Science topic

Climate Change - Science topic

Climate Change is an any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Questions related to Climate Change
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
I want to ask the Problems regarding to Global climate change and Its issues and providing solutions For climate change affecting world health
If Some one have paper or the more information on different research about Climate change Please share with me?
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
Hello,
Greetings.
We are taking a simple survey on awareness on climate change among students of various disciplines. We request a few minutes of your time to kindly fill it. All are simple MCQ type questions. Your participation in this is highly appreciated. Thank you for your time.
Link for taking Survey: https://bit.ly/3jOrjfb
Thank you. Regards,
JK Tagore
Relevant answer
Answer
I have completed the survey. Kindly inform me about the survey results. It will enhance our knowledge.
Thank you
Regards
Dr. Ashwani Kumar
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
Dear Researchers: Given the limitation of drip irrigation towards groundwater recharge, how one can develop approaches to associate it with groundwater recharge techniques via artificial or natural means?
Relevant answer
Answer
Through RS and GIS you can integrate.
That will be useful especially in data scarce region.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
If anyone has an idea and the sources of published findings, please share your evidence!
Relevant answer
Answer
I am attaching my CV for your perusal. Please inform me if you want any papers for your reference
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
Subject Intro: Fluid Dynamics and Climate Change
=============================
A. The factors causing Climate Change and the impacts are in some way related to Energy from Sun, Flow of Glaciers, Flow of Rivers, Ocean Currents, Air flows in Atmosphere etc (GeoPhysics)
Example:
Fluid Dynamics of Ocean and Atmosphere: http://student.mit.edu/catalog/m12c.html
B. Besides it also changes the fluid flow in plants for nutrient uptake. Fluid motion is vital to the function of healthy plants. Flow in the xylem has traditionally been modelled using Poiseuille’s law for motion in a straight capillary tube of circular cross-section. In reality the geometry is highly complex.
Longer summers, Hotter summers, Rainfall pattern changes cause the plants to grow differently.
Examples:
July 2005, Conference: EFITA/WCCA Joint Conference, Eliseu Monteiro
C. The mitigation measures, solutions, new equipment design involves Fluid Dynamics applications
Example:
Industrial scrubbers are pollution control devices that use liquid to wash unwanted pollutants from a gas stream, or that inject a dry reagent or slurry into a dirty exhaust stream to "wash out" acid gases. Industrial scrubbers are one of the primary devices that control gaseous emissions, especially acid gases.
Relevant answer
Answer
Academic resources on applied fluid mechanics are provided on:
SINGLE PHASE AND MULTIPHASE TURBULENT FLOWS (SMTF) IN NATURE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS | Jamel Chahed | 3 publications | Research Project (researchgate.net)
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
6 answers
Climate change has remained a threat globally. Are there novelty and methodology directions for addressing concerns from Contaminated water, soil /and land to climate change disasters?
On another thought, is there any connection between contaminated soils, land and climate change?
How can the variables be measured?
Relevant answer
Answer
Also check please the following very good RG link:
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
As you are aware, climate change has a dual impact on many approaches and sectors, both positive and negative. As a result, most of the time, the positive impact of climate change on biodiversity conservation in the agricultural ecosystem is unclear and lacks a researchable area. If anyone has an idea and the sources of published findings, please share your evidence!
Relevant answer
Answer
There are none because we have seen globally, biodiversity is being lost and increasingly threatened through a range of anthropogenic actions.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
Can we make ENSEMBLE data of Future temperature and precipitation from CMIP data (different models) available on the WORLDCLIM website?
I mean one dataset representing all the models for different SSP scenarios?
Regards
Gowhar Meraj
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes it is possible, this article will surely be helpful
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
6 answers
Hello All,
This is my pleasure to share that I am going to start a Thesis for my MSc in Climate Change and Development in Spring 2022. The groundwork has already been initiated, got the supervisor and co-supervisor. And the plan to feed me with the initial research work for coming out with the objective and developing the proposal is almost final.
I am already oriented about the process and also have a primary understanding of the same through studying materials in the open-source.
I am asking your suggestions/ tips on how to get well-prepared and well-planned for this journey, as you have experience (Pls note that this will be my first thesis).
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Ensure you create time for each an every part of the thesis work. You should continue doing literature review as new knowledge is added every hour.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
10 answers
Dear Researchers,
These days, the implications of future socio-economic development on climate change mitigation, adaptation, and land use are explored using SSPs. How it is better than RCPs?
Regards
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
Dear Researchers,
Please share methodologies to quantify the hypothesis that the "reduced evaporation" and "increased transpiration" from tree cover area (forested region) results in increased water conservation.
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Also check please the following useful link: https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/13553/1/bargues_tobella_a_160808.pdf
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
Please, share your view on the cut throat competition (capitalism) for exploiting natural resources and climate change scenario. Lets explore the practices of rational use of resources and conservation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Dear Wilhelm Pieter Nel for this relevant post.
Indeed we have to consider all the issues you raised.
I recently attended restitution of research work carried out within the framework of consortia of research teams including Tunisian teams on the impacts of climate change on water resources. One of the themes is the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge. An interesting subject you might say but, in my opinion, surreal if one considers the catastrophic situation of the state of exploitation and degradation of water resources in the countries of the southern Mediterranean. I cite the Tunisian example and we can transpose: Most of the groundwater is subject to disastrous overexploitation leading to drawdowns and irreversible degradation of resources. Some aquifers are exploited at more than 250% of the average recharge rate and the oases of the South draw on very weakly renewable “fossil” aquifers to produce dates sold at prices ranging between $ 1 and $ 3 (approximately 8 m3 of water are required to produce 1 kg of dates) [1]. Coastal aquifers in the Cap-Bon region are stressed to such an extent that marine intrusion has, in some cases, resulted in the definitive degradation of the resource. These waters are used in the production of citrus fruits sold at less than $ 1 per kg. If the decision-makers and the scientific community do not put urgently all their human and material resources and all the scientific and technical means, to solve this nagging problem; well, the time needed to define and put in place measures of resilience and adaptation to the hypothetical effects of climate change on groundwater recharge will be more than enough for the squandering of these resources to be total and definitive as it is already the case of certain coastal aquifers.
[1](4) National Water Security, Case Study of an Arid Country: Tunisia | Request PDF (researchgate.net)
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
17 answers
UN agencies, governments, international organizations like FAO and World Bank, academic institutions and so on appear to be talking about green economies and green growth yet they are not implementing green markets as the environmental cost of production is not yet internalized.  They are promoting non-green market approaches like carbon pricing or cap and trade, can green economy and green growth exist outside green markets? I think "No", what do you think?
Relevant answer
Answer
Anouar, thank you for commenting.
Keep in mind, it is theory-practice fact: a) there can not be green economy and green growth without green markets; b) There can not be green markets and green growth without a green economy; and c} There can not be green markets and green economies without green growth.
You will find some good food for thoughts related to this question in the following article, when you have time, take a look at it:
Sustainability thoughts 130: Can green economies and green growth exist without green markets? If not, why not? What is the current main development implication of this?
Respectfully yours;
Lucio
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
37 answers
Since climate change has become more common day by day, how it affects different communities differently.
What and how community-led intersectional adaption should be?
How can local traditional knowledge and practice be considered a scientific solution in our (academic researcher) climate change research?
Relevant answer
Answer
Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) is an important component of the larger picture of management and avoidance of Climate Change impacts and pressures by local people. ... CBA also provides information needs which can be shared and replicated in an appropriate format and manner acceptable by communities. https://www.adaptation-undp.org/community-based-adaptation
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
At what time scale should we consider the priority measures to be implemented in order to ensure the protection of natural resources and guarantee their sustainability? (i) direct and urgent measures associated with the modes of exploitation and development of resources ; (ii) indirect and very long-term implications of Climate Change on the potential of resources. Has everything been done on (i) to decree that it is urgent to tackle (ii) head-on with all its uncertainties, particularly with regard to time scales involved, incompatible with the scales of concrete actions?
Is it absurd to assume, like for the evolution of species and their adaptations to natural changes of all kinds, that adaptations and resilience to the effects of climate change should readjust themselves, to changes in natural conditions, which by definition are very slow and loaded with uncertainties?
Moral: what are the urgent actions for scientists, decision-makers, actors, and active civil societies, and on what issues should scientific, technical, and financial resources should be concentrated?
I would be glad to exchange ideas on this important matter. To start the discussion, I will begin by giving some examples from Tunisia (ranked among the countries that suffer the most from lack of water).
Example 1- On the adaptation of Tunisian olive groves to bioclimatic conditions: The olive tree has been cultivated in Tunisia since Roman times under different bioclimatic conditions in exclusively rainfed groves: in the south with less than 250 mm of rainfall and in the north with more than 600 mm [1]. Apart from the different olive tree species in each of the regions, it is clear that the density of olive trees is strictly correlated with rainfall, ranging from 16 olive trees per hectare in the South to nearly a hundred olive trees per hectare in the North; so that it is possible to faithfully superimpose the density map of olive trees on the map of isohyets. Empirically, over millennia and outside of any protocol or procedure, the peasants have naturally adapted to the natural conditions of the environment and it is difficult to imagine that things can be otherwise.
Example 2- On floods and hydraulic disorders: Indigenous, Carthaginian, Roman, and Muslim cities were, without exception, located high up, sheltered from flooding (they were unfortunately not immune to drought). The centrifugal developments of urban agglomerations during the last century have reached flood zones. The transformation of watersheds and the artificialization of the water cycle have increased the concentration of flows so that flooding has become a national plague. What are the urgent actions: (i) to rethink territory development and planning for better resilience to flooding or (ii) tackle the impact of climate change on the frequencies of floods, admittedly real but at much larger time scales which escapes the scales of concrete actions.
Example 3- On groundwater overexploitation and aquifers depletion: Most of the groundwater is subjected to disastrous overexploitation leading to drawdowns and irreversible degradation of water quality. Some aquifers are withdrawn at more than 250% of the average recharge rate and the oases of the South draw on very weakly renewable “fossil” aquifers to produce dates sold at prices ranging between $ 1 and $ 3 (approximately 8 m3 of water are required to produce 1 kg of dates) [2]. Coastal aquifers in the Cap-Bon region are used in the production of citrus fruits sold at less than $ 1 per kg. The aquifers are stressed to such an extent that marine intrusion has, in some cases, resulted in definitive depletion of the resource. If the decision-makers and the scientific community do not put urgently all their human and material resources and all the scientific and technical means, to solve this nagging problem; well, the time needed to define and put in place measures of resilience and adaptation to the hypothetical effects of Climate Change on groundwater recharge will be more than enough for the squandering of these resources to be total and definitive as it is already the case of certain coastal aquifers.
[1](5) (PDF) Alleviating water scarcity by optimizing "Green Virtual-Water": the case of Tunisia (researchgate.net)
[2](4) National Water Security, Case Study of an Arid Country: Tunisia | Request PDF (researchgate.net).
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr Jamel Chahed . I agree with Dr Ilan Kelman .
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
I have read number of publications on the effet of covid 19 in relation to plants heath. Since recurring pandemic is there globally with multiple strains what will happen to global agriculture. This is a serious issues in view Climate change and erratic rains the yield is affected. Is FAO and similar organizations take thie into cognizant. It's not possible to attach any fil or files. It's too known anf needs discussion
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, i too feel that way ....hardly any evidence such as this is available until now...
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
I am interested in working climate projection and the probable impact of climate change on water resources in Eastern Africa. Which CMIP6 models are suited to use in Eastern African climate change projection? Is there any suggestion in selecting appropriate models?
Relevant answer
Answer
Looking for good historical fit is very reasonable. However, it is by no means a guarantee that this pattern is perpetuated into the future since all climate models are (gross) simplifications of the true processes at work (of which our understanding is still incomplete). Moreover, downscaled climate predictions are again obtained by modeling and rely on fitted relationships (e.g. with elevation) that may actually change over time.
Using all available or many climate models in a consensus/ensemble approach might be more robust than relying on the (unknown) accuracy of a single future climate model. Maybe weighting them by their historical fit would allow you factor in the assumption/expectation that good models will remain good in the future.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
Climate change is drastically affecting the availability of and accessibility to food in many developing countries. Are there obligations that States have, the fulfillment of which would lessen the impact of climate change on food.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear James and Nivedita, many thanks for the response. Great!
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
19 answers
We all are facing the problem of increasing climatic change and abiotic stress is increasing day by day and organic agriculture is getting challenged so how the science community will face this all.
Relevant answer
Answer
interesting question
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
20 answers
Bitcoin mining requires large computing power and therefore large amounts of electricity. Most of the electricity used by Bitcoin miners around the world comes from fossil fuel power plants. This leads to global carbon emissions and environmental pollution. In November 2021, the Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance estimated that Bitcoin’s annualized power consumption is 115 TWh, which is almost as large as the annual electricity consumption of Poland – a country with 38 million citizens. Given the large and growing environmental concerns across the world and the planned actions of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, is the long-term outlook for Bitcoin applications negative? Is Bitcoin cursed with its inherent ‘proof of work’ and mining mechanism? Are the long-term external costs of the Bitcoin ecosystem too large as compared with the potential benefits offered by this cryptocurrency? Is the demise of Bitcoin inevitable in the long term? Can ways be found whereby Bitcoin’s negative environmental impact might be significantly reduced?
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
2 answers
Since indirect and semi-direct effect are related with perturbation in clouds, is it not better to use all-sky radiation(with clouds) instead of clear-sky radiation (without clouds)?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
I want to know how to assign score to different variables and what is the basis for giving score for assessment ot intengible benefits. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Mario Zenteno Claros for your valuable suggestion and sharing link.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
We need international support to collaborate and finance inter-institutional research, development and innovation projects in the field of smart water management in the current context of climate change.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear colleagues, we currently have two projects written for the intelligent management of water resources, the first is about the development of automatic pluviographs with local and recyclable materials, and the second is about the management of natural resources, water and soil in the current context of climate change through the application of satellite technologies and artificial intelligence. These are recognized by our ministry of science, technology and environment for which this consolidation. Soon we hope to present a project for the realization of the water balance in a daily regime and in high spatial resolution, with the application of satellite hydrology and big data and artificial intelligence techniques. For the successful implementation of these projects, international collaboration is important, so if you are interested in collaborating to find financial support opportunities for these projects, we can start whenever you want.
Kind regards.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
Dear Colleagues,
I read in one online source that climate change affects differently men and women? are there scientific explanations for that? Can somebody provide evidence?
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
7 answers
Prologue: This is a open-discussion, and welcome all researchers who are interested about this topic.
Corporations are both the best agents to respond to climate change, and the most significant contributors to humanity's escalating carbon emissions (see in Wright and Nyberg, 2017, AMJ).
Thus, corporations (especially for SMEs) may probability be caught in a dilemma: trade off between profit and corporate environmentalism.
So, under this condition, what are the scientific questions worth studying?
I hope this discussion could lead to many interesting research questions, and even collaborations.
Relevant answer
Answer
Climate change is now a fact of political life and is playing a growing role in business competition.
The below link can be helpful:
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
18 answers
Most of the studies are on the impact of climate change on precipitation, temperature, wildfire, and sea level rise. Tornados are another huge environmental response to climate change. Recent number of tornados present the threat in the coming years. Should there be more studies on forecasting tornados and evaluating the climate change impacts?
Relevant answer
Answer
The idea of describing a stochastic nature of the interaction between climate and weather was presented in a very concise manner by Hasselmann in the 1970s:
>> A stochastic model of climate variability is considered in which slow changes of climate are explained as the integral response to continuous random excitation by short period “weather” disturbances. The coupled ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere-land system is divided into a rapidly varying “weather” system (essentially the atmosphere) and a slowly responding “climate” system (the ocean, cryosphere, land vegetation, etc.). <<
The attribution of a single event in such a system to the changes of a “slow part” is most likely not possible at the current level of our climate models. I‘m not even convinced that the vastly increased level of complexity of our Earth Modelling Systems is making this task simpler, perhaps we need an approach departing from a classical Bjerknes-Richardson paradigm?
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
I would appreciate if you could answer how should I start. I have an access to ground data so data is basically not a problem
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Orzu Odinaev Orzu Odinaev
There are a lot of publications about the effect of climate change on wheat production. I recommend you to find observed data first such as meteorological data, soil data, management practices data, agronomic characteristics of wheat, and wheat production. After that, you can run DSSAT using those observed data for calibration and validation. Therefore, you can asses the effect of climate change on wheat production using future climate change scenarios.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
2 answers
Two things emerge from the works of Jung et al. (2002) and Beasley et al. (2021):
1) Due to solar insolation, there have been decadal to centennial-scale changes in the upper oceanic water temperatures (2 to 3 deg.C) during the early Holocene in the Arabian Sea that modulated upwelling and monsoon precipitation (Jung et al., 2002);
2) Such monsoonal precipitation and upwelling changes might have occurred since the Oligocene-Miocene transition when the monsoon system got established (Beasley et al., 2021).
Our earlier work indicated short-term oscillations of phosphorus burial in the continental margins of the Arabian Sea (Phosphorus Deposition in Arabian Sea Sediments through Time - https://www.prl.res.in/~library/planetary_and_geosciences.htm that I interpreted as:
“Contrary to the widely held view that phosphorus could affect primary productivity in the long run, here we show evidence to believe that phosphorus may become a limiting nutrient on centennial to millennial scales, provided that its supply to the water column is restricted during high productivity episodes. Such evidence comes from the spectral analysis of phosphorus data obtained from the analysis of core sediments collected from the continental margin sediments of the eastern Arabian Sea. The results show century to millennial-scale oscillations in the burial flux of phosphorus to the sediments, which can be attributed to ocean circulation changes and intensification of SW monsoonal wind strength, which together modulates upwelling of remobilised nutrients and water column productivity. .........These results suggest that short-term solar oscillations can influence water column primary productivity and thereby phosphorus burial in the continental margin sediments of the Arabian Sea. When the phosphorus burial rate is high and the phosphorus supply to the water column is restricted (low river discharge and reduced upwelling), it may become a limiting nutrient. The century and millennial-scale oscillations in phosphorus burial rate imply that such a possibility can arise in the short term, contrary to the widely held belief that phosphorus limits productivity only on geological time scales.”
Now a few things have become clear. The oscillations in phosphorus burial may also have arisen from centennial-scale solar insolation changes that modulated the strength of the monsoon and the delivery of riverine supply of phosphorus. Moreover, changes in the upwelling may have regulated productivity and the observed phosphorus burial signal.
A further complication to this interpretation arises from a recent study suggesting that adsorption of phosphorus by iron oxides and its release during hypoxic events - the iron-phosphorus feedback - can drive multidecadal oscillations in hypoxia. The authors wrote:
“Our study shows that changes in the distribution of iron oxides between deep and shallow areas of the Baltic Sea led to self-sustaining variability (oscillations) in oxygen stress on decadal timescales during past intervals in the Sea’s 8000-year history. We use a model to demonstrate that under certain conditions of climate and nutrient pressure, such variability may occur naturally........” (Jilbert et al., 2021).
Therefore, more insight is needed to assess the short-term limitation of oceanic productivity by phosphorus in circulation-limited or enclosed oceanic regions.
Further reading:
Beasley, C., Kender, S., Giosan, L., Bolton, C.T., Anand, P., Leng, M.J., Nilsson‐Kerr, K., Ullmann, C.V., Hesselbo, S.P., Littler, K., 2021. Evidence of a South Asian proto‐monsoon during the Oligocene–Miocene transition. Paleoceanogr Paleoclimatol. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021PA004278
Jilbert, T., Gustafsson, B.G., Veldhuijzen, S., Reed, D.C., Helmond, N.A.G.M., Hermans, M., Slomp, C.P., 2021. Iron‐phosphorus feedbacks drive multidecadal oscillations in Baltic Sea hypoxia. Geophys Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL095908
Jung, S.J.A., Davies, G.R., Ganssen, G., Kroon, D., 2002. Decadal-centennial scale monsoon variations in the Arabian Sea during the Early Holocene. Geochem.-Geophys.-Geosyst. 3, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GC000348
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
I'm now working on the effect of climate change on regional agricultural hydrology processes by using hydrological model. I do know that the CMIP5 data (especailly air temperature, precipitation and et al.) should perform statistical downscaling before driving the model. The NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/derived-near-surface-meteorological-variables?tab=overview) reanalysis data have different resolution. Does anyone know the differences, advantages and disadvantages in detail when using the reanalysis data to drive hydrological model ?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
10 answers
Dear Colleagues,
Kindly guide how to arrive at the evaluation of inherent vulnerability to climate change of agriculture sector of the economy?. What are the important parameters to consider? At what scale it is to be evaluated?
Regards
Meraj
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much for the insightful suggestions.
Regards
Gowhar Meraj
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
7 answers
I'm part of a project creating a public atlas to document and map people's subjective experiences of extreme weather events. I've included information and a link to a short survey below. Feel free to fill this out yourself, and/or forward to your networks via email, social media, etc. Thanks!
Extreme Weather Events Survey
Ecologies of Harm: Mapping Contexts of Vulnerability in the Time of Covid-19 The University of British Columbia
This is a digital commons project intended to provide equitable access to knowledge.
COVID-19 presents the potential for people and groups to become exposed to harm in new ways. To see the overlapping ways in which these harms may be occurring, we’ve designed a survey for experiences of extreme weather events that are affecting people across the world.
This is a citizen / community observation survey, open to anyone 18 years of age and older who wishes to contribute. Your descriptions will upload directly to an interactive map of the world that is publicly accessible on this website: https://blogs.ubc.ca/ecologiesofharmproject
Your participation is entirely voluntary, and you do not have to answer every question. If you do wish to participate, you do not need to record your name. You may contribute as many observations as you like!
Please share widely, and keep in mind that re-posting, “liking,” or “following,” will be visible to others on public network platforms.
Link to survey: https://arcg.is/fvO4G0
Principal Investigator: Dr. Leslie Robertson
Relevant answer
Answer
indeed very interesting
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
26 answers
What are the most serious problems of civilization development that should be solved as soon as possible? What are the global problems for which research should be developed and solutions to these problems resolved in 2019 and in subsequent years?
One of such research problems, which should not be postponed for an indefinite future, is the need to develop environment-friendly sustainable economic development in order to slow down the adverse process of global warming.
With the warming of the Earth's climate, the risk of more dramatic climate cataclysms, including tsunamis, increases.
Tsunami may be a derivative of the global warming problem. Global warming generates an increase in climate disasters, including more cases of tsunamis.
But not only is the risk of more violent and more dramatic tsunamis rising. Also in recent years, there has been more other types of climate and natural climate catatics, such as droughts, rainstorms, tornadoes and weather anomalies.
At present, it should no longer be asked whether global warming generates an increase in natural disasters only what rate of growth will be recorded in the future? So many data, research centers confirms the progressing process of global warming, that the problem is unquestionable.
More and more data points to the growing risk of climate change, unfavorable for human and life on the Earth, increase of climate disasters, climatic and weather anomalies, which are the result of global warming, rising average annual temperature near the Earth's surface.
Now we should just ask: How can these adverse processes be counteracted? What ecological technologies, renewable energy sources, how to help natural environments, how to rebuild them, such as afforestation, to build natural ecosystems absorbing greenhouse gases?
How to develop ecological business ventures? How to create financing systems for this type of pro-ecological projects? How to dispel international cooperation in this matter? What actions should be taken to move towards the development of a new ecological green economy?
How to develop environmentally sustainable economic development to slow down the unfavorable warming of the Earth's climate?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Relevant answer
Answer
China is experiencing a “national movement” as companies, regional governments and academia shift gears to help the country meet its climate goals. The world’s top carbon emitter has, for the first time, published plans broadly outlining how it might achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2060, and a peak of emissions before 2030 — promises it made in 2019. The move has spurred more than ten prominent universities and institutions to set up carbon-neutrality-research institutes already this year; the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched a centre last month. But some researchers are still disappointed with the climate commitments the country has made so far...
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
17 answers
Energy, especially electricity, has long been recognized as an essential commodity for everyday life in the contemporary world [1]. It is the main driving force of the human, social, and economic development of any nation. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the global electricity generation in 2017 was 25,551 TWh, of which fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) accounted for up to 65% [2]. However, due to their non-renewable nature, these sources are not likely to satisfy the increasing world demand in electricity resulting from the permanent growth in the world’s population and technological advancement. They are declining steadily. A study by Abas et al. [3] showed that oil, natural gas, and coal would be depleted in 2066, 2068, and 2126, respectively. This situation is the primary cause of the current price volatility and energy supply insecurity. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels releases toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are detrimental to health and contribute to climate change. The consequences of climate change are far and varied, and include increased wildfires, prolonged droughts, stronger tropical storms, and frequent coastal floods [4].
What is the role of renewable energy in the global energy transformation?
References
  1. Karanfil, F.; Li, Y. Electricity consumption and economic growth: Exploring panel-specific differences. Energy Policy 2015, 82, 264–277.
  2. IEA. Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2017; IEA: Paris, France, 2018.
  3. Abas, N.; Kalair, A.; Khan, N. Review of fossil fuels and future energy technologies. Futures 2015, 69, 31–49.
  4. Pachauri, R.K.; Allen, M.R.; Barros, V.R.; Broome, J.; Cramer, W.; Christ, R.; Church, J.A.; Clarke, L.; Dahe, Q.; Dasgupta, P. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014; ISBN 92-9169-143-7.
Relevant answer
Answer
Renewables are absolutely essential for the future. It was a horrible mistake to keep with the fossil fuels, even though the pollution was a known phenomenon well before climate started changing.
In the 1960's California declared that all cars would be electric by the 1990's. Unfortunately, they didn't know how powerful the Big Oil producers were: bigger than any government!
Even today with global warming threatening the future of humanity around the globe, governments, such as in Canada, still subsidize Oil companies with taxpayers money! This is outrageous, instead of penalizing them for polluting the planet, they reward them with money.
Who is going to pay for the damages from the unprecedented flooding in British Columbia this past week? You and I, of course.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
10 answers
Trees have different effects on the climate directly or indirectly. These effects emanate from trees’ reactions to varying climate-related factors. Factors such as greenhouse gases emission, production and emission of aerosols, albedo (whiteness), carbon and nitrogen deposition, transpiration and photosynthesis can affect the speed of climate change.
Relevant answer
Answer
Pollution (addition of gases into the air from human activities, such as carbon dioxide) is the main cause of climate change today.
Trees absorb some of the CO2 from the air, but people have been cutting down trees for all kinds of reasons, such as building roads, houses, etc. Therefore, unless you plant more trees and some are doing that, the CO2 builds up in the atmosphere and has the tendency to absorb heat that is being sent back into space. Instead of going to space this (outgoing) heat stays in the air and warms up the air (global warming).
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
32 answers
Currently (end of January, beginning of February 2019) in Australia the heat of the centuries has been recorded reaching in some places to almost 50 ° C, and in the USA, in some places now winter has appeared with frosts reaching around minus 50 degrees C.
In recent years, various weather anomalies have appeared more and more.
The recorded increase in weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms may be a derivative of the progressing greenhouse effect, ie the warming of the Earth's climate. This is also confirmed by the numerous climatic cataclysms and weather anomalies that also occurred in the last year of 2018 appear in numerous places on the Earth. In the autumn of 2018, fires of huge forest areas appeared in some areas of the Earth, such as in Scandinavia, California in the USA, Australia, the Iberian Peninsula, Africa, etc. In addition, weather anomalies, e.g. snow and floods in October and November 2018 occurred in the south of Europe. In addition, numerous tornadoes in 2018 in many places on Earth and so on.
Perhaps these problems will get worse. It is necessary to improve security systems and anti-crisis services, improve the prediction of these anomalies and climatic cataclysms so that people can, have managed to get shelter or cope with an imminent cataclysm. One of the technologies that can help in more precise forecasting of these cataclysms is the processing of large collections of historical and current information on this subject in the cloud computing technology in Big Data database systems.
In view of the above, in connection with the increasingly frequent cataclysms and climatic anomalies, perhaps in the future we will be forced to change our assessment of particular seasons, and for example favorite in some climatic zones, summer will no longer be universally recognized as a positive season, if at this time will often appear increasingly higher temperatures, droughts, fires, tornadoes, etc.
In connection with the above, I would like to ask you:
Are the current weather anomalies the effect of global warming?
Please reply
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
This video will answer your question
The last decades shows more frequent and intense anomalies than before.
Increasing warming comes with increasaing standard deviations (i.e increasing anomalies)
Cheers
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
34 answers
In addition to CO2, methane is also one of the main greenhouse gases, and in a few dozen years, when the eternal scarifier on the Siberian tundra and other places of the Arctic Circle methane can become an even more significant greenhouse gas.
Besides, the analyzes of cyclical activity of the Sun conducted by cosmologists show that in a few decades the activity of sunspots and more harmful to life and more intense energetically will reach the Earth's wavelengths of visible and invisible spectrum.
The increase in temperature will cause desertification of green areas, drying of biomass and an increase in the scale and amount of emerging fires and volcanic eruptions. these processes will intensify and accelerate the global warming process that is currently under way faster and faster.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Why according to the forecasts of climatologists, the global warming process in the next few decades can significantly accelerate?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
According to a United Nations report published on August 9, 2021, acceleration of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and methane, is being caused by humans: "Global climate change is accelerating and human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases are the overwhelming cause, according to a landmark report released Monday by the United Nations. There is still time to avoid catastrophic warming this century, but only if countries around the world stop burning fossil fuels as quickly as possible, the authors warn."
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
This thread is for those who want to know how to calculate Research Interest (RI) and participate in this validation study. *** Welcome to the validation study of my formula for Research Interest (RI) on the RG site! Details are in the first reply in this discussion.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
I am looking for an advisor to help me in my PhD dissertation in "crop mapping field of climate change conditions.
Do you accept my offer?
please send me your relative researches?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
6 answers
Hello,
"CDO" is a LINUX based operation for evaluating climate data.
Could any one assists me by means of installing or utilizing CDO on Windows operation systems?
Best regards
Saeideh Baghanian
Relevant answer
Answer
You can easily use CDO in window 10 by installing Ubuntu's terminal as a window application in window 10. Kindly follow the six steps below:-
step1: Open your window 10 and go to search are and then search the word turn window features on or off as illustrated in image1 (step1) attached below.
step2: from the popup window resulting due to step1, Scroll down until you see Window Subsystem for Linux and check it (tick) then click ok and restart your computer.
AIM OF STEPS 1 & 2: Is to create an environment for using Ubuntu (Linux) in Windows 10.
Step3: After finishing to restart your computer then search for Microsoft store and then click the app store as illustrated in image 3 (step3)
step4: After opening the Microsoft store then search Ubuntu and then install the latest version as illustrated in image 4 (step4).
step5: Open the Ubuntu terminal (App) and then create your username and password and finally update the ubuntu packages by using the command sudo apt-get update as shown in image 5 (step5).
step6: then install CDO by using the command sudo apt-get install cdo
lastly:
If you will get this error after installing CDO
# error
cdo: error while loading shared libraries: libQt5Core.so.5: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
THEN USE THE COMMAND BELOW
sudo strip --remove-section=.note.ABI-tag /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libQt5Core.so.5
All the best, if you will get any challenges, feel free to share them here
PLEASE SEE THE ATTACHED IMAGES BELOW FOR GUIDANCE
Thank you
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
16 answers
Hi Guys!
I usually download future climate data from Worldclim.org.
Their website says that "Data at 30-seconds spatial resolution is expected to be available by the end of March 2020", however, this has not materialized . . . https://www.worldclim.org/data/cmip6/cmip6climate.html
Does anyone know of alternative sources to download future data at this (1km) resolution?
Many thanks!
Joshua
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, Guys sorry for the delay in my response.
No, I have not been able to source or download statistically downscaled CMIP6 data since. I am afraid that Charles Simpson is correct, the data is not available anywhere other than Worldclim which was not released 30 arc seconds to date.
However, if anyone is able to find a source, please share it here.
Thanks!
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
26 answers
Air-sea gas exchange is a physio-chemical process, primarily controlled by the air-sea difference in gas concentrations and the exchange coefficient, which determines how quickly a molecule of gas can move across the ocean-atmosphere boundary. It takes about one year to equilibrate CO2 in the surface ocean with atmospheric CO2, so it is not unusual to observe large air-sea differences in CO2 concentrations. Most of the differences are caused by variability in the oceans due to biology and ocean circulation. (Source: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/Ocean+Carbon+Uptake)
Relevant answer
Answer
I am wondering what have you learned with your participation with the Hellenic Centre of Marine Research, if you are still there.
There are lively discussions at RG and some people are unaware about the importance of limiting the amount of CO2 in the air.
I contributed in the education of younger generations (in Canada) who are very enthusiastic about supporting the elimination of the fossil fuels.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
i need solutions based in intentional communities, i read a couple papers but it seems to be more a diagnosis than an actually concise solution.
i need more info about how to have a climate governance that actually works in local communities than a large worldwide solution.
Relevant answer
Answer
Anybody can change the world by adopting new methods and avoiding fossil fuels. Don't wait for government to adopt new policies, etc, they take ages to implement.
My nephew, a pilot in the USA just leased a new electric car, a Tesla. He used a gasoline car for 15 years. Now he is NOT polluting for the first time. That makes a difference. He is saving the planet, one person at a time.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
14 answers
It is sort of funny how the world turns around. Four years ago when I started my PhD, I was asking 'environmentally active citizens', who take part in community energy and food sharing projects about, how do they think their initiatives relate to Climate Change. Most of the people could not directly connect to Climate Action. Often, it rarely made top 3 of the priorities of their initiatives
Now, four years later, everyone seems to be obsessed climate marches, climate strikes and other forms of peaceful protest.
It just leaves me with the questions of which type of action is more effective, taking small steps in improving your livelihood or marching in massive swarms? Surely, marches and mass protest are easier to be picked up by news and political agendas than small community projects but where is the silver lining?
Relevant answer
Answer
It was nice to take part in big marches, meet people and feel part of a "big family".
Now, it is time to help the planet by avoiding the use of fossil fuels and convince others to do the same. Start recycling and support others. You can bicycle to work, school or university and meet nice people on the way while doing so.
Eat well, because a healthy mind needs a healthy body.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
172 answers
The threats that global warming has recently posed to humans in many parts of the world have led us to continue this debate.
So the main question is that what actions need to be taken to reduce the risk of climate warming?
Reducing greenhouse gases now seems an inevitable necessity.
In this part in addition to the aforementioned main question, other specific well-known subjects from previous discussion are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
% -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
% ---------------- *** Updated Discussions of Global Warming (section 1) *** ---------------%
The rate of mean temperature of the earth has been increased almost twice with respect to 60 years ago, it is a fact (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, GISS, data). Still a few questions regarding physical processes associated with global warming remain unanswered or at least need more clarification. So the causes and prediction of this trend are open questions. The most common subjects are listed below:
1) "Greenhouse effect increases temperature of the earth, so we need to diminish emission of CO2 and other air pollutants." The logic behind this reasoning is that the effects of other factors like the sun's activity (solar wind contribution), earth rotation orbit, ocean CO2 uptake, volcanoes activities, etc are not as important as greenhous effect. Is the ocean passive in the aforementioned scenario?
2) Two major physical turbulent fluids, the oceans and the atmosphere, interacting with each other, each of them has different circulation timescale, for the oceans it is from year to millennia that affects heat exchange. It is not in equilibrium with sun instantaneously. For example the North Atlantic Ocean circulation is quasi-periodic with recurrence period of about 7 kyr. So the climate change always has occurred. Does the timescale of crucial players (NAO, AO, oceans, etc) affect the results?
3) Energy of the atmospheric system including absorption and re-emission is about 200 Watt/m2 ; the effect of CO2 is about how many percent to this budget ( 2% or more?), so does it have just a minor effect or not?
4) Climate system is a multi-factor process and there exists a natural modes of temperature variations. How anthropogenic CO2 emissions makes the natural temperature variations out of balance.
6) Some weather and climate models that are based on primitive equations are able to reproduce reliable results.  Are the available models able to predict future decadal variability exactly? How much is the uncertainty of the results. An increase in CO2 apparently leads in higher mean temperature value due to radiative transfer.
7) How is global warming related to extreme  weather events?
Some of the consequences of global warming are frequent rainfall, heat waves, and cyclones. If we accept  global warming as an effect of anthropogenic fossil fuels, how can we stop the increasing trend of temperature anomaly and switching to clean energies?
8) What are the roles of sun activities coupled with Milankovitch cycles?
9) What are the roles of politicians to alarm the danger of global warming? How much are scientists sensitive to these decisions?
10) How much is the CO2’s residence time in the atmosphere? To answer this question precisely, we need to know a good understanding of CO2 cycle.
11) Clean energy reduces toxic buildups and harmful smog in air and water. So, how much building renewable energy generation and demanding for clean energy is urgent?
% -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 2) *** ---------------%
Warming of the climate system in the recent decades is unequivocal; nevertheless, in addition to a few scientific articles that show the greenhouse gases and human activity as the main causes of global warming, still the debate is not over and some opponents claim that these effects have minor effects on human life. Some relevant topics/criticisms about global warming, causes, consequences, the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), etc are putting up for discussion and debate:
1) All the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro-fluorocarbons, including HCFCs and HFCs, and ozone) account for about a tenth of one percent of the atmosphere. Based on Stefan–Boltzmann law in basic physics, if you consider the earth with the earth's albedo (a measure of the reflectivity of a surface) in a thermal balance, that is: the power radiated from the earth in terms of its temperature = Solar flux at the earth's cross section, you get Te =(1-albedo)^0.25*Ts.*sqrt(Rs/(2*Rse)), where Te (Ts) is temperature at the surface of the earth (Sun), Rs: radius of the Sun, Rse: radius of the earth's orbit around the Sun. This simplified equation shows that Te depends on these four variables: albedo, Ts, Rs, Rse. Just 1% variation in the Sun's activity lead to variation of the earth's surface temperature by about half a degree.
1.1) Is the Sun's surface (photosphere layer) temperature (Ts) constant?
1.2) How much is the uncertainty in measuring the Sun's photosphere layer temperature?
1.3) Is solar irradiance spectrum universal?
1.4) Is the earth's orbit around the sun (Rse) constant?
1.5) Is the radius of the Sun (Rs) constant?
1.6) Is the largeness of albedo mostly because of clouds or the man-made greenhouse gases?
So the sensitivity of global mean temperature to variation of tracer gases is one of the main questions.
2) A favorable climate model essentially is a coupled non-linear chaotic system; that is, it is not appropriate for the long term future prediction of climate states. So which type of models are appropriate?
3) Dramatic temperature oscillations were possible within a human lifetime in the past. So there is nothing to worry about. What is wrong with the scientific method applied to extract temperature oscillations in the past from Greenland ice cores or shifts in types of pollen in lake beds?
4) IPCC Assessment Reports,
IPCC's reports are known as some of the reliable sources of climate change, although some minor shortcomings have been observed in them.
4.1) "What is Wrong With the IPCC? Proposals for a Radical Reform" (Ross McKitrick):
IPCC has provided a few climate-change Assessment Reports during last decades. Is a radical reform of IPCC necessary or we should take all the IPCC alarms seriously? What is wrong with Ross argument? The models that are used by IPCC already captured a few crudest features of climate change.
4.2) The sort of typical issues of IPCC reports:
- The summary reports focus on those findings that support the human interference theory.
- Some arguments are based on this assumption that the models account for most major sources of variation in the global mean temperature anomaly.
- "Correlation does not imply causation", in some Assessment Reports, results gained from correlation method instead of investigating the downstream effects of interventions or a double-blind controlled trial; however, the conclusions are with a level of reported uncertainty.
4.3) Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) also has produced some massive reports to date.
4.4) Is the NIPCC a scientific or a politically biased panel? Can NIPCC climate reports be trusted?
4.5) What is wrong with their scientific methodology?
5) Changes in the earth's surface temperature cause changes in upper level cirrus and consequently radiative balance. So the climate system can increase its cooling processes by these types of feedbacks and adjust to imbalances.
6) What is your opinion about political intervention and its effect upon direction of research budget?
I really appreciate all the researchers who have had active participation with their constructive remarks in these discussion series.
% -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 3) *** ---------------%
In this part other specific well-known subjects are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
1) Still there is no convincing theorem, with a "very low range of uncertainty", to calculate the response of climate system in terms of the averaged global surface temperature anomalies with respect to the total feedback factors and greenhouse gases changes. In the classical formula applied in the models a small variation in positive feedbacks leads to a considerable changes in the response (temperature anomaly) while a big variation in negative feedbacks causes just small variations in the response.
2) NASA satellite data from the years 2000 through 2011 indicate the Earth's atmosphere is allowing far more heat to be emitted into space than computer models have predicted (i.e. Spencer and Braswell, 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3081603). Based on this research "the response of the climate system to an imposed radiative imbalance remains the largest source of uncertainty. It is concluded that atmospheric feedback diagnosis of the climate system remains an unsolved problem, due primarily to the inability to distinguish between radiative forcing and radiative feedback in satellite radiative budget observations." So the contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming is exaggerated in the models used by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). What is wrong with this argument?
3) Ocean Acidification
Ocean acidification is one of the consequences of CO2 absorption in the water and a main cause of severe destabilising the entire oceanic food-chain.
4) The IPCC reports which are based on a range of model outputs suffer somehow from a range of uncertainty because the models are not able to implement appropriately a few large scale natural oscillations such as North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino, Southern ocean oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, deep ocean circulations, Sun's surface temperature, etc. The problem with correlation between historical observations of the global averaged surface temperature anomalies with greenhouse gases forces is that it is not compared with all other natural sources of temperature variability. Nevertheless, IPCC has provided a probability for most statements. How the models can be improved more?
5) If we look at micro-physics of carbon dioxide, theoretically a certain amount of heat can be trapped in it as increased molecular kinetic energy by increasing vibrational and rotational motions of CO2, but nothing prevents it from escaping into space. During a specific relaxation time, the energetic carbon dioxide comes back to its rest statement.
6) As some alarmists claim there exists a scientific consensus among the scientists. Nevertheless, even if this claim is true, asking the scientists to vote on global warming because of human made greenhouse gases sources does not make sense because the scientific issues are not based on the consensus; indeed, appeal to majority/authority fallacy is not a scientific approach.
% -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 4) *** ---------------%
In this part in addition to new subjects, I have highlighted some of responses from previous sections for further discussion. Please leave you comments to support/weaken any of the following statements:
1) @Harry ten Brink recapitulated a summary of a proof that CO2 is such an important Greenhouse component/gas. Here is a summary of this argument:
"a) Satellites' instruments measure the radiation coming up from the Earth and Atmosphere.
b) The emission of CO2 at the maximum of the terrestrial radiation at 15 micrometer.
b1. The low amount of this radiation emitted upwards: means that "back-radiation" towards the Earth is high.
b2. Else said the emission is from a high altitude in the atmosphere and with more CO2 the emission is from an even higher altitude where it is cooler. That means that the emission upwards is less. This is called in meteorology a "forcing", because it implies that less radiation /energy is emitted back into space compared to the energy coming in from the sun.
The atmosphere warms so the energy out becomes equals the solar radiation coming in. Summary of the Greenhouse Effect."
At first glance, this reasoning seems plausible. It is based on these assumptions that the contribution of CO2 is not negligible and any other gases like N2O or Ozone has minor effect. The structure of this argument is supported by an article by Schmidt et al., 2010:
By using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE radiation module, the authors claim that "water vapor is the dominant contributor (∼50% of the effect), followed by clouds (∼25%) and then CO2 with ∼20%. All other absorbers play only minor roles. In a doubled CO2 scenario, this allocation is essentially unchanged, even though the magnitude of the total greenhouse effect is significantly larger than the initial radiative forcing, underscoring the importance of feedbacks from water vapour and clouds to climate sensitivity."
The following notions probably will shed light on the aforementioned argument for better understanding the premises:
Q1) Is there any observational data to support the overall upward/downward IR radiation because of CO2?
Q2) How can we separate practically the contribution of water vapor from anthropogenic CO2?
Q3) What are the deficiencies of the (GISS) ModelE radiation module, if any?
Q4) Some facts, causes, data, etc relevant to this argument, which presented by NASA, strongly support this argument (see: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/)
Q5) Stebbins et al, (1994) showed that there exists "A STRONG INFRARED RADIATION FROM MOLECULAR NITROGEN IN THE NIGHT SKY" (thanks to @Brendan Godwin for mentioning about this paper). As more than 78% of the dry air contains nitrogen, so the contribution of this element is not negligible too.
2) The mean global temperature is not the best diagnostic to study the sensitivity to global forcing. Because given a change in this mean value, it is almost impossible to attribute it to global forcing. Zonal and meridional distribution of heat flux and temperature are not uniform on the earth, so although the mean temperature value is useful, we need a plausible map of spatial variation of temperature .
3) "The IPCC model outputs show that the equilibrium response of mean temperature to a doubling of CO2 is about 3C while by the other observational approaches this value is less than 1C." (R. Lindzen)
4) What is the role of the thermohaline circulation (THC) in global warming (or the other way around)? It is known that during Heinrich events and Dansgaard‐Oeschger (DO) millennial oscillations, the climate was subject to a number of rapid cooling and warming with a rate much more than what we see in recent decades. In the literature, these events were most probably associated with north-south shifts in convection location of the THC. The formation speed of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) affects northerly advection velocity of the warm subtropical waters that would normally heat/cool the atmosphere of Greenland and western Europe.
I really appreciate all the researchers who have participated in this discussion with their useful remarks, particularly Harry ten Brink, Filippo Maria Denaro, Tapan K. Sengupta, Jonathan David Sands, John Joseph Geibel, Aleš Kralj, Brendan Godwin, Ahmed Abdelhameed, Jorge Morales Pedraza, Amarildo de Oliveira Ferraz, Dimitris Poulos, William Sokeland, John M Wheeldon, Michael Brown, Joseph Tham, Paul Reed Hepperly, Frank Berninger, Patrice Poyet, Michael Sidiropoulos, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, and Boris Winterhalter.
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%%
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes. Please see the following useful link for insights.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
Dear fellow researchers,
I have a question concerning LCZ modelling for a masterplan. My case study is on a new city the city is still under construction not completed yet. I want to classify it's masterplan to LCZ to evaluate its behavior from an urban climate point of view. Is it possible to create a map of LCZ since the remote sensing is not an option in this case because nothing is completely built. Can you recommend a tool that I could work with
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Manar, in this case I would go either for a manual sampling (based on visual interpretation and personal knowledge of the master plan) or a GIS-based approach. This will depend on how you intend to use the LCZ maps and for what reason. The GIS-based approach is generally preferred but it requires the availability of a digital topographic database, primarily including buildings and their heights (so that relevant indicators can be calculated, e.g. SVF and H/W ratios of representative street canyons) but also land use (to account for the different ground cover characteristics). For the GIS-based approaches, see, for example, the work of Lelovics et al. (https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01220) and the work of Geletič and Lehnert (https://doi.org/10.1515/mgr-2016-0012), where a full procedure for a applying a GIS mapping of LCZs is explained. Combined approaches, even if they are not directly applicable to your case, might be also a useful source of information for the GIS part. See, for example, the work of Gál et al. (shorturl.at/giDFS) or our recent work (http://dx.doi.org/10.5821/ctv.8663).
Lastly, have a look at these two recent publications, by Lehnert et al. (2021) and Jang et al. (2021) that comprehensively compare different mapping methods of LCZs and their application.
Best,
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
13 answers
We understand that there are many impacts due to climate change. High temperature causes wild fire whereas heavy rainfall induces landslides. I would like to know if developing forest with heat-resistant trees can contribute to the reduction of impacts of climate change.
Relevant answer
Answer
Trees have different direct and indirect effects on climate which results from trees reactions to various and effective factors on climate conditions. Factors such as emissions of greenhouse gases, organic aerosol production, changing albedo ratio and heat disturbances are among different factors which affect the speed of climate changes. Therefore, it is necessary to take action to mitigate climate change consequences. One of the most important and economical solutions is forest development. The most important issue for forest development is selection of suitable tree species. Present study was conducted to answer the fundamental question: Which tree species can play a more appropriate role in mitigating the consequences of climate change and global warming? To conduct the present study five plantation forests were selected with broadleaved and coniferous tree species, including Acer velutinumBioss, Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn, Quercus castaneifolia C.A Mey, Cupressus sempervirens var and one plantation stand of Populus deltoides Barter.ex Marsh, outside the forest in the north of Iran. Our results indicated that for forest development in this area, tree species such as alder and maple were used and in the wood farming trees such as poplar was used to take advantage of their ability to mitigate the weather ambient under global warming and cypress is not suitable for forest regeneration in this region.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
As we all would appreciate that the current agenda of "Global Warming and Climate Change" is threatening seriously the ECOSYSTEM of the world including plants, animals, and humans. Regarding Climate Change, International leading authorities enforce the countries worldwide to adopt the preparatory conditions (mainly limiting the CARBON emissions and increasing the usage of GREEN and sustainable energy) according to the Climatic Agreement settled in Paris (F). Further, regarding Global Warming, officials in Geography and Geology seriously warn us that global warming (excessive heat) has to be limited up to 3 degrees Celcius (or by 1.7 degrees Celcius ideally) by the end of 2100. As we can see clearly that global (drinkable) water sources of any kind have already started to decrease dramatically preventing normal water supply for drinking and irrigation. Sudden and excessive raining damages the cities and countries (Northern part (Black Sea region) of Turkey and some countries in Europe (e.g. Germany).
Considering the excess level in global heat, we see the fast disappearance of the snow masses on the top of the mountains (mountain Himalaya, Nepal), faster melting in the persistent large snow masses in Antarctica continent, drought in agriculture, shorter rainy/snowy season, and longer summer heat (e.g. AFRICA), common fires, such as in Amazones (Latin America), Italy, Greece (Europe), and Turkey (Eurasia), and enlarged arid areas everywhere in the world.
Ruminants are known to produce some critical gases such as carbon dioxide-CO2, "methane-CH4", and nitrous oxide-N2O that the excess levels are undesirable for the Universe as leading to global warming and climate change afterwards. Considering the ANIMAL WELFARE in high yielding Dairy/Twinning Ruminants (e.g. Holstein Cows, Chios ewes, Saanen does), both the scientists and other stakeholders (such as animal owners, caretakers, marketing officials, consumers, and Food/Health officials) have to pay urgent attention to provide "comfort" level to the farm animals (ruminants in particular) for breeding, feeding, and husbandry.
In this regard, once again, we would like to draw the attention of colleagues who are much more concerned with the well-being of the universe including heavy load workers -RUMINANTS-producing much of the animal protein needed (namely meat and milk). In this respect, cattle and buffaloes need much water (around 17-18 Liter to produce 1 kg unite of meat as compared to those of sheep and goats (around 8 Liter per unit ) and pigs and poultry (6 Liter or even lesser per unit). So, it appears that a REALLY hard task is awaiting in front of us to be dealt with utmost care for strategic planning and then implemented in all the sectors involved.
Thank you all for your valuable contributions.
Relevant answer
Answer
Global warming and climate change Negatively affecting the system
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
The current challenges at European and global level have involved the development of innovative financial instruments, with direct consequences for public institutions, businesses, jobs and households. In order to ensure the continued availability of sufficient liquidity on the market in the context of climate change, to counteract the damage caused to healthy businesses and to maintain the continuity of economic activity during these challenges (pandemic, financial and fiscal digitalization, climate change), achieve solutions to support the national economy in the short, medium and long term, both through complementary financial instruments and European Union financing programs, the effects of the current multi-crisis being both in the short term, but especially in the medium and long term.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Manta!
You raised an important point to consider. I really this the answer is case (type of market) and context (regulations, practices, incentives available) dependent one:
1) Stoll, P.P., Pauw, W.P., Tohme, F. et al. Mobilizing private adaptation finance: lessons learned from the Green Climate Fund. Climatic Change 167, 45 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-021-03190-1 Open access:
2) Nawaz, M.A., Seshadri, U., Kumar, P. et al. Nexus between green finance and climate change mitigation in N-11 and BRICS countries: empirical estimation through difference in differences (DID) approach. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 6504–6519 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10920-y Free access:
3) Park, J. How can we pay for it all? Understanding the global challenge of financing climate change and sustainable development solutions. J Environ Stud Sci (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13412-021-00715-z Free access:
4) Muhammad Asif Khan et al. (2021). Does green finance really deliver what is expected? An empirical perspective, Borsa Istanbul Review, Available online 2 August 2021, In Press, Corrected Proof, Free access: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214845021000806
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
Hai.
I am trying to use Infocrop model for climate change effect. I have imported csv file of daily weather data from 1971-2002 into infocrop. It has successfully created the 32 files and CLI file also. When I create the project and use the weather file, it does not list out the years in the pull down. So please tell me the what is the reason and how to solve, or is their any other way to import the weather file,
Thanks in advance.
Meti
Relevant answer
Answer
Facing the same problem
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
As stated above. I have a group of trees from two different environments that consists of sets of half-siblings and I'd like to test their plasticity to a climate change variable. Is this a valid approach since they are only expected to share one quarter of their genes? Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Es posible.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
117 answers
Currently, the UN climate summit in Katowice is taking place in Katowice. COP (Conference of the Parties) on climate policy on Earth. UN climate summits, i.e. COP (Conference of the Parties) are global conferences during which climate policy actions are negotiated. Poland twice hosted them - in 2008 in Poznań and in 2013 in Warsaw. In December 2018, the climate summit is held for the first time now in Katowice in Poland.
During this summit, conferences are held, discussions are held on the need to develop a sustainable development policy and the need for development of ecological, renewable energy sources in order to generate a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the future and ultimately reduce the average annual temperature rise on the Earth's surface. From the discussions it follows that it is necessary to develop eco-innovations, new pro-ecological energy sources, development of electromobility of transport means. It is necessary to develop and implement on a large scale renewable energy sources. In addition, it is important to increase the scale of afforestation, as forests and the flora contained in them absorb a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions.
As part of this year's UN Climate Summit, the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP24), 14th Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 14) and the Conference of the Paris Agreement signatories (CMA 1) are held. About 20,000 people from 190 countries participate in the event, including politicians, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and scientific and business spheres.
Perhaps during this UN climate summit important and specific agreements, declarations and signed agreements on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will be taken. The present lectures show that in recent years the warming process of the Earth's climate has accelerated significantly and therefore, in the black scenario of future climate changes, the temperature on the Earth's surface can rise by 4 ° C to the end of the 21st century. If this happened, then the scale of climate-related cataclysms that are dangerous to humans, including droughts, floods, fires and weather anomalies in many places around the world, will increase many times. The problem is very serious globally and therefore a lot depends on whether international cooperation will develop in order to limit these problems and their negative effects.
In view of the above, I would like to ask you: Should you think that international cooperation should increase to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on Earth? In addition, another key question arises: how much of this international cooperation is possible, to what extent will real and effective measures be undertaken on the basis of the discussions and declarations undertaken to reduce greenhouse gases?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Relevant answer
Answer
Call for Book Chapter
Call for Book Chapters "Book Theme: Microbial Bio-remediation - Sustainable Management of Environmental Contamination"
· 📷Rouf Ahmad Bhat
· 📷Gowhar Hamid Dar
· 📷Monica BUTNARIU
Goal: We are pleased to inform you that we are in the process of editing our forthcoming publication entitled " Microbial Bioremediation - Sustainable Management of Environmental Contamination" to be published by Springer Nature. We would like to take this opportunity to cordially invite you to contribute a chapter on the given below tentative chapter titles or other topics relevant to the theme of the book. Section A: Overview of Environmental Pollution and Microbial Ecology 1. Credibility of Biosensors for Monitoring contamination in different Environments 2. Major groups of microorganisms employed in bioremediation 3. Microbes in Restoration of Ecology and Ecosystem Services Section B: Microbial Solutions for Environmental Management 4. Perspectives of Microbial Inoculation for Environmental Management 5. Microbial inoculums for Groundwater Decontamination 6. Plant-Associated Bacteria in Ecosystems Functioning and Sustainability 7. Microbial metabolisms: Application in environmental decontamination and Management 8. Microbial degradation of Emerging Environmental Contaminants (EECs) Section C: Microbial Degradation Technologies and Remediation 9. Microbial Biotechnology: Energy generation approach from the environmental waste 10. Environmental Microbial Genomics in Sustainable agri-ecosystems 11. Hydrocarbon and oil-spill bioremediation 12. Microbial enzymes and their importance in the environmental decontamination 13. Microbial biotechnology for the production of the biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates 14. Genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation processes 15. Microbial degradation of industrial pollutants from different environments 16. Bioremediation of organic and metal-contaminated environments Submission Deadline: 30th November 2021
Publication charges: Nil
Contact Details
Editors Dr. Rouf Ahmad Bhat (rufi.bhat@gmail.com)) Prof. (Dr.) Monica Butnariu (monicabutnariu@yahoo.com) Dr. Gowhar Hamid Dar (dargowharhamid@gmail.com)
Prof (Dr.) Khalid Rehman Hakeem
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
Please I need a phd topic about climate change and microfinance
Relevant answer
Answer
The term Climate Change has been connected with many dimensions in the community of the different stakeholders.
Of course, the results and side effects of Climate Change has many impacts among the people and livestock's in many developing countries mostly.
The researcher is looking for a title for PhD. I can suggest that Climate Variability influence on Household Resilience of Microfinance beneficiaries in the ..........District, South Ghana.
The respondents could be either male or females beneficiaries of the MFI and how they are managing the difficult times of Climate Change to overcome the challenges and vulnerability.
MFI beneficiaries livelihoods can be adjusted with available facilities of Microfinance during the Climate Change periods.
The scholar has to check the Dependent variable and Independent variables in connection with suitable econometric models will help to measure the results of the Impact of Climate Change.
Hope many comments are yet to come from other academicians or researchers.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
1 answer
Dear group; I want to confes my happy moment when I found you. I am working my PhD reserch and one of the most important parts is to social sensitive perception abouth climatic change, focus in Nahuatl Ethnic Group. Thanks by this electronic space and be been here.
G A B Y
Relevant answer
Answer
Great thought Gabriela Monsalvo-Velazquez . Thanks for sharing.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
Dear Researchers: Decent citations have been received to a recently (Mar'21) published paper on one of the traditional water harvesting systems practiced in India (for the last 2,500 years!!!). Quite unexpected to witness the emerging interest of modern researchers in ancient technologies. Is it there at your end?
Relevant answer
Answer
They're being parsimonious which is as old as time
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
I've noticed that the majority of climate change modelling research focuses on predicting the impact of specific species under various climate change scenarios. I'm curious if any other research can be done with sdm. If so, please share with me. Please let me know if you want to collaborate on a publication. I'm looking for a professional with whom I can collaborate
Relevant answer
Answer
At the risk of highlighting our own work, SDMs (even presence-only) models can be used to predict, and back-cast forest-related habitat amount over time. We've used 'raw' Landsat TM bands to do SDMs - which primarily predict species as a function of forest composition. Because Landsat goes back to 1985, you can quantify habitat changes 1985-present. This is very useful for examining forest degradation (see in review paper preprint: "Forest Degradation...."
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
2 answers
Do you think that traditional vernacular type constructions are more adapted to climate change? how can you describe this resilience effectiveness in your region compared with modern construction methods ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you so much Ilan Kelman
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
Climate change will likely increase the occurrence of extreme events in Europe, negatively affecting crop production. Are there comprehensive studies on the effects of excessive rainfall on crop production? Are there biophysical models capable of capturing the effects of excessive rainfall on crop yields?
Relevant answer
Answer
In punjab the paddy yield decrease due to rainfall. When rainfall occur there are loss of yield at panicle intiation, booting etc. And bacterial blight increase due to high moisture and increase the multiplication of disease but if field infected with leaf folder at this stage rainfall is beneficial but not heavy.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
13 answers
  • Does normative legal philosophy also have a potential critical function vis-à-vis existing, empirically provable injustice where the injustice is not so much promoted or brought about by discriminatory laws, incorrect court rulings or actions contrary to human rights in the sense of an ideology, but rather by legislative and political laissez-faire or even omission (cf. e.g. mediterranean migrant crisis, anthropogenic climate change or pandemics)? From my point of view, this should be the case (but where is it explicitly stated and conceptually discussed?).
  • Which concepts from the field of normative legal philosophy/ legal ethics could be used to transparently and rationally criticise such state and supranational omissions from a normative perspective? Should new concepts of legal ethics be developed, can existing concepts be adapted? Who are the primary addressees? From my point of view, the minimum connection between law, serving as the basis of state action, and justice, which can be assessed against Radbruch's formula, enables a normative evaluation of state and supranational omissions, but also provides the contours for corresponding (political) duties to act.
What is your opinion regarding these issues?
Some legal philosophical approaches to these questions can be found in my paper "Extreme Wrong Committed by National and Supranational Inactivity: Analyzing the Mediterranean Migrant Crisis and Climate Change from a Legal Philosophical Perspective", Göttingen 2021.
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe legal theory is a tremendous force in the identification of those gaps in legislation. I see legislators all over the planet engaged in the erosion of democratic processes because they are trapped into their own epistemological limitations. Fundamental rights are more than ever under siege, and to move forward into producing a legal theory that identifies the limitations of what has been done so far is badly needed. The functional disconnect between the mandates of international law and national realities is blastering.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
7 answers
Try to do a research for making a physical or chemical reaction in CO2 to transform it to Carbon and Diamond. What is the possibility for that ?
Relevant answer
Answer
The question in itself talks about the exciting opportunities to drive the interest of the researchers. As of now, the available processes are complex and do require sophisticated infrastructure. A perfect catalyst may solve this issue.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
Current climatic disturbances have direct effects on mountain farming practices. What obvious changes are taking place in your country? Are there any obvious changes in obtaining vegetables in mountain homegardens, increasing the frequency of phytopathologies or in the period of animal housing?
Relevant answer
Answer
I with agree my dear Dr. Jinan Abdul Ameer Abbas
climatic changes effects on agriculture for example temperature , humidity and rains. it is worth effects on content of soil microorganisms.
also, the vegetables production from tomato and potato had effected significant .
otherwise, pant diseases in mountain farming regions was different by cause climatic changes.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
Does it help for work to discover the potential capabilities of native breeds and follow selection programs for their genetic traits effectively in facing the current challenges of climate change?
Relevant answer
Answer
Definitely yes, in regard to the famous state:
Reserves and protected areas are the safe havens that native species need to retain their natural resilience to climate change!
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
17 answers
Many observations and calculations of the atmospheric absorption can be found, but it would appear very few studies on climate had explicitly applied the basic radiative transfer equation in different forms, including scattering and atmospheric radiation. If you know any relevent references or your own papers to share, that would be wonderful.
Relevant answer
Answer
Y.C. Zhong thank you so much for your valuable comments.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
41 answers
I would like to know your opinion about what are currently the greatest unsolved problems or opportunities for further research in palaeoclimatology.
Relevant answer
Answer
How about: humans are the greatest challenge? The idea that a capitalistic economy based on consumerism is the "best"? That we need to have the latest smartphone, buy "fast" fashion, eat meat, follow influencer, follow celebrities...to be humans? Human greed is the greatest challenge to Climate Change. Failure to be capable of being able to cope with less things and enjoy Life for what it is. But we all fear Death, don't we? And we fill this fear with meaningless things. If we were Penguins, we would Live and Die because this is how it is. We would not need more than we need. And we could live in a much better World.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
I want to know your thoughts, can digital currency projects estimate the reliable value of ecosystem services on a global scale?
Relevant answer
Answer
They are working on capital for small-scale forestry projects and training.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
I've been researching literature related to the effects the land-use (namely, agriculture) has on climate change; precipitation patterns, temperature, wind circulation, etc.
I'm not sure if I'm looking in the right place so I need to know some renowned journals that actually had papers tackling similar research interest and/or researchers who have published papers on this topic.
Also would be extra thankful if you could provide good research engines (in addition to Google Scholar) that can aid in this research.
Relevant answer
Answer
Regards. Interesting theme. These would be some databases with relevant scientific information:
Microsoft Academic
Scopus
Science Direct
Dimensions
Lens
Redalyc
I hope they are useful to you
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
6 answers
We have looked AOD data from aeronet site. However, we found a large amount of data is missing for different stations of Nepal. Do you aware of some satellite data for AOD over the regions of Kathmandu? If yes, please let us know the website for data download. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use the website of the Eurpean Center to get the required data
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
142 answers
Is it true that in climatic cycles FIRST TEMPERATURE rises, and some or hundred years later also the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere?
Is it right that this theory would implicate, that rising CO2 concentration in the air itsself is not the real primary reason for climate change of today, as I got told?
Other times does this mean, that even when TEMPERATURE in the atmosphere drop, CO2 drops yet far more later in years or hundred years ?
This cycle would also thrive the up and downgoing ice ages. Is it true?
Relevant answer
Answer
As invalid as Berry's paper is lets play a mind game that says he is correct. So, what he is saying is that only 25% of CO2 comes from humans, and so that leaves the other 75% as being natural. As wrong as that is, CO2 is CO2, and so his paper in no way backs up your premise that the human contribution to climate change is from something other than CO2; natural or human, the CO2 molecule has the same heat carrying capacity that forces climate change. Berry does not dispute the amount of CO2, there is no argument for that, but he disputes the source. So again, it is the increased amount of CO2 that is causing the temperature increases that WV is responding to and not causing.
The paper by Dr. Berry  is backed up by no legitimate science and is merely his opinion; the quality of the paper is quite poor and simply makes unsubstantiated statements that detract from the legitimate science.  There are no scientific results to back up his premise and the paper is simply a joke, I have always had an issue with that journal and for them to have a paper published like that in their journal which notes his thoughts on the subject reflects very badly on their journal, and I have noted this to them in an e-mail. Just because a paper happens to slip past the peer review process does not legitimize it, nor does it change the large body of scientific literature that points to the cause of increased CO2 in the atmosphere - that is the human burning of fossil fuels.
Given that humans are emitting ~38 gigatons of CO2 every year, and that over the past 60 years that global CO2 concentration has increased by over 100 parts per million (ppm), an amount that nature would take 5,000-20,000 years on its own to do stands in stark contrast to Berry's contention.  Berry's paper is sketchy at best, and does nothing to overturn the scientifically accepted premise of the significant human contribution of CO2 to the atmosphere, and it does even less to backup your premise that WV is a climate forcing vice what it is - a feedback to CO2 induced heating of the atmosphere.
But please go ahead and keep saying that WV is the climate forcing that it is not - continually stating mis-information as people like you, Berry, and Lightfoot do does not change the science, it simply counters the truth and leads to unneeded confusion on the part of the public who do not know any better, but is part of a continuing attack on science. It is no different than what flat earthers claim or what COVID-19 charlatans do in pushing de-worming drugs vice a vaccine..
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
How has weather prediction increased in the developing world. Many developed countries have very accurate predictions due to the dense real-time data network for prediction models.
How good is your countries weather prediction?
Here is an example of a very accurate weather prediction