Climate Change - Science topic
Climate Change is an any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Questions related to Climate Change
Once in place green markets will expand closer and closer towards environmentally clean markets until they are one market. And this raises the question, at what point green markets become environmentally clean markets?
What do you think is the answer to this specific question
Note: You need to know what a green market is and how it works and what an environmentally clean market is and how it works to be able to have a positive contribution. The question is not about dwarf green markets.
I am currently working as a sustainability data scientist, and I'm intending to conduct independent research at the intersection of climate change and machine learning. I am highly proficient in data analysis, visualization, time series forecasting, supervised machine learning and natural language processing. Furthermore, I have substantial knowledge in the domains of climate change, biodiversity and sustainability in general. Here are a few examples of my past work:
- Forecasting Atmospheric CO2 Concentration: https://towardsdatascience.com/forecasting-atmospheric-co2-concentration-with-python-c4a99e4cf142
- Visualizing Climate Change Data: https://towardsdatascience.com/visualizing-climate-change-data-with-python-74ea5bac8756
- Statistical Hypothesis Testing with Python: https://towardsdatascience.com/statistical-hypothesis-testing-with-python-6a2f38c12486
- Simplifying Machine Learning with PyCaret book: https://leanpub.com/pycaretbook
In case you are interested in collaborating, I encourage you to leave a comment or message me. Thanks you for taking the time to read this post!
Can I find someone who has information about the " 2nd Global Summit on Earth Science and Climate Change "(Adv. ESCC 2023)" conference ? Is it a real international conference? Has anyone ever participated in the first edition?
Looking for Climate-Smart agriculture (CSA) techniques which can be practically implemented in the existing agricultural fields i.e. on ground while farming.
Although, mangroves have been acknowledged as effective coastal bio-shields and conservation of the same has been taken up as a collective global agenda, a more collaborative and intensive effort should be put in place for conservation of these unique habitats. Similar to the collective efforts at the global level, collective efforts at the local and regional level should be initiated and fostered for conservation and sustainable management of mangrove habitats. In this context a discussion note was prepared to initiate a dialogue with individuals and organizations in India, especially on the eastern Indian coast to initiate the “Eastern Indian Mangrove Alliance for Conservation (EIMAC)”, to collectively identify the issues and opportunities and initiate a collaborative effort for conservation of mangrove habitats, sustainable economic development of the coastal communities and climate change mitigation and adaptation on the eastern Indian coast. The following sections of the discussion note provides an overview of the mangrove habitats of the eastern Indian coast, biodiversity, socio-economic conditions of the artisanal fishermen, and the threats of climate change. It was intended that this discussion note would provide the background and help to open the window for further discussion and initiate collaborative and collective action.
 Outlook Business Team, 2022. COP27 identifies mangroves as important solution to climate change. Outlook, retrieved online: https://www.outlookindia.com/business/cop27-identifies-mangroves-as-important-solution-to-climate-change-news-235946
Open AI such as chatgpt increase speed in reviewing large volumes of papers and generating original content.
How is likely to affect students examinations especially on essays and term papers?
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a rapidly advancing tool. It is heavily reliant on programming languages, data manipulation and analysis. As colleagues in the field of oceanography, I would like to know your opinions on the use of AI in this field. Furthermore, I would appreciate any recommendations for publications that could support your viewpoints.
It is important to be transparent about the limitations in terms of programming for the diferent subfields of oceanography, such as physical, chemical, biological, ecosystemic, and geological; how the incorporation of AI may lead to new disparities in scientific research; and how careful you would be with the use of these tools.
Thanks for your times!
I would to obtain a risk map related to the oak habitat using several ecological variables referring to climate change.
Thanks for your help.
Does anybody know how or where I can download a multi-model mean time series of the CMIP6 climate projection scenarios a certain location? It seems I can only find output from separate models, which is a lot work to put them together.
Milk and beef given the status quo clearly violate the 1.5 degrees Celsius limit - even in the near term.
As consumption patterns and cultural identifiers among middle class may be too sticky, how can the industry be demethanized?
Have central banks caused in the past more climate change due to an ultra-long period of low-interest rates and QE, or have the green initiatives sidelined by more and more central banks helped contain climate change?
What is your take on a historical perspective?
Is there an equilibrium where potential animals living on the bottom such as crabs, and lobsters may survive? Is plankton really totally autonomous from coral reefs?
How much maritime life is gone without coral reefs in percentages term?
I am running urban scenarios predicted to 2060 in Envi-met. I increased air temperature according to climate change predictions (such as IPCC) and I would like to know if the solar radiation would change too or just the air temperature?
There are 10 planetary boundaries, some of which have already been breached. It is the climate change, the rate of loss of biological diversity, nitrogen cycle, weakening of the ozone layer, ocean acidity, lack of drinking water, intensive use of soil, growth of aerosols in the atmosphere, chemical pollution.
Can science and technology save the world?
I would like to ask your help.
I am working on the Hydrological modelling using HEC-HMS, with the ERA5-Land dataset for a basin in south of France
In particular, I downloaded the ERA5-Land precipitation data from Copernicus Climate Change Service relative to my basin in Netcdf/Grib format.
My questions are:
- Can I import my subset gridded data in HEC-HMS?
I tried to import the gridded data (File -> Import -> Gridded data) - 4 files in .nc format for a historical flood 1978, the variable is total precipitation - to convert NetCDF files in .dss format. In my case, I created the destination file called “Era5Land.dss”.
At the end of the importing, the file Era5Land.dss is empty, it doesn’t contains the converted data.
(I use HEC-HMS v4.10 )
As it is evident, concrete production industry, especially cement has put the environment in a crucial situation via greenhouse gas production, as well as natural resources (e.g., sand) consumption. what could be done in order to make a shotcrete mix design more sustainable in order to achieve a good properties (e.g., mechanical, workability, etc.) product with less environmental footprints?
Usually hill stations is colder than plains. I understand that climate change is happening but I would like to understand the changes behind this scientifically. Thanks in advance !
Hello everyone, how is everything going on there? I hope you’re doing well. Currently, I'm gonna conduct a study about the role of breed, feed, health, and environment improvement on livestock productivity. However, I have a doubt which one is best to contribute to livestock productivity. I want to know the one that should be prioritized, and/or at least contribute in a high percentage. Nowadays, the livestock sector is being claimed as a driver of climate change and food security. Indeed, to enhance food security, it would be better to mitigate climate change while increasing livestock productivity. I believe that breed, feed, health, and environment should be improved before the commencement of animal production. Here, my question is as follows:
Which one of the following is best contributing to livestock productivity?
A. BREED B. FEED C. HEALTH D. ENVIRONMENT
NB: I highly appreciate and encourage you to provide your description with the potential evidence.
With kindest regards!
The non chemical methods of insect-pest Management is important to ago-ecosystem in strengthening resilience to climate change and agriculture sustainability because synthetic chemical insecticides pollute whole environment and also hazardous to all living thiongs.
What are the most serious problems of civilization development that should be solved as soon as possible? What are the global problems for which research should be developed and solutions to these problems resolved in 2019 and in subsequent years?
One of such research problems, which should not be postponed for an indefinite future, is the need to develop environment-friendly sustainable economic development in order to slow down the adverse process of global warming.
With the warming of the Earth's climate, the risk of more dramatic climate cataclysms, including tsunamis, increases.
Tsunami may be a derivative of the global warming problem. Global warming generates an increase in climate disasters, including more cases of tsunamis.
But not only is the risk of more violent and more dramatic tsunamis rising. Also in recent years, there has been more other types of climate and natural climate catatics, such as droughts, rainstorms, tornadoes and weather anomalies.
At present, it should no longer be asked whether global warming generates an increase in natural disasters only what rate of growth will be recorded in the future? So many data, research centers confirms the progressing process of global warming, that the problem is unquestionable.
More and more data points to the growing risk of climate change, unfavorable for human and life on the Earth, increase of climate disasters, climatic and weather anomalies, which are the result of global warming, rising average annual temperature near the Earth's surface.
Now we should just ask: How can these adverse processes be counteracted? What ecological technologies, renewable energy sources, how to help natural environments, how to rebuild them, such as afforestation, to build natural ecosystems absorbing greenhouse gases?
How to develop ecological business ventures? How to create financing systems for this type of pro-ecological projects? How to dispel international cooperation in this matter? What actions should be taken to move towards the development of a new ecological green economy?
How to develop environmentally sustainable economic development to slow down the unfavorable warming of the Earth's climate?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Do you agree with me that we have to combat desertification in each of its locations in order to reduce severe climate changes and dust ؟
Along with gender and race, I am using summated scores from the Climate Change Anxiety Scale and the ASES (academic self-efficacy inventory) all as predictor variables. My dependent variable is YES/NO to choosing a Natural Science major.
From 1987 WCED report to 2022 COP27 emission have gone up despite the sustainable development push, the Kyoto protocol, the original millennium development goals, the Paris Agreement, the new development goals, all COP processes…..
The only thing missing all those years are green markets to transition from the dirty economy to the clean economy, which could have been set up as a result of 2012 Rio + 20 conferences(UNCSD), but they were not set up…as the world decided to go the environmental pollution management way….
And this raises the question; Can we transition from the environmentally dirty economy to the environmentally clean economy without green markets?
I think No, what do you think? Why do you think so?
Short answers are the best to exchange ideas.
My question might sound bit silly. But, I am really curious to know what makes two GCMs differnt? We know, GCMs simulate past and future climate based on some assumptions. Regarding future, we can not comment anything, but when the task is to simulate past climate, why does the model output vary from each other? Can someone please elaborate on this with some examples?
Most professors (not listened to), and a small intelligentsia in the 68 generation, Millenials and even smaller in Gen Y are into it from a subjective perspective, which may be wrong.
Seems only the highly educated segment of Gen Z really seems to understand the implications of 1.5 degrees Celsius for personal lifestyle.(?)
Scooping through the ranks of influencers outside the Confucian societies at the top of the society, striking to see the multiplying modus.
Is there research on this?
Is there a table of professions in conjunction with fertility?
-How about e.g. climate scientists, businessmen, and politicians?
Since 1987 WCED "Our common future" A NO BRAINER was to find the way to close the renewable energy technology gap in order to slowly, but surely transition from the environmentally dirty economy to the environmentally clean economy so as to face the environment issues like global warming/climate change head on,..........
But this need was not the focus to my knowledge of the 1997 Kyoto protocol or the 2012 UNCSD conference or the 2015 Paris agreement or sustainable development goals, old and current or the recent COP27 or talking points of the UNFCCC. Like the word "transition" is toxic.
And this raises the question, Who benefits from blocking the transition from the environmentally dirty economy to the environmentally clean economy?
What do you think?
Please share your own views
Imaging Adam Smith stating the theory of the perfect green market in 1776 instead of the theory of the perfect traditional market. This has current development implications in terms of current social, environmental and population issues. And this leads to the question: What are the main current negative implications of Adam Smith’s legacy? Why it turned out this way?
What do you think?
Please share your own ideas.
It can be said the perfect green market thinking is the one that comes from correcting the knowledge base of the perfect traditional market so as to be able to correct environmentally distorted traditional market prices to transform them in green market prices.
This is the perfect market thinking behind the ideas of green economy and green growth and green markets that were supposed to be advanced since 2012 RIO +20(UNCSD) to address environmental issues head on, but the world went the way of dwarf green markets instead.
Hence, instead of going to a perfect market(Green market) to address the environmental concerns distorting the traditional market pricing mechanism, we moved to an imperfect market(Dwarf green market) to deal with environmental issues since 2012.
In other words, instead of going the way of environmental pollution reduction markets we went the way of environmental pollution management markets.
And this raises the question, What is a dwarf green market ?
Feel free to share your own views on the answer
Much research aims at mobilizing 25% of the population for initiating a social tipping point.
Is this reasonable for climate change too?
Climate change seems to be difficult to transport given the intergenerational time lag, complex topic, elitist, moral hazard issues, and unpopular non-mainstreamers who transport the issue.
Additionally, may the saturated sticky demographics make it impossible to let the 25% domino into the rest?
What are your thoughts and research? Can the social tipping point issue be addressed with the complex topic of climate change?
The human population has grown significantly, so has anthropogenic activities. Our economies have become more industrialized over the past few hundred years, and as a result many more people have moved into towns and cities. Nearly 70% of the world's population lives in the urban areas and are attracted by jobs in manufacturing and the professions, as well as by increased opportunities for education, health, basic amenities and entertainment.
Think about the issue non-renewable sources of energy vrs renewable energy or dirty economy vrs clean economy, the decision to go green markets or to avoid going green markets affects positively or negatively in the short and long term the dynamics producers vrs consumers.
Hence, each decision has consequences, which raises the question: Who are the winners and losers so far from 2012 green market paradigm shift avoidance?
What do you think?
Please share your own views
Some societies are socialized with hunting pack code and rank throughout the institutions. Is it possible to substitute this code in a lifetime?
Cherish your feedback.
As it is evident, due to climate change and global warming, as well as energy shortage, there is a crucial need for energy consumption reduction and carbon contamination reduction in households as a major part of these events. One of the novel solutions for managing these problems is digital twins for better management in the construction and also maintenance processes of homes. I want to know:
Firstly, how much could this method be effective in this situation?
Secondly, what are the mechanisms and methods for this system?
Dear researchers, A question.
What is the role of the United Nations and its specialized organizations in protecting the environment in war zones, especially since most of the factories and projects that are established in such an environment are outside all regulatory specifications that take into account environmental conditions?????. Shouldn't the United Nations be more efficient and effective, especially with the increase in climate disasters???.
In many south Asian countries including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, women farmers are playing an important role in agriculture. With effects of climatic change more visible and severe than ever, women are evolving their own mechanisms to fight the after effects to mitigate the risk and uncertainty. What are your views on challenges faced by the women and strategies adopted by them to minimize the risk and uncertainty in agricultural production. Any links to studies on this topic are welcome.
It can be said that all perfect markets once in place will tend to produce at the lowest price possible to maximize profits, but the link between pollution dynamics and profit making is different.
Which raises the question, can you see the difference between the way perfect traditional markets make money as compared to how other perfect markets like the perfect red market or perfect green market or perfect sustainability market do it in terms of pollution dynamics?.
Please, share your own views!
I am studying the "qmap" package in R language, to perform bias correction (Quantile Mapping). I have read the Help Documentation about "qmap" package, and all cases are based on precipitation data. These codes include common parameter——“wet.day”, which is intended for precipitation data.
What is the difference between specific R codes for different climatic variables, such as precipitation, temperature, solar, or wind speed?
It is impossible to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs in 2030, as we know that effective actions do not exist yet?!
Over 46,000 deligats including 112 country leaders attended in COP27, they discussed and made a negotiation about the climate change. no actions was taken after the previous COP-meetings. Will this be the same as the previous COPs or is there a different hope than those?
Your opinion is important.
almost all problems we face are international/global, intertwined, and complex (climate change, financial markets, economic systems, geopolitics, global trade, food systems, global wealth creation, pandemics, refugees, etc.), where effects are intergenerational and full of moral hazard.
Would love to learn what percentage share of a population thinks globally and holistic in the following regions:
If possible a breakdown of the generations would be fantastic. Especially Gen Z.
after crossing the 1.5 degrees Celsius tipping point, where do you think is the next stationary equilibrium level and when will it be reached?
Research is ambiguous about it.
Cherish your views/research.
Looking for a realistic scenario assessing the impact of the decisions made on COP27 in reference to the annual CO2 emission for the next 10 years.
Cherish realistic input.
what set of values, ethics and mode of thinking do you think we need in order to survive beyond the next decades?
The same ones as before?
These values brought us here?
Cherish your ideas.
Looking for an European csv, xlsx time series regarding the daily temperature for at least the last decade.
Indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides and climate change create severe problems to beneficial insects and residual problem in food material. To maintain the sustainability in aggro-ecosystem and agriculture sustainability IPM is must.
given several endogenous and exogenous shocks at the same time, how can people be led to a new comfort zone, which is way off the old one (climate change, epidemiology, hunger, era of constraints, scarcity, huge debts, etc.)
Is this possible or should a separation equilibrium be sought after, as the majority pursues the road to disaster?
Open data, journalistic intermediation, and following trusted persons (Nr.1 of trusted qualified people: the fireman) clearly does not work.
Cherish your research.
Almost all climate change was caused by developed country but both developed and developing countries suffer as a result of climate change! Is there any compensation mechanism established for developing country? If so, what are these mechanism? Was these mechanism started to operate?
The Kyoto protocol failed, was it because it was not binding across the board? or because it had too many loopholes? or because the USA did not sign it or because it attempted a patch to a pollution emission problem instead of a fix?
What do you think?
Please express your own views so as to exchange ideas
From November (6–18), in Egypt’s resort town of Sharm el-Sheikh, the world's leaders will gather for their fifth time on the same continent, Africa, that is vulnerable to climate change. We all know that this is the 27th meeting where world leaders and experts gather to plan how to attempt a global pandemic that has stayed in the public discourse for two and a half decades since COP1 in (Berlin, Germany, 1995). Climate change is an issue that is complicated to dissect by both the so-called experts and the states and institutions, just like it is for a local man who is merely represented in these discussions. The media has complicated it a little more. However, it has managed to bring the issue to the most local communities and people in countries that are vulnerable to this whole global pandemic. What does that "last man", the news listener or viewer, back in the rural community in the global south think about this whole issue that is being discussed on his or her behalf?
You are very welcome to give your views.
Soil organic carbon is the largest reservoir of organic carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. Change in atmospheric CO2 could affect soil carbon storage through changes in plant and microbial activities.
The adverse impacts of climate change have become more noticeable worldwide,
the evidence of which includes rising sea levels, melting glaciers, increasing
wildfires, and changing biodiversity, which have been observed all over the world. To respond
to climate change, all the parties (195 member countries) in the United Nations Framework
The convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) committed to the Paris Agreement in December
2015 with the aim of limiting global warming to well below 2 ◦C above pre-industrial
levels and pursuing efforts to limit warming to 1.5 ◦C. Notably, the Paris Agreement
provides an ambitious opportunity to consolidate the relationship between climate and
development. But we've recently observed drastic changes in the temperature level, droughts, and floods in many developed and developing countries. In this case, what do you think about the impact of gaining SDG goals where climate change is negatively affecting us?
What forms of external financing of pro-climate and pro-environmental economic ventures within the framework of green finance dominate now and will dominate in the future?
In recent years, various forms of financing pro-environmental business ventures within the framework of green finance have been growing in importance.
Within the framework of green financing of pro-environmental and pro-climate economic ventures, e.g. in the development of renewable and emission-free energy sources, improvement of energy transmission and storage systems, development of sustainable organic agriculture, improvement of waste sorting and recycling systems, construction of wastewater treatment plants and recovery of clean water, development of electromobility, zero-energy construction, etc. Commercial banks offer green loans, internationally operating investment banks and investment funds provide financing combined with equity participation in green investment, enterprises and companies provide green loans to their subsidiaries, the state offers green subsidies offered by government agencies as part of programs to activate the green transformation of the economy. At the UN Climate Summit COP27 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, which began on 6.11.2022, discussions are expected to focus on financial needs and commitments, financing pro-climate and pro-environmental business ventures within the framework of green finance, and shaping the tools needed to respond to the damage that climate change is causing. At the aforementioned COP27 Climate Summit in Egypt, delegates from nearly 200 countries are holding lectures and discussions on the issue of financial compensation to poor countries for the growing damage from global warming. This is a new topic on the agenda, appearing at the UN Climate Summit COP27 for the first time in a decade, i.e., since the start of such conferences and climate talks. At last year's UN Climate Summit COP26 in Glasgow, Scotland, one of the new topics and agreements was a commitment to end forest deforestation by the end of the current decade, i.e., by 2030. However, in connection with the new agenda topic that emerged at UN Climate Summit COP27, viz. the issue of financial compensation to poor countries for the growing damage of global warming is an important issue that needs to be elaborated is the identification of key sources of financing, types of external financing within the framework of green finance, clarification of the objectives of financial support, i.e. the key types of negative effects of the progressive global warming process in countries characterized by low levels of economic development, low incomes and the ability to implement pro-climate and pro-environmental economic projects on their own. First of all, most of the poor countries, characterized by low income and low level of economic development are located in the tropical and subtropical climate zones and therefore in zones particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change. In these countries, the problem of droughts is intensifying, and they are becoming more severe and prolonged every year. Droughts, declining rainfall, declining supplies of clean water are serious problems for agriculture, causing a decline in the production of agricultural crops and a growing problem of food shortages. In a large part of the mentioned poor countries, large-scale predatory logging has been implemented in recent years, the scale of deforestation has significantly increased, including natural biodiverse forest ecosystems, various forest formations, including, among others, the largest natural complex of forest ecosystems, known as the lungs of the planet, i.e. the rainforests of the Amazon. In this regard, it is a necessary issue to increase the scale of international cooperation and assistance regarding the transfer of green technologies, capital to enable the pro-environmental and pro-climate transformation of the economy, the realization of sustainable development goals, the implementation of investments enabling the development of renewable and emission-free energy sources, etc. Rich countries (mainly of the north, temperate climate zone), characterized by a high level of economic development, high incomes, high levels of productivity and equipment of production processes with modern technologies should help poor countries (of the south and the tropical, subtropical climate zone) to a greater extent, to reduce the scale of disparities, differentiation in the issue of sustainable development, activities and investments implemented to carry out pro-climate transformation of the economy and reduce the scale of the negative impact on the economy, agriculture and people of the progressive process of global warming and reduce the scale of the operation of the negative effects of this process. This is a key issue of international cooperation for the implementation of the concept of sustainable economic development, taking into account environmental, climate and energy policies on an international scale. The problem of global warming is a global problem and should be solved on a global scale through the development of international cooperation. This is part of the developing pro-climate and pro-environmental globalization.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
What forms of external financing for pro-climate and pro-environmental green finance business ventures are dominant now and will be in the future?
What forms of external financing of pro-climate and pro-environmental economic ventures within the framework of green finance currently dominate internationally?
What are the international forms of external financing of green economic transformation?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this issue?
I invite everyone to join the discussion,
Thank you very much,
" """ What are the key issues under discussion?
Since 2015, under the legally-binding Paris Agreement treaty, almost all countries in the world have committed to:
- Keep the rise in global average temperature to ‘well below’ 2°C, and ideally 1.5°C, above pre-industrial levels.
- Strengthen the ability to adapt to climate change and build resilience.
- Align finance flows with ‘a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development’.
The Paris Agreement has a ‘bottom-up’ approach where individual countries decide what action they will take.
And this means that something very important to the climate change issue/environmental sustainability is missing since 2015 Paris agreement; and actually missing since 2012 Rio +20 decision of green market paradigm shift avoidance, and something which it is still missing in COP27.
Which raises the question, what is the COP process NOT about, including COP27?
Any ideas of something very important missing that the IPCC seems to leave out all the time when calling for action?
What do you think?
Both climate change adaptation and resilience models and frameworks are in practice. I would like to know what are the similarities and differences between these two frameworks in terms of theory and practice. More specifically, would like to know empirical evidence on what are the effectiveness and added values of each framework in programming.
i want to see long-term impacts of no-tillage on soil organic carbon and crop yield.
please Share some interesting ideas and topics relating climate change, Ecological restoration and land use land cover change if possible .
Hello, I want a weather generator that produces future climate data from 2022 to 2100, except (SDSM , LARS- WG) weather generator because they produce forecasts up to 2055 and I need to 2100, Can anyone recommend one to me?
Did the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic potentially increase opportunities to accelerate processes of pro-climate and pro-environmental transformation of the economy, but unfortunately these opportunities were not taken advantage of?
During the 1st wave of the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic in March 2020, the stock markets crashed. Energy and industrial commodities fell sharply on the commodity exchanges. A stock market crash also occurred on the stock markets. The main factor in the panic on the capital markets was the declaration of a global coronavirus epidemic, or pandemic state, by the World Health Organisation on 8 March 2020. This new term 'pandemic' itself created fear and uncertainty in the context of financial markets and economic processes. During the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic, there were also disruptions to international supply and supply logistics chains, government imposed quarantines and lockdowns imposed on selected sectors of the economy which increased the scale of the 2020 recession. As a result of these mainly interventionist actions by central institutions, a deep economic crisis emerged in 2020, the economy declined in many sectors of the economy, and economic process activity declined. The result of the decline in economic activity was a decrease in demand for raw materials, including energy raw materials. Due to the increase in remote working by employees of many companies from home, the use of cars, especially combustion cars, decreased. As a result, air quality and the state of the environment noticeably improved in 2020. In addition, opportunities have arisen to accelerate pro-climate transformation processes in the economy. Unfortunately, in many countries these opportunities have not been seized. For example, in the country where I operate during the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19), the government used printed money to provide financial public assistance to companies and enterprises operating in a wide variety of industries and sectors, not just those in lockdowns, on a historically record scale. Many companies and enterprises that were in good financial standing also benefited from these programmes of non-refundable financial subsidies, employee wage subsidies, tax relief, deferrals of contributions to the social security system and so on. The scale of the granted non-refundable public aid realised on the basis of printed money introduced extra-budgetarily by government funds created especially for this purpose was so large that inflation began to rise in Poland almost from the beginning of 2021. Citizens invested the extra, free money in shares and flats, which caused an increase in the prices of these assets. On the other hand, opportunities to accelerate the processes of pro-climate transformation of the economy were missed by the government. Subsidies for the development of renewable energy sources were not increased and were even reduced on some issues. Since April 2022, the government has reduced subsidies and worsened the economic conditions for the installation of photovoltaic panels by citizens on the roofs of their houses. There is a lack of subsidies for insulating the facades of buildings and single-family houses, installing photovoltaics, installing heat pumps and other renewable energy solutions. Poland has still not met the European Union guidelines for receiving EU subsidies to finance projects that could be implemented under the National Reconstruction Programme. As a result, the development of renewable and emission-free energy sources has slowed down instead of accelerating as it could have done during the pandemic. Unfortunately, still the process of pro-environmental and pro-climate transformation of the energy sector is progressing much slower than it could if the issue of green transformation of the economy was not ignored in the political and business spheres in Poland. The result of these omissions, neglect and ignorance is the current low level of energy independence and security in Poland in the context of the currently developing energy crisis. The result of this neglect is also the poor air quality in Poland. Poland has one of the worst air quality in the world. Poland is one of the 3 countries in Europe with the highest mortality rate caused by poor air quality polluted with various toxins resulting mainly from the dominant dirty energy industry based on burning fossil fuels. In addition, even more negative consequences of these omissions, negligence and ignorance appear in the future, when the process of global warming will significantly accelerate in the next decades and lead to a worsening of the climate crisis and to a climate catastrophe, which may already occur at the end of this 21st century.
The potential for accelerating the processes of pro-climate transformation of the economy that occurred during the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic was described in my publications, which I posted on my profile of this Research Gate portal after publication:
What does it look like in your country?
Did the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic potentially increase opportunities to accelerate processes of pro-climate and pro-environmental transformation of the economy, but unfortunately these opportunities were not used?
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,