Science topic

# Climate Change - Science topic

Climate Change is an any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Questions related to Climate Change
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I have long-term rainfall data and have calculated Mann-Kendall test statistics using the XLSTAT trial version ( addon in MS word). There is an option for asymptotic and continuity correction in XLSTAT drop-down menu.
• What does the term "Asymptotic" and "continuity correction" mean?
• When and under what circumstances should we apply it?
• Is there any assumption on time series before applying it?
• What are the advantages and limitations of these two processes?
I am not specifically expert in the Mann-Kendall Trend test but it is related to classical non-parametric tests, like the Kendall correlation test that I know better. Be careful with XLSTAT (which works in ExceI, not in Word). Indeed, in the procedure I used a few years ago, I had many problems and had to contact the support. I think you should read more about the test and more generally on non-parametric tests. Asymptotic means when the number of observations n grows to infinity. Otherwise, these tests are based on tables of critical values depending on n. When n is too large, use the asymptotic distribution, often normal with a given mean and a given variance (depending on n, of course). For the continuity correction, it is because the test statistic takes discrete values whereas the asymptotic distribution is continuous. The same kind of correction appears with a binomial distribution. Look in your statistics course.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I came across a lot of peer-reviewed journal articles and most of the authors have concluded there is a climate change phenomena happening by applying Mann-Kendall Trend test on Hydro-Metrological variables (rainfall, temperature). It has to noted that Mann-Kendall is a statistical technique which on applied to dataset (including time series) shows whether there is a monotonic increasing or decreasing trend & whether that trend so arrived is statistically significant or not ?
My question is that how we can conclude the trend detected is due to climate change only without citing any physical process/phenomena (like Teleconnections) drives this change ?, that too based on Statistical test (Mann-Kendall) at a particular Level of significance (LOS).
The LOS applied is also statistically subjective and the value can vary from person to person?
Mann-kendall test is a very good statistical tool for analyzing weather parameters. These include rainfall, temperature and wind. It test the trend as either high or low, positive or negative depending on the trend and the magnitude of the change.
If the P value is <0.05 called (motonic) trend is then positive (+ve), and if the P value is >0.05 then no motonic and hence it is negative (-ve). I suggest you should have a bulky data for the test and the result will be ok.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
What are the following things called ?
Are they addressed as Climate Indices or Teleconnection ?
1. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)
2. East Atlantic West Pacific Oscillation (EAWP)
3. Scandinavian Pattern (SCP)
4. Niño 3.4 (the region encompassing 5°N–5°S, 120°W–170°W)
6. Arctic Oscillation (AO)
7. Antarctic Oscillation (AnO)
8. Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)
9. Dipole Mode Index
What is the usefulness of the above-mentioned climatic indices? From where can we download these indices ? How these climatic indices are related to Climate Change ? If there any research article explaining the fundamentals and giving step by step methodology there on how to relate these indices with climate change ?
It's very simple. the term climate covers a time interval of several hundred years. This is true? If so, what global knowledge do we have about the climate in 1700, for example? Measurement of air temperature and pressure at different points on the Earth. discrete changes. Is it true that there were no satellite measurements? Does this mean that the modern system of weather monitoring is still insufficient for studying the climate? The study of climate using atmospheric indices corresponds to the science of 1900. I am simplifying this. what is the atmospheric circulation index? This is a time series of atmospheric pressure differences at two points, for example. If these are observation points in one climatic zone, then this is scientific. And if not? This is about atmospheric circulation indices. Now about teleconnection. Climate change has causes. For example, a volcanic eruption changes the optical characteristics of the atmosphere and cooling sets in. You can study these reasons. We can say that there are no reasons. Everything happens by chance. And then, by insignificant temperature changes in the equatorial zone between Australia and the island of Tahiti, for example, you predict climate change in India. Do you agree that changes in pressure in the equatorial zone cannot be the cause of climate change in India? This is teleconnection, when they study not the causes but the correlation.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
If I have multiple scenarios with multiple variables changing, and I want to conduct a full factorial analysis, how do I graphically show the results?
It gives visually the change in value as changing the variables in study, a way you cannot easily diagnose from data table. You can see the volume of change !!. Regards.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
recently, all the globe is talking about climate change and its effect, so i would like to make a research article about climate change and its relation with drug residues in food of animal origin starting from drug administration to animals
Climate change and health problems are intricately related.. you can consult this book
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I have received data for 50+ rainfall stations in my study area. Is there any mathematical formulae which gives optimum number of rainfall stations for trend based climate change study ? All of them have missing values in them, ranging from 1% to 50%. Upto what percentage of missing values can be filled by statistical methods and how to determine the threshold limit (whether 10% or 15% or 20%). If any literature is available on this, kindly intimate me
Interesting question, which considers two topics: the optimum number of stations and the maximum percentage of missing values.
The optimum number of rainfall stations depends on different factors, for instance the temporal resolution of the measurements (hourly, daily, monthly), the spatial variability of rainfall in a particular area and the purpose/ use of the rainfall data. Hourly measurements generally require smaller spatial scales (and hence more rainfall stations per unit area) than daily or monthly measurements. Areas with a large spatial variability in rainfall (e.g. convective rainfall, tropical areas, mountainous areas) will require more stations per unit area than areas with less spatial variability. Regarding the purpose and use of the rainfall data, it certainly will make a difference whether rainfall data are directly used (e.g. for early warning or trend analyses) or used as input in for instance a hydrological model. In the latter case, the rainfall data are filtered and spatial and temporal rainfall variability is dampened through the rainfall-runoff transformation (i.e. hydrological fluxes and water storage compartments in a catchment). See for instance these papers on appropriate spatial resolutions and number of rainfall stations: , and .
As Vishnuvardan Narayanamurthi also indicated, there is no fixed maximum percentage of missing data. Again, this depends on the spatial and (in particular) temporal variability of rainfall and the use of the data. Highly temporally variable rainfall should have less missing data than more smoothly varying rainfall. One way to look at this is to determine the temporal correlation length by constructing a temporal variogram (temporal correlation coefficient as a function of temporal lag). Temporal resolutions should be typically much smaller than the temporal correlation length and hence, filling data gaps should be done at smaller temporal scales than the temporal correlation length as well (often not much more than a (couple of) day(s) for rainfall). Obviously, when for instance rainfall trend analysis is carried out at larger spatial scales (grid scales instead of station/ point scale), temporal variability will decrease and some more missing values would be acceptable and can be interpolated/ filled in.
Good luck,
Martijn
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
For instance, i want to use the IPCC 2013 method for the impact category climate change, but use Usetox for ecotoxicity and CML-IA baseline 2013 for eutrophication and resource deplition (fossil fuels). Is this possible? How do i make a method that incorporates all the different already existing methods?
Dear Sofia,
the CML 2013 impact assessment method also takes ecotoxicity into account, I know. Why do you want to combine impact assessment methods? From a professional point of view, I would like to ask this question because I am interested, I do not want to argue, of course. Best wishes, Viktoria
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
There is a lot of demand for information about the potential of different tree species (and also other types of crops) to capture and store carbon.
Such information is critical to designing farms with a better climate footprint.
This is particularly true for agroforestry farming systems relying on one or more tree species!
However, information on this topic seems completely scattered and not synthesized.
Does such a database exist?
Best regards,
Thomas Fungenzi
The following RG links are also very useful:
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Do you agree with me that we have to combat desertification in each of its locations in order to reduce severe climate changes and dust ؟
Deserts are spreading northwards in Central Asia as a result of global warming. A study has found that, since the 1980s, regions with a desert climate have expanded by as much as 100 kilometres in northern Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, in southern Kazakhstan and around the Junggar Basin in northwestern China. The effect of reduced rainfall and warmer temperatures will alter the plants that grow in these regions, and the animals that rely on them...
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
How Labor hour lost due to climate change can be calculated? I am interested in different equation along with description.
Ilan Kelman
No such information exist in your suggested report "annual report for Lancet Countdown".
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Those who read the 1987 Brundtland Commission Report know that it was about sustainable development solutions to the social and environmental sustainability issues embedded in the traditional market model due to the assumption of social and environmental externality neutrality that had led to social problems(poverty, over population) and environmental problems(Pollution, environmental degradation) that the commission highlighted as the reason for the need to go, not half way from business as usual, but away from business as usual, and they gave us the definition of sustainable development, not of sustainability…..
But look at the UN related page below and its content:
“ Sustainability
Sustainable development requires an integrated approach that takes into consideration environmental concerns along with economic development.
In 1987, the United Nations Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Today, there are almost 140 developing countries in the world seeking ways of meeting their development needs, but with the increasing threat of climate change, concrete efforts must be made to ensure development today does not negatively affect future generations.
The Sustainable Development Goals form the framework for improving the lives of populations around the world and mitigating the hazardous man-made effects of climate change. SDG 13: Climate Action, calls for integrating measures to prevent climate change within development frameworks. SDG 14: Life Below Water, and SDG 15: Life on Land, also call for more sustainable practices in using the earth’s natural resources. “
See we know, a) sustainability(optimization based) is not sustainable development (maximization based); b) The commission gave us a definition of sustainable development and not of sustainability as they saw the social and environmental issues created by the traditional market in terms of sustainable development thinking; c) that is why we have sustainable development goals, NOT sustainability goals.
We know the sustainability model is different than the sustainable development model and according to the model inconsistency principle sustainability and sustainable development can not be equated or defined one as the other or the other as the one.
But the UN defines sustainability as sustainable development there, a scientific inconsistency as it violates the theory-practice consistency principle.
Which raises the question, Do defining sustainability as sustainable development requires alternative academic facts? If yes, Why?
I think YES, what do you think?
Dariusz, good day. Do you think that sustainability(theory and practice) is sustainable development(theory and practice? If yes, why you think so. If not, why you think so?
That will lead to the same answer to the current question you did not try directly to answer. What ever your answer, I will reply to exchange ideas to eliminate apparently ambiguities once and for all.
Respectfully yours;
Lucio
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Do you known any articles that clearly explain how to compute step by step the LVI at local scale ? For instance at the small farmers or households scale.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Do you agree with me that we need to take care of green building and sustainable development in light of climate changes?
In the case of Uzbekistan, people overuse rangeland resources where they live in rural areas. It depends on their economic activities as well as survival in cold winter.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Is there any metadata analysis for tropical and temperate regions?
By this increasing trend of temperature due to climate change it has a huge negative impact on soil biodiversity by means of soil Respiration. At the same time soil Respiration is an important factor by which we can determine biological activities in soil. Also the organic matter decomposition and overall carbon storage in soil.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
The goal of shifting from pollution based markets to clean markets is affected by going green markets and by going dwarf green markets in opposing ways.
The working of green markets moves away from pollution based markets and it tends towards clean markets while the working of dwarf green markets stays far away from clean markets and very close to pollution based markets.
Which raises the question, What are the clean market consequences of green market paradigm shift avoidance?
What do you think?
Dear Lucio,
Best regards,
Dariusz
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
In view of the recurring droughts in recent years because of climate change. We have an idea to establish a national project to confront climate change in Iraq.
The observed and projected change in climate is important for assessment and adaptation in field of agriculture. According to our research in the last two decades, the regional land surface warming rate of the past and probably the future has been overestimated, due to the overlook of the urbanization bias in the observational data series of surface air temperature. In China, the bias in surface air temperature data reaches at least 30% for the national meteorological stations. It should be considered in the studies of impact and adaptation of agriculture, in addition to the detection and attribution of climate change. Anyway, almost all the farm lands are not in or near the urban areas, but most of the observational stations in China are.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Air pollution and climate change are unstable or even very bad, causing many lives to be affected by cancer, heart, lung, malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and heat stress.
What role can we (as in health) play in dealing with this?
Dear Ilan
I have been researching dust storms for years. In my opinion, research, participatory management, and regional cooperation can solve the problem to some extent.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Is there any fact
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Electrical vehicles have been touted as one of the major ways to combat global climate change. Without combustion of fossil fuel producing gases harmful for human health is a major step towards using electric vehicles but it requires some drastic steps to replace the gas fired vehicles. The cost of vehicles and the lack of supercharging stations are some of the obstacles need to be overcome before making it a potential solution. Unfortunately, this type vehicles are not yet available in many countries. What are your comments?
Does your government encourage electric or(and) hybrid cars? Why? How?
The differences between them are greats. They only car that I have now is an electric one. I will not repeat these differences between the two norms of cars that are already known by our honorable colleagues. But, I want to point to another point. These cars are not suitable for petroleum countries where the petrol price is very cheap. My government does not actually encourage them for some reasons that there is no need to be mentioned here. To prove that, the electric stations are mainly only in the capital of Jordan, Amman. If you go to other cities, you will find only zero or one station that can serve two cars at most.!!
For instance, I went to Irbid and wait in the queue for more than 6 hours; otherwise, I should upload my car in the car winch! Anyhow, I will not repeat that black experiment. My beloved car is only for Amman.
My government can solve the problem in few seconds by issuing the following decision: every gas station must have also two electric stations for serving at least two cars simultaneously.
Image' source
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I am researching the recovery of sandy soils (Arenosols) affected by desertification due to climate change. Recovery methods do not include irrigation. What methods have you tried and worked out?
It is a multi-step process:
1.) Local checklist of the flora, and determine what is native to the area and what is introduced. Do not plant introduced.
2.) "Soil" and the development and creation of "soil" is done by native plants, the soil microbes, and the native wild animals that live among those plants. The animals concentrate nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium for the plants, and move those three nutrients around for the plants.
3.) Each plant that lives on dry land, has a annual rainfall requirement for seedling and adult plant survival and that requirement is within a very narrow range that expands and contracts as you go up and down the annual rainfall totals. It is roughly plus or minus 20%, so rainfall isolines should be drawn to produce plant transfer zones.
4.) Always use local ecotype plant material for planting, because it is better adapted for the soils and weather conditions.
5.) Each plant on dry land, has a soil nutrient and organic matter in the top 4 cm threshold, for seedling survival, and dropping below that threshold even a few PPM will not allow seedlings to survive. Grazing worldwide has dropped those thresholds below what local native plants need to survive, so when seedlings cannot survive, then you end up with barren lands with no or very sparse vegetation.
6.) Do a search for Zombies--if your trees, shrubs, and perennial plants are not reproducing, and you can check that by measuring basal diameters and if no seedlings are found,m then you have a Zombi population that stopped reproducing and that is caused by grazing animals eating the seedlings constantly, or you have lowered the soil nutrients below the survival threshold.
7.) Get established a thin layer of native plants, and that will lower the surface temperatures so that rain clouds can form, and also retain moisture longer in the surface.
8.) Even a very thin layer of native plants on the soil, can keep the soil from getting airborne, which also heats up the air, and eliminates rain cloud formation. See the attached image of the dust off Arabia heating up the air all the way to Pakistan, and eliminating any rain cloud formation
9.) Each country has a group of native plants that are the hosts to the Pseudomonas bacteria, that create our rain clouds for us, because they can form ice crystals at a higher temperature than any other raindrop nuclei. This action only discovered about 12 years ago, and nobody knows what those plants are yet. Have attached an image of the Arabian peninsula, where you can see the Pseudomonas host plants producing clouds, and the atmospheric dust stopping the formation of rain clouds. See https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/does-rain-come-from-life-in-the-clouds
10.) Get a significant annual budget to do small scale test plots, because each ecosystem has about 1,000-2,000 native plants, and you need to sort out the best two dozen to work with.
11.) Follow the lead of KSA's project that I started at www.ecoseeds.com/cool.html 20 years ago, that is getting funded right now to plant one million trees a week for the next eight years, and over time, plant 10 BILLION across all of Arabia, at https://www.saudigreeninitiative.org/targets/greening-saudi/
If you define better what you mean by "Recovery" that might get you clearer answers.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I plan to research the impacts (climatic and man made) of mangrove on fishery stocks. It would be wonderful if I could get some of your expert advice to make my research more precise and accurate.
Think of some indicators (independent variables) like swt, pH, salinity, DO etc and dependent variable like CI of fish (species-wise), distribution, community structure and have a correlation study
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
hello,
my question is how can to evaluate impacts of climate change on wheat by analyse satellite image?
Just collect the data and maps, interpolate the data with satellite images through ArcView GIS software
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
The new scenario family that IPCC is using in its new reports is a combination of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). You can read more about them at these papers:
As there is no probability assigned to different scenarios, scenario users are left with a numerous scenarios projecting the future world regarding the emission (RCPs) and societal and economic conditions (SSPs).
When you are planning to adapt to climate change, the impacts differ with each scenario (SSP-RCP combination. For example, planning for adaptation when you are facing a condition like SSP1-RCP2.6 is much cheaper, easier and achievable compared to a high emission scenario like SSP5-8.5 (combined with a socio-economical condition making adaptation challenging).
The discussion that I'm trying to open here is about the approaches you use / assumption you make in your studies when working with these scenarios. As my main audience is the people who use scenarios, I'll be grateful if you could share this post with people working in these areas.
-----------
Thanks,
Kasra
Research Assistant at University of Waterloo
PhD System Design Engineering
Ilan Kelman - Actually, I find interesting the alternatives that you propose!
I was just underlining that even if RCPs and SSPs are items not so easy to handle, in the recent years the research community spent many efforts to make these scenarios more digestible for the common users (policy makers, researchers, students)!
Therefore, as a conclusion of our discussion about this issue, I can say that research should move forward in both directions: simplify the use of these forcing scenarios-climate models for a use within the reach of all (as I hope), and find alternative approaches that could give more comprehensible and easier tools to common citizens (as you propose in your research).
Many thanks for this debate
Claudio
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Hello guys!
I am looking for a way to build land-use models for the future 2050 and 2100. In addition to social and economic variables, I would like to include in these models the effects of climate change following the scenarios of SSPs 4.5 and 8.5. Do you have any suggestions for me? What are the limitations of these models?
The IntErO model
www.geasci.org/IntErO Predicting sediment yield at the catchment scale is one of the main challenges in geomorphologic research. The research of the calculation of soil erosion intensity and torrents in Yugoslavia was initiated by the team of the researchers from the Jaroslav Cerni Institute for the Development of Water Resources in 1947. The first method that was developed in Yugoslavia was the Method for the Quantitative Classification of Erosion - MQCE (1954). The erosion intensity from the river basin was calculated by computing the amount of sediment that reaches the downstream part at the lowest point of the basin (H min). The process of the methodology development for investigation erosion process, mapping, sediment calculating and torrent classification continuous and resulted with the establishment of the Erosion Potential Method – EPM in 1968. The IntErO model (Spalevic, 2011) uses the Erosion Potential Method (Gavrilovic, 1972) in its algorithm background. The IntErO model, an upgrading of the Surface and Distance Measuring (Spalevic, 1999; Spalevic et al, 1999) and River Basins (Spalevic, 1999; Spalevic et al, 2000) programs and can be used for handling a large number of data with the processing of 27 inputs, returning, after the calculations, 22 final result parameters (Coefficient of the river basin form, A; Coefficient of the watershed development, m; Average river basin width, B; (A)symmetry of the river basin, a; Density of the river network of the basin, G; Coefficient of the river basin tortuousness, K; Average river basin altitude, Hsr; Average elevation difference of the river basin, D; Average river basin decline, Isr; The height of the local erosion base of the river basin, Hleb; Coefficient of the erosion energy of the river basin’s relief, Er; Coefficient of the region’s permeability, S1; Coefficient of the vegetation cover, S2; Analytical presentation of the water retention in inflow, W; Energetic potential of water flow during torrent rains, 2×gDF^½; Maximal outflow from the river basin, Qmax; Temperature coefficient of the region, T; Coefficient of the river basin erosion, Z; Production of erosion material in the river basin, Wyear; Coefficient of the deposit retention, Ru; Real soil losses, Gsp; Real soil losses per km2. For calculations model needs the following NUMERICAL VALUES as inputs: (1) The surface of River basin area, F [km²]; (2) The length of the watershed (perimeter), O [km]; (3) Natural length of the main watercourse, Lv [km]; (4) The shortest distance between the fountainhead and mouth, Lm [km]; (5) The total length of the main watercourse with tributaries of I and II class, ΣL [km]; (6) River basin length measured by a series of parallel lines, Lb [km]; (7) The area of the larger river basin part, Fv [km²]; (8) The area of the smaller river basin part, Fm [km²]; (9) Contour lines length, Liz [km]; (10) The area between the two neighboring contour lines, fiz [km²]. The model considers factors related to lithology (rocks permeability by percentage: fp, permeable; fpp, semipermeable; fo, low permeability) and soil type (erodibility coefficient, Y); topographic and relief data (I coefficient), monthly mean and annual precipitation (P coefficient), temperatures annual averages (t coefficient); land cover data (Xa coefficient of the River basin planning): 1. Bare lands; 2. Plough-lands; 3. Meadows; 4. Mountain pastures; 5. Orchards and vineyards; 6. Degraded forests; 7. Well-constituted forests; and finally the state of erosion patterns, and development of the watercourse network (Φ coefficient). The IntErO model can be characterized as semi-quantitative because it is based on a combination of descriptive and quantitative procedures. Compared to other semi-quantitative methods, this is the most quantitative because it uses descriptive evaluation for three parameters only: soil erodibility, soil protection, and the extent of erosion in the catchment.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
My PhD research proposal is to determine the impact of climate change on farmers in the different agro-climatic zone of West-Bengal. I am quite confused to frame the sample size as I am not getting the proper theory to fit against the farming population of Bengal.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Is there any relationship between man's perspective to climate change and climate change itself? Thanks in advance.
Although humanity as a whole is more aware than ever of the negative effects of climate change, we’re edging ever closer to the tipping point. The damage from irreversible climate change is expected to impact virtually every industry on Earth, including housing.
Thanks to climate change, renters and homeowners alike, especially young people, are facing a radically different future than we may have imagined. The unfortunate reality is that, unless governments and policymakers take drastic steps toward improving planetary health, climate change will continue to impact everyday life, including where we live...
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
And it will still cause many side effects since Kyoto/92 is not being observed by nations, specially historical colonizators.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Methane (CH4) is nearly 86 times stronger as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO2) (Dean, 2020). Scientists believe roughly one-fifth of the increase in radiative forcing by human-linked greenhouse gases since 1750 is due to CH4 (Nisbet et. al., 2014, Javadinejad et. al, 2019).
How would you connect the findings of Nisbet/Javadinejad and Dean? If you find methane to be more harmful, then how much is it contributing to global climate change? In such case, why the global climate research community and policymakers are prioritizing CO2 reduction over CH4?
**
You may have a look on my thesis to know more about the impact of methane on our environment.
Prior to 1990 the halogenated coumpounds were a pretty big component of greenhouse gases.
The banning of these have been a success story for the GHG and ozone hole stabilization.
After carbon dioxide methane then nitrous oxides are the most important.
When dealing with the overall warming issue the important thing is the gross emissions jmust substract the sequestrations to get the net continuing effect.
The warming of the environment is driving emissions higher because of the melting of the tundra.
To resolve a runaway greenhouse gas effect on global warming the simply reding of emissions will not be effective beside the reduction of emissions we need to more effective in the sequestration.
Methane needs better focus on the losses from the gas lines and the use of a new generation of methane combustion which can make methan a low carbon resource.
Much methane is related to our global agriculture rice and ruminants and efforts to reduce those are needed.
Nitroous oxides are largely related to fertilizer usage.
The way to address the overall issue is to reduce the emissions sources and accelerate sequestations through our management of agriculture forests and marine resources.
We are able to quantify both emissions and sequestrations and develop invcentives and penalties which will provide a way to address the issues.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
So, which CMIP6 models are suitable for the case of East Africa, specifically, Ethiopia?
Please, I need suggestions for the appropriate model? Any scholar/researcher with experience in climate change modelling can give me constructive suggestions or feedback on this?
I thank you for your suggestion!
Thank you, I will try it.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I want to receive ideas of dear researchers about providing better soils for increasing the farmers' resiliency and adaptability in combating climate change effects and conserving soil biodiversity.
Dear Elaheh, There are significant gaps in knowledge of science of soil conservation and operational strategies, both of which influence to potentially unhealthy soil. To optimise growing international soils sustainably, solid policy support is required. So raising civil and policies and practises knowledge of the crucial significance of soil biological diversity, as well as raising knowledge and understanding about how these soils can be preserved and intended to protect on a global basis, can aid in the achievement of the SDGs.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Weather forecast has utmost importance in Aviation, Ship routing, safety measures, planning and designing of structures, urban areas, offshore maintenance, natural resources, coastal areas, Agriculture, pollutants management and in many more weather applications in world wide.
A seven-day forecast can accurately predict the weather about 80 percent of the time and a five-day forecast can accurately predict the weather approximately 90 percent of the time. However, a 10-day—or longer—forecast is only right about half the time.
But Extreme Weather Prediction models are yet to reach accuracy
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Climate change has adverse effects on devastating environmental changes, human health, and agricultural production. How about that impact on plants to produce secondary metabolites that have been known to possess a tremendous benefit to human health?
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
• About 25% of all the global climate change problems we are observing can be attributed to the food and the choices that we actually make on a daily basis. Different foods and diets have different carbon footprints. Livestock accounts for over 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions, which is that sort equal to transportation (cars, trucks, planes, trains and ships combined).
• We do not have to be Vegan; we can swap to chicken and fish, obviously. If we can just reduce our red meat intake a little bit, we can help the climate a lot.
• On another note, just switching to a Mediterranean diet can potentially solve 15% of global warming pollution by 2050.
Visit kindly the following useful RG link:
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
A time series is said to homogeneous if it undergoes any change in the pattern of series due to climate change and not due to other instrumental and manual errors.
I have 47 years’ monthly temperature data for 2 observatories, thereby it accounts for 564 data-points for each observatory. I wanted to know whether the rainfall time-series is homogeneous or not? Thereby I ran Pettitt, Buishand, Von_Neumann ratio test & SNHT test using XLSTAT trial version.
The thumb rule is that if the p-values is less than 0.05 , then the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted which means the time series datasets has a break point and non-homogeneous
The result obtained is that The p-values for all the 4 methods is less <0.0001 for both observatories. Does it mean the time series in in-homogeneous or does it indicate there is climate change phenomena? How can it be possible for all the test and for all observatories to be in-homogeneous (p<0.0001)?
Markos A. Ktistakis Thanks for the detailed explanation.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
CO2 Emissions from a gallon of gasoline: 8,887 grams CO2/ gallon
CO2 Emissions from a gallon of diesel: 10,180 grams CO2/ gallon
1 us liquid gallon = 3.785 litres
Trees required for Petrol vehicle
CO2 emissions from a liter of gasoline = 2348 grams
For five letters = 2348*5= 11,740
Per year = 11,740*365=4,285 Kg
A typical tree can absorb around 21 kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year
Number of trees required for a vehicle consuming 5 L petrol per day
4285/21 = 204
Trees required for Diesel Vehicle
CO2 emissions from a liter of diesel = 2,690 grams
For five letters = 2,690*5= 13,450
Per year = 13,450*365 = 4,909 Kg
A typical tree can absorb around 21 kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year
Number of trees required for a vehicle consuming 5 L Diesel per day
4909/21 = 223
“Net-zero emissions” sounds a lot like “zero emissions” but can actually mean something quite different. A "net-zero" climate goal essentially means that as long as a company or government says it will remove the same amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as it pollutes, it can claim to be "net" zero. That may sound good for the climate. But in reality, this poses many problems, not least because it is very difficult to remove CO2 from the atmosphere on a large scale.
Instead of planning to reduce emissions to truly zero, most “net zero” climate goals plan to continue polluting for decades, while hoping that trees or new technologies will suck the CO2 out of the air to solve the problem. Net-zero goals serve as a smokescreen to allow companies to continue business as usual while appearing more ambitious than they actually are.
Unfortunately, if you add up all the carbon offsets from the hundreds upon hundreds of “Net-Zero” targets announced by governments and corporations so far, it will take hundreds of millions of hectares of new tree plantations – wasteland that the planet does not have. Everyone mistakenly assumes that the land available to solve the problem is endless. But this is not the case.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
We mostly associate drought with vegetative traits. I wonder if flower characteristics of dryland plants are shaped by drought. Is the presence or absence of the perianth and the type or structure of reproductive parts of a flower affected by this? I need sources on flower buds, flowers, fruit and seeds. Do you have any recommendation on this matter?
For instance; revolute margin of a leaf is clearly xeromorphic (Hill 1998), but what for flower parts? They are actually metamorphosed pieces.
Hill R.S. (1998). Fossil evidence for the xeromorphy and scleromorphy in Australian Proteaceae. Australian Systematic Botany 11(4) DOI: 10.1071/SB97016
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
When you look at discussions about human population, whether from the overpopulation point of view in particular or population dynamics view in general, they lead to policy actions and recommendations that appear to be independent of the traditional market structure structure(price, consumption, and production) that supports them, but the nature of markets seems to shape the nature of the population and population dynamics they encourage.
And this raises the relevant question once and for all:
Is the nature of human population dynamics dependent or independent of the nature of the traditional market structure dynamics that serves them?
I think that the nature of the population and its dynamics is dependent of the nature of the markets that serves them as they shape their nature, what do you think?
Are they independent? Yes or No, and why do you think so?
Are they dependent? Yes or No, and why do you think so?
What do you think?
Gracias Julius por escribir
With respect to the 4 articles, I am sharing here the first one as it is the foundation for the other ones. It will be send for peer review the first week of April
Title: Sustainability thought 160: System stability issues under the sustainability eye: Stating the market structure-population dynamics-system stability framework and its systematic implications.
You can find it in my project section log
Conjuntural causality is a very common concept in qualitative comparative research, it gained attention with the work of Charles Ragin since the late 1980s as factors usually work together in complex environments….
Ragin, Charles C., 1987. The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond the Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. University of California Press.
Ragin, Charles C., 1991. Issues and Alternatives in Comparative Social Research. E.J. Grill.
Ragin, Charles C., 1994. Constructing Social Research: The Unity and Diversity of Method. Pine Forge Press.
I wrote my own views on methodology in 2002 using these ideas to advance my own view of the ideal research methodology in the context of developing country conditions and critical problems planning
Non-Traditional Research Methods and Regional Planning Needs in Developing Countries: Is there an Ideal Methodology?
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
While many businesses are aiming for net-zero goals, do we have sound evidence that net-zero farming is possible or has already been achieved?
Examples, sources.
Thanks
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Some food crops such as sorghum and millet are known to suit the arid and semi-arid areas of the world. It is obvious that the importance of such crops is increasing in the years to come with the changing climate and expanding desertification. What crops on the feeds side (feed materials) can go in line with the changing climate and how promising are they? Please share materials published on "climate-smart" feed crops. Thank you!
The Bambara Groundnut and African yam bean are climate smart crops with potentials not fully explored. There are published papers on both especially from Africa. You may check them out Prof. Good evening sir.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I have found many scientific papers and edited books on global value chains. But I do not find any book that combines global value chain, buyer-supplier/seller relationships and climate change together. I am looking for a textbook that covers the issues together.
Dear Elmugheira Mohammed,
Best regards.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Dear friends,
I am doing a PhD and one of my objectives is to use DSSAT for modeling effect of Climate change scenarios on maize productivity in SW Uganda. My study area lies btn
0.8435° S, 30.8039° E
Where can I download the above current climate scenarios datasets for simulation of impact of cc on maize yield ( early, mid and end of) century?
Also, you can download CMIP6 ensemble data and/or its members from Copernicus (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/projections-cmip6?tab=overview).
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
At what time scale should we consider the priority measures to be implemented in order to ensure the protection of natural resources and guarantee their sustainability? (i) direct and urgent measures associated with the modes of exploitation and development of resources ; (ii) indirect and very long-term implications of Climate Change on the potential of resources. Has everything been done on (i) to decree that it is urgent to tackle (ii) head-on with all its uncertainties, particularly with regard to time scales involved, incompatible with the scales of concrete actions?
Is it absurd to assume, like for the evolution of species and their adaptations to natural changes of all kinds, that adaptations and resilience to the effects of climate change should readjust themselves, to changes in natural conditions, which by definition are very slow and loaded with uncertainties?
Moral: what are the urgent actions for scientists, decision-makers, actors, and active civil societies, and on what issues should scientific, technical, and financial resources should be concentrated?
I would be glad to exchange ideas on this important matter. To start the discussion, I will begin by giving some examples from Tunisia (ranked among the countries that suffer the most from lack of water).
Example 1- On the adaptation of Tunisian olive groves to bioclimatic conditions: The olive tree has been cultivated in Tunisia since Roman times under different bioclimatic conditions in exclusively rainfed groves: in the south with less than 250 mm of rainfall and in the north with more than 600 mm [1]. Apart from the different olive tree species in each of the regions, it is clear that the density of olive trees is strictly correlated with rainfall, ranging from 16 olive trees per hectare in the South to nearly a hundred olive trees per hectare in the North; so that it is possible to faithfully superimpose the density map of olive trees on the map of isohyets. Empirically, over millennia and outside of any protocol or procedure, the peasants have naturally adapted to the natural conditions of the environment and it is difficult to imagine that things can be otherwise.
Example 2- On floods and hydraulic disorders: Indigenous, Carthaginian, Roman, and Muslim cities were, without exception, located high up, sheltered from flooding (they were unfortunately not immune to drought). The centrifugal developments of urban agglomerations during the last century have reached flood zones. The transformation of watersheds and the artificialization of the water cycle have increased the concentration of flows so that flooding has become a national plague. What are the urgent actions: (i) to rethink territory development and planning for better resilience to flooding or (ii) tackle the impact of climate change on the frequencies of floods, admittedly real but at much larger time scales which escapes the scales of concrete actions.
Example 3- On groundwater overexploitation and aquifers depletion: Most of the groundwater is subjected to disastrous overexploitation leading to drawdowns and irreversible degradation of water quality. Some aquifers are withdrawn at more than 250% of the average recharge rate and the oases of the South draw on very weakly renewable “fossil” aquifers to produce dates sold at prices ranging between \$ 1 and \$ 3 (approximately 8 m3 of water are required to produce 1 kg of dates) [2]. Coastal aquifers in the Cap-Bon region are used in the production of citrus fruits sold at less than \$ 1 per kg. The aquifers are stressed to such an extent that marine intrusion has, in some cases, resulted in definitive depletion of the resource. If the decision-makers and the scientific community do not put urgently all their human and material resources and all the scientific and technical means, to solve this nagging problem; well, the time needed to define and put in place measures of resilience and adaptation to the hypothetical effects of Climate Change on groundwater recharge will be more than enough for the squandering of these resources to be total and definitive as it is already the case of certain coastal aquifers.
[1](5) (PDF) Alleviating water scarcity by optimizing "Green Virtual-Water": the case of Tunisia (researchgate.net)
[2](4) National Water Security, Case Study of an Arid Country: Tunisia | Request PDF (researchgate.net).
Investment into resilience can align with sustainable development goals, improving quality of life, stimulating the economy, and protecting the environment while safeguarding areas against the onset of climate change. Resilience is the ability of a system to absorb, withstand and bounce back after an adverse event. https://www.eesi.org/topics/adaptation-resilience/description
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Rsoner test will detect outliers that are either much smaller or much larger than the rest of the data. Rosner's approach is designed to avoid the problem of masking, where an outlier that is close in value to another outlier can go undetected.Rosner's test is appropriate only when the data, excluding the suspected outliers, are approximately normally distributed, and when the sample size is greater than or equal to 25. My questions is that can we use it on univariate time series or should we apply it for univariate datasets only?
You need to convert time series to numerical values first, then apply it.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Think about it, science is supposed to be an open environment, one where if ideas are shown to be lacking or inappropriate or wrong, they are either improved or discarded. A system where if assumptions about reality turned out to be wrong, it will shift to catch up with the actual, now new reality leaving the previous reality/previous knowledge behind. That would be consistent with the thinking of Popper and Kuhn.
That was the expectation after the 1987 Brundtland commission said business as usual model has not worked as the assumptions on which it has been based were wrong, and that was the expectation after 2012 RIO + 20 when the UNCSD commission said to go green market, green growth and green economy was the shift to go….to internalize the wrong environmental externality assumption found in the business as usual model...
If that science expectation does not happen and invalid ideas and/or previous paradigm ideas are used to address the new reality, which by now everyone knows or should know is a reality not consistent with those previous ideas, is that still science or is this now an ideology?.
Which raises the question, at what point science, in general or economics in particular, becomes an ideology?
Dear Lucio Muñoz , let me bring in my simple point that economics is still not a science, but a profession, based on certain accounts and accounting methods of society. Even medicine is not a science, but more a science-based practice of empirical evidences via testing procedures. With respect to natural and exact science, I need to mention that the basic assumptions of biological evolution, physical thermodynamics and mathematical information theory are contradictory.
The ideological trap for scientific research and researchers is based on the financial decision: which research and researcher gets funded? Most scientific research is funded by government grants , companies doing research and development, and non-profit foundations; in a perfect world, money wouldn't matter — all scientific studies (regardless of funding source) would be completely objective.
---------
Great moments in science: Einstein discovers that time is actually money.
Gary Larson
--------
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Can we model (mathematically) the resilience of populations (at the village level) to climate change to see the dynamics of this resilience in the future ? In other words, what parameters should be taken into account? How can these parameters be quantified?
Dear Serigne Mbacké Coly Resilience to climate change is first of all a time-scale dielema: At what time scale should we consider the priority measures to be implemented in order to ensure the protection of natural resources and guarantee their sustainability? (i) direct and urgent measures associated with the modes of exploitation and development of resources ; (ii) indirect and very long-term implications of Climate Change on the potential of resources. Has everything been done on (i) to decree that it is urgent to tackle (ii) head-on with all its uncertainties, particularly with regard to time scales involved, incompatible with the scales of concrete actions?
Is it absurd to assume, like for the evolution of species and their adaptations to natural changes of all kinds, that adaptations and resilience to the effects of climate change should readjust themselves, to changes in natural conditions, which by definition are very slow and loaded with uncertainties?
Moral: what are the urgent actions for scientists, decision-makers, actors, and active civil societies, and on what issues should scientific, technical, and financial resources should be concentrated?
See:
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Do you think that large-scale exploitation of shale gas would be a solution to alleviate the energy crisis which seems to be taking hold? What support measures should be put in place to mitigate its impact on health, on water resources and on the environment in general? What are the research efforts and technological developments that would be necessary to undertake to anticipate and prepare the ground for large-scale exploitation of shale gas throughout the world? what would be the legislative and regulatory provisions to be put in place as a priority to control the associated risks?
Graph: Schematic geology of natural gas resources, Source: https://www.eia.gov/
Dear Jamel Sir, If shale gas is to be established on a global scale, prominent environmental import and export may indeed be obliged, and even though some of this could be owing to complexities due to lack of data. Long-term approach, protracted climate and energy aspirations for limiting the social and environmental consequences of shale gas must be devised and constantly monitored throughout its exploitation to guarantee its real significance. Eventually, questions affecting occupation parity in the shale energy business sector, as well as public understanding, commitment, and idea sharing with the general populace, are essential to guaranteeing clarity and proper relationship throughout the shale development phase.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Climate change, a topic of high global importance. It has an impact on the environment, economy, health, ........
How can we explain the adaptation or reproduction of sterile insects to this climate change?
Thank you for sharing the materials you have with me for a research paper.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Hi
I have the time series described below:
1) Observed monthly cumulative precipitation data (mm) - attached (data.xlsx)
2) Historical monthly cumulative precipitation data (mm) produced by the MIROC model for the nearest node to the physical station (Observed data coordinate) - attached (data.xlsx)
I couldn't find a regression or relation between them. I tried ANN and Data analysis tools and some statistical methods.
Could you please let me know how to find a relation between these time series?
Best regards
You are right.
I think the best source of CMIP6 data (for now) is the link below:
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Dear Researchers,
Please share methodologies to quantify the hypothesis that the "reduced evaporation" and "increased transpiration" from tree cover area (forested region) results in increased water conservation.
Thank you!
Please read the following article; will be useful to find balance between reduced evaporation, and increased transpiration
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
How can all these can be integrated in a best way? I would love to hear and read case studies, especially from least developed countries.
To me, the mitigation of environmental risks and environmental compatibility could only be achievable if ;
1. We prioritize the preventive measure over the counteractive measure.
2. emphasis is given to
Identification and elimination of the causes of all kinds of environmental harzards beyond thought, those who are responsible for the action should be enlightened using their native language and culture.
3. Implement and compliment what other professionals have written in respect of disaster risk and climate change. Empty vessels make more noise. Identify, analyze, plan and act.
Best regards.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Someone could help me to make this type of map on QGIS or R. I already have data from the 11 synoptic stations as in the figure but unlike the map my data is from 1960 to 2020. I would like to make this map to highlight the climate change of the last decades.
Yes Coly,
you got me right. You are thinking in right direction.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Climate change vulnerability is not an emerging issue but the importance of adaptation is always neglected. Inequity makes women’s health vulnerable from their birth and regional variation makes it more prominent specially due to climate change vulnerability. Disparity in healthcare access is more problematic in third world countries like Bangladesh and it occurs at each level: individual, family, social and even in regional variation. Men’s perception about women’s health is not satisfactory at rural-coastal level in Bangladesh and the problem is more deeply rooted in disaster prone areas where early marriage and adolescent pregnancy are just in epidemic always.
Climate change makes countries more vulnerable, especially developing countries.
Adaptation is everyone's business: Men, women, and even children must adapt, even though it has an impact on the environment, the economy, health, among others.
Climate displaced or refugees, especially women and girls, are sometimes victims of violence and sexual abuse.
With early pregnancies, children who have no known father, girls who have become young adults/mothers seek and do whatever they can to support themselves.
In Haiti, 12 years after the earthquake, the evidence is clear...
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Today, unforeseen situations, such as climate change and local and international marketing, will negatively affect agriculture investors. I need your guide recommendations according to your scientific and applied experience to get agriculture to overcome this dangerous situation. !!!
Very interesting discussion ; follow for more valuable responses from experts
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I've been researching literature related to the effects the land-use (namely, agriculture) has on climate change; precipitation patterns, temperature, wind circulation, etc.
I'm not sure if I'm looking in the right place so I need to know some renowned journals that actually had papers tackling similar research interest and/or researchers who have published papers on this topic.
Also would be extra thankful if you could provide good research engines (in addition to Google Scholar) that can aid in this research.
Interesting quession
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I am more into finance and governance. I need to study more into the above. Can the expert here on the above two areas recommend a few good research papers and the latest articles on the above?
Thank you David Mendes
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Hello scientists! Drought is on the rise in some areas as a result of climate change. Are there levels and categories of drought?
Dear Dr Maftuna Karimboeva . Yes. This including :
1. meteorological drought,
2. hydrological drought,
3. agricultural drought, and
4. socioeconomic drought. Meteorological drought happens when dry weather patterns dominate an area. See the link: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/dyk/drought-definition#:~:text=As%20a%20result%2C%20the%20climatological,weather%20patterns%20dominate%20an%20area.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Hello,
I am working on the impact of climate change on dust events.
I have completed our survey regarding the same however, I don’t have daily meteorological data for the past 40 years (1980-2020). I need this to do my study.
Hence can anyone suggest to me how to obtain the same from various freely accessible sources (i.e., satellite data or any other sources)? As this is a part of my freelance research and I do not have any funding; I am not in a position to pay.
You can find daily, monthly, annual as well as climatic data from 1981 to 2020 in: NASA POWER | Data Access Viewer
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Hello,
my name is Carolin Fischer, a sociology student from the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. I am currently writing my Bachelor's Thesis in the field of Cultural and Environmental Sociology. As this will be a qualitative study on environmental topics I am looking for interview partners, who work (or used to work) in the field of environmental and climate change research. The interviews will be held via video chat either in German or English.
If you're interested in being interviewed and in helping me with my thesis please feel free to contact me via Research Gate or mail: fischer.carolin@uni-jena.de
Thank you and kind regards,
Carolin
Hi there Carolin,
sounds like a great topic for a BA thesis :-) I'm interested in your project - potentially also in participating as an interviewee. What precisely are you investigating in your research?
Feel free to contact me at Julius.Riese@web.de
With best wishes from Berlin,
Julius
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I would like to know, if the scale for attitude in climate change is in English or spanish and if you are willing to share it for possible research ?
thanks.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Hi Guys!
Their website says that "Data at 30-seconds spatial resolution is expected to be available by the end of March 2020", however, this has not materialized . . . https://www.worldclim.org/data/cmip6/cmip6climate.html
Does anyone know of alternative sources to download future data at this (1km) resolution?
Many thanks!
Joshua
Hi Guys
Update, Worldclim has updated their website with new CMIP6 30arc sec variables.
We have waited long enough.
Enjoy!
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
-So long as there are adequate and reliable datasets, it is possible to show the effects of land use and land cover changes on river flows in a given time period/s.
- The same is true for showing the effect of climate change on river flows using appropriate models, if there is data.
But, how can one show the combined effects of climate change and land-use and land cover changes on a given river catchment/flow?
Which of the existing tools and models could be helpful in this regard?
Thanks for your time and usual help!
Aklile
The process of land use and land cover change and its effects on climate change and river water is of particular importance. Hence, there are different ways for the successful operation of your research in today's world. And one of these ways is the survey operation and comment (Dr. Jerzy Lechnio & Dr.Michaelmary Chukwu ) in this direction.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I have predicted the trend in water quality using past 12 years data. My aim is to predict the impact of climate change on groundwater quality for coming decades. In order to achieve so, which data and software is required I am not so sure about it.
I suggest you try Eureqa Nutonian it is very efficient and reliable. You can use a free trial version.
regards
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
I have prepared 6 manuscripts related to green roof substrates, 4 of them consist of experimental studies and 2 literature reviews. I have previously submitted some articles for 8 journals. But unfortunately I am continuously getting rejected due to "inappropriate content" for the corresponding journal. Meanwhile, some of the journals have facilitated me article transfer options and still I am getting rejected by those transferred journals with same reason of "inappropriate". I don't want to let my works in vain. Can anybody suggest me some suitable journals with high acceptance rate and have subscription options for publications?
It would be a tremendous help.
If your focus area is on building design-related research (with a green roof), you can submit built environment-related journals. However, If your focus area is on environmental engineering, you can submit physical environment-related journals.
Best of Luck.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Gray literature vs. scientific literature
-What are the advantages and disadvantages of gray literature compared to scientific literature.
-What are the repositories that you know about gray literature.
-What is the importance of gray literature for developing countries
Gray literature is "materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels. Common gray literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations"
Scientific literature "comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences. Within an academic field, scientific literature is often referred to as the literature. Academic publishing is the process of contributing the results of one's research into the literature, which often requires a peer-review process".
To me, the main advantage of gray literature is that it may contain information that is considered so "obvious" that it does not get mentioned in scientific literature. However, the lack of peer review makes me think twice sometimes.
The major disadvantage is that if I am looking for information about a very specific or specialised topic, that it will usually only be found in scientific literature.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Why continue studying the carbon reservoirs (stores) in the soil of the SAF and SSP, what information could we continue to obtain with it?It is necessary to continue evaluating the soil resource as one of the strategies in the face of climate change
climate change observation needs long-term investigation about the environment so it is essential to continue our scientific investigations prolong for finding responses, impact, precautions, and protection.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Dear all,
Is there websites that give accurate wather data to use them in a study of the physiological rythmes according to climate changes ?
Thank you
https://lishi.tianqi.com/. This website can find the history weather data of China.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Numerous papers talk about creating latilong or lat/long blocks of 1 degree or 2 degrees. Is there a way to do this in ArcGIS? We have nest location data for three species of shorebirds in six states of the US, as well as the location and data for all the weather stations in those six states. We would like to find average temperature during the breeding season in those six states and see if changes in average temperature are correlated with changes in clutch initiation date in the shorebird species. One way we can do this (according to previous studies) is to create latilong blocks and use the data from the weather stations in those blocks where our nests are located. However, we are unfamiliar with how to do this in ArcGIS or if there is another way to do it. Any suggestions are much appreciated!
Thank you everyone! I will look into these suggestions! I really appreciate your help!
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Dear researcher, practitioner in aviation and airports,
With changing climate conditions and major weather events, resilience has taken a new dimension. Airports must now build greater flexibility into their operations and maintenance to meet challenges posed by natural disasters. Moreover, long-term investments in airports must address the current and future risks, including those emanating from climate and disaster-related hazards.
The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) Survey on the Disaster Resilience of Airports* seeks to take stock of airport practices, risk management across regions and hazards to eventually derive a set of recommendations that can be adopted by existing and future airport stakeholders, such as airport authorities, governments, airport operators, investors, designers, engineers, etc.
The survey’s goals are to:
1. Understand airport’s current perception of and exposure to disaster events
2. Map out the organizational, infrastructure and operating elements influencing the airport’s resilience
3. Gain insight into the airport’s expectations and adaptation to face the next 20 to 50 years
All data gathered through this survey will be kept confidential and only be used in aggregate form. The results of this study will be made available to participating airports.
Thank you for participating in this survey!
*)The survey is being conducted on behalf of CDRI, by NACO and InterVISTAS, two subsidiaries of Royal HaskoningDHV.
Thanks Julius Riese for your supportive reaction. Some of our previous work has been published and is collected in our 'Climate Resilient Airports' project; https://www.researchgate.net/project/Climate-Resilient-Airports.
Yet, the current 'Disaster Resilient Airports' survey is not limited to climatic extremes and includes effects of volcanic activity a.o.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
Do aquatic adapt to new conditions?
Change in temperature has a profound effect on reproduction in fish. Increasing temperatures cue reproductive development in spring-spawning species, and falling temperatures stimulate reproduction in autumn-spawners. Elevated temperatures truncate spring spawning, and delay in spawning.
• asked a question related to Climate Change
Question