Climate Change - Science topic
Climate Change is an any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Questions related to Climate Change
I would appreciate if you could answer how should I start. I have an access to ground data so data is basically not a problem
I'm now working on the effect of climate change on regional agricultural hydrology processes by using hydrological model. I do know that the CMIP5 data (especailly air temperature, precipitation and et al.) should perform statistical downscaling before driving the model. The NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/derived-near-surface-meteorological-variables?tab=overview) reanalysis data have different resolution. Does anyone know the differences, advantages and disadvantages in detail when using the reanalysis data to drive hydrological model ?
Kindly guide how to arrive at the evaluation of inherent vulnerability to climate change of agriculture sector of the economy?. What are the important parameters to consider? At what scale it is to be evaluated?
I'm part of a project creating a public atlas to document and map people's subjective experiences of extreme weather events. I've included information and a link to a short survey below. Feel free to fill this out yourself, and/or forward to your networks via email, social media, etc. Thanks!
Extreme Weather Events Survey
Ecologies of Harm: Mapping Contexts of Vulnerability in the Time of Covid-19 The University of British Columbia
This is a digital commons project intended to provide equitable access to knowledge.
COVID-19 presents the potential for people and groups to become exposed to harm in new ways. To see the overlapping ways in which these harms may be occurring, we’ve designed a survey for experiences of extreme weather events that are affecting people across the world.
This is a citizen / community observation survey, open to anyone 18 years of age and older who wishes to contribute. Your descriptions will upload directly to an interactive map of the world that is publicly accessible on this website: https://blogs.ubc.ca/ecologiesofharmproject
Your participation is entirely voluntary, and you do not have to answer every question. If you do wish to participate, you do not need to record your name. You may contribute as many observations as you like!
Please share widely, and keep in mind that re-posting, “liking,” or “following,” will be visible to others on public network platforms.
Link to survey: https://arcg.is/fvO4G0
Project Email: Anth.CovidVulnerabilityMap@ubc.ca
Principal Investigator: Dr. Leslie Robertson
What are the most serious problems of civilization development that should be solved as soon as possible? What are the global problems for which research should be developed and solutions to these problems resolved in 2019 and in subsequent years?
One of such research problems, which should not be postponed for an indefinite future, is the need to develop environment-friendly sustainable economic development in order to slow down the adverse process of global warming.
With the warming of the Earth's climate, the risk of more dramatic climate cataclysms, including tsunamis, increases.
Tsunami may be a derivative of the global warming problem. Global warming generates an increase in climate disasters, including more cases of tsunamis.
But not only is the risk of more violent and more dramatic tsunamis rising. Also in recent years, there has been more other types of climate and natural climate catatics, such as droughts, rainstorms, tornadoes and weather anomalies.
At present, it should no longer be asked whether global warming generates an increase in natural disasters only what rate of growth will be recorded in the future? So many data, research centers confirms the progressing process of global warming, that the problem is unquestionable.
More and more data points to the growing risk of climate change, unfavorable for human and life on the Earth, increase of climate disasters, climatic and weather anomalies, which are the result of global warming, rising average annual temperature near the Earth's surface.
Now we should just ask: How can these adverse processes be counteracted? What ecological technologies, renewable energy sources, how to help natural environments, how to rebuild them, such as afforestation, to build natural ecosystems absorbing greenhouse gases?
How to develop ecological business ventures? How to create financing systems for this type of pro-ecological projects? How to dispel international cooperation in this matter? What actions should be taken to move towards the development of a new ecological green economy?
How to develop environmentally sustainable economic development to slow down the unfavorable warming of the Earth's climate?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Energy, especially electricity, has long been recognized as an essential commodity for everyday life in the contemporary world . It is the main driving force of the human, social, and economic development of any nation. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the global electricity generation in 2017 was 25,551 TWh, of which fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) accounted for up to 65% . However, due to their non-renewable nature, these sources are not likely to satisfy the increasing world demand in electricity resulting from the permanent growth in the world’s population and technological advancement. They are declining steadily. A study by Abas et al.  showed that oil, natural gas, and coal would be depleted in 2066, 2068, and 2126, respectively. This situation is the primary cause of the current price volatility and energy supply insecurity. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels releases toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are detrimental to health and contribute to climate change. The consequences of climate change are far and varied, and include increased wildfires, prolonged droughts, stronger tropical storms, and frequent coastal floods .
What is the role of renewable energy in the global energy transformation?
- Karanfil, F.; Li, Y. Electricity consumption and economic growth: Exploring panel-specific differences. Energy Policy 2015, 82, 264–277.
- IEA. Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2017; IEA: Paris, France, 2018.
- Abas, N.; Kalair, A.; Khan, N. Review of fossil fuels and future energy technologies. Futures 2015, 69, 31–49.
- Pachauri, R.K.; Allen, M.R.; Barros, V.R.; Broome, J.; Cramer, W.; Christ, R.; Church, J.A.; Clarke, L.; Dahe, Q.; Dasgupta, P. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014; ISBN 92-9169-143-7.
Trees have different effects on the climate directly or indirectly. These effects emanate from trees’ reactions to varying climate-related factors. Factors such as greenhouse gases emission, production and emission of aerosols, albedo (whiteness), carbon and nitrogen deposition, transpiration and photosynthesis can affect the speed of climate change.
Currently (end of January, beginning of February 2019) in Australia the heat of the centuries has been recorded reaching in some places to almost 50 ° C, and in the USA, in some places now winter has appeared with frosts reaching around minus 50 degrees C.
In recent years, various weather anomalies have appeared more and more.
The recorded increase in weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms may be a derivative of the progressing greenhouse effect, ie the warming of the Earth's climate. This is also confirmed by the numerous climatic cataclysms and weather anomalies that also occurred in the last year of 2018 appear in numerous places on the Earth. In the autumn of 2018, fires of huge forest areas appeared in some areas of the Earth, such as in Scandinavia, California in the USA, Australia, the Iberian Peninsula, Africa, etc. In addition, weather anomalies, e.g. snow and floods in October and November 2018 occurred in the south of Europe. In addition, numerous tornadoes in 2018 in many places on Earth and so on.
Perhaps these problems will get worse. It is necessary to improve security systems and anti-crisis services, improve the prediction of these anomalies and climatic cataclysms so that people can, have managed to get shelter or cope with an imminent cataclysm. One of the technologies that can help in more precise forecasting of these cataclysms is the processing of large collections of historical and current information on this subject in the cloud computing technology in Big Data database systems.
In view of the above, in connection with the increasingly frequent cataclysms and climatic anomalies, perhaps in the future we will be forced to change our assessment of particular seasons, and for example favorite in some climatic zones, summer will no longer be universally recognized as a positive season, if at this time will often appear increasingly higher temperatures, droughts, fires, tornadoes, etc.
In connection with the above, I would like to ask you:
Are the current weather anomalies the effect of global warming?
In addition to CO2, methane is also one of the main greenhouse gases, and in a few dozen years, when the eternal scarifier on the Siberian tundra and other places of the Arctic Circle methane can become an even more significant greenhouse gas.
Besides, the analyzes of cyclical activity of the Sun conducted by cosmologists show that in a few decades the activity of sunspots and more harmful to life and more intense energetically will reach the Earth's wavelengths of visible and invisible spectrum.
The increase in temperature will cause desertification of green areas, drying of biomass and an increase in the scale and amount of emerging fires and volcanic eruptions. these processes will intensify and accelerate the global warming process that is currently under way faster and faster.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Why according to the forecasts of climatologists, the global warming process in the next few decades can significantly accelerate?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
I am looking for an advisor to help me in my PhD dissertation in "crop mapping field of climate change conditions.
Do you accept my offer?
please send me your relative researches?
I usually download future climate data from Worldclim.org.
Their website says that "Data at 30-seconds spatial resolution is expected to be available by the end of March 2020", however, this has not materialized . . . https://www.worldclim.org/data/cmip6/cmip6climate.html
Does anyone know of alternative sources to download future data at this (1km) resolution?
Air-sea gas exchange is a physio-chemical process, primarily controlled by the air-sea difference in gas concentrations and the exchange coefficient, which determines how quickly a molecule of gas can move across the ocean-atmosphere boundary. It takes about one year to equilibrate CO2 in the surface ocean with atmospheric CO2, so it is not unusual to observe large air-sea differences in CO2 concentrations. Most of the differences are caused by variability in the oceans due to biology and ocean circulation. (Source: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/Ocean+Carbon+Uptake)
i need solutions based in intentional communities, i read a couple papers but it seems to be more a diagnosis than an actually concise solution.
i need more info about how to have a climate governance that actually works in local communities than a large worldwide solution.
It is sort of funny how the world turns around. Four years ago when I started my PhD, I was asking 'environmentally active citizens', who take part in community energy and food sharing projects about, how do they think their initiatives relate to Climate Change. Most of the people could not directly connect to Climate Action. Often, it rarely made top 3 of the priorities of their initiatives
Now, four years later, everyone seems to be obsessed climate marches, climate strikes and other forms of peaceful protest.
It just leaves me with the questions of which type of action is more effective, taking small steps in improving your livelihood or marching in massive swarms? Surely, marches and mass protest are easier to be picked up by news and political agendas than small community projects but where is the silver lining?
"CDO" is a LINUX based operation for evaluating climate data.
Could any one assists me by means of installing or utilizing CDO on Windows operation systems?
The threats that global warming has recently posed to humans in many parts of the world have led us to continue this debate.
So the main question is that what actions need to be taken to reduce the risk of climate warming?
Reducing greenhouse gases now seems an inevitable necessity.
In this part in addition to the aforementioned main question, other specific well-known subjects from previous discussion are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
% ---------------- *** Updated Discussions of Global Warming (section 1) *** ---------------%
The rate of mean temperature of the earth has been increased almost twice with respect to 60 years ago, it is a fact (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, GISS, data). Still a few questions regarding physical processes associated with global warming remain unanswered or at least need more clarification. So the causes and prediction of this trend are open questions. The most common subjects are listed below:
1) "Greenhouse effect increases temperature of the earth, so we need to diminish emission of CO2 and other air pollutants." The logic behind this reasoning is that the effects of other factors like the sun's activity (solar wind contribution), earth rotation orbit, ocean CO2 uptake, volcanoes activities, etc are not as important as greenhous effect. Is the ocean passive in the aforementioned scenario?
2) Two major physical turbulent fluids, the oceans and the atmosphere, interacting with each other, each of them has different circulation timescale, for the oceans it is from year to millennia that affects heat exchange. It is not in equilibrium with sun instantaneously. For example the North Atlantic Ocean circulation is quasi-periodic with recurrence period of about 7 kyr. So the climate change always has occurred. Does the timescale of crucial players (NAO, AO, oceans, etc) affect the results?
3) Energy of the atmospheric system including absorption and re-emission is about 200 Watt/m2 ; the effect of CO2 is about how many percent to this budget ( 2% or more?), so does it have just a minor effect or not?
4) Climate system is a multi-factor process and there exists a natural modes of temperature variations. How anthropogenic CO2 emissions makes the natural temperature variations out of balance.
6) Some weather and climate models that are based on primitive equations are able to reproduce reliable results. Are the available models able to predict future decadal variability exactly? How much is the uncertainty of the results. An increase in CO2 apparently leads in higher mean temperature value due to radiative transfer.
7) How is global warming related to extreme weather events?
Some of the consequences of global warming are frequent rainfall, heat waves, and cyclones. If we accept global warming as an effect of anthropogenic fossil fuels, how can we stop the increasing trend of temperature anomaly and switching to clean energies?
8) What are the roles of sun activities coupled with Milankovitch cycles?
9) What are the roles of politicians to alarm the danger of global warming? How much are scientists sensitive to these decisions?
10) How much is the CO2’s residence time in the atmosphere? To answer this question precisely, we need to know a good understanding of CO2 cycle.
11) Clean energy reduces toxic buildups and harmful smog in air and water. So, how much building renewable energy generation and demanding for clean energy is urgent?
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 2) *** ---------------%
Warming of the climate system in the recent decades is unequivocal; nevertheless, in addition to a few scientific articles that show the greenhouse gases and human activity as the main causes of global warming, still the debate is not over and some opponents claim that these effects have minor effects on human life. Some relevant topics/criticisms about global warming, causes, consequences, the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), etc are putting up for discussion and debate:
1) All the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro-fluorocarbons, including HCFCs and HFCs, and ozone) account for about a tenth of one percent of the atmosphere. Based on Stefan–Boltzmann law in basic physics, if you consider the earth with the earth's albedo (a measure of the reflectivity of a surface) in a thermal balance, that is: the power radiated from the earth in terms of its temperature = Solar flux at the earth's cross section, you get Te =(1-albedo)^0.25*Ts.*sqrt(Rs/(2*Rse)), where Te (Ts) is temperature at the surface of the earth (Sun), Rs: radius of the Sun, Rse: radius of the earth's orbit around the Sun. This simplified equation shows that Te depends on these four variables: albedo, Ts, Rs, Rse. Just 1% variation in the Sun's activity lead to variation of the earth's surface temperature by about half a degree.
1.1) Is the Sun's surface (photosphere layer) temperature (Ts) constant?
1.2) How much is the uncertainty in measuring the Sun's photosphere layer temperature?
1.3) Is solar irradiance spectrum universal?
1.4) Is the earth's orbit around the sun (Rse) constant?
1.5) Is the radius of the Sun (Rs) constant?
1.6) Is the largeness of albedo mostly because of clouds or the man-made greenhouse gases?
So the sensitivity of global mean temperature to variation of tracer gases is one of the main questions.
2) A favorable climate model essentially is a coupled non-linear chaotic system; that is, it is not appropriate for the long term future prediction of climate states. So which type of models are appropriate?
3) Dramatic temperature oscillations were possible within a human lifetime in the past. So there is nothing to worry about. What is wrong with the scientific method applied to extract temperature oscillations in the past from Greenland ice cores or shifts in types of pollen in lake beds?
4) IPCC Assessment Reports,
IPCC's reports are known as some of the reliable sources of climate change, although some minor shortcomings have been observed in them.
4.1) "What is Wrong With the IPCC? Proposals for a Radical Reform" (Ross McKitrick):
IPCC has provided a few climate-change Assessment Reports during last decades. Is a radical reform of IPCC necessary or we should take all the IPCC alarms seriously? What is wrong with Ross argument? The models that are used by IPCC already captured a few crudest features of climate change.
4.2) The sort of typical issues of IPCC reports:
- The summary reports focus on those findings that support the human interference theory.
- Some arguments are based on this assumption that the models account for most major sources of variation in the global mean temperature anomaly.
- "Correlation does not imply causation", in some Assessment Reports, results gained from correlation method instead of investigating the downstream effects of interventions or a double-blind controlled trial; however, the conclusions are with a level of reported uncertainty.
4.3) Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) also has produced some massive reports to date.
4.4) Is the NIPCC a scientific or a politically biased panel? Can NIPCC climate reports be trusted?
4.5) What is wrong with their scientific methodology?
5) Changes in the earth's surface temperature cause changes in upper level cirrus and consequently radiative balance. So the climate system can increase its cooling processes by these types of feedbacks and adjust to imbalances.
6) What is your opinion about political intervention and its effect upon direction of research budget?
I really appreciate all the researchers who have had active participation with their constructive remarks in these discussion series.
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 3) *** ---------------%
In this part other specific well-known subjects are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
1) Still there is no convincing theorem, with a "very low range of uncertainty", to calculate the response of climate system in terms of the averaged global surface temperature anomalies with respect to the total feedback factors and greenhouse gases changes. In the classical formula applied in the models a small variation in positive feedbacks leads to a considerable changes in the response (temperature anomaly) while a big variation in negative feedbacks causes just small variations in the response.
2) NASA satellite data from the years 2000 through 2011 indicate the Earth's atmosphere is allowing far more heat to be emitted into space than computer models have predicted (i.e. Spencer and Braswell, 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3081603). Based on this research "the response of the climate system to an imposed radiative imbalance remains the largest source of uncertainty. It is concluded that atmospheric feedback diagnosis of the climate system remains an unsolved problem, due primarily to the inability to distinguish between radiative forcing and radiative feedback in satellite radiative budget observations." So the contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming is exaggerated in the models used by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). What is wrong with this argument?
3) Ocean Acidification
Ocean acidification is one of the consequences of CO2 absorption in the water and a main cause of severe destabilising the entire oceanic food-chain.
4) The IPCC reports which are based on a range of model outputs suffer somehow from a range of uncertainty because the models are not able to implement appropriately a few large scale natural oscillations such as North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino, Southern ocean oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, deep ocean circulations, Sun's surface temperature, etc. The problem with correlation between historical observations of the global averaged surface temperature anomalies with greenhouse gases forces is that it is not compared with all other natural sources of temperature variability. Nevertheless, IPCC has provided a probability for most statements. How the models can be improved more?
5) If we look at micro-physics of carbon dioxide, theoretically a certain amount of heat can be trapped in it as increased molecular kinetic energy by increasing vibrational and rotational motions of CO2, but nothing prevents it from escaping into space. During a specific relaxation time, the energetic carbon dioxide comes back to its rest statement.
6) As some alarmists claim there exists a scientific consensus among the scientists. Nevertheless, even if this claim is true, asking the scientists to vote on global warming because of human made greenhouse gases sources does not make sense because the scientific issues are not based on the consensus; indeed, appeal to majority/authority fallacy is not a scientific approach.
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 4) *** ---------------%
In this part in addition to new subjects, I have highlighted some of responses from previous sections for further discussion. Please leave you comments to support/weaken any of the following statements:
1) @Harry ten Brink recapitulated a summary of a proof that CO2 is such an important Greenhouse component/gas. Here is a summary of this argument:
"a) Satellites' instruments measure the radiation coming up from the Earth and Atmosphere.
b) The emission of CO2 at the maximum of the terrestrial radiation at 15 micrometer.
b1. The low amount of this radiation emitted upwards: means that "back-radiation" towards the Earth is high.
b2. Else said the emission is from a high altitude in the atmosphere and with more CO2 the emission is from an even higher altitude where it is cooler. That means that the emission upwards is less. This is called in meteorology a "forcing", because it implies that less radiation /energy is emitted back into space compared to the energy coming in from the sun.
The atmosphere warms so the energy out becomes equals the solar radiation coming in. Summary of the Greenhouse Effect."
At first glance, this reasoning seems plausible. It is based on these assumptions that the contribution of CO2 is not negligible and any other gases like N2O or Ozone has minor effect. The structure of this argument is supported by an article by Schmidt et al., 2010:
By using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE radiation module, the authors claim that "water vapor is the dominant contributor (∼50% of the effect), followed by clouds (∼25%) and then CO2 with ∼20%. All other absorbers play only minor roles. In a doubled CO2 scenario, this allocation is essentially unchanged, even though the magnitude of the total greenhouse effect is significantly larger than the initial radiative forcing, underscoring the importance of feedbacks from water vapour and clouds to climate sensitivity."
The following notions probably will shed light on the aforementioned argument for better understanding the premises:
Q1) Is there any observational data to support the overall upward/downward IR radiation because of CO2?
Q2) How can we separate practically the contribution of water vapor from anthropogenic CO2?
Q3) What are the deficiencies of the (GISS) ModelE radiation module, if any?
Q4) Some facts, causes, data, etc relevant to this argument, which presented by NASA, strongly support this argument (see: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/)
Q5) Stebbins et al, (1994) showed that there exists "A STRONG INFRARED RADIATION FROM MOLECULAR NITROGEN IN THE NIGHT SKY" (thanks to @Brendan Godwin for mentioning about this paper). As more than 78% of the dry air contains nitrogen, so the contribution of this element is not negligible too.
2) The mean global temperature is not the best diagnostic to study the sensitivity to global forcing. Because given a change in this mean value, it is almost impossible to attribute it to global forcing. Zonal and meridional distribution of heat flux and temperature are not uniform on the earth, so although the mean temperature value is useful, we need a plausible map of spatial variation of temperature .
3) "The IPCC model outputs show that the equilibrium response of mean temperature to a doubling of CO2 is about 3C while by the other observational approaches this value is less than 1C." (R. Lindzen)
4) What is the role of the thermohaline circulation (THC) in global warming (or the other way around)? It is known that during Heinrich events and Dansgaard‐Oeschger (DO) millennial oscillations, the climate was subject to a number of rapid cooling and warming with a rate much more than what we see in recent decades. In the literature, these events were most probably associated with north-south shifts in convection location of the THC. The formation speed of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) affects northerly advection velocity of the warm subtropical waters that would normally heat/cool the atmosphere of Greenland and western Europe.
I really appreciate all the researchers who have participated in this discussion with their useful remarks, particularly Harry ten Brink, Filippo Maria Denaro, Tapan K. Sengupta, Jonathan David Sands, John Joseph Geibel, Aleš Kralj, Brendan Godwin, Ahmed Abdelhameed, Jorge Morales Pedraza, Amarildo de Oliveira Ferraz, Dimitris Poulos, William Sokeland, John M Wheeldon, Michael Brown, Joseph Tham, Paul Reed Hepperly, Frank Berninger, Patrice Poyet, Michael Sidiropoulos, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, and Boris Winterhalter.
Bitcoin mining requires large computing power and therefore large amounts of electricity. Most of the electricity used by Bitcoin miners around the world comes from fossil fuel power plants. This leads to global carbon emissions and environmental pollution. In November 2021, the Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance estimated that Bitcoin’s annualized power consumption is 115 TWh, which is almost as large as the annual electricity consumption of Poland – a country with 38 million citizens. Given the large and growing environmental concerns across the world and the planned actions of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, is the long-term outlook for Bitcoin applications negative? Is Bitcoin cursed with its inherent ‘proof of work’ and mining mechanism? Are the long-term external costs of the Bitcoin ecosystem too large as compared with the potential benefits offered by this cryptocurrency? Is the demise of Bitcoin inevitable in the long term? Can ways be found whereby Bitcoin’s negative environmental impact might be significantly reduced?
We understand that there are many impacts due to climate change. High temperature causes wild fire whereas heavy rainfall induces landslides. I would like to know if developing forest with heat-resistant trees can contribute to the reduction of impacts of climate change.
As we all would appreciate that the current agenda of "Global Warming and Climate Change" is threatening seriously the ECOSYSTEM of the world including plants, animals, and humans. Regarding Climate Change, International leading authorities enforce the countries worldwide to adopt the preparatory conditions (mainly limiting the CARBON emissions and increasing the usage of GREEN and sustainable energy) according to the Climatic Agreement settled in Paris (F). Further, regarding Global Warming, officials in Geography and Geology seriously warn us that global warming (excessive heat) has to be limited up to 3 degrees Celcius (or by 1.7 degrees Celcius ideally) by the end of 2100. As we can see clearly that global (drinkable) water sources of any kind have already started to decrease dramatically preventing normal water supply for drinking and irrigation. Sudden and excessive raining damages the cities and countries (Northern part (Black Sea region) of Turkey and some countries in Europe (e.g. Germany).
Considering the excess level in global heat, we see the fast disappearance of the snow masses on the top of the mountains (mountain Himalaya, Nepal), faster melting in the persistent large snow masses in Antarctica continent, drought in agriculture, shorter rainy/snowy season, and longer summer heat (e.g. AFRICA), common fires, such as in Amazones (Latin America), Italy, Greece (Europe), and Turkey (Eurasia), and enlarged arid areas everywhere in the world.
Ruminants are known to produce some critical gases such as carbon dioxide-CO2, "methane-CH4", and nitrous oxide-N2O that the excess levels are undesirable for the Universe as leading to global warming and climate change afterwards. Considering the ANIMAL WELFARE in high yielding Dairy/Twinning Ruminants (e.g. Holstein Cows, Chios ewes, Saanen does), both the scientists and other stakeholders (such as animal owners, caretakers, marketing officials, consumers, and Food/Health officials) have to pay urgent attention to provide "comfort" level to the farm animals (ruminants in particular) for breeding, feeding, and husbandry.
In this regard, once again, we would like to draw the attention of colleagues who are much more concerned with the well-being of the universe including heavy load workers -RUMINANTS-producing much of the animal protein needed (namely meat and milk). In this respect, cattle and buffaloes need much water (around 17-18 Liter to produce 1 kg unite of meat as compared to those of sheep and goats (around 8 Liter per unit ) and pigs and poultry (6 Liter or even lesser per unit). So, it appears that a REALLY hard task is awaiting in front of us to be dealt with utmost care for strategic planning and then implemented in all the sectors involved.
Thank you all for your valuable contributions.
The current challenges at European and global level have involved the development of innovative financial instruments, with direct consequences for public institutions, businesses, jobs and households. In order to ensure the continued availability of sufficient liquidity on the market in the context of climate change, to counteract the damage caused to healthy businesses and to maintain the continuity of economic activity during these challenges (pandemic, financial and fiscal digitalization, climate change), achieve solutions to support the national economy in the short, medium and long term, both through complementary financial instruments and European Union financing programs, the effects of the current multi-crisis being both in the short term, but especially in the medium and long term.
I am trying to use Infocrop model for climate change effect. I have imported csv file of daily weather data from 1971-2002 into infocrop. It has successfully created the 32 files and CLI file also. When I create the project and use the weather file, it does not list out the years in the pull down. So please tell me the what is the reason and how to solve, or is their any other way to import the weather file,
Thanks in advance.
Dear fellow researchers,
I have a question concerning LCZ modelling for a masterplan. My case study is on a new city the city is still under construction not completed yet. I want to classify it's masterplan to LCZ to evaluate its behavior from an urban climate point of view. Is it possible to create a map of LCZ since the remote sensing is not an option in this case because nothing is completely built. Can you recommend a tool that I could work with
Thank you in advance.
Subject Intro: Fluid Dynamics and Climate Change
A. The factors causing Climate Change and the impacts are in some way related to Energy from Sun, Flow of Glaciers, Flow of Rivers, Ocean Currents, Air flows in Atmosphere etc (GeoPhysics)
Fluid Dynamics of Ocean and Atmosphere: http://student.mit.edu/catalog/m12c.html
B. Besides it also changes the fluid flow in plants for nutrient uptake. Fluid motion is vital to the function of healthy plants. Flow in the xylem has traditionally been modelled using Poiseuille’s law for motion in a straight capillary tube of circular cross-section. In reality the geometry is highly complex.
Longer summers, Hotter summers, Rainfall pattern changes cause the plants to grow differently.
Conference Paper Computational fluid dynamics analysis of greenhouses with ar...July 2005, Conference: EFITA/WCCA Joint Conference, Eliseu Monteiro
Preprint Mechanics of a Plant in Fluid Flow
C. The mitigation measures, solutions, new equipment design involves Fluid Dynamics applications
Industrial scrubbers are pollution control devices that use liquid to wash unwanted pollutants from a gas stream, or that inject a dry reagent or slurry into a dirty exhaust stream to "wash out" acid gases. Industrial scrubbers are one of the primary devices that control gaseous emissions, especially acid gases.
As stated above. I have a group of trees from two different environments that consists of sets of half-siblings and I'd like to test their plasticity to a climate change variable. Is this a valid approach since they are only expected to share one quarter of their genes? Thank you!
Currently, the UN climate summit in Katowice is taking place in Katowice. COP (Conference of the Parties) on climate policy on Earth. UN climate summits, i.e. COP (Conference of the Parties) are global conferences during which climate policy actions are negotiated. Poland twice hosted them - in 2008 in Poznań and in 2013 in Warsaw. In December 2018, the climate summit is held for the first time now in Katowice in Poland.
During this summit, conferences are held, discussions are held on the need to develop a sustainable development policy and the need for development of ecological, renewable energy sources in order to generate a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the future and ultimately reduce the average annual temperature rise on the Earth's surface. From the discussions it follows that it is necessary to develop eco-innovations, new pro-ecological energy sources, development of electromobility of transport means. It is necessary to develop and implement on a large scale renewable energy sources. In addition, it is important to increase the scale of afforestation, as forests and the flora contained in them absorb a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions.
As part of this year's UN Climate Summit, the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP24), 14th Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 14) and the Conference of the Paris Agreement signatories (CMA 1) are held. About 20,000 people from 190 countries participate in the event, including politicians, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and scientific and business spheres.
Perhaps during this UN climate summit important and specific agreements, declarations and signed agreements on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will be taken. The present lectures show that in recent years the warming process of the Earth's climate has accelerated significantly and therefore, in the black scenario of future climate changes, the temperature on the Earth's surface can rise by 4 ° C to the end of the 21st century. If this happened, then the scale of climate-related cataclysms that are dangerous to humans, including droughts, floods, fires and weather anomalies in many places around the world, will increase many times. The problem is very serious globally and therefore a lot depends on whether international cooperation will develop in order to limit these problems and their negative effects.
In view of the above, I would like to ask you: Should you think that international cooperation should increase to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on Earth? In addition, another key question arises: how much of this international cooperation is possible, to what extent will real and effective measures be undertaken on the basis of the discussions and declarations undertaken to reduce greenhouse gases?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Data source: http://cop24.katowice.eu
Dear group; I want to confes my happy moment when I found you. I am working my PhD reserch and one of the most important parts is to social sensitive perception abouth climatic change, focus in Nahuatl Ethnic Group. Thanks by this electronic space and be been here.
G A B Y
Dear Researchers: Decent citations have been received to a recently (Mar'21) published paper on one of the traditional water harvesting systems practiced in India (for the last 2,500 years!!!). Quite unexpected to witness the emerging interest of modern researchers in ancient technologies. Is it there at your end?
I've noticed that the majority of climate change modelling research focuses on predicting the impact of specific species under various climate change scenarios. I'm curious if any other research can be done with sdm. If so, please share with me. Please let me know if you want to collaborate on a publication. I'm looking for a professional with whom I can collaborate
Do you think that traditional vernacular type constructions are more adapted to climate change? how can you describe this resilience effectiveness in your region compared with modern construction methods ?
Climate change will likely increase the occurrence of extreme events in Europe, negatively affecting crop production. Are there comprehensive studies on the effects of excessive rainfall on crop production? Are there biophysical models capable of capturing the effects of excessive rainfall on crop yields?
- Does normative legal philosophy also have a potential critical function vis-à-vis existing, empirically provable injustice where the injustice is not so much promoted or brought about by discriminatory laws, incorrect court rulings or actions contrary to human rights in the sense of an ideology, but rather by legislative and political laissez-faire or even omission (cf. e.g. mediterranean migrant crisis, anthropogenic climate change or pandemics)? From my point of view, this should be the case (but where is it explicitly stated and conceptually discussed?).
- Which concepts from the field of normative legal philosophy/ legal ethics could be used to transparently and rationally criticise such state and supranational omissions from a normative perspective? Should new concepts of legal ethics be developed, can existing concepts be adapted? Who are the primary addressees? From my point of view, the minimum connection between law, serving as the basis of state action, and justice, which can be assessed against Radbruch's formula, enables a normative evaluation of state and supranational omissions, but also provides the contours for corresponding (political) duties to act.
What is your opinion regarding these issues?
Some legal philosophical approaches to these questions can be found in my paper "Extreme Wrong Committed by National and Supranational Inactivity: Analyzing the Mediterranean Migrant Crisis and Climate Change from a Legal Philosophical Perspective", Göttingen 2021.
Current climatic disturbances have direct effects on mountain farming practices. What obvious changes are taking place in your country? Are there any obvious changes in obtaining vegetables in mountain homegardens, increasing the frequency of phytopathologies or in the period of animal housing?
Does it help for work to discover the potential capabilities of native breeds and follow selection programs for their genetic traits effectively in facing the current challenges of climate change?
Many observations and calculations of the atmospheric absorption can be found, but it would appear very few studies on climate had explicitly applied the basic radiative transfer equation in different forms, including scattering and atmospheric radiation. If you know any relevent references or your own papers to share, that would be wonderful.
I would like to know your opinion about what are currently the greatest unsolved problems or opportunities for further research in palaeoclimatology.
I want to know your thoughts, can digital currency projects estimate the reliable value of ecosystem services on a global scale?
I've been researching literature related to the effects the land-use (namely, agriculture) has on climate change; precipitation patterns, temperature, wind circulation, etc.
I'm not sure if I'm looking in the right place so I need to know some renowned journals that actually had papers tackling similar research interest and/or researchers who have published papers on this topic.
Also would be extra thankful if you could provide good research engines (in addition to Google Scholar) that can aid in this research.
We have looked AOD data from aeronet site. However, we found a large amount of data is missing for different stations of Nepal. Do you aware of some satellite data for AOD over the regions of Kathmandu? If yes, please let us know the website for data download. Thank you.
Is it true that in climatic cycles FIRST TEMPERATURE rises, and some or hundred years later also the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere?
Is it right that this theory would implicate, that rising CO2 concentration in the air itsself is not the real primary reason for climate change of today, as I got told?
Other times does this mean, that even when TEMPERATURE in the atmosphere drop, CO2 drops yet far more later in years or hundred years ?
This cycle would also thrive the up and downgoing ice ages. Is it true?
How has weather prediction increased in the developing world. Many developed countries have very accurate predictions due to the dense real-time data network for prediction models.
How good is your countries weather prediction?
Here is an example of a very accurate weather prediction
We are aware that a shift in monsoon peak discharge may have an adverse impact on several water-based applications such as agriculture, dam operations, etc. E.g.
In my country, more than a dozen years ago or more, there were real winters with snow and frost after the autumn. Whereas last winter, during the last few years it looked like autumn, without snow and positive temperatures. I think that the greenhouse effect, ie the warming of the Earth's climate, has already begun. This is also confirmed by numerous climatic cataclysms and weather anomalies, which in the current year 2018 appear in numerous places on the Earth. In some parts of the Earth there are fires of huge forest areas such as in Scandinavia, California in the USA, Australia, the Iberian Peninsula, Africa, etc. In addition, weather anomalies, e.g. snow and floods in October and November in the south of Europe.
In addition, tornadoes in many places on Earth and so on.
Perhaps these problems will get worse. It is necessary to improve security systems and anti-crisis services, improve the prediction of these anomalies and climatic cataclysms so that people can, have managed to shelter or cope with the imminent cataclysm. One of the technologies that can help in more precise forecasting of these cataclysms is the processing of large collections of historical and current information on this subject in the cloud computing technology in Big Data database systems.
Therefore, I am asking you: Will new data processing technologies in Big Data database systems allow for accurate prediction of climate disasters?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
I'm a premaster student and I'm about to work on my thesis which I have decided to revolve around climate change. The main issue is; I never studied climate change in the undergrad courses, I'm mainly a civil engineering graduate with good background in hydrology in the industry and academia and I want to know what sort of papers or courses should I read and study to be able to get started on this specific topic; especially related to water resources engineering and hydrological applications?
Citing Surendra Adhikari at NASA, I would like to ask how it is possible to claim that the North Pole drift is caused by climate change:
"Climate change does not only cause the rise of the oceans, it also disturbs the magnetic field of the Earth. "There has been a dramatic change in the direction of pole drift, undoubtedly caused by climate change, which is linked to the disappearance of the ice sheets, especially in Greenland," said Surendra Adhikari, researcher at the NASA. The North Pole has lost 278 gigatonnes of ice since the beginning of the third millennium. As a result, the magnetic north pole moves eastward, and faster than before. The melting of ice would account for 66% in the acceleration of the phenomenon."
The magnetic pole drift is caused by the magnetic field strength of the North American flux lobe and the Siberian flux lobe (Ref: 1, 2, Figure 1). This is also based on a comparison with the magnetic South Pole in Antarctica, which is immobile and entirely surrounded by ocean, while the magnetic North Pole is driven by continental mineral density of the two major continents forming large magnetic fields. These mineral densities of the Siberian and Canadian regions are fluctuating with the activity of the internal core and the rotation of the iron core of the earth, seismic activity and change in mineral composition of the mantel over several years. The geomagnetic properties of these region can change drastically by the alterations of the electromagnetic field of the planet Earth, which is also affected by the electromagnetic field of the Sun. How can NASA claim that the North pole ice, which is virtually the same as water around Antarctica in magnitude of electromagnetic strength, alter the position of the magnetic North Pole?
1. Gubbins, David, and Peter Kelly. "Persistent patterns in the geomagnetic field over the past 2.5 Myr." Nature 365.6449 (1993): 829.
2. St-Onge, Guillaume, and Joseph S. Stoner. "Paleomagnetism near the north magnetic pole: a unique vantage point for understanding the dynamics of the geomagnetic field and its secular variations." Oceanography 24.3 (2011): 42-50.
Can you please suggest a journal covering climate change, environment and development policy, which has a comparatively quick editorial process?
The idea of a tree belt in Africa may be fine and helpy, but it is also realistic when then land is missing for nourishing the people? In the Kagera district I saw in reality daily GREEN (!) trees cutting people carrying with bicycles from thinning forests only to make for cooking with open fire with green tree stems extremely energy lossy breakfast, lunch or dinner for their families.
I saw the full tree covered Rubondo National Park in Tanzanias Victoria sea, but here where nature is tree covered, no people would find enough human food. But reforestation of cleared areas I find always a good and sustainable practice. If you fly over Tanzania most land is deforested for crops for food production.
Are not models saying that tropical ecosystems will store less carbon in a warmer climate while at high latitudes warming will increase storage of carbon in trees (10.1016/B978-0-12-382225-3.00095-5) ?
So what helps more to help people?
Or people should not be helped and more delivered to their destiny as nature itself does regulation overpopulation and undergoing in a Social Darwinism kind?
Hi, there. I am currently gathering some ideas on my Myster's thesis. The disciplines I am passionate about:
- Humanitarian response,
-The Human right to healthy environment,
- Sustainable developemnt,
- Climate change.
As I cannot possible go through all existing literature but want to write a meaningful thesis, I will be happy to learn from a knowlegable audience what are the research gaps in the mentioned areas. Thank you!
Electrical vehicles have been touted as one of the major ways to combat global climate change. Without combustion of fossil fuel producing gases harmful for human health is a major step towards using electric vehicles but it requires some drastic steps to replace the gas fired vehicles. The cost of vehicles and the lack of supercharging stations are some of the obstacles need to be overcome before making it a potential solution. Unfortunately, this type vehicles are not yet available in many countries. What are your comments?
As it is evident that tropical climate has more variability than sub-tropical climate. Whether this causes difficulties while developing hydrological, climatological, or meteorological models for tropical regions? OR Can we attribute these phenomena as the reason for better models being developed in sub-tropical regions? Kindly comment, please. Thank you!
Who has done or wants to do research on how technology can scale moral courage--can make it far easier to recruit &commit critical mass numbers of volunteers for nonviolent civil resistance. campaigns? And how can I reach them to invite them to a brainstorm session (maybe several) on what might be the behavioral levers that are most likely to motivate most "concerned" but not activist people to minimize their fears sufficiently and inspire "their better angels" to commit to tactics that history has proven are the most effective for achieving positive system change in the battles against greed, racism, autocracy and ignorance; to be able to recruit the numbers necessary to vastly improve our chances to save what is still savable of Mother Nature and democracy in the little time we have left.' Entre to senior level programmers, or crowdfunding social media mavens would also be especially appreciated, as well as possible research interns. Any location.
Are there any climatological trials to increase the C02 concentration in rates like of 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 10.000 ppm of the air in volumes sizes like of plastic balloons, round-bottom flasks glass or in glass houses and coincidentally observing and measuring the air temperature during variable day sunshine irradiation and how temperature behaves or rises really - also in presence of different rates of earth like materials like water, soil and plants like on earth surface conditions and also with only the presence of air?
Ad hoc I could not find any results.
What are possible applications of Machine Learning in ArcGIS ?
Assuming we have very detailed DTM Data about surface around lets say a glacier impending to fall into a lake resulting in a deadly outburst flood (GLOF).
a) Forecasting the hazard of this melting glacier one could predict the ice-thickness.
Do you have other ideas?
Tags: Remote Sensing, QGis, ArcGIS, Drone Images, Climate Change, Risk Management, Machine Learning, AI
Prefatory, it may be, because this year the radiations and greenhouse gases interaction feedback processes on different timescale (one of the main factor in monsoon dynamics) which makes the monsoon predictability erratic is not expected to add much uncertainty in the prediction system due to the substantial reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions. Implies, may be an upper hand for potential predictive models in the line. Recall that model ability to predict the SW monsoon is higher with initial conditions been used for the month of Feb., March, April (this years these are main lockdown month in the world when atmosphere is not invaded by atmospheric gases) than months closer to the SW monsoon. On other side, can be also be test bed for the models have near accurate long rage forecasting tendency with early months (as mentioned above) initial conditions.
Over all it may be also be manifested that NATURE can be predicted correctly if it is not disturbed. BUT if we keep on disturbing it then predictability may not be that easy and precise.
If yes, then "Commendations" to the accurate predictability of the monsoon system will be higher this year, I think. Good! This may also considered because of Nature natural tendency is higher this year apart from having well resolved and improved interannual and climate systems predictability aspects in the modelling systems, etc...
Nature is in NATURAL swing. Enjoy and try to be safe! But we should also be ready for the monsoon system predictability in the times to come or years to come when emissions will again be dumped in the earth system. It will certainly obstruct the prediction realities. Consistency is the accuracy in the prediction should be addressed responsibly.
What’s your take on that!
The World Environment Day 2020: Call for Book Chapters
Greetings of the day!
The World Environment Day (WED) is commemorated on 5th June of every year to promote awareness about the importance of conserving the environment for our better future and sustainability. The foods we eat, the air we breathe, the water we drink, all comes from nature. We are entirely dependent on nature’s services. The theme for this year’s World Environment Day is biodiversity. The more biodiverse an ecosystem is, the more difficult it is for one pathogen to spread rapidly or dominate; whereas, biodiversity loss provides the opportunity for pathogens to pass between animals and people. Human actions, including deforestation, encroachment on wildlife habitats, intensified agriculture, and acceleration of climate change, have disturbed the delicate balance of nature. We have changed the system that would naturally protect us and have created conditions that allow particular pathogens–including coronaviruses–to spread.
I am delighted to inform you that the Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University is going to publish a book to commemorate the World Environment Day-2020 (WED-2020). The title of the planned Book is ‘BIODIVERSITY FOR SUSTAINABILITY – Challenges and Perspectives in the Post-Pandemic Era.’ You are cordially invited to contribute a chapter for this purpose-driven Book.
Advantages of Publishing:
- This Book will be published to commemorate the World Environment Day 2020, and you will be part of it.
- Wide visibility, as the Book will be made available online and through online e-book platforms.
- The ISBN and ISBN barcode will be allotted to the Book.
- Authors will get an e-copy of their published chapter.
- The publication is FREE OF CHARGE, as there is no Article Processing Charge (APC), and no publication Fee.
- Authors will submit their Manuscripts: Before 30 June 2020
- Completion of the review process: 10 July 2020
- Completion of Corrections & Proof Reading: 17 July 2020
- Book Publication: 31 July 2020 (tentative)
- *AIMST University reserves the rights to change the stated dates
The guidelines for the authors to prepare a Chapter manuscript and its submission are appended with this post.
Positively, I am looking forward to hearing from you.
P.S.: Please feel free to extend this invitation to your friends, if you feel they can contribute a chapter.
Dr Subhash J Bhore
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University, Bedong-Semeling Road, 08100 Bedong, Semeling, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia; Email: email@example.com OR firstname.lastname@example.org
Some banks conducting an analysis of the creditworthiness of an enterprise applying for a long-term investment or mortgage loan take into account the issues of climate change, if these changes may affect the business profitability of a specific lending business venture. For example, in the case of a hotel application for a long-term investment loan operating on the sea, the level of which can rise and flood the hotel area.
Another example is a hotel located in the mountains, where winter sports tourists come. Climate change predictions may indicate that 10 years of snow will no longer be the place where this hotel in the mountains provides its services. Therefore, the bank may not grant credit due to the forecasted secondary effects of progressive climate changes and, above all, the rising average temperature.
On the other hand, companies are developing which produce components for new power plants producing electricity as part of renewable energy sources, produce electric car equipment components, e.g. electric motors, batteries, etc. More and more innovative startups are being produced as part of cooperation with large enterprises and renewable energy plants Wind turbine type subassemblies, charging devices for electric cars, etc. Other companies manufacture packaging from recycled materials, recycled or from biodegradable materials.
Other companies are developing innovative solutions for automatic sorting of rubbish. If eco-friendly products become popular and the state creates good institutional, legal and financial conditions for the development of such projects, then the process of implementing sustainable green economy based on the green economy concept will be implemented more quickly and business probes will become more and more profitable. Financial institutions, including banks, will gradually take into consideration eco-friendly processes and business activities of clients in concluded financial transactions.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Are there banks and / or companies that take into account forecasted climate changes in their business decisions?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Can any one help me, I have problem with this pollens, I think they are Cupressaceae( In particular Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus), but I'm not sure about that. In general, this pollens are round and have a small cavity. The following figures shows some of them.
I'm researching about MIS2 (30,000-11,000 B.P) in the Central Zagros, specifically Kermanshah using wetland sediments. In the current era, the growth of Cupressaceae has not been observed in this region. And it can be strange that I see these pollens many times at the different depths . also at some depths they have high frequency, Which indicates that it is not migratory pollen brought by the wind.
thanks a lot.
Globally, there are more than 45,000 large dams in operation in over 150 countries and another 1500 or so are currently under construction according to World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Dams and weirs have been built on rivers (a barrier across a river) to achieve a number of benefits including water storage, irrigation supply, drinking water, preventing floods, navigation, hydroelectricity production, and recreation etc. In recent time, most dam construction is taking place in the developing world, such as in China and India. 46 new large dams being planned or under construction in the Yangtze River basin in China; 27 in the La Plata basin in South America; 26 in the Tigris and Euphrates Basin in Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Dams are also planned on three other rivers: the Salween in China, Thailand and Myanmar, the Kizilirmak in Turkey, and the Ganges in China, Nepal, India and Bangladesh.
The development of engineering infrastructure such as dams and weirs over rivers has modified rivers ecosystems threatening the water quality (e.g. salinity, cold water pollution) and water dependent biodiversity (e.g. native fish). Dams disconnect rivers from their flood plains and wetlands, reduce water flows in rivers, and affect the migratory patterns of fish. In general, water retention by dams eliminates or reduces spring runoff or flood pulses that often play a critical role in maintaining downstream riparian and wetland ecosystems including the lifecycle of fish. Older dams release water that is stored at the bottom of the dam, which is typically colder and adversely affects species adapted to warmer temperatures. Such an effect is sometime referred to as ‘cold water pollution’. The construction of a dam on a river can block or delay upstream fish migration between feeding and breeding zones and thus may contribute to the decline and even the extinction of species. As a consequence of dams, for example, some unique species and habitats are/will be threatened including freshwater native fish, river dolphins, porpoises and water birds. One estimate reveals that dams and associated uses of water have altered two-thirds of the world’s major rivers.
In Australia, the Federal Government Department (Commonwealth Environmental Water Office) has acquired/is acquiring water with the goals/objectives to increase water flows in rivers and wetlands (commonwealth environmental water). Reduced flows in the Murray Darling Basin (MDB) have already caused environmental problems (increased salinity, increased algal blooms/cyanobacterial blooms, decline in native fish and bird populations and poor wetland health). This environmental water has been/is being recovered through water saving infrastructure upgrades, water purchases (direct buybacks of water entitlements from irrigators) and other water recovery programmes in order to protect or restore the environmental assets of the MDB. The environmental water will help protect and restore the resilience of the MDB’s rivers, wetlands, floodplains, lakes and red gum forests, together with the plants and animals that depend on them. In a number of countries (e.g. third world countries), people may not be familiar with environmental water or environmental flows and a need for environmental water for biodiversity.
Question: Do you agree that there is a need for environmental water/environmental flows to protect biodiversity where dams have been built or to be built? If so, how can we achieve a balance between water usages for consumptive purposes (drinking water, industry and irrigated agriculture) and meeting the demand for environmental flows for smooth functioning of river ecosystems and river biodiversity?
Can in a sole vessel be demonstrated that the air temperature rises when CO2 concentrations rises by sun irridation?
Were there yet any trials to test the effect of increasing C02 concentrations in rates like of 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm CO2 to prove that CO2 rises also air temperature in an simple experiment?
And how much air temperature rises, when there is the air only zero, 100 ppm and 200 ppm CO2?
Since climate change has become more common day by day, how it affects different communities differently.
What and how community-led intersectional adaption should be?
How can local traditional knowledge and practice be considered a scientific solution in our (academic researcher) climate change research?
Net zero refers to a state in which the greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere are balanced by removal out of the atmosphere. A growing number of countries, cities and companies are aiming for 'net zero' emissions to meet climate goals, and the International Energy Agency has unveiled a plan to get there.
For tree based removal of CO2 would demand between 0.4 and 1.2 billion hectares of land. That’s 25% to 80% of all the land currently under cultivation. How will that be achieved at the same time as feeding 8-10 billion people around the middle of the century or without destroying native vegetation and biodiversity?
If we add technological removal, it may be termed as investment with no return.
If we are purly dependent on plantation, growing billions of trees would consume vast amounts of water – in some places where people are already thirsty. Increasing forest cover in higher latitudes can have an overall warming effect because replacing grassland or fields with forests means the land surface becomes darker. This darker land absorbs more energy from the Sun and so temperatures rise. Focusing on developing vast plantations in poorer tropical nations comes with real risks of people being driven off their lands.
And it is often forgotten that trees and the land in general already soak up and store away vast amounts of carbon through what is called the natural terrestrial carbon sink. Interfering with it could both disrupt the sink and lead to double accounting.
I Will be more than happy if somebody help me in this case. Does it has an specific function in R? or we should utilize quantile -copula methods...? or other???
Dear Researchers, Water Managers, Climate Experts, and Policymakers,
By understanding the ways in which ancient communities were successful at or failed in attaining sustainable water management, recent studies have attempted to provide important information for modern communities facing climate change impacts which are consequently resulting in water scarcity, security, safety, and sustainability issues. For example:
Conference Paper Study of Vandiyur Tank Cascade System in Madurai: Exploring ...
Can the perspective of re-implementing ancient and indigenous techniques of water management in contemporary conditions be considered as an imperative proposition to drafting modern water management policies? Your opinions, observations from your case studies, and evidence from your published work, if shared, will be gratefully appreciated.