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Climate Change Biology - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Climate Change Biology, and find Climate Change Biology experts.
Questions related to Climate Change Biology
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What are the direct and immediate effects of climate change on plants photosynthesis and growth?
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The following link is also very useful RG link:
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Hi
Can any one help me, I have problem with this pollens, I think they are Cupressaceae( In particular Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus), but I'm not sure about that. Because they are look like spores. In general, they are round and have a small cavity. The following figures shows some of them.
I'm researching about MIS2 (30,000-11,000 B.P) in the Central Zagros, specifically Kermanshah using wetland sediments. In the current era, the growth of Cupressaceae has not been observed in this region. And it can be strange that I see these pollens many times at the different depths . also at some depths they have high frequency, Which indicates that it is not migratory pollen brought by the wind.
thanks a lot.
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Dear Mohsen,
Figs b,e,f,g,h no pollen, there are Testaceae. In Hungarian Upper part of the Serravallien layers are dominant.
Testaceae microplankton with large oval pylome (Amőba)
Best regards. Mária.
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Dear forest bubble,
in your opinion, what are the main gaps in knowledge in the forest sector that forest science really should have to deal with? Which topics are not given enough consideration?
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The hybridization of a holistic valuation of ecosystem services provided by forests and the preferential weights associated with each ecosystem service by the stakeholders.
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Global warming affects many processes in biological ecosystems. Different species of flora and fauna change their habitats and geographical areas according to climate change and specific geographical environments. Areas of occurrence of specific species, for example insects in terrestrial areas and fish and arthropods in the seas and oceans, change. Bird habitats change, so migrations of some bird species may also be subject to modification. In the situation when forest areas dry out and turn into steppes and deserts, changes in natural habitats and areas of occurrence of species change and concern simultaneously many species of flora and fauna.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What changes in natural ecosystems are caused by the ongoing global warming process?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Climate change and global warming have severe consequences for the survival of scleractinian (reef-building) corals and their associated ecosystems.... Crabbe, M. J. C. (2008). Climate change, global warming and coral reefs: Modelling the effects of temperature. Computational Biology and Chemistry, 32(5), 311-314.
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This is probably the most important problem to explore and solve in the 21st century.
Unfortunately, many people, including politicians and entrepreneurs managing large industrial corporations ignore the seriousness of this problem. It is necessary to develop research in this area, in the matter of examining the determinants of climate change, global warming, rising average temperature on the Earth, progressing greenhouse effect on Earth. These problems must be publicized in the mass media. While it is not too late, while this unfavorable process can be partially reversed. Or maybe we can not reverse this process anymore? Maybe it's too late? What then, will we be able to protect, at least partially, the biosphere, natural ecosystems due to these adverse climate changes, anomalies and climatic cataclysms, from drought in many areas currently agricultural or possessing a rich biosphere? Research on these topics needs to be developed, publicized, and published. Perhaps, finally, politicians and owners of industrial corporations will change their approach to more pro-ecological. This is probably the most important question for the 21st century: Will we be able to stop adverse climate changes, including the progressing greenhouse effect on Earth?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Possible, with law enforcements.
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Probably the future of humanity depends on the next decade. If, over the next few years, renewable energy sources replacing traditional energy based on the burning of minerals are developed on a massive scale, it might be possible for humankind to avoid a climatic catastrophe in the 21st century. The international climate agreement that currently (December 2018) concluded in Katowice in Poland may be a late and insufficient agreement, because most countries do not intend to develop high-budget projects for the construction and development of power plants based on renewable energy sources. In addition, changes in the automotive industry, changes leading to the development of motorization in the direction of electromobility are too slow. The problem is serious because it concerns the future of all humanity in the perspective of the next two to three generations, yet the necessary changes and reforms in the implementation of economic principles of sustainable pro-ecological development are too slow. With the current pace of changes, there may be a shortage of time to implement the necessary pro-ecological undertakings, and then the problem of global warming will become an irreversible process and will constantly accelerate!
In view of the above, the current question is: Probably the future of humanity in the 21st century depends probably on the next dozen or so years?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Dear Ammar A. Oglat, Sasa Bakrac, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Marwah Firas Abdullah Al-Rawe,
Afraa Ibrahim
, Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG, Thank you for the proposed interesting issues in the field Probably the future of humanity in the 21st century depends probably on the next dozen or so years?
Thank you very much for the sent suggestions of interesting topics, research issues, etc. related to this issue.The issue is indeed developmental. You described the problem very well. I fully agree with your opinion on this topic. Thank you very much for an inspiring, interesting and substantive answer. Your statements confirm that the above-mentioned issues are current and developing. In view of the above, in my opinion, in recent years the importance of issue Implementation of The Principles of Sustainable Economy Development as a key element of Pro-ecological transformation of The Economy towards Green Economy and Circular Economy.
Thank you very much and best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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How do I predict biodiversity changes under different climatic scenarios? What kind of models are applicable in southern Africa? Where can I get them? 
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It is obvious from these answers that can be a variety of approaches.
This paper way (on Research Gate too) among others as I said can be one of the such a path to be use.
All the best. Doru
Natural and anthropogenic driving forces as key elements in the Lower Danube Basin–South-Eastern Carpathians–North-Western Black Sea coast area lakes: a broken stepping stones for fish in a climatic change scenario?
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Science News from research organizations
Stalled weather patterns will get bigger due to climate change
Relationship between jet stream, atmospheric blocking events
Date: November 13, 2019 Source: Rice University Summary: Climate change will increase the size of stalled high-pressure systems that can cause heat waves, droughts and other extreme weather, according to a new study. Share: FULL STORY 📷 Street flooding (stock image). Credit: © rostyle / Adobe Stock
Climate change will increase the size of stalled high-pressure weather systems called "blocking events" that have already produced some of the 21st century's deadliest heat waves, according to a Rice University study.
Atmospheric blocking events are middle-latitude, high-pressure systems that stay in place for days or even weeks. Depending upon when and where they develop, blocking events can cause droughts or downpours and heat waves or cold spells. Blocking events caused deadly heat waves in France in 2003 and in Russia in 2010.
Using data from two sets of comprehensive climate model simulations, Rice fluid dynamicists Ebrahim Nabizadeh and Pedram Hassanzadeh, and colleagues found that the area of blocking events in the northern hemisphere will increase by as much as 17% due to anthropogenic climate change. The study, which is available online from Geophysical Research Letters, was co-authored by Da Yang of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, and Elizabeth Barnes of Colorado State University.
Hassanzadeh, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering and of Earth, environmental and planetary sciences, uses computational, mathematical and statistical models to study atmospheric flows related to a broad range of problems from extreme weather events to wind energy. He said researchers have increasingly been interested in learning how climate change might affect blocking events, but most studies have focused on whether blocking events will become more frequent as the atmosphere warms because of greenhouse gas emissions.
"Studies in the past have looked at whether you get more or less blocking events with climate change," he said. "The question nobody had asked is whether the size of these events will change or not. And the size is very important because the blocking events are more impactful when they are larger. For example, if the high-pressure system becomes bigger, you are going to get bigger heat waves that affect more people, and you are likely going to get stronger heat waves."
Nabizadeh, a mechanical engineering graduate student in Rice's Brown School of Engineering, set out to answer the question two years ago. Using a hierarchical modeling approach, he began with experiments on a model of atmospheric turbulence that's far simpler than the real atmosphere.
The simple model, which captures the fundamental dynamics of blocking events, allowed Nabizadeh to do a great deal of exploration. Making slight changes in one parameter or another, he ran thousands of simulations. Then the data was analyzed using a powerful dimensional analysis technique called the Buckingham-Pi theorem, which is often used in designing large and complex engineering systems that involve fluid flows.
The goal was finding a scaling law, a mathematical formula that described the size of a blocking event using variables that climate scientists already study and understand. Nabizadeh started with scaling laws that have been developed to predict the size of day-to-day weather patterns, but he found that none of the variables were predictive for blocking events.
His persistence eventually paid off with a simple formula that relates the area of blocking events to the width, latitude and strength of the jet stream, all of which are well-studied and measured.
"I gave a talk about this recently, and one of the people came up after and said, 'This is magical, that these powers add up and suddenly you get the right answer.' But it took a lot of work by Ebrahim to get this elegantly simple result," he said.
At a one point, Nabizadeh had analyzed the data from many simulations and produced a comparison that included page upon page of figures, and Hassanzadeh said the scaling law discovery was encouraged by an unlikely agency: the Texas Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV).
"Ebrahim went to the DMV one weekend, and I went to the DMV the week after, and at the DMV you have to sit and you don't have anything to do," he said. "So after staring at these numbers for hours, we realized this is the right scaling."
They also compared the simple-model results with the output of increasingly complex models of the Earth's weather and climate. Nabizadeh said the scaling law predicted changes in the size of future winter blocking events in comprehensive climate model simulations with remarkable accuracy.
"It performs better for winter events than summer events for reasons we don't yet understand," Nabizadeh said. "Our results suggest future studies should focus on better understanding summer blocks and also how larger blocking events might affect the size, magnitude and persistence of extreme-weather events like heat waves."
The research was supported by NASA (80NSSC17K0266), the National Academies' Gulf Research Program, the Department of Energy (DE-AC02-05CH11231) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (AGS-1545675). Computing resources were provided by the NSF-supported XSEDE project (ATM170020) and Rice's Center for Research Computing in partnership with Rice's Ken Kennedy Institute for Information Technology.
Story Source:
Materials provided by Rice University. Original written by Jade Boyd. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Journal Reference:
  1. Ebrahim Nabizadeh, Pedram Hassanzadeh, Da Yang, Elizabeth A. Barnes. Size of the atmospheric blocking events: Scaling law and response to climate change. Geophysical Research Letters, 2019; DOI: 10.1029/2019GL084863
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The 'Boy-Child' returns in 2020: This time, will it devastate us? And what do we do now, to prepare for it's return?
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Tropospheric ozone is a part of pollutants however stratospheric ozone is absorbing harmful UV radiation. Is there any difference between the two?
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About 90 percent of ozone is found in stratosphere (extending from 16 km up to 50 km above the earth surface) that serves as shield against the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations emanating from the sun, while only 10 percent of it is found in troposphere (extending up to 16 km above the Earth surface). Contrary to stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone serves as a gaseous pollutant.
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Which plant species should be taken as the indicators of climate change ?
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I think all plants are concerned by climate change but at different levels. however we can focuses our researches on some of them that have witessese some problems as dieback, lack of develppment.etc;
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I'm interested as to why the arctic climate is changing faster than anywhere else? Can anyone mention any mechanisms or theories behind this (apart from the albedo effect) or recommend any papers?
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I think, decreasing albedo due to shrinking sea ice might play a role. Also a denser cloud canopy as result of intensified evaporation might reflect infrared radiation back to the ground in winter. Greening of the Arctic also changes albedo. And methane degassing from thawing permafrost could strengthen the greenhouse effect locally.
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Hi guys,
Does someone knows on funding programs (preferentialy in Europe) that give financial support for projects in Conservation Planning, specially developed to accommodate climate change (dynamic) scenarios?
I would like to apply with a project built predominantly on the conceptual development of Spatial Conservation Models, with potential to be tested in particular real-world scenarios.
PS: if someone know on programs aside Europe I am also interested in listen about them.
Grateful by your attention on this,
Have a nice week,
Diogo Alagador
CIBIO - Univ Évora. Portugal
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Hi Diogo,
I would recommend that you consult the Terra Viva Grants directory: https://terravivagrants.org/. This directory lists many grants (both small and larger-scale) within the field of biodiversity, conservation and environmental science.
Good luck in your search for funding!
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Since estuaries are dynamic are environmental conditions vary on spatial and temporal scale, how we study climate change effects?
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Hi;
I guess dose-response function type of estimation might help. The impact might have reflected on some other human activities like recreation, etc. which can to captured using some non-market valuation method as well.
Resham
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I am looking to identify meetings and sessions in the field of xylem/plant water transport. If you have ever organized or attended a conference session or meeting dedicated to any aspect of this area of research please share the name of the conference. Any information is greatly appreciated.
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The next Xylem International meeting will most likely be organized by the University of Padova in Italy i September/October 2019. We are finalizing the organisation right now and I will let you know when I know more.
And yes, Cavitation will be "la part du lion" in this meeting!
Hervé
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Historical climate change has had a profound effect on current biogeography, so we can expect our ongoing and rapid climate change, to have a great impact on human beings life. Climate change has important implications for almost every aspect of Human life on Earth , And effects are already being felt day by day, everywhere and everybody ..
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Dear Emad,
I am agree with you! Yes, the climate change causes many problems for human person. 
Thanks a lot for your comments!
Sincerely, Bashkim
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It's been about 3 years since I asked:
Now I've been thinking as a specialist for one integrated question about the two questions I've made before, and concretely::
First question was: "How does climate change affect flora and fauna?"
Historical climate change has had a profound effect on current biogeography, so we can expect our ongoing and rapid climate change, to have as great an effect on flora and fauna. Climate change has important implications for nearly every aspect of life on Earth, and effects are already being felt.
Second question: "How does climate change affect Human Beings life?
Historical climate change has had a profound effect on current biogeography, so we can expect our ongoing and rapid climate change, to have a great impact on human beings life. Climate change has important implications for almost every aspect of Human life on Earth , And effects are already being felt day by day, everywhere and everybody ...
Together:, we have "How does climate change affect on Flora and Fauna, and in particular the affects on Human Beings Life?".
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Dear Bashkim Mal Lushaj 
Good question
One of the most important issues affecting the productivity of man and his impression is climate changes, especially the extreme temperature like Middle East countries.
Best Regard
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I know that this represent a big problem to global warming because is a cycle, as this contribute to the high temperatures of planet and in the same time these bubbles are a consequence of the high temperatures that cause the thawing of the poles that allowing the outflow of methane of the subsoil. 
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There is some evidence that the release of methane from gas hydrates had a significant impact on the end of the ice age - Think of how much heat is required to melt ice hundreds of meters thick, causing the face to melt back in the order of a km per year.  The transition between 'cold' and 'warm' shows up in the glacial record as occurring faster than the resolution of the cores (about a decade at 300,000 years back).  Nothing could be done to prevent that then, and in the absence of a cheap, clean, and simple energy source, nothing really can be done now to prevent this from occurring.  The ride is going to be pretty bumpy...  
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i need to know the method i can use to determine the effect of climate change on the species distribution and abundance
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I would suggest you should consider animal behaviours , change in feeding patterns, breeding, disease etc
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We considered using evapotranspiration and crop coefficient models, but also need to assume farmers don't irrigate all crops on their farm, and we want to get a sense of water use without having to rely on asking every farmer.
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Perhaps speaking to a subset of individual farmers or sending out a survey with minimum questions to farmers and ranchers such as what do you grow, do you irrigate, when do you start irrigating, how frequently, how many acres irrigated, do you have all the water you want to irrigate or need to conserve amount, do you flood, sprinkler, drip or other irrigation, use groundwater, streamwater, pond or other water stored, public water source, etc?  There are various ways to sample without contacting every farmer, and perhaps NASS statisticians may help you with some ideas on how to stratify your questions such as by farm size, whether located on bottomland or low sloping terrain that is probably easier to irrigate, or on sloping ground, more difficult to irrigate, whether crop is pastureland for cattle use or hay cuttings, those kind of questions.
You may be able to see overall effects in some streams gauged by USGS as they typically measures flow every 15 minutes in streams.  During hot weather, there is some diurnal fluctuation in flow from tree and plant use (transpiration), but also from irrigation you might be able to see change that is more abrupt or uncharacteristic reduction and then recovery when irrigation is stopped.  However to consider this approach, assumptions must be made as alot can be happening within a gauged watershed.  
Also many states have a network of wells that are measure for fluctions in water level.  Irrigation use has a cone of depression around each well that extends some distance to vicinity, but probably that will be too localized for a desirable outcome to your topic.  Definitely, it is a difficult subject without some survey data or sampling.  
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Climate change is slowly impacting species populations around the world, more pronounced in marine waters. On the other hand, rapid origin of new species through quicker adaptation to climate change of existing population is happening. Unless species are rapidly able to adapt there is likely to be a sharp increase in extinction rates as opined by International Institute for Environment and Development (IEED).  
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In my opinion, it is very important and well-timed question. At present, I write a detailed paper on this subject. I think that our PFO-CFO Theory of Solar System Formation contains the answer to this question. Today, I address you to our last publications of 2015-2013, where this theory is presented in its today form (the first publications relate to 2009). These works are available in my and Elena Kadyshevich pages at the ResearchGate site. 
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I made a transect between 3305 m and 4708 m, to study Carabidae distribution. Some species have migrated upwards, and I would like to find a similar study in the Andes.
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Sería muy interesante desarrollar en Colombia una linea de investigación paralela a la que se inició en Ecuador. Con la dificultad de no tener un conocimiento tan completo de la sistemática de las especies del páramo, pero no es insalvable, siempre hay soluciones.
Un cordial saludo,
Pierre
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The effect of climate and land use/cover changes on streamflow of non-experimental catchments has long drawn the attention of water resource scientists. Numerous approaches have been proposed to tackle this issue, among the most popular are:
  • Trend analysis of hydro-climatological and vegetation time series (i.e., Kahya and Kalayci, JoH, 2004);
  • Comparison between pre and post change periods using time series (i.e., Costa et al., JoH, 2003);
  • Hydrological modelling calibrated against data before change and applied after change followed by a comparison with post change time series (i.e., Wilk et al., HP, 2001; Rodriguez et al., HP, 2010);
  •  Water and energy excess in the context of the Budyko framework (i.e., Tomer and Schilling, JoH, 2009; Roderick and Farquhar, WRR, 2011).
What are the other relevant approaches and which of them are more reliable with regard to accuracy, popularity and evidences in scientific literature?
Recognizing there is not a definitive answer for this question, the aim here is to stimulate a debate and put together different opinions, experiences and constructive discussion about this topic.
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I have been involved at times, or just interested in this subject also.  What we as people of the world, make sure we support hydrologic and associated climatic studies such as experimental catchment and watersheds, and long term climate stations.  The streamflow network monitoring such as collected by the US Geological Survey is critical.  Perhaps even restarting abandoned stream gaging and climate stations with significant records should be considered.  Critical gaps in information collecting  considered and addressed, especially where the climate change models tend to agree that vegetation change, storm severity and frequency are expected to be high.  Increased use, application and availability of remote sensing data goes along with this theme.  Although much data is probably publicly available, I am relatively sure there is some not available for outside review and analysis.  I would also like to see some sort of rainfall and doppler data base that records and keeps all the records so they could be searched, installed as needed into GIS and increasing ability to pair storm extent, timing, intensity to hydrologic unit boundaries.  Since not all the climate change models agree, there maye no best world wide, but there may be upper and lower bounds, and average.  Areas with glaciers and tidal influence seem to be a couple of special needs, as both are likely to undergo marked changes in land and vegetation change, and hydrology with respect to water storage and timing of flow from glaciers and water quality, flow and vegetation changes from changes in salinity, tidal extent, etc.  The best approach will increasingly require cooperation and best minds, science, and ideas.  I have read many papers that think important to mention climate change as a possibility or future need, but I even though I believe in climate change, red flags come up when accuracy and precision subjects come up.  I dont feel we can or should expect that, and I am not against forecasting based on past and present, forecasts are forecasts, and defining and applying these to specific areas and locations remains imperfect.  Many may have seen the several day news reports on October 3-4, 2015 in the South Carolina area.  The presence of Hurricane Juaquin off coast and the positioning of the low made a severe scenario that seldom gets such news coverage.  With climate change, these scenarios of severity should be more frequent, yet how many of them fall on rural areas as opposed to populated areas as South Carolina, where there are a substantial number of weather and stream gaging stations.  How will we identify and put in perspective?
Back to vegetation, we remotely can pick up vegetation changes, such as mortality in freshwater wetlands and maritime ecosystems as they succomb to salinity change.  We should be able to pick up vegetation change with abnormal mortality and for salvage as trees are stressed, insects and other issues become evident, as more disturbances as flooding, droughts or wildfires.  Vegetation change often brings on hydrologic change and some of this may be picked up with the present stream gauging network.
i remain interested, curious, and engaged enough for a semi-retired hydrologist to know or maybe just believe of no perfect advice, paper, or approach.  If you interest in this subject centers on a location, that would be helpful bo bound your study area, I would advise to work with others to assess what information you have and what you need to help document past (including paleofloods, drought with wildfires and vegetation change) and historic conditions including hydro modifications, farming, urbanization, conversion of timber types.  It is best to find reference conditions too if you can.  For coastal areas at minimim, I would recommend obtaining LIDAR and high definition aerial infrared photos, for both its usefulness for identifying hydrologic boundaries and channel networks, but also GIS change detection over time also for vegetation.  
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Alarming consequences with biodiversity extinction rates are associated with the climate change. Conservation of resources (sustainable usage) is being advocated as a part of sustainable development. However, often, in the name of sustainable use, resources are fastly dwindling and effective monitoring of this resource exploitation is not in practice. In this regard, we have to preserve certain habitats of all diversified ecosystems (for example: sholas, deep valley, high altitude ecosystems) to meet the target of preserving maximum biodiversity in those areas. 
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Yes, it is very important to preserve as many diverse types of ecosystems as possible in this era of Global Warming. We should realize that nearly all these ecosystems will be undergoing stress and some degree of change, some more some less. It is important to allow these to adapt to the global changes, for example allowing for migrations to higher altitudes or latitudes by colder-climate-adapted organisms and their ecological communities. This depends to a large degree on what we people are willing to do in the way of accommodating these diverse ecosystems, how we ourselves are willing to make sacrifices so that these may continue to live and thrive. In the end, so doing will permit our very own survival. 
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I am using DSSAT v 4.6 to study the impact of climate change and agromanagement practice on water footprint of rice production in an irrigation project. So, during the calibration of DSSAT, I need to calculate the genetic coefficient, how can it be done?
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DSSAT is a versatile model, used extensively by the global community, genetic coefficients differs from cultivar to cultivar, due to differential phenology, plant processes behaviour, source-sink relations, water & nutrients uptake  and final growth and yield of crops. You definitely have to gather information from already conducted trials for pheno-phases (duration), growth and yield or yoy need to conduct experiments (preferably multi-locational) and thereafter run GLUE for getting the coefficients.
You can also search literature for the specific cultivar, may be some researchers have already generated them which you can check for your condition and thereafter use in running the model
regards 
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I address you with two questions again, as they have no meaning if I do separately, so I: How do species respond to climate change? & What impact does climate change have on species? 
I, based in my experience for long time I think, climate change with feedback loop are moving towards their altars environmental conditions, necessary for species and alters environmental conditions, necessary for life and the development of species, so in near future will have natural habitats, so alters biodiversity, and after that will have species, their extinction or adaptation, which can in turn have an impact with negative and positive effects on climate.
or,
climate change, with feedback loop & the nature of biological species with their characteristics (behavioural, physiological and genetic) are moving towards their extinction or resilience, so will have adaptation, and after that will have changes in biodiversity, which can in turn have an impact with negative and positive effects on climate.
Your answers in the form of the debate will help us a lot to know something more in the near future on changes in biodiversity, which then biodiversity will have impacts with negative & positive effects on climate.
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Thanks a lot for your answers, given to me & others! All of you I wish a happy Christmas and a Happy New Year 2016!
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We have a 22 sugar beet clamps for a long-term storage. Every clamp monitored with the temperature sensors.
I need to extrapolate respiration process based on a some extrapolation function. This task has a decision, and we can test it on our storage field.
But I need to correct the forecast with the weather forecast?
Does somebody have such experience?
Maybe you know some articles or researches on the sugar beet clamp thermodynamic?  
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Further literature can be found via the link below :
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I am analyzing climate change effects on Agriculture production and food security. Which model is suitable for analyzing the effects?  
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I do not know if there is a real model to analyze the effects of climate change on agriculture (agriculture is a very long word) except simulation platforms. What we are doing now is to calculate the rates of climate change according to IPCC indices, in one hand, and in the another, analize the cultivar productivity, and finally we make a complementation in between. From this point of view it is a statistical model and as such it has its strengths and weaknesses. However, you can build scenarios on the future trends that provide IPCC indices.
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The journal should be affordable i.e. charging less than 50 US dollars.
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Consider Green Open Access. It is free and you can usually get a journal with better impact factor as there are few paid open access journals with very strong reputations (PloS ONE being an exception!). Most traditional subscription based journals allows this.
You publish in the best possible traditional subscription based journal your manuscript can qualify for and after the manuscript is accepted you proceed to make a post print version of your manuscript which you can put on your university homepage, Reasearchgate and several specialized depositories.
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My research is to study responses of fruit flies to increasing temperature, aiming at disclose life strategies that organisms would employ to survive global warming.
Now I have two healthy Drosophila melanogaster strains: Canton-S and Oregon-R, which are widely used in various research.
My concern is whether I need to mix this two strains (with wild collected individuals or other wild-type strains) to establish a population with relatively higher genetic variation, or I could even use a full-sib line. For the two kinds of fundamental experimental set-up, I think the result would be significantly different. But for the former choice, how many strains should I mix? And why should I mix such a certain number of strains?
Could you give me some suggestions or papers regarding this issue?
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We did similar experiments, but with a different species (Chironomus riparius)- We created inbred as well as admixed, outcrossed strains and exposed them to elevated temperatures for several generations (paper in prep.). Similar studies we did for chemical stress with differing test designs. In order to answer your question, I need to understand better what exactly you want to test. What is your questions you want to answer?
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Eh fluctuation plays major role in GHG emissions.
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See our publications for suggestions, or papers by other authors. If you would like in depth information or help, please contact me directly.
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The best estimates are that pH will decrease by 0.2 or 0.3 pH units in less than 100 years. Previous pH changes of this magnitude have probably occurred over thousands or even tens of thousands of years. However, when change occurs over short time scales (and 100 years is a short time scale in terms of the history of the Earth), there are increased risks of species extinctions.
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There is an article specifically discussing these scenarios and the foreseen behavior in the case of microbial derived productivity alone, would not be under strong alterations. Many other organisms, for sure! i.e. Corals and decalcification, or many other organisms not adapting quickly to lower O2 minimum concentrations.
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Climate change parameters and ecological parameters
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I would also look for a shift in species composition, not only for single number parameters. If data are available from recent decades one could compare these to actual data. But this has to be done over many years since the interannual variability of abundances can be strong for many species, and high numbers in a recent survey have to be confirmed over more than only one year.
Under the condition of severe undersampling, pseudoturnover might be masking true changes.
For German sand dune islands which are well investigated since more than one century, one can easily see which species invaded these islands. If you know the environmental preferences of these species, this provides a lot of interesting information on the mechanisms of climate change.
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I found that the C content of vegetation biomass is almost always found to be between 45% and 50% (by oven-dry mass, Schlesinger, 1991).
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Hi Marcia,
I did my PhD on Marchantia polymorpha L. a liverwort. Is there an indication which makes you think that in bryophytes, carbon content would be different from higher plants?
I guess you can proceed in the same way as for other plants to determine carbon content of bryophytes. For the liverworth Marchantia polymorpha, it for sure is no problem, but that's a liverworth with rather a rather sturdy structure compaerd to bryophytes.
For bryophytes I think that the drying should be performed at a much slower rate than for higher plants, not to destroy the more fragile structures of these plants. Once dried, I guess it is a matter of more accurate gravimetry. Hence you will have to buy a balance in the µg range instead of mg range accuracy. I figger that will give accurate results for dry mass and carbon content after pyrolysis.
Cheers.
Frank
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Historical climate change has had a profound effect on current biogeography, so we can expect our ongoing and rapid climate change, to have as great an effect on flora and fauna. Climate change has important implications for nearly every aspect of life on Earth, and effects are already being felt.
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Dr. Mal Lushaj,
In general, territory of Russia, Canada are the most affected by climate changes in recent years. As plant pathologist, I see the major threat to flora from increased frequency and magnitude of abiotic stresses (frost, heat, drought, flooding, unusual temperature - warm at the middle of winter, cold waves at summer), and spreading on new pests and pathogens to North. We have several examples of rapid (in 2-5 years) spreading of new more termophilic plant pathogenic bacteria in Russia - Dickeya sp., Erwinia amylovora, Acidovorax sp., Ralstonia solanacearum, phytoplasmas, and plant viruses. Termophilic fugi like Fusarium and Vericillium became predomonant soil-born pathogens in new areas.
There are some examples of 1-2 additional pest generations in Northern areas, and those summer generations are several folds more infected by viruses, mycoplasmas and bacteria, and work as disease vectors. There are many facts of moving of insects, spiders, birds for 200-400 km to North within a few last years.
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How the climate change affect the landscape pattern of the islands especially small islands, the most vulnerable land features?
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Using the Change detection analysis, we can able to study changes in landscape pattern
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Our group, at HHMI, makes educational resources for teachers to use in their classroom. We like to bring new and exciting stories into high school science classrooms and this year, we are telling the story of how scientist unraveled the KT extinction story. Foraminifera plays a vital role in understanding the mass extinction story, and we want students to get a full appreciation for what these tiny organisms have to tell us. Has anyone ever done any kind of outreach to students using forams? If so, what kinds of activities do you do with them?
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This is great. Thanks Rebecah.