prominent role in testing. Responses will be inaccurate if the Subject does not fully understand the question, etc. The types of tests you mentioned previously may be a ‘double check’ of the prior results for verification, or they may have been administered to better understand the Subject’s ability to ‘process’ auditory and visual information.
You did not mention ‘academic’ tests. Tests that measure academic skills are usually administered along with the tests you discussed. The academic scores are then compared to the cognitive scores in order to determine if the subject is achieving to the level of their potential. The processing tests are administered to determine if a deficiency exists that may be inhibiting the Subject from learning up to his or her level of measured ability.
The Baum test you mentioned is usually part of a full battery assessment as well. It is a ‘projective’ test that can give a general view of the Subject’s emotional state, degree of concern, attention to detail, general attitude, etc., and allows comparison of motor skills with other scales.
Certainly the psychologist you are concerned with appears to have been attempting to conduct a thorough assessment. However, such assessments can be very time intensive and tiring (This can also be part of the overall assessment observation). You did not mention why the assessment was being conducted. Usually such evaluations are conducted in order to answer a ‘question’. The question arises from some sort of perceived difficulty that the subject is displaying. Usually, the battery of psychological tests is selected in an attempt to answer the problem addressed in the research question.
Again, I hope this explanation may be beneficial to you.
Scub
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There are many minerals, vitamins and other food constituents that we need for optimal health. Sufficiency or excess of many key nutrients and other aspects of human nutritional status can be assessed through the analysis of biological samples. If you want to know about the nutrition status of your research participants, patients or clients, which nutrients and nutritional conditions are most important to you. To make it clear, the goal here is not to assess one or two specific nutrients because of a particular research question or prompted by clinical symptoms. This is strictly for global, non-targeted nutrition assessment. The preferred portfolio of assessment indicators will obviously depend on the target group and area of interest, so it would be helpful to hear about the rationale for the selection.
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We have Anthropometric measurements, clinical examination for signs and symptoms, Biochemical analysis for any biochemical indicators, and Diet history or dietary assessments to help you find out the deficient nutrients from ones diet.
Under Anthropometric assessment, we need to find parameters like, Weight, height, Age, Waist hip ratio, %body fatness, Skin fold thickness and many more. This helps us find the current nutrition situation and status of this client.
Clinical assessments: this will provide detection of nutritional deficiencies by examining the different body organs like eyes, nails, fingers, tongue, muscles bone stomach and so on..
Biochemical assessments help us find specific biochemical makers relating to specific nutrient deficiencies or toxicities. For example serum, albumin, urine.
Dietary assessments: From the previous diet records of the patient, we can tell the missing or excess nutrients in the diet, these methods include, FFQs, 24 hr recall, food records etc.
From these, just pick the most relevant to your study according to your target population and which condition you are investigating. But you can't miss to have some few anthropometric measurements in you study if your dealing with nutrition status.
Goodluck!
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As a pediatrician I do it all the time. These parents are...this and that. They should behave like this...like that. But with time (15 years of practice) I slow down on judging patients. More and more I accept them. maybe because I listen to them and try mainly to help and coach them. Sometimes I am amazed how far I can go with this "non-judging attitude"
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It depends on what you mean by "judging" and your motive for doing it. I guess most of us do.In a way you have to to some extent.Getting a feel of where these parents are coming from may help you in management. Judging needs to be empathetic and sympathetic and also positive and not negative.You look for unspoken evidence from their body language from what they don't say. This is what I call the art of paediatrics. It helps you get the answer behind the answer,especially as more often than not our patients cannot speak for rhemselves
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How does a peer observer affect the interaction between the teacher and students? Between doctor and patients? And how does it affect the teacher's performance in clinical settings?
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Through the study of the behavior of each one individually and note commonalities between them to focus and try to improve the clinical role.
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The role of cultural differences in clinical features among patients with PTSD
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The role of culture is central in infuencing PTSD symptoms. For example, cultures indoctrinate us to view the world in certain ways and to use our emotions and bodies in different ways. Many cultures are personalistic in the sense that their world views believe in autonomous spirit beings which can affect human beings for good or bad. Where I did my fieldwork in India many years ago many psychiatric conditions were often viewed as ‘spirit possession’, since this is psychologically accessible to people who believe in a cosmology which has various kinds of spirit beings. Cultural symbols are powerful in informing emotions which affects psychoneuroimmunological systems. Ancestral shamans used technologies of the mind in order to treat all kinds of traumatic circumstances. While the phenotypic symptoms of PTSD are similar, understanding of its cause and prognosis is different. In Latin America PTSD may be understood as ‘nervios’ and ‘susto’, while in Iranian/Afghan, North Indian cultures it is often referred to as ‘asabi’ or ‘hona bud’ . What is important is that the person who has PTSD symptoms needs to retrieve some kind of ontological security. Cultures may significantly help via the performance of rituals which neurologically create endocannabinoids while decreasing stress hormones noradrenaline, adrenaline and cortisol. Rituals are powerful in that they manipulate powerful emotions which inform somatic feedback systems. Many healing rituals performed by ritual specialists, shamans, religious specialists in collective societies use healing rituals as social events which act to unite social members and reaffirms socio-religious worldviews. Social rituals are very powerful in manipulating emotions which can act to heal or transform people with psycho-physical maladies. The social mind is powerful in its ability to imagine all kinds of things which directly affects psychoneuroimmunological response.