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Climate Change Impacts - Science topic

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I am in need of climate change impact on water resource in Ethiopia research recently published on prestigious Journal???
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Plant trees, native grasses and wildflowers and the rains will return. Like what 24 countries are going right now with the Middle East Green Initiative, planting 50 billion trees. The Saudis will plant 10 billion themselves.
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Some research papers related to impact of climate change on heat use efficiency (HUE) of crops ?
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We have several crop, heat, and food indicators in our annual reports for Lancet Countdown https://lancetcountdown.org/ which are free to download, including the details appendices.
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Dear all, I am working on climate change impact;
and I couldn't get Matlab code to convert the NC file of CMIP6 to excel
is there anyone to help me?
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Thank you Jay I will see it!
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Nature-based solutions relate to the sustainable management and application of natural features and processes to address socio-environmental issues.
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Currently, water management remains heavily dominated by traditional, human‐built (i.e. ‘grey’) infrastructure and the enormous potential for NBS remains under‐utilized. Nature based Solutions for Water (NBS) include green infrastructure that can substitute, augment or work in parallel with grey infrastructure in a cost‐effective manner. The goal is to find the most appropriate blend of green and grey investments to maximize benefits and system efficiency while minimizing costs and trade‐offs.
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Hello,
my name is Carolin Fischer, a sociology student from the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. I am currently writing my Bachelor's Thesis in the field of Cultural and Environmental Sociology. As this will be a qualitative study on environmental topics I am looking for interview partners, who work (or used to work) in the field of environmental and climate change research. The interviews will be held via video chat either in German or English.
If you're interested in being interviewed and in helping me with my thesis please feel free to contact me via Research Gate or mail: fischer.carolin@uni-jena.de
Thank you and kind regards,
Carolin
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Hi there Carolin,
sounds like a great topic for a BA thesis :-) I'm interested in your project - potentially also in participating as an interviewee. What precisely are you investigating in your research?
Feel free to contact me at Julius.Riese@web.de
With best wishes from Berlin,
Julius
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According to the Global Climate Risk Index 2021, developing countries bear the brunt of risks associated with climate change. International Climate Financing has increased over the years; however, the question remains how it can be efficiently managed and assessed for its successful implementation.
Kindly provide your valuable feedbacks.
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Climate Change Performance Index is an independent monitoring tool for tracking the climate protection performance of 57 countries and the EU. It aims to enhance transparency in international climate politics and enables comparison of climate protection efforts and progress made by individual countries.
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Donald Trump's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement threatens its future. Now, whispers of Brazil's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement is heard. Seems Brazil's withdrawal influenced by the withdrawal of the USA. Under this situation, will other countries also withdraw from the agreement?
In your opinion, how will the withdrawal of these countries affect the future of this agreement?
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With the departure of Donald Trump, new president has entered the Paris climate agreement.
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Is there any standard method to measure the effectiveness and success rate of any adaptation measures taken at the local, national, and regional level against climate change impacts? I have found some relevant articles. But, I am looking for a standard methodology accepted by an international body like the UNFCCC.
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Draft Order of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation "On approval of methodological recommendations and targets on adaptation to climate change"
The guidelines for assessing climate risks establish common approaches for their assessment.
Thus, for territories, a unified list of natural hazards and phenomena that occur in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and lithosphere is considered as a source of risk. For each of these risk sources, quantitative indicators of the intensity, prevalence, and duration of exposure are provided. In addition to the territorial reference, an approach is used based on the threshold (critical) values of climatic factors, exceeding which with a high degree of probability will lead to the loss of operability (termination of normal functioning) or the elimination of infrastructure and other objects.
Methodological recommendations for ranking adaptation measures according to their priority level are based on the need to identify adaptation needs and develop appropriate adaptation measures.
At the same time, a risk-based approach (measures that reduce the overall level of climate risks for the territory and / or industry) and a benefit-based approach (measures that allow the regional and / or industry levels to use the opportunities arising from climate change) can be used to develop adaptation measures. The ranking of adaptation measures is based on the contribution of these measures to reduce the level of risk or vulnerability of the affected objects, or the effect of using new opportunities. At the same time, the weight of each of these factors is determined by the subject of adaptation independently based on the specifics of the characteristic climate risks and the activities carried out. Examples of adaptation measures depending on climate risk and an approximate form for ranking adaptation measures according to their priority are attached.
Methodological recommendations for the formation of industry, regional and corporate plans for adaptation to climate change combine the results of the use of the above recommendations.
The main task of the prepared adaptation plans is to determine the list of priority adaptation measures that are characterized by a high effect at a relatively low cost.
It also provides targets for achieving climate change adaptation goals, which include federal, sectoral and regional indicators and are designed to analyze the effectiveness of climate change adaptation measures and monitor the implementation of climate change adaptation plans (national, sectoral and regional).
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One of the best option to reduce climate change impact is the promotion of renewable energy. To protect global environment and reduction of GHG emissions promotion of alternative energy is essential. If we assume except GHG emission from renewable energy resources, fossil fuel combustion will be reduced in 0-10% globally our climate change burden will be stopped. So, can it will be possible handing together all nations to replace the fossil fuel combustion completely?
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I think it not possible to replace all fossil fuel combustion systems with renewable energy systems. First of all, most of the renewable energy system’s construction cost is comparatively higher than the conventional ones. Secondly, some of the renewable energy system (such as solar and wind energy system) depends on environment and weather conditions. So, it can not be able to provide a stable output throughout the day. Thirdly, it is too difficult to produce a large quantity of energy from renewable energy sources quickly.
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Without considering climate change impacts, what will be the major causes of streamflow behavior variations?
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Climate change which makes the rainfall intensity very low or very high coupled with increased impermeable surfaces due to land use change.
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The West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest warming areas on Earth, with only some areas of the Arctic Circle experiencing faster rising temperatures. However, since Antarctica is a big place, climate change is not having a uniform impact, with some areas experiencing increases in sea ice extent. Yet in others, sea ice is decreasing, with measurable impacts on wildlife. Scientist believes that understanding climate change impacts on Antarctica is a matter of critical importance for the world and for the continent itself.
The effects of global warming in Antarctica may include rising temperatures and increasing snow melt and ice loss. The rising temperature may be causing more icebergs to form by weakening the glaciers, causing more cracks and making ice more likely to break off. As soon as theice falls into the ocean, the ocean rises a little. If all of the Antarctic ice melted,sea levels around the world would rise about 61 meters (200 feet).
Dear researchers, please provide your prestigious opinion on this important matter. Thank you
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The most significant impact is obviously, the rise in existing sea levels and flooding of the coastal regions. This will lead to loss of life and property and will force millions of people to migrate from existing land to some other areas. This mass migration may lead to clashes between people even lead to disturbed political situations.
How to stop this, is the real situation on which researchers are still working in different fields (for ex. CCR & CCU). However, in my opinion, the solution to control global warming can be solved, if man is willing. Since there are a lot of economic constraints, and the world economy and existing machines and infrastructure can work on fossil fuel as a source of energy (to a major extent). Hence it will take time to switch to green and renewable sources of energy. Again here, the economy and availability of technology will be a major constraint, and the balance (i.e. the consequences) will shift again to the side to which process is fast (i.e. rate of global warming rise vs rate of switching to renewable sources of energy).
The easiest way to control global warming is still, planting more trees to maintain and control the world's CO2 levels.
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Mangroves have the ability to absorb up to four times more carbon dioxide by area than upland terrestrial forest ecosystems, carbon dioxide is stored as blue Carbon in the sediment of the mangroves swamps and marshes and green carbon in the soils of the terrestrial forest floors, and that carbon sink forms the carbon pool, but the result obtained from the analysis of the sediment samples of both types of ecosystems doesn't reflect that quantity, the organic carbon of the mangroves swamps ranges from 36 to 69%, whereas, the organic carbon content of the soils of the terrestrial forest ecosystems varies from 16 to 66%, then where and how the extra carbon stored in the mangroves sediments as blue Carbon which is four times more than that of the green carbon of the forest soil?
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Convey my thanks for such a relevant article that nicely elaborated of the carbon draining from the terrestrial forest floors arrested in the mangroves ecosystems and that is seen at a glance, I will go through the paper later on and use as citation in my work
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Is there any method or model?
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Dear Sami Gören , Thank you very much for your assistance. I will find the book.
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Bioclimatic stress is one of the effects of climate change on human health. I would like to assess the probability for displaced persons identified in a slum population to have experienced, at least, one episode of stress due to climatic events which affected them. Which simple tool or psychological test would be better suited to do so in the context of a study on social representations of diseases related to climate change?
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Thank you all Daphnee Michel , S. Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist , Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman , Alexandra Pierre . I apologize for the delay in reacting and thanking you for your contributions.
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Which programming language is best for Hydrological modeling (e.g. climate change impacts studies)?
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I work in all three languages i.e., MATLAB, Python and R on a regular basis. However, when it comes to make suggestion to someone who is about to start his/her research in hydrology, I always recommend Python.
One of the major advantage of Python and R over MATLAB is no licensing fee.
A hydrological modeler may work in a consultancy or may start his/her consultancy. If s/he work in a consultancy or even in an MNC, s/he might be asked to work on Python or R, as the commercial licence of MATLAB is too expensive to afford when equally efficient free options are available. Imagine starting your own consultancy and purchasing commercial license of MATLAB (it will burn the hole in your pocket).
Another advantage of Python is that in case one want to automate any process in ArcGIS/ QGIS one can use it easily, whereas MATLAB and R cannot be used. One may say that this can also be done using modeler in ArcGIS, however, I would say that modeler can better be used to integrate different tools but when it comes to analyse thousands of images and tens of operations, scripting becomes the only solution.
In case somebody is working in Linux system or uses Linux/Windows/Mac on need basis, getting license of MATLAB (or sometime even pirated version) becomes difficult. On the other hand Python and R are available free in all platforms.
If one want to automate any program or .exe file in Linux terminal or Windows Command Prompt, Python can be used to automate the process by converting the scripts into a executable.
These days, Google Earth Engine another powerful application also have the provision of using Python scripts. So, if one has to do computation on powerful Google Cloud, python is the only choice among the discussed three.
The single advantage of R over Python and Matlab is the availability of sophisticated and advanced statistics packages. These packages have very good and elaborate documentation and are unanimously accepted in the scientific community. However, if one has expertise in Python switching to R would not be a problem.
So if you ask which one to choose, I would answer, choose Python as first option and MATLAB as last option.
Hope it helps!
Regards
DS Bisht
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Changes in temperature, precipitation, and humidity will significantly impact the quality and quantity of water across the country, where water resources are also under unprecedented pressure from population growth, rapid urbanization, and inefficient water use.
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Following the aim of assessing the ecohydrological impacts of climate change in tropical subhumid watershed of Venezuela, we need to select some climate global models (CGMs). So, we will obtain several future daily climate data bases for running SWAT simulations under different "feasible and expected" conditions.
We have some basic questions before go ahead:
How to select the "better" GCMs?
One way appears to be comparing the CGM outputs with the records of historical reference time period (selecting those models showing the better evaluation stats).
But:
1) Considering the CGM outputs (raw, not downscaled) spatial resolution:
Comparing against historical local record data would be an admitted procedure?
2) If GCM "historic" outputs are downscaled ( i.e: bias correction by quantile mapping) using a historical data record, then these corrected CGM outputs will be compared with the same data record. Doesn't it imply a redundancy that leads to a obvious improvement?
3) There is no way of validating the future CGM simulation. Then: it really worth to select the "best" CGM according actual historic data records?. In other words: you may have a very good simulation for an actual historical record, but: will model perform a good simulation of the future?
Different points of view will be very valuable on our research. Thank you very much in advance.
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Santosh Kaini : thank you. Very interesting points of view. We are working on a model performance and trend scenaries approach.Thanks again.
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secondary products such as Alkaloids; phenol and others defense from climate effects such as Temperature, toxins and pollutants?
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Dear researcher,
i am new to these studies so please suggest me which downscaling techniques will be best to access climate change impacts scenario of Karnali river basin of Nepal...
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We live in a changing world. Not only the climate is changing but also the system that is exposed to this climate.
In the discussion on the impacts of climate change, the changing climate is given a very important role, while non-climatic factors (e.g. land use, demographic/socio-economic factors) are often only the subject of studies of the status quo. However, the changes or transformation of such non-climatic factors in the future are often not adequately considered.
Aren't these factors equally or even more important, as there is a large scope for action, especially in the distribution of these elements?
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I warmly welcome for your healthy opinions on this mordant topic.
We, scientific community had began simulation and models of human or we induced climate change (CC) & its impacts from late 1970's & later. There are big shots (IPCC, UNFCC, GAR, etc..) who narrated the scientific stories in scientific manner on global warming (GW), ozone depletion and hastens on climate to change and 'bio D` loses'. The report and studies of them has accelerated to new invoke and evoked human communities from different clans of nations. They said the reason for CC was the elite nations who contributed to such cause as much.
The elite group of nations has enlightened the now progressing nations as its the duty and responsibility of the second and third nation groups to rebuild mother earth as of as it was. Sometimes I go numbed while looking into the gist of CC as we produced. I now go doubtful on this mark, as any interventions by we ourselves to nature is and will be again CC. Then how can we build back better?
I hope so, some may answer or go through the thoughts into our recent efforts on emission reduction and mitigations strategies. Yes, I agree that the reports of recent dates has told us that we had reduced further ozone depletion through greening our technologies. I accept it.
But again I am now fascinated to have much more questions to myself. I ask you that, if we had reduced ozone depletion as from previous situation then why we again face GW, CC & its impacts?
Let it be as such as beautiful granny fearing stories in those reports for our younger ones to read learn & fear. Mean while other group of scientific community emerged as NIPCC & has brought with reconstructed CC reports on contrary to IPCC. They too narrated quite dread stories than of former ones in quite harmless fashion.
I go with scratchy head to the nasty scientific community and came into a conclusion from these CC trepidation reports that we need a third dimensional approach to visualize the CC concept in more diverse manner than of we now have. It is now necessary for the clans of nations with CC impacts, to redraw or rewrite the CC stories into their own dictations for our younger ones to fear.
We gave reasonable reasons that green house gases are much contributors for the CC and allied impacts. Ok I agree this notation with scientific justification made. Just we people want to think & imagine on what if one of the constituent was drastically reduced through our efforts ?
For an example, take CO gas reduced that of required by our activity what will happen? The earth will go frost readily. Imagine all water and its matter go frost for all of a sudden. Hope so i am now incorporating a new mode of CC fear in you in new dimensions. Just think of what if CH4 reduced in atmosphere? The same effect will happen. Think of doubling the ozone layer on our outer spheres, what will happen? Sunlight cannot enter through the reframed atmospheric windows and quite some of spectrum will be screened off, like essential IR. Then think about the vegetation on earth and what will be the primary productivity on this planet?
Till now i talked a glimpse on we induced CC.
Now let's talk about CC fear propagating from mother nature itself.
Recent studies on earths deflections of its axis, as it has tilted further. Imagine that slight tilt can change much change in now prescribed environments will definitely turn into other ecosystems. Think Asia totally becoming desert or as permafrost or as ocean ecosystem. So as think, what will and might happen to now continents and zoogeographic, bio-geography zones? what about the concept of meridians and its shifts? what about shifts in time? what about effect and shift in rotation, revolution of earth? What about seasons & weather? what about the number of days in months, year concepts?
All scientific concepts can go ruined or shall be tuned to later shifts. Had any one thought about that?
What if the density of water increased with enormity in increase of gravitational pull. or imagine gravitational repelling mechanism. Think about the what if the inner core solidifies? What if rotation of earth stopped? what if rotation and circulation of air, wind stopped. what if waves and tides stopped? what if sea and ocean recedes and brought unusable lands?
This type of W-H questions are nasty and will go on in our era and can end untill human extinction.
So, no need to worry about this planet, this planet earth is a self sustained and regulated with its own homeostasis and cybernetic mechanics and has its own system engineering with a loop. As of game spirit nature will nurture itself. It can emanate from its end. If one species goes extinct now time, can re-emanate after its on cyclic turn than we human calculated scales of time & dimension.
So, incorporation of CC fear in the name of power, knowledge, wealth transfer and its business shall have an scientific end in next research and reports that we kind produce to the world not to fool or manipulate our kind. We scientific community shall stop tending ourselves as scientific dictators and barbarian bureaucrats for the rest of the peaceful human kinds.
In the name of business and its ratification on CC has need to wave a noble dimension other than incorporating fear into mankind. Make reports one such that doesn't incorporate nature as a thing to fear for future generations. Hope we can reduce these, ingress of cc fear reports onto our own communities to develop good mental health and well being of ourselves.
Learn to make reports to love nature, and natural phenomenon's as it is.
Don't portray the phenomenon's into fearful scientific stories.
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Le sujet est scientifique et seul l'exploitation des résultats réels. La modélisation de ces résultats nous permet de tirer les bonnes conclusions.
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I’m trying to compose a timeline that projects threats and problems that cause uncertainty to health over the next century.
I’m interested in all long-term health issues including drug resistance, global warming impacts, the impact of technology, biological warfare and terrorism etc.
The closer these events are, the better we can predict when and if they’ll make an impact, but I'm interested in the lot (and the fuzzy logic of when and how big).
I've asked a similar question recently and I got a single good answer - but surely there's more than just one forward thinking researcher out there!
1. Have you heard of any major risks to health over the next 100 years?
2. When are these risks expected and why then?
3. Any predictions on impact size?
4. Do you have any references? They don’t need to be academic, but academic Is better.
5. Any other thoughts?
6. Do you want to receive this data once I’ve compiled it?
Thanks
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There are many emerging and re-emerging zoonoses, such as SARS, Bird flu, Swine flu, Hanta virus, West Nile fever, Dengue fever, Nipah virus, Rift Valley fever etc. are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing as well as developed nations.Further research should be conducted on molecular epidemiology, chemotherapy and vaccinology.
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Forests have a significant potential to mitigate the climate change impacts including: Global warming.
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Please take a look at this useful RG link.
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When assessing the impacts of climate change in hydro-climatological studies, researchers often compare "GCM future run with historical observed" or "GCM future run with GCM control run" ? Can somebody give some insights on a comparison of these approaches?
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If interested in mean changes and want to cover full spectrum of future projections (Cold-Dry, Cold-Wet, Warm-Dry, Warm-Wet), use envelope-based approach (four corners with combinations of 10th and 90th percentiles of precipitation and temperature)
If interested in extremes, then use GCM-history vs. GCM-future. (Based on ETCCDI, e.g., CDD, CSDI, CWD, R99pTOT, WSDI, etc.) --- Rclimdex can be used to calculate ETCCDI
If you want to see whether GCMs can represent observed climate at present and near past then you need to compare GCM-history and Observed-history. Statistical indices can be used for this purpose.
If interested in Bias Correction, CMhyd is a handy tool to do that.
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Hi,
I would like to know the difference between climate change and climate variability?
Cordially.
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Hey Faci,
I just attached a picture and hope it will help you.
Best
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Seeking answers and/or examples of how countries or projects or independent researchers have defined and measures a community’s resilience to climate change impacts.
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Resilience is a tendency to return to a pre-disturbance condition. What pre-disturbance condition are you expecting to return to?
If we look at Doyal & Gough's Theory of Human Needs, the most fundamental human need is to function effectively in one's community. So the pre-disturbance condition may be a community that all of the people are able to function effectively within? That might be ambitious, if that is not available right now.
How would you measure that? You could measure how much time they use today to meet their needs, how much time they would use today if they could meet all of their needs, and how much time they would need at some unknown future date to meet their needs as the result of a finite change in climate. You could then find a relationship between amount of climate change and magnitude of impact on their time use. How much can the climate change for them still be able to meet all of their needs in 24h/d/ca or less? What is obstructing people from being able to meet their needs more effectively and efficiently? What would be obstructing them in that unknown future? How do you remove those obstructions, so that more people can have all their needs met?
There is a relationship between efficiency and resilience - one tends to drop as the other increases, often because of extra redundancy. We can try to learn from the past, to design to be just strong enough (hard to do with changing targets). Another approach is to rely on adaptive management, to respond to changing conditions. That can be as simple as ensuring that a weather proof electrical receptacle is put near where the bypass pump would have to go (or any other example where the want of a nail would lose a kingdom). In our modern culture, we expect very high efficiency and introducing resilience often takes a change in the way of looking at the problem. That often means educating the client... troublesome, that, but worth it. The results can be higher performance, lower overall cost, better dynamic responses.
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This is probably a naive question for economists, but I am a lawyer with limited understanging of econ and thus I am not confident about how to answer this question. Assume we have an agricultural production function with contstant return to scale. One factor contributing to production is water. Now climate change hits and hits the elasticity of water (but does not impact elasticity of other factors) then I would say, depending on which direction the elasticity of water heads, the return to scale will change to increasing or decresing. Does this make sense given the assumptions?
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It is not only the water but soils as well that are affected - dried out soils are prone to erosion, especially with sudden heavy precipitation (occurring with higher frequency as the climate conditions are drying out). Add to that deforestation and you have a real crisis. High summer temperatures are also very big problem, not only because of evaporation but because some plants/trees emit carbon rather than oxygen when certain temperature limit is crossed. So, yes, climate change can provoke great impact on agriculture and economy in general. What is probably confusing is the fact that we don't see the change equally distributed around the globe - some areas are more affected by drought and some by excess of precipitation. But in both cases agriculture will be affected, especially traditional ways of food production.
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I am working on a climate change impact study. I am using Gridded Data (For Temperature and Precipitation) Like CRU and CFSR to perform Trend Analysis. One necessary test prior to detect trends is to check the data for serial correlation. I want to know that is there any need to test the Gridded Data for serial correlation or not?
Thank You in Advance
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Hello Amjad Khan ,
I agree with Mohamed Salem Nashwan . Each grid point consists of a time series - analogous to data from a station. So, you can test for serial correlation for each of the grid points in your data set.
Best, Michel
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CO2 emission largely determine global mean surface warming by the late 21st century and beyond, and greenhouse gas emissions vary over a wide range. Greenhouse gases will cause further warming and permanent changes in all components of the climate system. Some of these changes have been linked to human influences, including a decrease in cold temperature extremes, an increase in warm temperature extremes, an increase in extreme high sea levels and an increase in the number of heavy precipitation events in a number of regions. What could be the effect of the climate change on insect ?
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Please have a look at this useful RG link.
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Floods, a world-wide disasters, always bring about live and economic losses. the common definition for this is the quick rising processes of the hydrological elements ( water level, discharge,etc.). Many researchers have done many works on it. At current stage, people in different countries prefer to identifying the flood using flood frequency analysis via measured stream flow, and forms a series of method to rate the flood. Also, there are other method to identify flood including percentile- based method and multiyear average flow. It is easier to understand flood when using the measured values, which are capable of capturing the true flow peak. While the simulated stream flow is daily-scale, and is always compared on monthly scale for a large-scale model. So there are many information lost and facing the accuracy issues because of the rainfall. In this condition, how to identify it is very difficult based on my best knowledge. So i want to get advise on this platform. Sincerely welcome to provide your points in view of this. ( Ps, I am now working on the climate change impact on flood using large-scale model where the daily streamflow can be derived, what i want is to extract the flood information and rank them)
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Flood can define ss per the geographical area and intensity of rain. Whenever that created interference in daily activity. We can say it is flood.
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LUP through cities master plan for example in many countries is statutory based, fixed over longer terms (20 or more years), with many approval process even for minor amendments in any plan. Climate change impacts on the other hand are now real especially in coastal cities of Asia, Africa and even South America. my interest is to understand what exactly has been done in your country or the country you are aware of to make sure that long term land use plans are adequately aligned in favour of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.
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Overall, I would say "Yes". However, Land use planning has so many other implications that are social and economic (besides the typical environmental implications that immediately come to mind when thinking about LUP). It depends also on the type of investigation but perhaps the LUP as part of the 17 sustainable development goals is/can be a a valuable metric in mitigating global climate change.
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Springs (discharge of groundwater) are common in all landscapes even if the abundance and the remaining times and sizes of aquifers differ.
If it is not deep aquifers or karst, springs are reflecting the climatic conditions (e.g. mean temperature, seasonality, precipitation) should be reflected (with some delay) in the springs.
AND
Many spring species are stenoecic and adapted to very specific conditions of temperature and water chemistry.
We did some studies on this in the past, but now i would like to develop a concept for using springs and spring species for climate change impacts because most weather stations are in settlements and not in natural ecosystems.
Are there people around with similar interests?
Carl
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Dear Bayan Hussein!
This is true!
Our time series starts in 1989, so it is 30 y now.
We also measured the intraannual variation.
Most surprising are the effects of drought (2003 and 2018) on the hydrochemistry of discharge, enhancing the pH values!
I you would consider short time series, you can be mislead!
Best
Carl
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Since Turkey is located in the Mediterranean macroclimate region in the sub-tropical zone, great rainfall variations can be seen between the years. at the north part, extreme rainfall and flood hazards and at the south and south-west part overheating are among main problems. However, the severity and of these variations is different from region to region. how can we define the most risky region, which its built heritage will be affected more in terms of future climate change?
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This is a multi-factor problem. Good question, but the answer is not so simple
You'll have to model each (sub-region) individually for future effects of rainfall and temperature ranges but also look at wind patterns and storm events.
You will then need to look at the heritage stock and assess how the building fabric responds to the new (modelled) climatic realities. You can do so by looking at the performance and response to climatic events over the past 30 years . Look at the extreme events and possibly use them as new normal.
The next issue will be the state of the heritage assets and the funding that currently goes into maintenance, both private funding for private buildings and public monies for community-owned assets. What is the trend here? That trend can be forward projected.
You will then also need to take into account the projected impact of climate change on the economic capacity of the private citizens and of the local governments. That will vary from region to region, but will have an impact on the future capacity and willingness to pay for repairs.
When you have all of this in hand, you ned to develop a set of evaluation criteria with relative weighting , which then provide you with a numeric value of future risk that incorporates environmnetal and socio-economic factors.
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what are the negative effects of climate change on agriculture specially on cereal crops? 
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Breeders must start working on finding more abiotic stress-tolerant varieties because of increasing temperature, salinity and drought. Plants will have shorter life cycles because of increasing temperature which means low yield. flower and fruit drop will increase because of higher temperature and strong winds which will contribute to lower yield production. fruit quality will also be reduced. cereal and fruit crops will be the most affected ones.
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Earthquake is very disastrous. The my question is that is there any relation between earthquake and climate change?
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Dear colleagues I am working on the impacts of climate change on livestock production and productivity. I have the data on land use, land cover change and 32 years of climate data. By which model I correlate, analyses and project livestock production? What do you recommend for me and how??
I tried to use the Models like MITERRA-Europe and IMAGE Models. However, the models did not include all production determinants such as Feed, diseases, genetics and Management. What model do you recommend for me in tropics?
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Donkor Emmanuel. Thank you for your assistance I will look over the paper.
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Developing countries suffer from the emission level of developed countries due to exacerbating Green House Gas (GHGs). As a result, global warming is elevating climate change impacts and sea level rise. Are developed countries taking any actions or is that the their wealth is bigger than the life of the planet?
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We should change some habit in the developing countries
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When we talk of climate change, we mostly refer to changes in climate variable such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed etc. If that is the case why do some studies assess farmers perception on climate change with variables such as flood, drought pest and diseases ect. Are these variables not actually the impact of climate change of they are really climate change? I need more clarification on this issue.
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climate change refers to the change to the climate system such as average temperature over long time, rainfall, etc. climate change impacts refers to the results / consequences of these change, e.g. that cyclones become more intense, low lying areas get submerged by water, corals die, etc........
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Hi - I'm looking for a paper (preferable peer-reviewed) about the relationship between changes in climate in key coffee-growing regions as an factor driving a surge on world markets.
Anybody would know where I can find this info?
Thanks :)
Catherine
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Climate change impacts
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Your question has raised a lot more questions which must be answered by asking questions that a scientific research have to provide answers to. I believe if this research must be undertaken (I doubt) so much funds must be made available.
I believe we need to fully deal with our Climate Change issues on Earth (which several people are still disputing) before we start worrying about other planets.
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I am currently working on some project where i need to do a quick estimate of climate change impact on stream flow so i selected GR4J model. but i suspect that this models lack robustness when they are dealing with non stationary data set. so i wanted to know whether or not i have to choose another method or is this model is being used for the same purpose on other study areas? can any body help?
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Dear Yosef mekonnen Ali
I think yes you can. there are many studies using this model to assessment of climate change.
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I'm working on a paper and would like to have some suggestions on literature related to climate change and it impacts on urban planning (SD model).
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Hi,
Just google Prof. John Sterman+climate change, then you find several SD works regarding climate change and specially with focus on human interaction.
Best.
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Dear all i want to know"climate change and its impacts on agriculture productivity and forcasting."(india) (20 crops data temp rain)
which variables we have to choose to see impacts it should be climatic and no climatic socio-economic and so on.
suppose there are some variables please tell whethetr these variables are co related to or not. many literature used different variables you please mention which are more imp and less imp.
  • temp
  • rain
  • agriculture productivity
  • forest area
  • ghg emisssion data
  • agriculture labouror
  • literacy rate (male pop) or all ?(what to choose for whole india)
  • tractor used in
  • pumpset
  • farm harvest price? is it useful ?if yes why?
  • total consumption of fertilizers used
  • maxim temp
  • minimum temp
  • average temp
  • gross irrigated area(why ?can we use net irrigated area?)
  • crop wise irrigated area
  • cropped area
  • crop intensity
telll which data should we include if not given above and which should not include for these type of studies.because we want to see vriation in productivity due to these factors.
need your suggestions
Thank you
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Hi Sodiq,
Thanks for your good line of thoughts! The issue of adaptation to climate change is context-specific and a whole lot of damage could be done if someone makes a mistake of generalization. Some farmers in West Africa, are already adapting to the effects of climate change but their efforts are sometimes insufficient. In certain cases, some farmers do take wrong coping or adaptation approaches, which could lead to maladaptation.
Concerning the questions on "who, what, and how" of adaptation with effect on farmers' productivity, we need to look at the various stakeholders and their roles. However, ways to ensure synergies and effective collaboration between these group of stakeholders, which include the farmers, is the key challenge in this perspective.
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Please suggest some literature on Stochastic Frontier Analysis for Climate change impact assessment in Fisheries sector.
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Hello everyone,
I am looking for publications quantifying climate change impacts on ocean saline, the Pacific ocean to be specific. Has anybody worked or being aware of research on this issue? I do greatly appreciate for your suggestion on such publications/projects.
Triet Nguyen
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Hi Ajay Raghavendra,
thank you very much for your suggested publications. Particular, the paper of Durack is spot-on.
best regards,
Triet Nguyen
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In climate change impact studies, drought assessments need longer series of data to evaluate.
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LARS-WG and SDSM is very good.
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Hi everyone
I'm currently working on predicting the climate change impacts with LARS-WG statistical downscaling model. LARS-WG supports existing models of CMIP5. Given that, the GCM models are very diverse. I should compare the historical period of the model with the observation period of my area. To see which model is suitable for my area. I saw this in some articles. My problem is that I do not know where I can get historical data about GCMs. The data I need is the maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, sunshine and solar radiation.
Thank you so much for advising me.
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do not try to choose a GCM but use multiple GCMs. There is no good GCM but the use of ensemble average of the GCMs is recommended in several research studies
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Hello to all,
I am working to compute the water footprints of different crops for the future climatic conditions on the basis of previous/past available data. can any body suggest me good software of simulation according to my requirements please?
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Dear Aamir,
the official portal for CMIP5 data is ESGF :
It has "everything" but is a bit harsh for non-specialists. You would also need to bias-adjust the simulations by yourself to use them in crop models.
You can also check us out at https://theclimatedatafactory.com/
We provide "ready to use" CMIP5 data for climate change impact modeling as a commercial service. The methods and process are described in this report: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322888233_Bias_Adjusting_Climate_Model_Projections
All the best
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Temperature has got a detrimental role in fruit & vegetable varieties. Hot regions of the globe are rich in food varieties and production. Most of the published research papers are talking against climate change. Is there any research talking about positive impacts of climate change.
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Some parts of New Zealand's South Island had consecutive five days of 5 C above average summer temperatures this summer. This is becoming a trend and in a few decades countries will have to either change the demography of crop species or breed crops to meet the environmental challenges. While these changes may be bearable for colder countries in the 'short term', for tropical countries already suffering from droughts, high temperatures etc., even a degree of average temperature increase will have larger consequences I guess. Higher night temperatures will seriously affect crop productivity overall.
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Hi ,
please tell all solution with reference to reduce climate change impacts on agriculture or agriculture productivity.
like agroforestry is also a solution
Thank you
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I agree with Kenneth Towe. No one can control or change climate. All that humans can do is to adapt to it. Note that during the Ice Ages, or earlier during the Paleocene -Eocene Thermal Maximum, tropical climate extended to Europe, yet man was not there. The climatic regimes ran into thousands and millions of years. Climate change is just normal to the earth. Man can destroy his environment but cannot control climate. Fill up the land lying below sea level and build cities. Millenia later, global warming, ice-melting causing sea level rise will simply drown the city.
Obianuju P. Umeji
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of course rainfall and temperature as climate indicators influencing CWR and hence IR, however productivity influenced by other factors than climate 
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Please have a look at this useful RG link.
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Hi,
In SWAT modelling I have only precipitation and temperature data for my observed stations. I am using Simulation Tab in Weather Data definition menu for WIND, SOLAR AND HUMIDITY. What values I need to input in the Wgenuser table for SOLARAV,WNDAV and DEWpt as when i leave them blank an error is generated?
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Dear Saima,
You could use CFSR_World Weather Database to fill all missing data.
I hope you succeed!
ND Liem
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Which hydrological framework is best suitable for climate change impact assessment and drainage basin study?
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SWAT
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As we know, some island countries like Tuvalu, Kiribati and the Maldives risk disappearing because of the climatic changes. Do you know of any solution adopted by island countries to avoid their disappearance caused by climate change?
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In case of such situation, the affect countries should have plan to accommodate citizens in friend countries.
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I want to start my PhD research on Climate change impact assessment and adaptation in public health in Nigeria.I would like to know methodology to use tofor this research. I need to ask how can a specific methodology helps in defining the frontiers of my research. Can someone share a Conceptual framework on similar kind of research? I hope I can improve my question after your kind responses
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climate change, grain yield reduction
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Dear Prof. Qin Liu
I'm working on different project related to drought monitoring and prediction. Recently, I've recently published two papers in this regard:
1- Estimation of meteorological drought indices based on AgMERRA precipitation data and station-observed precipitation data,
Journal of Arid Land, DOI:10.1007/s40333-017-0070-y
2- Predictive value of Keetch-Byram Drought Index for cereal yields in a semi-arid environment.Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI:10.1007/s00704-017-2315-2
Also, I've developed a website that all my softwares are uploaded in it:
If I can help you in your project, I appreciate.
Regards,
Dr. Nasrin Salehnia
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I am working on climate change impact on streamflow, sediment flux ,hydropower and reservoir sediment management using SWAT,HEC-ResSim and SedSim softwares.But I couldn't be able to get SedSim software. Would You help me to get the software?
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Here are some papers that may be of help in your search:
Toniolo, H. and Parker, G.: 1-D Numerical modeling of reservoir sedimentation, in: IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics, Barcelona, Spain, 457–468, 2003
Hu, C., Guo, Q., Chen, J., and Cao, W.: Applications of numerical simulation to the sedimentation in the Sanmenxia reservoir and the Lower Yellow River, Internat. J. Environ. Pollut., 42, 148– 165, 2010.
Also, check the Delft-3D model which has been used for various applications: https://oss.deltares.nl/web/delft3d
Here's an example:
Omer, A. Y. A., Ali, Y. S. A., Roelvink, J. A., Dastgheib, A., Paron, P., and Crosato, A.: Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan), Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 223-238, https://doi.org/10.5194/esurf-3-223-2015, 2015.
Best regards,
Tom
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Hi,
Can the data of different periods be used in SWAT Model for Simulation and future climate change impact assessment. i have two stations for which temperature and precipitation data is available from 1986-2015 for one station and from 1990-2015 for other station. how should i incorporate these data in SWAT model.
Secondly is it ok to perform bias correction for future data using 20 year observed data or 30 year minimum should be use?
Thanks
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Dear Saima,
In addition to Martijn's answer, what I understand from SWAT model is that it will take closest meteorological stations from the center of each sub-catchment as the model forcing. Hence, your SWAT simulation can be mainly driven by one meteorological station depending on their proximity from sub-catchments. In addition to that, you should provide meteorological time series with an equal time length, otherwise the SWAT system will reject your simulation automatically (with a pop up warning on the screen).
For the second question, I agree with the previous answers. You may use your 20-years observed time series to perform bias correction. However, I will do what Martijn has said by means splitting the time series into two division for calibration and validation.
Good luck!
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Want to do study on food security problem faced in India. I want find the climate change factors that affect the crop cultivation and what kind of effect does each parameter contribute.
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I am not sure, if the focus shoul dbe too much on scientific aspects of agricultural production. India is producing sufficient food to feed everybody well. India has become a major exporter of food, e.g. rice as outside consumer shave better purchasing power than th epoor in India.
Food science e.g. has a role to play to achieve food security, but its importance is often seen too high. The assumption that too little food is produced to feed everybody on the planet is incorrect. Actually enough food statistically is around, but not everybody has access to what is available. Food science can cause increase in the cost of food making it unaffordable for poor people.
The Green Revolution is an example for this. High Yielding Varieties cost money, fertilizers, pesticides and other high costs for external inputs make agriculture costly. Still plant science can help to better adapt agriculture for example to a changing climate. One aspect that brings issues around food security together is the sustainable livelihood approach. Of course livelihood security is a concept much broader than food security, but there are a lot of overlaps, especially in times of climate change.....
Crucial is to keep the basis of food production is good shape. Environmental degradation is very dangerous from such perspective. Second is the distribution / access to food, which is to remove poverty. To better understand what is needed one needs to be aware of the different facets of food security.
Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life
This is how the FAO defines food security. It combines food production, distribution and consumption, looks into cultural and individual food preferences and also at quality aspects of food both from a nutrition perspective as well as from the perspective of food safety. Climate / environmental changes can have impacts on all these aspects, on food production, food distribution / access and food consumption.
Food production and climate change
all food crops have their optimum what climatic conditions such as temperature, rainfall, etc are concerned. Especially extremes (too cold, too hot, too wet, too dry) can have devastating ing impacts. Some plants can tolerate a wide range of conditions, while other plants are rather little flexible to adapt to changing climatic conditions. In addition natural hazards (floods, cyclones, droughts) can have devastating impacts destroying crops in the fields. This all does not mean that only negative impacts are from climate change to agriculture. E.G. the temperate zones towards the poles will have warmer climates allowing longer vegetation periods, longer for crops like wheat. The impacts thus have to be established in regional or even sub-regional dimensions.
Access to food and climate change
this addresses in particular the changes of food prices as a result of climate change. Here in particular countries are affected that already now import big parts of their food requirements, like Kiribati, Tuvalu and other atoll states. Already today food imports make much of their imports and have very negative impacts on their BoP situation. On the micro-level afford rising food prices. They have to change to cheaper foods, often of lesser quality.
McCarthy, J. F., & Obidzinski, K. (2017). Framing the food poverty question: Policy choices and livelihood consequences in Indonesia. Journal of Rural Studies, 54, 344-354.
Cramer, L., Huyer, S., Lavado, A., Loboguerrero, A. M., Martínez Barón, D., Nyasimi, M., ... & van Wijk, M. (2017). Methods Proposed to Evaluate the Potential Impact of Climate Change on Food and Nutrition Security in Central America and the Dominican Republic.
Moragues-Faus, A., Sonnino, R., & Marsden, T. (2017). Exploring European food system vulnerabilities: Towards integrated food security governance. Environmental Science & Policy, 75, 184-215.
Chandra, A., McNamara, K. E., Dargusch, P., Caspe, A. M., & Dalabajan, D. (2017). Gendered vulnerabilities of smallholder farmers to climate change in conflict-prone areas: A case study from Mindanao, Philippines. Journal of Rural Studies, 50, 45-59.
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Dear All,
I'm conducting research on climate change impact on thunderstorm in Thailand. Most of the research papers I've read was conducted in Europe and United states region and almost none in Asian region. Most of the papers referred to the future projected output from RCMs such as COSMO-CLM, NARCCAP, etc. However, what I've found on the data distribution website was only the precipitation, temperature and other variables. None of the stability or thunderstorm indices was found.
I think I misunderstand something or some concept of acquiring the data. Is it possible to get those indices in Asian region? or it is available only in Europe and USA?
Please kindly advice me.
Thank you in advance.
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CAPE is fine, but it is not designed for tropical latitudes, for those lower latitudes, I would suggest using the Gálvez-Davison Index (GDI).  A paper on the GDI along with coding you can use from GrADDS (I have a Matlab version I created and have attached it here), I would suggest going to http://www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/international/gdi/ for more information.  The GDI requires RH and Air Temperature data at the following 4 levels:  950-hPa, 850-hPa, 700-hPa, and 500-hPa.  If 950-hPa data is not available, then 925-hPA data can be used, and while this will give you the right variability, the amplitudes may be a bit less.
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I am looking for a Post-Doctor position in Europe, USA or Canada for two years or more. Please if you have any suggestions or you have a position to offer you may contact me by e-mail : ahmedrabia@agr.dmu.edu.eg 
My research interests are: Rs & GIS, Precision farming (PF), Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), Soil science, Climate change impacts on agriculture.
Thank you in advance for your help
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In the subject research:
Can I use a combination of the following three approaches: 1) Phenomenology, 2) Ethnography, and 3) Case Study?
Would this combination help in easing the research or complicating it?
The Kashechewan community in Northern Ontario (located at the southwestern James Bay) has been frequently experiencing (5-6 flooding events in the past 8-10 years) the flooding events, which is linked to climate change. I would like to examine climate change impacts on the community. In addition, I would like to explore potential (new) opportunities that may arise from climate change for adaptation. This mean not just focusing on the negative impacts of climate change. But also focusing on new opportunities for adaptation. I would also like to explore what contribution Traditional Knowledge and Indigenous Culture can make to reduce the climate change effects and help in its adaptation.    
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It is a very interesting question, where I recommend to discuss the issue of 'indigenous'. What is meant by this? People's minority status in a society? Their difference from the mainstream? Their special exposure? Or is it that you mean just "local exposure"?. Here in Fiji the indigenous population is the majority of the population. Usually the impacts / exposure to climate change / natural hazards are not discuss under a label of 'indigenous', but under 'local', 'exposed' 'vulnerable' , 'poor' population. Often these and similar categories play a much bigger role even when there are overlaps between these categories and the category 'indigenous'.
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What is the impact of global warming on the environment ?
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I agree with Dr.Singh
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-Have anyone quantify the sensitivity: contribution of temperature and precipitation in long-term algae biomass variation?
-In other words, how much more algae blooms would we see in the future? 
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Good information but it is unpublished.
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‘Bombshell’ climate-change study could totally dismantle the claim humans are causing global warming?
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The "study" isn't peer reviewed. One can guess why the authors choose to avoid having their references and conclusions verified by peers.
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biotics organisms and abiotics factors are causing several changes in different geographical locations of the earth surface,is there any theory discous these pheomena? 
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May be,but its not continuous and you cannot level  and classify their effect and results, in fact many factors correlate well with desertification classes(slight,moderate and sever).
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Hello,
I am looking for some information on best climate change adaptation practices which are currently being used or have potential to be implemented in a developed country.
Thanks!
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Community level adaptation to climate change: The potential role of participatory community risk assessment (Global Environmental Change
Volume 18, Issue 1, February 2008, Pages 165-179)
Abstract : This paper explores the value of using community risk assessments (CRAs) for climate change adaptation. CRA refers to participatory methods to assess hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities in support of community-based disaster risk reduction, used by many NGOs, community-based organizations, and the Red Cross/Red Crescent. We review the evolution of climate change adaptation and community-based disaster risk reduction, and highlight the challenges of integrating global climate change into a bottom-up and place-based approach. Our analysis of CRAs carried out by various national Red Cross societies shows that CRAs can help address those challenges by fostering community engagement in climate risk reduction, particularly given that many strategies to deal with current climate risks also help to reduce vulnerability to climate change. Climate change can also be explicitly incorporated in CRAs by making better use of CRA tools to assess trends, and by addressing the notion of changing risks. However, a key challenge is to keep CRAs simple enough for wide application. This demands special attention in the modification of CRA tools; in the background materials and trainings for CRA facilitators; and in the guidance for interpretation of CRA outcomes. A second challenge is the application of a limited set of CRA results to guide risk reduction in other communities and to inform national and international adaptation policy. This requires specific attention for sampling and care in scaling up qualitative findings. Finally, stronger linkages are needed between organizations facilitating CRAs and suppliers of climate information, particularly addressing the translation of climate information to the community level.
Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands: an operational approach to support spatial adaptation planning, Regional Environmental Change,June 2014, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 1035–1048
Abstract : There is a growing availability of climate change information, offered to scientists and policy makers through climate services. However, climate services are not well taken up by the policy-making and planning community. Climate services focus on primary impacts of climate change, e.g., the disclosure of precipitation and temperature data, and this seems insufficient in meeting their needs. In this paper, we argue that, in order to reach the spatial planning community, climate services should take on a wider perspective by translating climate data to policy-relevant indicators and by offering support in the design of adaptation strategies. We argue there should be more focus on translating consequences of climate change to land-use claims and subsequently discuss the validity, consequences and implications of these claims with stakeholders, so they can play a role in spatial planning processes where much of the climate adaptation takes place. The term Climate Adaptation Services is introduced as being a stepwise approach supporting the assessment of vulnerability in a wider perspective and include the design and appraisal of adaptation strategies in a multi-stakeholder setting. We developed the Climate Adaptation Atlas and the Climate Ateliers as tools within the Climate Adaptation Services approach to support decision-making and planning processes. In this paper, we describe the different steps of our approach and report how some of the challenges were addressed.
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This year the "Kanikonna" - scientific name "Cassia fistula" has blossomed so early unlike in normal years as like in the month of April, Vishu Festival which is the beginning of Kerala New Year.  The traditional knowledge of indigenous people says that it is connected to the incoming drought or wet situation that may occur but this say is  without any scientific basis., I wish to get some information from those who have done any similarity studies on this aspect..
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 Dear
in your observed tree it may be a falling fruit (fruit senescence),  because some species retain fruiting still the next flowering season sets OR - It depends on frequency of rainfall pattern and temperature, you must have data of leafing, flowering and fruiting, it may be because of intermittent rainfall, some species respond to leaf and flower bud but they may fail to set  fruiting due (lack of pollinator) 
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Historical climate change has had a profound effect on current biogeography, so we can expect our ongoing and rapid climate change, to have a great impact on human beings life. Climate change has important implications for almost every aspect of Human life on Earth , And effects are already being felt day by day, everywhere and everybody ..
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Dear Emad,
I am agree with you! Yes, the climate change causes many problems for human person. 
Thanks a lot for your comments!
Sincerely, Bashkim
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I have past 30 years observed temperature and precipitation data available. How can the climate change impact be established using observed data ?
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Check this CORDEX East-Asia site for RCM data. They have multiple RCM-GCM_RCP combinations.  https://cordex-ea.climate.go.kr/main/mainPage.do .
It would be helpful if you add further details on the kind of impact you want to assess. But you can use your observed Precipitation and Temperature data to assess the credibility of the RCMs during historical periods and look at future projections from those you feel comfortable with.  You can do whole lot of different analysis like trend, mean change (future vs historical), impact on extremes indices (like the ETCCDI), ....
Good luck
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Research Questions or Hypotheses:
·         Are there any change in climatic variable, if yes what are and how?
·         Which are the area under flood or waterlogging or both, what are the causes of it.
·         Who are vulnerable to climate change, flood and waterlogging and how they are vulnerable.
·         What are the copping mechanism of the community?
·         What are the mitigation measure undertaken by the community?
·         What ate the adaptive strategy at individual, Household and community level.at the  
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I do not know specifics or exact intent of research, but it takes a long term record to correlate wIth climate change, unless you have nearby studies.  So I would steer away from climate change term, even if you try to interface with it, unless you have substantial data or intent for comprehensive study through time.
Within a watershed or basin, land use changes as well as hydrologic modifications and soil disturbances when too wet can contribute to flooding, loss of soil structure than can contribute to waterlogging or puddling of soils.  You might consider something like Ecohydrological Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Change to Rural Life in Mahanadi Delta, or simpler Ecohydrological Changes That Influence Rural Livelihood within Mahanadi Delta.
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hello scholars,
what method; be it statistics, mathematical or modeling approach can I use to determine the part of a basin/watershed that is most affected by the combined impact of climate and land use change or their individual impact
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@Rajiv Pandey, thank you so much for your suggestions and article. i shall go through this article but i will also need a more physical approach because most of my data are physically based even though i know that social impacts should not be neglected. an approach that can use models (statistical, distributed or semi-distributed models etc.)
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Trying to define a climate variability baseline and wanted to know if there are best practices or common methods. I have about 50 years of climate data with maximum and minimum temperatures. 
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I want to ask you if it is possible to use TRMM data only for analysis of precipitation over arid areas, and if it possible,I have an inquiry about the applicability of the TRMM data to the flash flood simulation where the time scale of flood simulation is several hours, while TRMM data is 3-hr interval.
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Above both answers explains very well. I have worked on both GPM as well as TRMM data. TRMM gives a .25 degree resolution which is not very good. But If you make it as point data source along with your ground data sources and interpolate it into grids. It works really well in every conditions. It works better than working alone with ground data sources. The early run and late run of GPM has a latency period so if you have a long travel time , then only it will be benificial. For forecasting I would recommend to use GFS(Global forecast Systsm) or more accurate(according to me) ECMWF .
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The climate related events can be either extreme events or slow onset events.  In addition there are changes in the usual weather pattern. The frequency and incidence of extreme events have been increasing during the recent decades. 
What would be the possible approaches / methodologies for quantifying the influence of climate change on the intensity or frequency of climate related events?
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