Science topic

Climatology - Science topic

Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time, and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences.
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Publications related to Climatology (10,000)
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Article
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The consequences of climate change on agriculture have generated concern among researchers and decision-makers, especially regarding the effects it will have on this sector. The phenomenon is expected to affect the productivity of livestock systems, even more so in grazing livestock, where cattle and pastures are directly impacted by climatic varia...
Article
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We introduce a new numerical model developed to assist with Data Interpretation and Numerical Analysis of ionospheric Missions and Observations (DINAMO). DINAMO derives the ionospheric electrostatic potential at low- and mid-latitudes from a two-dimensional dynamo equation and user-specified inputs for the state of the ionosphere and thermosphere (...
Article
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Antarctic ozone has been regarded as a major driver of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) circulation change in the recent past. Here, we show that Antarctic ozone can also affect the subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction during the SH spring. Its impact is quantified by conducting two reforecast experiments with the Global Seasonal Forecasting System...
Article
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This study assesses wave energy by combining long-term model reanalysis data with in situ observations in a multi-island region. A buoy was deployed in the center area of the southern South China Sea (SCS) for 16 consecutive months. Neural network models are introduced to calibrate the significant wave height and the mean wave period of the Europea...
Article
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To minimize systematic differences between soil moisture (SM) time series derived from remote sensing (RS) and land surface model (LSM), RS-based SM climatology information is typically discarded during land data assimilation (DA). However, recent studies have demonstrated that SM climatology estimates provided by L-band microwave RS retrievals can...
Conference Paper
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The rock slope instability at Spitze Stei located in the Swiss Alps, near the village Kandersteg, might trigger one of the largest cascading processes chain in the recent history of the European Alps. The geological disposition causes a long-term retrogressive rock slope instability, whose past activity is assumed to have been influenced by climate...
Article
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Previous studies have projected an increase in future summer precipitation across East Asia (EA). This study investigates the relative contributions of thermodynamic and dynamic components to future precipitation changes in three key sub-regions of EA where the maximum centers of the historical precipitation are located (the tropical region, East C...
Article
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Recent climate change in the Arctic has been rapid and dramatic, leading to numerous physical and societal consequences. Many studies have investigated these ongoing and projected future changes across a range of climatic variables, but surprisingly little attention has been paid to wind speed, despite its known importance for sea ice motion, ocean...
Article
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This paper investigates the causes for the interdecadal change in the relationships between early and late summer precipitation over South China (SC). It is found that the correlations of the precipitation over SC between June and August shift from weak positive in 1979–1995 to significantly negative in 1996–2019. Further analysis demonstrates that...
Article
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By characterizing high-frequency surface thermal dynamics at a medium spatial scale, hourly land surface temperatures (LST), retrieved from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (TIR) observations, shows great potential to be used across a range of scientific applications; however, cloud cover typically leads to data gaps and degraded retrieval...
Article
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The open ocean region of southern Bay of Bengal (BoB) (~ 5° N–10° N; 87° E–97° E) is characterized as the region of low chlorophyll-a concentration (< 0.1 mg m−3) during winter (December-February). However, the analysis of satellite ocean colour data between 2003 and 2020 shows anomalous high surface chlorophyll concentration (~ 0.35–0.5 mg m−3) in...
Article
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Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) coupled with a slab ocean model was applied to a paleoclimate research for the first time. The model was run at a horizontal resolution of 56 km with and without a convective parameterization, given the orbital parameters of the last interglacial (127,000 years before present). The simulated clim...
Article
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Plain Language Summary Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) contribute to beneficial rainfall and the increase of extreme rainfall observed in present warming climate. MCSs are generally considered to be a result of lifting of the environmental air by the MCS's diabatically generated cold pool. Recent studies have shown that nocturnal MCSs can also...
Book
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Ce livre a pour but de présenter étape par étape les exigences et la méthodologie de fabrication des ouvrages portuaires et maritime avec détails afin de construire des digues verticales (caissons ) de haute qualité conformément aux spécifications du projet, aux codes et normes applicables. Dans cette deuxième partie (Tome II); On a commencer par u...
Article
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Hydrological modeling for water management in large watersheds requires accurate spatial-ly-distributed rainfall time series. In case of low coverage density of ground-based measurements, gridded precipitation products (GPPs) from merged satellite-/gauge-/model-based rainfall products constitute an attractive alternative. The quality of which must,...
Book
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The purpose of this book is to present step-by-step requirements and methodology for the fabrication of port and marine structures with details to build high quality vertical breakwaters (caissons) in accordance with project specifications, applicable codes and standards. In this second part (Volume II); We began with a Study of Some Harbor Structu...
Article
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Countries worldwide have pledged to phase out coal by 2030, giving rise to a fundamental reshuffling of the dynamics of energy demand and supply. Implementation of clean technologies to aid this transition necessitates space, whilst small islands face increasing land degradation issues. Furthermore, they are blessed with pristine remote environment...
Article
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Monthly composites of remote sensing reflectance at 555 nm wavelength (R rs 555) from ocean color imagery of the MODIS sensor onboard the Aqua platform were used to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of coastal plume in the Sofala Bank and its relation to river discharge, local rainfall, and wind speed. To achieve the objective, maps...
Article
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The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the dominant driver of year-to-year climate variability in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, impacts climate pattern across the globe. However, the response of the ENSO system to past and potential future temperature increases is not fully understood. Here we investigate ENSO variability in the warmer climate of...
Article
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The connection between the meridional structure of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) and the Hadley circulation (HC) under the effect of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) from 1950 to 1977 is studied. We decompose the HC and zonal mean SST into equatorially symmetric (HES for HC, SES for SST) and asymmetric variations (HEA for HC, SEA for SS...
Article
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The climatology and interannual variability of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is evaluated based on the outputs from the phase 6 of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP6) models and then compared to that in the phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Results show that the CMIP6 models tend to reproduce more reasonably climatological atmospheric circu...
Article
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Clouds play a crucial role in Earth’s climate system by modulating radiation fluxes via reflection and scattering, and thus the slightest variation in their spatial coverage significantly alters the climate response. Until now, due to the sparse distribution of advanced observation stations, large uncertainties in cloud climatology remain for many...
Article
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Rainfall estimation is the most important parameter for many water resource simulations and practices; therefore, precise and long-term data are required for trustworthy precipitation depiction. Recent advancements in remote sensing applications enabled researchers to estimate rainfall with greater geographical and temporal precision. The goal of t...
Article
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Marine stratocumuli are the most dominant cloud type by area coverage in the Southern Ocean (SO). They can be divided into different self-organized cellular morphological regimes known as open and closed mesoscale-cellular convective (MCC) clouds. Open and closed cells are the two most frequent types of organizational regimes in the SO. Using the l...
Article
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It is known that densely populated coastal areas may be adversely affected as a result of the climate change effects. In this respect, for coastal protection, utilization, and management it is critical to understand the changes in wind speed (WS) and significant wave height (SWH) in coastal areas. Innovative approaches, which are one of the trend a...
Thesis
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Large-scale extreme precipitation over (1) the mid-Atlantic and Northeast United States and (2) Taiwan is attributed to weather types such as atmospheric river (AR), TC, and extreme integrated vapor transport (IVT). Statistically significant increases in season-total EP day precipitation are seen at many GHCN stations in winter, summer, and fall in...
Article
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Lightning occurring with less than 2.5 mm of rainfall-typically referred to as 'dry lightning'-is a major source of wildfire ignition in central and northern California. Despite being rare, dry lightning outbreaks have resulted in destructive fires in this region due to the intersection of dense, dry vegetation and a large population living adjacen...
Article
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Since the advent of the Space Age, the importance of understanding and forecasting relativistic electron fluxes in the Earth’s radiation belts has been steadily growing due to the threat that such particles pose to satellite electronics. Here, we provide a model of long‐duration periods of high time‐integrated 2‐MeV electron flux deep inside the ou...
Article
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Using observational data, satellite altimeters, and reanalysis model products, we have investigated eddy-induced seawater anomalies and heat and salt transport in the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean. An eddy detection algorithm (EDA) was used to identify eddy formation at the Mexican Tehuantepec Gulf (TT) in July 2018 during an unusually strong...
Article
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Studying mixing and re-stratification during and after hurricanes have important implications for the simulation of circulation and bio-geochemical processes in oceanic and shelf waters. Numerical experiments using FVCOM on an unstructured computational mesh were implemented to study the direct effect of hurricane winds on the mixing and temperatur...
Article
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Aspectos generales. La climatología de ciclones tropicales, es una herramienta importante que contribuye a la investigación del cambio climático. La República Mexicana al encontrarse rodeada por dos cuencas marinas como son al oriente la del Océano Atlántico Norte, que llegan sus aguas a la costa este del país, por el estrecho de la Florida al Golf...
Preprint
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We develop a new approach to monitor Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) events under climate change since 1980 based on reanalysis data, verified by radio occultation data. We construct gridded daily-mean temperature anomalies and employed the concept of Threshold Exceedance Areas (TEAs), the geographic areas wherein the anomalies exceed predefined...
Article
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The East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) is one of the most crucial subtropical circulation systems affecting the precipitation over East Asia. Based on the ERA5 dataset, the dominant modes of the intraseasonal variability of the EASWJ in early (May and June) and late (July and August) summer are investigated, respectively, through the empir...
Cover Page
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In recent years, the application of soft computing methods has received considerable attention in engineering sciences, especially in water engineering. With their high capacity, these approaches can solve serious nonlinear engineering problems in regression and classification fields and have gradually replaced the classical mathematical and regres...
Conference Paper
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This communication proposes to represent the spatial and temporal distribution of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and its effects on thermal comfort in a context of tourism activity in a climate change scenario. This study is part of the thematic of tourism climatology, a topic that has not yet been addressed in Portugal and in international scope and...
Article
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Identifying how various components of climate change will influence ecosystems and vegetation subsistence will be fundamental to mitigate negative effects. Climate change-induced waterlogging is understudied in comparison to temperature and CO2. Grasslands are especially vulnerable through the connection with global food security, with perennial ry...
Preprint
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Historical observations of severe weather and simulated severe weather environments (i.e., features) from the Global Ensemble Forecast System v12 (GEFSv12) Reforecast Dataset (GEFS/R) are used in conjunction to train and test random forest (RF) machine learning (ML) models to probabilistically forecast severe weather out to days 4--8. RFs are train...
Preprint
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The mixed layer is the uppermost layer of the ocean, driven by atmospheric fluxes. It follows a strong seasonal cycle, deepening in winter due to buoyancy loss, shoaling very close to the surface in summer with restratification. Recently several global and regional studies show a mixed layer depth (MLD) modulation by mesoscale eddies with the seaso...
Article
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The Etesian winds constitute an important climatological phenomenon, which does not only moderate the heat during the summer in the Aegean Sea, but provide a source of clean renewable energy as well. Even though several papers have attempted to explain their dynamical and the physical characteristics, the respective processes that drive the diurnal...
Article
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Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow bands of enhanced integrated water vapor transport, modulated by large-scale and synoptic-scale variability. Here, we investigate how ARs and snowpack are shaped by large-scale variability such as arctic oscillation (AO) by examining the synoptic conditions and characteristics of ARs and snowpack in the different...
Article
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The cooling degree days was used to assess and audit the performance of heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in Hospitals in Port Harcourt. It is aimed at using energy techniques in evaluating the amount of energy utilised by HVAC systems by the application of climatological parameters. It therefore has the ability of identifying...
Article
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Climate change exposes more frequent natural hazards and physical vulnerabilities to the built and natural environments. Extreme precipitation and temperature events will have a significant impact on both the natural environment and human society. However, it is unclear whether precipitation and temperature extremes increase physical vulnerabilitie...
Article
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In this study, we assess the performance of the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) in simulating the climatology of the cyclones near the west coast of South America. The synoptic evolution and seasonality of these systems are thoroughly investigated. The analyses are based on four simulations from the CORDEX-CORE Southern America (SA) domai...
Article
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Understanding the behavior of western boundary current systems is crucial for predictions of biogeochemical cycles, fisheries, and basin-scale climate modes over the midlatitude oceans. Studies indicate that anthropogenic climate change induces structural changes in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) system, including a northward migration of its oceanic...
Article
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Measurements of chemical compositions in the fog water at Murododaira (36.6°N, 137.6°E, altitude 2450 m), Mt. Tateyama, on the Sea of Japan side of central Japan, were performed mainly in autumn, and the characteristics of chemical climatology before 2010 and after 2017 were compared. Strong acid fogs that were sometimes detected before 2010 were n...
Article
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Objective This study compared the per capita annual global incidence rate of disasters caused by natural hazards with the annual world real gross domestic product, GDP (per global capita), as reported during 1961 through 2020. Methods Sixty (60) values for the world real GDP per global capita (in constant 2015 $USD) were compared to corresponding...
Article
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This paper investigates the impact of equatorial wind stress on the equatorial Ekman transport during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mature phase. The results show that the equatorial zonal wind stress directly drives the meridional motion of seawater at the upper levels. In normal years, the zonal wind stress south of the equator is easterly and th...
Article
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ERA5 represents the state of the art for atmospheric reanalyses and is widely used in meteorological and climatological research. In this work, this dataset is evaluated using the wind kinetic energy spectrum. Seasonal climatologies are generated for 30° latitudinal bands in the Northern Hemisphere (periodic domain) and over the North Atlantic area...
Article
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The sudden increase in air temperature associated with strong gusty winds of northerly direction is a phenomenon occasionally observed during the cold season in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, located in extreme southern Brazil. This geophysical flow, which is known as Vento Norte (VNOR; Portuguese for “North Wind”), promotes te...
Article
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Objective. Characterize the dual-purpose bovine production system (SPDP) in livestock production units (UPP) of municipalities of Huasteca Alta Veracruzana (HAV) and determine the typology of UPP within the SPDP. Materials and methods. With social variables (farmer), quantitative of the herd and technological indices, grouped in zootechnical areas...
Article
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One of the most relevant effects of climate change is its influence on the frequency and intensity of extreme events. The analysis and understanding of these events are of great importance due to the probability of causing environmental and social damage. In this study, we investigate changes in extreme hot temperature events over Spain for the nea...
Article
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Prior soil moisture data assimilation (DA) efforts to incorporate human management features such as agricultural irrigation has only shown limited success. This is partly due to the fact that observational rescaling approaches for bias correction used in soil moisture DA systems are less effective when unmodeled processes such as irrigation are the...
Article
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The dataset includes six yearly time series of six Heatwave (HW) aspects/metrics (or statistical summaries) calculated from the E-OBS dataset (v19eHOM, available in https://www.ecad.eu/download/ensembles/downloadversion19.0eHOM.php) following the Excess Heat Factor (EHF) methodology implemented in the ClimPACT tool, in compliance with the guideline...
Article
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Cloud and convective parameterizations strongly influence uncertainties in equilibrium climate sensitivity. We provide a proof‐of‐concept study to constrain these parameterizations in a perturbed parameter ensemble of the atmosphere‐only version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E2.1 simulations by evaluating model biases in the pres...
Article
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Study region Central Europe Study focus Precipitation fields from reanalyses have been widely used for hydrological applications, meteorological extreme analyses or climatological research. Modern reanalyses provide all characteristics in regular grids with high resolutions and thus can substitute for gridded in situ, radar and satellite observati...
Article
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Groundwater quality assessment is critical for maintaining freshwater sources in semi-arid and dry environments, which is critical for long-term development. Water quality control authorities can regulate the use of water for agriculture or drinking implementations based on groundwater quality in various areas, as nearly 85% of India's population i...