Climate Change - Science topic
Climate Change is an any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Questions related to Climate Change
We are on the verge of applying for a KA220-HED project about climate change dis/misinformation and looking for universities for collaboration.
Please do not hesitate to contact me if you are interested: email@example.com
I can provide you with the details of the project.
The Geology of the Himalaya is a record of the most dramatic and visible creations of modern plate tectonic forces. I wonder how vegetation flourished in such a mountain system.
In the coming decade, Africa will be met with an avalanche of challenges. The consequences of not taking the required steps to avert the coming climate crisis and for not capitalizing on the 4th industrial revolution. These two pose the greatest threat to the welfare and lives of the average African. However, they also present an unlikely opportunity for Africa to shock the world. An opportunity that must not be missed.
If Africans (not necessarily African governments but Africans themselves) can in joint action, create an unprecedented transformation of the African society between now and the end of the present decade (just in time for the climate crisis and the wave of the 4th Industrial revolution), I.e. If Africans can create a new African society capable of averting the impending climate crisis, then Africa can and will capitalize on the 4th industrial revolution.
Subsequently once this happens, Africa will be placed on an unstoppable path of drastic developments in areas such as, infrastructure, agriculture, commerce, media, science and technology etc. In easier terms - A golden age..
I am looking for a Matlab toolbox/function for the visualization of climate projection to get the similar figure in the attachment.
Article of the figure:
We are taking a simple survey on awareness on climate change among students of various disciplines. We request a few minutes of your time to kindly fill it. All are simple MCQ type questions. Your participation in this is highly appreciated. Thank you for your time.
Link for taking Survey: https://bit.ly/3jOrjfb
Thank you. Regards,
I want to ask the Problems regarding to Global climate change and Its issues and providing solutions For climate change affecting world health
If Some one have paper or the more information on different research about Climate change Please share with me?
Dear Researchers: Given the limitation of drip irrigation towards groundwater recharge, how one can develop approaches to associate it with groundwater recharge techniques via artificial or natural means?
Subject Intro: Fluid Dynamics and Climate Change
A. The factors causing Climate Change and the impacts are in some way related to Energy from Sun, Flow of Glaciers, Flow of Rivers, Ocean Currents, Air flows in Atmosphere etc (GeoPhysics)
Fluid Dynamics of Ocean and Atmosphere: http://student.mit.edu/catalog/m12c.html
B. Besides it also changes the fluid flow in plants for nutrient uptake. Fluid motion is vital to the function of healthy plants. Flow in the xylem has traditionally been modelled using Poiseuille’s law for motion in a straight capillary tube of circular cross-section. In reality the geometry is highly complex.
Longer summers, Hotter summers, Rainfall pattern changes cause the plants to grow differently.
Conference Paper Computational fluid dynamics analysis of greenhouses with ar...July 2005, Conference: EFITA/WCCA Joint Conference, Eliseu Monteiro
Preprint Mechanics of a Plant in Fluid Flow
C. The mitigation measures, solutions, new equipment design involves Fluid Dynamics applications
Industrial scrubbers are pollution control devices that use liquid to wash unwanted pollutants from a gas stream, or that inject a dry reagent or slurry into a dirty exhaust stream to "wash out" acid gases. Industrial scrubbers are one of the primary devices that control gaseous emissions, especially acid gases.
If anyone has an idea and the sources of published findings, please share your evidence!
Climate change has remained a threat globally. Are there novelty and methodology directions for addressing concerns from Contaminated water, soil /and land to climate change disasters?
On another thought, is there any connection between contaminated soils, land and climate change?
How can the variables be measured?
As you are aware, climate change has a dual impact on many approaches and sectors, both positive and negative. As a result, most of the time, the positive impact of climate change on biodiversity conservation in the agricultural ecosystem is unclear and lacks a researchable area. If anyone has an idea and the sources of published findings, please share your evidence!
Can we make ENSEMBLE data of Future temperature and precipitation from CMIP data (different models) available on the WORLDCLIM website?
I mean one dataset representing all the models for different SSP scenarios?
This is my pleasure to share that I am going to start a Thesis for my MSc in Climate Change and Development in Spring 2022. The groundwork has already been initiated, got the supervisor and co-supervisor. And the plan to feed me with the initial research work for coming out with the objective and developing the proposal is almost final.
I am already oriented about the process and also have a primary understanding of the same through studying materials in the open-source.
I am asking your suggestions/ tips on how to get well-prepared and well-planned for this journey, as you have experience (Pls note that this will be my first thesis).
Thanks in advance.
These days, the implications of future socio-economic development on climate change mitigation, adaptation, and land use are explored using SSPs. How it is better than RCPs?
Please share methodologies to quantify the hypothesis that the "reduced evaporation" and "increased transpiration" from tree cover area (forested region) results in increased water conservation.
Please, share your view on the cut throat competition (capitalism) for exploiting natural resources and climate change scenario. Lets explore the practices of rational use of resources and conservation.
UN agencies, governments, international organizations like FAO and World Bank, academic institutions and so on appear to be talking about green economies and green growth yet they are not implementing green markets as the environmental cost of production is not yet internalized. They are promoting non-green market approaches like carbon pricing or cap and trade, can green economy and green growth exist outside green markets? I think "No", what do you think?
Since climate change has become more common day by day, how it affects different communities differently.
What and how community-led intersectional adaption should be?
How can local traditional knowledge and practice be considered a scientific solution in our (academic researcher) climate change research?
At what time scale should we consider the priority measures to be implemented in order to ensure the protection of natural resources and guarantee their sustainability? (i) direct and urgent measures associated with the modes of exploitation and development of resources ; (ii) indirect and very long-term implications of Climate Change on the potential of resources. Has everything been done on (i) to decree that it is urgent to tackle (ii) head-on with all its uncertainties, particularly with regard to time scales involved, incompatible with the scales of concrete actions?
Is it absurd to assume, like for the evolution of species and their adaptations to natural changes of all kinds, that adaptations and resilience to the effects of climate change should readjust themselves, to changes in natural conditions, which by definition are very slow and loaded with uncertainties?
Moral: what are the urgent actions for scientists, decision-makers, actors, and active civil societies, and on what issues should scientific, technical, and financial resources should be concentrated?
I would be glad to exchange ideas on this important matter. To start the discussion, I will begin by giving some examples from Tunisia (ranked among the countries that suffer the most from lack of water).
Example 1- On the adaptation of Tunisian olive groves to bioclimatic conditions: The olive tree has been cultivated in Tunisia since Roman times under different bioclimatic conditions in exclusively rainfed groves: in the south with less than 250 mm of rainfall and in the north with more than 600 mm . Apart from the different olive tree species in each of the regions, it is clear that the density of olive trees is strictly correlated with rainfall, ranging from 16 olive trees per hectare in the South to nearly a hundred olive trees per hectare in the North; so that it is possible to faithfully superimpose the density map of olive trees on the map of isohyets. Empirically, over millennia and outside of any protocol or procedure, the peasants have naturally adapted to the natural conditions of the environment and it is difficult to imagine that things can be otherwise.
Example 2- On floods and hydraulic disorders: Indigenous, Carthaginian, Roman, and Muslim cities were, without exception, located high up, sheltered from flooding (they were unfortunately not immune to drought). The centrifugal developments of urban agglomerations during the last century have reached flood zones. The transformation of watersheds and the artificialization of the water cycle have increased the concentration of flows so that flooding has become a national plague. What are the urgent actions: (i) to rethink territory development and planning for better resilience to flooding or (ii) tackle the impact of climate change on the frequencies of floods, admittedly real but at much larger time scales which escapes the scales of concrete actions.
Example 3- On groundwater overexploitation and aquifers depletion: Most of the groundwater is subjected to disastrous overexploitation leading to drawdowns and irreversible degradation of water quality. Some aquifers are withdrawn at more than 250% of the average recharge rate and the oases of the South draw on very weakly renewable “fossil” aquifers to produce dates sold at prices ranging between $ 1 and $ 3 (approximately 8 m3 of water are required to produce 1 kg of dates) . Coastal aquifers in the Cap-Bon region are used in the production of citrus fruits sold at less than $ 1 per kg. The aquifers are stressed to such an extent that marine intrusion has, in some cases, resulted in definitive depletion of the resource. If the decision-makers and the scientific community do not put urgently all their human and material resources and all the scientific and technical means, to solve this nagging problem; well, the time needed to define and put in place measures of resilience and adaptation to the hypothetical effects of Climate Change on groundwater recharge will be more than enough for the squandering of these resources to be total and definitive as it is already the case of certain coastal aquifers.
(5) (PDF) Alleviating water scarcity by optimizing "Green Virtual-Water": the case of Tunisia (researchgate.net)
(4) National Water Security, Case Study of an Arid Country: Tunisia | Request PDF (researchgate.net).
I have read number of publications on the effet of covid 19 in relation to plants heath. Since recurring pandemic is there globally with multiple strains what will happen to global agriculture. This is a serious issues in view Climate change and erratic rains the yield is affected. Is FAO and similar organizations take thie into cognizant. It's not possible to attach any fil or files. It's too known anf needs discussion
I am interested in working climate projection and the probable impact of climate change on water resources in Eastern Africa. Which CMIP6 models are suited to use in Eastern African climate change projection? Is there any suggestion in selecting appropriate models?
Climate change is drastically affecting the availability of and accessibility to food in many developing countries. Are there obligations that States have, the fulfillment of which would lessen the impact of climate change on food.
We all are facing the problem of increasing climatic change and abiotic stress is increasing day by day and organic agriculture is getting challenged so how the science community will face this all.
Bitcoin mining requires large computing power and therefore large amounts of electricity. Most of the electricity used by Bitcoin miners around the world comes from fossil fuel power plants. This leads to global carbon emissions and environmental pollution. In November 2021, the Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance estimated that Bitcoin’s annualized power consumption is 115 TWh, which is almost as large as the annual electricity consumption of Poland – a country with 38 million citizens. Given the large and growing environmental concerns across the world and the planned actions of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, is the long-term outlook for Bitcoin applications negative? Is Bitcoin cursed with its inherent ‘proof of work’ and mining mechanism? Are the long-term external costs of the Bitcoin ecosystem too large as compared with the potential benefits offered by this cryptocurrency? Is the demise of Bitcoin inevitable in the long term? Can ways be found whereby Bitcoin’s negative environmental impact might be significantly reduced?
Since indirect and semi-direct effect are related with perturbation in clouds, is it not better to use all-sky radiation(with clouds) instead of clear-sky radiation (without clouds)?
I want to know how to assign score to different variables and what is the basis for giving score for assessment ot intengible benefits.
We need international support to collaborate and finance inter-institutional research, development and innovation projects in the field of smart water management in the current context of climate change.
Prologue: This is a open-discussion, and welcome all researchers who are interested about this topic.
Corporations are both the best agents to respond to climate change, and the most significant contributors to humanity's escalating carbon emissions (see in Wright and Nyberg, 2017, AMJ).
Thus, corporations (especially for SMEs) may probability be caught in a dilemma: trade off between profit and corporate environmentalism.
So, under this condition, what are the scientific questions worth studying?
I hope this discussion could lead to many interesting research questions, and even collaborations.
Most of the studies are on the impact of climate change on precipitation, temperature, wildfire, and sea level rise. Tornados are another huge environmental response to climate change. Recent number of tornados present the threat in the coming years. Should there be more studies on forecasting tornados and evaluating the climate change impacts?
I would appreciate if you could answer how should I start. I have an access to ground data so data is basically not a problem
Global warming affects many processes in biological ecosystems.
Different species of flora and fauna change their habitats and geographical areas according to climate change and specific geographical environments.
Areas of occurrence of specific species, for example insects in terrestrial areas and fish and arthropods in the seas and oceans, change.
For example bird habitats change, so migrations of some bird species may also be subject to modification. In the situation when forest areas dry out and turn into steppes and deserts, changes in natural habitats and areas of occurrence of species change and concern simultaneously many species of flora and fauna.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What changes in natural ecosystems are caused by the ongoing global warming process?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
The idea of a tree belt in Africa may be fine and helpy, but it is also realistic when then land is missing for nourishing the people? In the Kagera district I saw in reality daily GREEN (!) trees cutting people carrying with bicycles from thinning forests only to make for cooking with open fire with green tree stems extremely energy lossy breakfast, lunch or dinner for their families.
I saw the full tree covered Rubondo National Park in Tanzanias Victoria sea, but here where nature is tree covered, no people would find enough human food. But reforestation of cleared areas I find always a good and sustainable practice. If you fly over Tanzania most land is deforested for crops for food production.
Are not models saying that tropical ecosystems will store less carbon in a warmer climate while at high latitudes warming will increase storage of carbon in trees (10.1016/B978-0-12-382225-3.00095-5) ?
So what helps more to help people?
Or people should not be helped and more delivered to their destiny as nature itself does regulation overpopulation and undergoing in a Social Darwinism kind?
Two things emerge from the works of Jung et al. (2002) and Beasley et al. (2021):
1) Due to solar insolation, there have been decadal to centennial-scale changes in the upper oceanic water temperatures (2 to 3 deg.C) during the early Holocene in the Arabian Sea that modulated upwelling and monsoon precipitation (Jung et al., 2002);
2) Such monsoonal precipitation and upwelling changes might have occurred since the Oligocene-Miocene transition when the monsoon system got established (Beasley et al., 2021).
Our earlier work indicated short-term oscillations of phosphorus burial in the continental margins of the Arabian Sea (Phosphorus Deposition in Arabian Sea Sediments through Time - https://www.prl.res.in/~library/planetary_and_geosciences.htm that I interpreted as:
“Contrary to the widely held view that phosphorus could affect primary productivity in the long run, here we show evidence to believe that phosphorus may become a limiting nutrient on centennial to millennial scales, provided that its supply to the water column is restricted during high productivity episodes. Such evidence comes from the spectral analysis of phosphorus data obtained from the analysis of core sediments collected from the continental margin sediments of the eastern Arabian Sea. The results show century to millennial-scale oscillations in the burial flux of phosphorus to the sediments, which can be attributed to ocean circulation changes and intensification of SW monsoonal wind strength, which together modulates upwelling of remobilised nutrients and water column productivity. .........These results suggest that short-term solar oscillations can influence water column primary productivity and thereby phosphorus burial in the continental margin sediments of the Arabian Sea. When the phosphorus burial rate is high and the phosphorus supply to the water column is restricted (low river discharge and reduced upwelling), it may become a limiting nutrient. The century and millennial-scale oscillations in phosphorus burial rate imply that such a possibility can arise in the short term, contrary to the widely held belief that phosphorus limits productivity only on geological time scales.”
Now a few things have become clear. The oscillations in phosphorus burial may also have arisen from centennial-scale solar insolation changes that modulated the strength of the monsoon and the delivery of riverine supply of phosphorus. Moreover, changes in the upwelling may have regulated productivity and the observed phosphorus burial signal.
A further complication to this interpretation arises from a recent study suggesting that adsorption of phosphorus by iron oxides and its release during hypoxic events - the iron-phosphorus feedback - can drive multidecadal oscillations in hypoxia. The authors wrote:
“Our study shows that changes in the distribution of iron oxides between deep and shallow areas of the Baltic Sea led to self-sustaining variability (oscillations) in oxygen stress on decadal timescales during past intervals in the Sea’s 8000-year history. We use a model to demonstrate that under certain conditions of climate and nutrient pressure, such variability may occur naturally........” (Jilbert et al., 2021).
Therefore, more insight is needed to assess the short-term limitation of oceanic productivity by phosphorus in circulation-limited or enclosed oceanic regions.
Beasley, C., Kender, S., Giosan, L., Bolton, C.T., Anand, P., Leng, M.J., Nilsson‐Kerr, K., Ullmann, C.V., Hesselbo, S.P., Littler, K., 2021. Evidence of a South Asian proto‐monsoon during the Oligocene–Miocene transition. Paleoceanogr Paleoclimatol. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021PA004278
Jilbert, T., Gustafsson, B.G., Veldhuijzen, S., Reed, D.C., Helmond, N.A.G.M., Hermans, M., Slomp, C.P., 2021. Iron‐phosphorus feedbacks drive multidecadal oscillations in Baltic Sea hypoxia. Geophys Res Lett. https://doi.org/10.1029/2021GL095908
Jung, S.J.A., Davies, G.R., Ganssen, G., Kroon, D., 2002. Decadal-centennial scale monsoon variations in the Arabian Sea during the Early Holocene. Geochem.-Geophys.-Geosyst. 3, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GC000348
I'm now working on the effect of climate change on regional agricultural hydrology processes by using hydrological model. I do know that the CMIP5 data (especailly air temperature, precipitation and et al.) should perform statistical downscaling before driving the model. The NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/derived-near-surface-meteorological-variables?tab=overview) reanalysis data have different resolution. Does anyone know the differences, advantages and disadvantages in detail when using the reanalysis data to drive hydrological model ?
Kindly guide how to arrive at the evaluation of inherent vulnerability to climate change of agriculture sector of the economy?. What are the important parameters to consider? At what scale it is to be evaluated?
I'm part of a project creating a public atlas to document and map people's subjective experiences of extreme weather events. I've included information and a link to a short survey below. Feel free to fill this out yourself, and/or forward to your networks via email, social media, etc. Thanks!
Extreme Weather Events Survey
Ecologies of Harm: Mapping Contexts of Vulnerability in the Time of Covid-19 The University of British Columbia
This is a digital commons project intended to provide equitable access to knowledge.
COVID-19 presents the potential for people and groups to become exposed to harm in new ways. To see the overlapping ways in which these harms may be occurring, we’ve designed a survey for experiences of extreme weather events that are affecting people across the world.
This is a citizen / community observation survey, open to anyone 18 years of age and older who wishes to contribute. Your descriptions will upload directly to an interactive map of the world that is publicly accessible on this website: https://blogs.ubc.ca/ecologiesofharmproject
Your participation is entirely voluntary, and you do not have to answer every question. If you do wish to participate, you do not need to record your name. You may contribute as many observations as you like!
Please share widely, and keep in mind that re-posting, “liking,” or “following,” will be visible to others on public network platforms.
Link to survey: https://arcg.is/fvO4G0
Project Email: Anth.CovidVulnerabilityMap@ubc.ca
Principal Investigator: Dr. Leslie Robertson
What are the most serious problems of civilization development that should be solved as soon as possible? What are the global problems for which research should be developed and solutions to these problems resolved in 2019 and in subsequent years?
One of such research problems, which should not be postponed for an indefinite future, is the need to develop environment-friendly sustainable economic development in order to slow down the adverse process of global warming.
With the warming of the Earth's climate, the risk of more dramatic climate cataclysms, including tsunamis, increases.
Tsunami may be a derivative of the global warming problem. Global warming generates an increase in climate disasters, including more cases of tsunamis.
But not only is the risk of more violent and more dramatic tsunamis rising. Also in recent years, there has been more other types of climate and natural climate catatics, such as droughts, rainstorms, tornadoes and weather anomalies.
At present, it should no longer be asked whether global warming generates an increase in natural disasters only what rate of growth will be recorded in the future? So many data, research centers confirms the progressing process of global warming, that the problem is unquestionable.
More and more data points to the growing risk of climate change, unfavorable for human and life on the Earth, increase of climate disasters, climatic and weather anomalies, which are the result of global warming, rising average annual temperature near the Earth's surface.
Now we should just ask: How can these adverse processes be counteracted? What ecological technologies, renewable energy sources, how to help natural environments, how to rebuild them, such as afforestation, to build natural ecosystems absorbing greenhouse gases?
How to develop ecological business ventures? How to create financing systems for this type of pro-ecological projects? How to dispel international cooperation in this matter? What actions should be taken to move towards the development of a new ecological green economy?
How to develop environmentally sustainable economic development to slow down the unfavorable warming of the Earth's climate?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Energy, especially electricity, has long been recognized as an essential commodity for everyday life in the contemporary world . It is the main driving force of the human, social, and economic development of any nation. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the global electricity generation in 2017 was 25,551 TWh, of which fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) accounted for up to 65% . However, due to their non-renewable nature, these sources are not likely to satisfy the increasing world demand in electricity resulting from the permanent growth in the world’s population and technological advancement. They are declining steadily. A study by Abas et al.  showed that oil, natural gas, and coal would be depleted in 2066, 2068, and 2126, respectively. This situation is the primary cause of the current price volatility and energy supply insecurity. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels releases toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are detrimental to health and contribute to climate change. The consequences of climate change are far and varied, and include increased wildfires, prolonged droughts, stronger tropical storms, and frequent coastal floods .
What is the role of renewable energy in the global energy transformation?
- Karanfil, F.; Li, Y. Electricity consumption and economic growth: Exploring panel-specific differences. Energy Policy 2015, 82, 264–277.
- IEA. Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2017; IEA: Paris, France, 2018.
- Abas, N.; Kalair, A.; Khan, N. Review of fossil fuels and future energy technologies. Futures 2015, 69, 31–49.
- Pachauri, R.K.; Allen, M.R.; Barros, V.R.; Broome, J.; Cramer, W.; Christ, R.; Church, J.A.; Clarke, L.; Dahe, Q.; Dasgupta, P. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014; ISBN 92-9169-143-7.
Trees have different effects on the climate directly or indirectly. These effects emanate from trees’ reactions to varying climate-related factors. Factors such as greenhouse gases emission, production and emission of aerosols, albedo (whiteness), carbon and nitrogen deposition, transpiration and photosynthesis can affect the speed of climate change.
Currently (end of January, beginning of February 2019) in Australia the heat of the centuries has been recorded reaching in some places to almost 50 ° C, and in the USA, in some places now winter has appeared with frosts reaching around minus 50 degrees C.
In recent years, various weather anomalies have appeared more and more.
The recorded increase in weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms may be a derivative of the progressing greenhouse effect, ie the warming of the Earth's climate. This is also confirmed by the numerous climatic cataclysms and weather anomalies that also occurred in the last year of 2018 appear in numerous places on the Earth. In the autumn of 2018, fires of huge forest areas appeared in some areas of the Earth, such as in Scandinavia, California in the USA, Australia, the Iberian Peninsula, Africa, etc. In addition, weather anomalies, e.g. snow and floods in October and November 2018 occurred in the south of Europe. In addition, numerous tornadoes in 2018 in many places on Earth and so on.
Perhaps these problems will get worse. It is necessary to improve security systems and anti-crisis services, improve the prediction of these anomalies and climatic cataclysms so that people can, have managed to get shelter or cope with an imminent cataclysm. One of the technologies that can help in more precise forecasting of these cataclysms is the processing of large collections of historical and current information on this subject in the cloud computing technology in Big Data database systems.
In view of the above, in connection with the increasingly frequent cataclysms and climatic anomalies, perhaps in the future we will be forced to change our assessment of particular seasons, and for example favorite in some climatic zones, summer will no longer be universally recognized as a positive season, if at this time will often appear increasingly higher temperatures, droughts, fires, tornadoes, etc.
In connection with the above, I would like to ask you:
Are the current weather anomalies the effect of global warming?
In addition to CO2, methane is also one of the main greenhouse gases, and in a few dozen years, when the eternal scarifier on the Siberian tundra and other places of the Arctic Circle methane can become an even more significant greenhouse gas.
Besides, the analyzes of cyclical activity of the Sun conducted by cosmologists show that in a few decades the activity of sunspots and more harmful to life and more intense energetically will reach the Earth's wavelengths of visible and invisible spectrum.
The increase in temperature will cause desertification of green areas, drying of biomass and an increase in the scale and amount of emerging fires and volcanic eruptions. these processes will intensify and accelerate the global warming process that is currently under way faster and faster.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Why according to the forecasts of climatologists, the global warming process in the next few decades can significantly accelerate?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
This thread is for those who want to know how to calculate Research Interest (RI) and participate in this validation study. *** Welcome to the validation study of my formula for Research Interest (RI) on the RG site! Details are in the first reply in this discussion.
I am looking for an advisor to help me in my PhD dissertation in "crop mapping field of climate change conditions.
Do you accept my offer?
please send me your relative researches?
"CDO" is a LINUX based operation for evaluating climate data.
Could any one assists me by means of installing or utilizing CDO on Windows operation systems?
I usually download future climate data from Worldclim.org.
Their website says that "Data at 30-seconds spatial resolution is expected to be available by the end of March 2020", however, this has not materialized . . . https://www.worldclim.org/data/cmip6/cmip6climate.html
Does anyone know of alternative sources to download future data at this (1km) resolution?
Air-sea gas exchange is a physio-chemical process, primarily controlled by the air-sea difference in gas concentrations and the exchange coefficient, which determines how quickly a molecule of gas can move across the ocean-atmosphere boundary. It takes about one year to equilibrate CO2 in the surface ocean with atmospheric CO2, so it is not unusual to observe large air-sea differences in CO2 concentrations. Most of the differences are caused by variability in the oceans due to biology and ocean circulation. (Source: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/Ocean+Carbon+Uptake)
i need solutions based in intentional communities, i read a couple papers but it seems to be more a diagnosis than an actually concise solution.
i need more info about how to have a climate governance that actually works in local communities than a large worldwide solution.
It is sort of funny how the world turns around. Four years ago when I started my PhD, I was asking 'environmentally active citizens', who take part in community energy and food sharing projects about, how do they think their initiatives relate to Climate Change. Most of the people could not directly connect to Climate Action. Often, it rarely made top 3 of the priorities of their initiatives
Now, four years later, everyone seems to be obsessed climate marches, climate strikes and other forms of peaceful protest.
It just leaves me with the questions of which type of action is more effective, taking small steps in improving your livelihood or marching in massive swarms? Surely, marches and mass protest are easier to be picked up by news and political agendas than small community projects but where is the silver lining?
The threats that global warming has recently posed to humans in many parts of the world have led us to continue this debate.
So the main question is that what actions need to be taken to reduce the risk of climate warming?
Reducing greenhouse gases now seems an inevitable necessity.
In this part in addition to the aforementioned main question, other specific well-known subjects from previous discussion are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
% ---------------- *** Updated Discussions of Global Warming (section 1) *** ---------------%
The rate of mean temperature of the earth has been increased almost twice with respect to 60 years ago, it is a fact (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, GISS, data). Still a few questions regarding physical processes associated with global warming remain unanswered or at least need more clarification. So the causes and prediction of this trend are open questions. The most common subjects are listed below:
1) "Greenhouse effect increases temperature of the earth, so we need to diminish emission of CO2 and other air pollutants." The logic behind this reasoning is that the effects of other factors like the sun's activity (solar wind contribution), earth rotation orbit, ocean CO2 uptake, volcanoes activities, etc are not as important as greenhous effect. Is the ocean passive in the aforementioned scenario?
2) Two major physical turbulent fluids, the oceans and the atmosphere, interacting with each other, each of them has different circulation timescale, for the oceans it is from year to millennia that affects heat exchange. It is not in equilibrium with sun instantaneously. For example the North Atlantic Ocean circulation is quasi-periodic with recurrence period of about 7 kyr. So the climate change always has occurred. Does the timescale of crucial players (NAO, AO, oceans, etc) affect the results?
3) Energy of the atmospheric system including absorption and re-emission is about 200 Watt/m2 ; the effect of CO2 is about how many percent to this budget ( 2% or more?), so does it have just a minor effect or not?
4) Climate system is a multi-factor process and there exists a natural modes of temperature variations. How anthropogenic CO2 emissions makes the natural temperature variations out of balance.
6) Some weather and climate models that are based on primitive equations are able to reproduce reliable results. Are the available models able to predict future decadal variability exactly? How much is the uncertainty of the results. An increase in CO2 apparently leads in higher mean temperature value due to radiative transfer.
7) How is global warming related to extreme weather events?
Some of the consequences of global warming are frequent rainfall, heat waves, and cyclones. If we accept global warming as an effect of anthropogenic fossil fuels, how can we stop the increasing trend of temperature anomaly and switching to clean energies?
8) What are the roles of sun activities coupled with Milankovitch cycles?
9) What are the roles of politicians to alarm the danger of global warming? How much are scientists sensitive to these decisions?
10) How much is the CO2’s residence time in the atmosphere? To answer this question precisely, we need to know a good understanding of CO2 cycle.
11) Clean energy reduces toxic buildups and harmful smog in air and water. So, how much building renewable energy generation and demanding for clean energy is urgent?
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 2) *** ---------------%
Warming of the climate system in the recent decades is unequivocal; nevertheless, in addition to a few scientific articles that show the greenhouse gases and human activity as the main causes of global warming, still the debate is not over and some opponents claim that these effects have minor effects on human life. Some relevant topics/criticisms about global warming, causes, consequences, the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), etc are putting up for discussion and debate:
1) All the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro-fluorocarbons, including HCFCs and HFCs, and ozone) account for about a tenth of one percent of the atmosphere. Based on Stefan–Boltzmann law in basic physics, if you consider the earth with the earth's albedo (a measure of the reflectivity of a surface) in a thermal balance, that is: the power radiated from the earth in terms of its temperature = Solar flux at the earth's cross section, you get Te =(1-albedo)^0.25*Ts.*sqrt(Rs/(2*Rse)), where Te (Ts) is temperature at the surface of the earth (Sun), Rs: radius of the Sun, Rse: radius of the earth's orbit around the Sun. This simplified equation shows that Te depends on these four variables: albedo, Ts, Rs, Rse. Just 1% variation in the Sun's activity lead to variation of the earth's surface temperature by about half a degree.
1.1) Is the Sun's surface (photosphere layer) temperature (Ts) constant?
1.2) How much is the uncertainty in measuring the Sun's photosphere layer temperature?
1.3) Is solar irradiance spectrum universal?
1.4) Is the earth's orbit around the sun (Rse) constant?
1.5) Is the radius of the Sun (Rs) constant?
1.6) Is the largeness of albedo mostly because of clouds or the man-made greenhouse gases?
So the sensitivity of global mean temperature to variation of tracer gases is one of the main questions.
2) A favorable climate model essentially is a coupled non-linear chaotic system; that is, it is not appropriate for the long term future prediction of climate states. So which type of models are appropriate?
3) Dramatic temperature oscillations were possible within a human lifetime in the past. So there is nothing to worry about. What is wrong with the scientific method applied to extract temperature oscillations in the past from Greenland ice cores or shifts in types of pollen in lake beds?
4) IPCC Assessment Reports,
IPCC's reports are known as some of the reliable sources of climate change, although some minor shortcomings have been observed in them.
4.1) "What is Wrong With the IPCC? Proposals for a Radical Reform" (Ross McKitrick):
IPCC has provided a few climate-change Assessment Reports during last decades. Is a radical reform of IPCC necessary or we should take all the IPCC alarms seriously? What is wrong with Ross argument? The models that are used by IPCC already captured a few crudest features of climate change.
4.2) The sort of typical issues of IPCC reports:
- The summary reports focus on those findings that support the human interference theory.
- Some arguments are based on this assumption that the models account for most major sources of variation in the global mean temperature anomaly.
- "Correlation does not imply causation", in some Assessment Reports, results gained from correlation method instead of investigating the downstream effects of interventions or a double-blind controlled trial; however, the conclusions are with a level of reported uncertainty.
4.3) Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) also has produced some massive reports to date.
4.4) Is the NIPCC a scientific or a politically biased panel? Can NIPCC climate reports be trusted?
4.5) What is wrong with their scientific methodology?
5) Changes in the earth's surface temperature cause changes in upper level cirrus and consequently radiative balance. So the climate system can increase its cooling processes by these types of feedbacks and adjust to imbalances.
6) What is your opinion about political intervention and its effect upon direction of research budget?
I really appreciate all the researchers who have had active participation with their constructive remarks in these discussion series.
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 3) *** ---------------%
In this part other specific well-known subjects are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
1) Still there is no convincing theorem, with a "very low range of uncertainty", to calculate the response of climate system in terms of the averaged global surface temperature anomalies with respect to the total feedback factors and greenhouse gases changes. In the classical formula applied in the models a small variation in positive feedbacks leads to a considerable changes in the response (temperature anomaly) while a big variation in negative feedbacks causes just small variations in the response.
2) NASA satellite data from the years 2000 through 2011 indicate the Earth's atmosphere is allowing far more heat to be emitted into space than computer models have predicted (i.e. Spencer and Braswell, 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3081603). Based on this research "the response of the climate system to an imposed radiative imbalance remains the largest source of uncertainty. It is concluded that atmospheric feedback diagnosis of the climate system remains an unsolved problem, due primarily to the inability to distinguish between radiative forcing and radiative feedback in satellite radiative budget observations." So the contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming is exaggerated in the models used by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). What is wrong with this argument?
3) Ocean Acidification
Ocean acidification is one of the consequences of CO2 absorption in the water and a main cause of severe destabilising the entire oceanic food-chain.
4) The IPCC reports which are based on a range of model outputs suffer somehow from a range of uncertainty because the models are not able to implement appropriately a few large scale natural oscillations such as North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino, Southern ocean oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, deep ocean circulations, Sun's surface temperature, etc. The problem with correlation between historical observations of the global averaged surface temperature anomalies with greenhouse gases forces is that it is not compared with all other natural sources of temperature variability. Nevertheless, IPCC has provided a probability for most statements. How the models can be improved more?
5) If we look at micro-physics of carbon dioxide, theoretically a certain amount of heat can be trapped in it as increased molecular kinetic energy by increasing vibrational and rotational motions of CO2, but nothing prevents it from escaping into space. During a specific relaxation time, the energetic carbon dioxide comes back to its rest statement.
6) As some alarmists claim there exists a scientific consensus among the scientists. Nevertheless, even if this claim is true, asking the scientists to vote on global warming because of human made greenhouse gases sources does not make sense because the scientific issues are not based on the consensus; indeed, appeal to majority/authority fallacy is not a scientific approach.
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 4) *** ---------------%
In this part in addition to new subjects, I have highlighted some of responses from previous sections for further discussion. Please leave you comments to support/weaken any of the following statements:
1) @Harry ten Brink recapitulated a summary of a proof that CO2 is such an important Greenhouse component/gas. Here is a summary of this argument:
"a) Satellites' instruments measure the radiation coming up from the Earth and Atmosphere.
b) The emission of CO2 at the maximum of the terrestrial radiation at 15 micrometer.
b1. The low amount of this radiation emitted upwards: means that "back-radiation" towards the Earth is high.
b2. Else said the emission is from a high altitude in the atmosphere and with more CO2 the emission is from an even higher altitude where it is cooler. That means that the emission upwards is less. This is called in meteorology a "forcing", because it implies that less radiation /energy is emitted back into space compared to the energy coming in from the sun.
The atmosphere warms so the energy out becomes equals the solar radiation coming in. Summary of the Greenhouse Effect."
At first glance, this reasoning seems plausible. It is based on these assumptions that the contribution of CO2 is not negligible and any other gases like N2O or Ozone has minor effect. The structure of this argument is supported by an article by Schmidt et al., 2010:
By using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE radiation module, the authors claim that "water vapor is the dominant contributor (∼50% of the effect), followed by clouds (∼25%) and then CO2 with ∼20%. All other absorbers play only minor roles. In a doubled CO2 scenario, this allocation is essentially unchanged, even though the magnitude of the total greenhouse effect is significantly larger than the initial radiative forcing, underscoring the importance of feedbacks from water vapour and clouds to climate sensitivity."
The following notions probably will shed light on the aforementioned argument for better understanding the premises:
Q1) Is there any observational data to support the overall upward/downward IR radiation because of CO2?
Q2) How can we separate practically the contribution of water vapor from anthropogenic CO2?
Q3) What are the deficiencies of the (GISS) ModelE radiation module, if any?
Q4) Some facts, causes, data, etc relevant to this argument, which presented by NASA, strongly support this argument (see: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/)
Q5) Stebbins et al, (1994) showed that there exists "A STRONG INFRARED RADIATION FROM MOLECULAR NITROGEN IN THE NIGHT SKY" (thanks to @Brendan Godwin for mentioning about this paper). As more than 78% of the dry air contains nitrogen, so the contribution of this element is not negligible too.
2) The mean global temperature is not the best diagnostic to study the sensitivity to global forcing. Because given a change in this mean value, it is almost impossible to attribute it to global forcing. Zonal and meridional distribution of heat flux and temperature are not uniform on the earth, so although the mean temperature value is useful, we need a plausible map of spatial variation of temperature .
3) "The IPCC model outputs show that the equilibrium response of mean temperature to a doubling of CO2 is about 3C while by the other observational approaches this value is less than 1C." (R. Lindzen)
4) What is the role of the thermohaline circulation (THC) in global warming (or the other way around)? It is known that during Heinrich events and Dansgaard‐Oeschger (DO) millennial oscillations, the climate was subject to a number of rapid cooling and warming with a rate much more than what we see in recent decades. In the literature, these events were most probably associated with north-south shifts in convection location of the THC. The formation speed of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) affects northerly advection velocity of the warm subtropical waters that would normally heat/cool the atmosphere of Greenland and western Europe.
I really appreciate all the researchers who have participated in this discussion with their useful remarks, particularly Harry ten Brink, Filippo Maria Denaro, Tapan K. Sengupta, Jonathan David Sands, John Joseph Geibel, Aleš Kralj, Brendan Godwin, Ahmed Abdelhameed, Jorge Morales Pedraza, Amarildo de Oliveira Ferraz, Dimitris Poulos, William Sokeland, John M Wheeldon, Michael Brown, Joseph Tham, Paul Reed Hepperly, Frank Berninger, Patrice Poyet, Michael Sidiropoulos, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, and Boris Winterhalter.
Dear fellow researchers,
I have a question concerning LCZ modelling for a masterplan. My case study is on a new city the city is still under construction not completed yet. I want to classify it's masterplan to LCZ to evaluate its behavior from an urban climate point of view. Is it possible to create a map of LCZ since the remote sensing is not an option in this case because nothing is completely built. Can you recommend a tool that I could work with
Thank you in advance.
We understand that there are many impacts due to climate change. High temperature causes wild fire whereas heavy rainfall induces landslides. I would like to know if developing forest with heat-resistant trees can contribute to the reduction of impacts of climate change.
As we all would appreciate that the current agenda of "Global Warming and Climate Change" is threatening seriously the ECOSYSTEM of the world including plants, animals, and humans. Regarding Climate Change, International leading authorities enforce the countries worldwide to adopt the preparatory conditions (mainly limiting the CARBON emissions and increasing the usage of GREEN and sustainable energy) according to the Climatic Agreement settled in Paris (F). Further, regarding Global Warming, officials in Geography and Geology seriously warn us that global warming (excessive heat) has to be limited up to 3 degrees Celcius (or by 1.7 degrees Celcius ideally) by the end of 2100. As we can see clearly that global (drinkable) water sources of any kind have already started to decrease dramatically preventing normal water supply for drinking and irrigation. Sudden and excessive raining damages the cities and countries (Northern part (Black Sea region) of Turkey and some countries in Europe (e.g. Germany).
Considering the excess level in global heat, we see the fast disappearance of the snow masses on the top of the mountains (mountain Himalaya, Nepal), faster melting in the persistent large snow masses in Antarctica continent, drought in agriculture, shorter rainy/snowy season, and longer summer heat (e.g. AFRICA), common fires, such as in Amazones (Latin America), Italy, Greece (Europe), and Turkey (Eurasia), and enlarged arid areas everywhere in the world.
Ruminants are known to produce some critical gases such as carbon dioxide-CO2, "methane-CH4", and nitrous oxide-N2O that the excess levels are undesirable for the Universe as leading to global warming and climate change afterwards. Considering the ANIMAL WELFARE in high yielding Dairy/Twinning Ruminants (e.g. Holstein Cows, Chios ewes, Saanen does), both the scientists and other stakeholders (such as animal owners, caretakers, marketing officials, consumers, and Food/Health officials) have to pay urgent attention to provide "comfort" level to the farm animals (ruminants in particular) for breeding, feeding, and husbandry.
In this regard, once again, we would like to draw the attention of colleagues who are much more concerned with the well-being of the universe including heavy load workers -RUMINANTS-producing much of the animal protein needed (namely meat and milk). In this respect, cattle and buffaloes need much water (around 17-18 Liter to produce 1 kg unite of meat as compared to those of sheep and goats (around 8 Liter per unit ) and pigs and poultry (6 Liter or even lesser per unit). So, it appears that a REALLY hard task is awaiting in front of us to be dealt with utmost care for strategic planning and then implemented in all the sectors involved.
Thank you all for your valuable contributions.
The current challenges at European and global level have involved the development of innovative financial instruments, with direct consequences for public institutions, businesses, jobs and households. In order to ensure the continued availability of sufficient liquidity on the market in the context of climate change, to counteract the damage caused to healthy businesses and to maintain the continuity of economic activity during these challenges (pandemic, financial and fiscal digitalization, climate change), achieve solutions to support the national economy in the short, medium and long term, both through complementary financial instruments and European Union financing programs, the effects of the current multi-crisis being both in the short term, but especially in the medium and long term.
I am trying to use Infocrop model for climate change effect. I have imported csv file of daily weather data from 1971-2002 into infocrop. It has successfully created the 32 files and CLI file also. When I create the project and use the weather file, it does not list out the years in the pull down. So please tell me the what is the reason and how to solve, or is their any other way to import the weather file,
Thanks in advance.
As stated above. I have a group of trees from two different environments that consists of sets of half-siblings and I'd like to test their plasticity to a climate change variable. Is this a valid approach since they are only expected to share one quarter of their genes? Thank you!
Currently, the UN climate summit in Katowice is taking place in Katowice. COP (Conference of the Parties) on climate policy on Earth. UN climate summits, i.e. COP (Conference of the Parties) are global conferences during which climate policy actions are negotiated. Poland twice hosted them - in 2008 in Poznań and in 2013 in Warsaw. In December 2018, the climate summit is held for the first time now in Katowice in Poland.
During this summit, conferences are held, discussions are held on the need to develop a sustainable development policy and the need for development of ecological, renewable energy sources in order to generate a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the future and ultimately reduce the average annual temperature rise on the Earth's surface. From the discussions it follows that it is necessary to develop eco-innovations, new pro-ecological energy sources, development of electromobility of transport means. It is necessary to develop and implement on a large scale renewable energy sources. In addition, it is important to increase the scale of afforestation, as forests and the flora contained in them absorb a large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions.
As part of this year's UN Climate Summit, the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP24), 14th Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 14) and the Conference of the Paris Agreement signatories (CMA 1) are held. About 20,000 people from 190 countries participate in the event, including politicians, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and scientific and business spheres.
Perhaps during this UN climate summit important and specific agreements, declarations and signed agreements on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will be taken. The present lectures show that in recent years the warming process of the Earth's climate has accelerated significantly and therefore, in the black scenario of future climate changes, the temperature on the Earth's surface can rise by 4 ° C to the end of the 21st century. If this happened, then the scale of climate-related cataclysms that are dangerous to humans, including droughts, floods, fires and weather anomalies in many places around the world, will increase many times. The problem is very serious globally and therefore a lot depends on whether international cooperation will develop in order to limit these problems and their negative effects.
In view of the above, I would like to ask you: Should you think that international cooperation should increase to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on Earth? In addition, another key question arises: how much of this international cooperation is possible, to what extent will real and effective measures be undertaken on the basis of the discussions and declarations undertaken to reduce greenhouse gases?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Data source: http://cop24.katowice.eu
Dear group; I want to confes my happy moment when I found you. I am working my PhD reserch and one of the most important parts is to social sensitive perception abouth climatic change, focus in Nahuatl Ethnic Group. Thanks by this electronic space and be been here.
G A B Y
Dear Researchers: Decent citations have been received to a recently (Mar'21) published paper on one of the traditional water harvesting systems practiced in India (for the last 2,500 years!!!). Quite unexpected to witness the emerging interest of modern researchers in ancient technologies. Is it there at your end?
I've noticed that the majority of climate change modelling research focuses on predicting the impact of specific species under various climate change scenarios. I'm curious if any other research can be done with sdm. If so, please share with me. Please let me know if you want to collaborate on a publication. I'm looking for a professional with whom I can collaborate
Do you think that traditional vernacular type constructions are more adapted to climate change? how can you describe this resilience effectiveness in your region compared with modern construction methods ?
Climate change will likely increase the occurrence of extreme events in Europe, negatively affecting crop production. Are there comprehensive studies on the effects of excessive rainfall on crop production? Are there biophysical models capable of capturing the effects of excessive rainfall on crop yields?
- Does normative legal philosophy also have a potential critical function vis-à-vis existing, empirically provable injustice where the injustice is not so much promoted or brought about by discriminatory laws, incorrect court rulings or actions contrary to human rights in the sense of an ideology, but rather by legislative and political laissez-faire or even omission (cf. e.g. mediterranean migrant crisis, anthropogenic climate change or pandemics)? From my point of view, this should be the case (but where is it explicitly stated and conceptually discussed?).
- Which concepts from the field of normative legal philosophy/ legal ethics could be used to transparently and rationally criticise such state and supranational omissions from a normative perspective? Should new concepts of legal ethics be developed, can existing concepts be adapted? Who are the primary addressees? From my point of view, the minimum connection between law, serving as the basis of state action, and justice, which can be assessed against Radbruch's formula, enables a normative evaluation of state and supranational omissions, but also provides the contours for corresponding (political) duties to act.
What is your opinion regarding these issues?
Some legal philosophical approaches to these questions can be found in my paper "Extreme Wrong Committed by National and Supranational Inactivity: Analyzing the Mediterranean Migrant Crisis and Climate Change from a Legal Philosophical Perspective", Göttingen 2021.
Current climatic disturbances have direct effects on mountain farming practices. What obvious changes are taking place in your country? Are there any obvious changes in obtaining vegetables in mountain homegardens, increasing the frequency of phytopathologies or in the period of animal housing?