Science topic

Climate Change - Science topic

Climate Change is an any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
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Dear Fellow Researchers and Experts ..please do enlighten me regarding Scale of measurement for UHI Effect.
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Some important Social Issuues are: 1. Unemployment, Poverty and Homelessness; both are worldwide problems, 2. Climate Change; A warmer, changing climate is a threat to the entire world; 3. Cleanliness; 4. Problem of Education, 5. Overpopulation; 6. Rape of girls/ women; 7. Immigration Stresses; 8.Civil Rights and Racial Discrimination; 9. Gender Inequality; 10 Health Care Availability; 11. Childhood Obesity. 12 Problem of Garbage management 13. Big gap between rich and poor.
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Dear Umar Ashraf sir
Thank you for your view point.
My best regards
Dr Sudhir Yadav
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how carbon footprint play a critical role in mitigating climate change
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Dear
CO2 is one of the Green houses gases(GHG) which cause climate change and global warming. So, calculation of carbon footprint for every product is the first step to mitigate climate change.
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I have been working on research and development projects for about 10 years. One of the few constants in the proposal calls is the persistence of donors in having a theory of change from the applicants. However, I do not think the theory of change is a good value for the time of the designers. I wonder how a proposal team can develop a theory that would be valid for 3 years considering climate change and transition in the international power system. Also, I have seen that more than half of the theory of changes I evaluated do not articulate assumptions, more than 90% do not use any risk association.
What do you think?
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incorporating a theory or a model related to change when implementing practice changes helps in understanding how implementation will take place, what influences or affects the outcomes leading to either success or failure. the theory or the model serves as a guideline making it easier for implementation to take place. https://www.coursehero.com/tutors-problems/Nursing/10627774-Why-is-it-important-to-incorporate-a-theory-or-model-related-to-change/
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Can climate change be considered a new national emergency and do it require immediate actions? If it is in conflict with national security concerns, which one should be prioritized, e.g., national business benefits vs climate change commitments OR carbon emissions reduction vs livelihood improvement?
In addition, will requirements on accountability and transparency of militaries' performance on climate affecting national security?
A national emergency is a serious situation that requires immediate action from the nation. The most typical emergency is war and the latest one is COVID-19. (Read more: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/we-are-living-in-a-climate-emergency-and-were-going-to-say-so/
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Most of us believe that climate change is there and needs our effective actions. However, every country and region bears different forms and levels of risks and impacts, and therefore reacts variously. Someone hopes to stop using fossil fuels and achieve net-zero emissions right now. Some others prefer incremental and just transitions. How immediate the actions are appropriate?
As researchers, what could be our responses contributing to provide more proper climate choices or actions?
Looking forward to dear folks' responses. All welcome!
Cheers,
Hong
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Hey Anders,
You're welcome. The truth is that in the past decade, only around 1/3 of Australian farmers accept climate change was happening. The good news is that more of them are starting to accept. You can find more in this paper published by my colleagues:
Wheeler, S. A., Nauges, C., & Zuo, A. (2021). How stable are Australian farmers’ climate change risk perceptions? New evidence of the feedback loop between risk perceptions and behaviour. Global Environmental Change, 68, 102274. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102274
I quite agree with you about the epistemology behind climate change and the effectiveness of personal observations. the more people record changes as a routine, the more evidence we could have to inspire the deniers.
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Who has done or wants to do research on how technology can scale moral courage--can make it far easier to recruit &commit critical mass numbers of volunteers for nonviolent civil resistance. campaigns? And how can I reach them to invite them to a brainstorm session (maybe several) on what might be the behavioral levers that are most likely to motivate most "concerned" but not activist people to minimize their fears sufficiently and inspire "their better angels" to commit to tactics that history has proven are the most effective for achieving positive system change in the battles against greed, racism, autocracy and ignorance; to be able to recruit the numbers necessary to vastly improve our chances to save what is still savable of Mother Nature and democracy in the little time we have left.' Entre to senior level programmers, or crowdfunding social media mavens would also be especially appreciated, as well as possible research interns. Any location.
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Are you inspired by all of the social justice movements happening around the world right now? Whether it's the rapid destruction of our climate and habitats, election theft, racist over-policing, housing evictions, or a myriad of other struggles that so many devote their lives to fighting, the fires are burning strong. Under all of this, are you deeply concerned that those with a clenched grip on power, propped up by a firm alliance of military and corporate elites, can set back all of these movements for justice by their sheer physical force? Can all of these popular movements be infiltrated, jailed, or killed out of existenc@
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What are the most serious problems of civilization development that should be solved as soon as possible? What are the global problems for which research should be developed and solutions to these problems resolved in 2019 and in subsequent years?
One of such research problems, which should not be postponed for an indefinite future, is the need to develop environment-friendly sustainable economic development in order to slow down the adverse process of global warming.
With the warming of the Earth's climate, the risk of more dramatic climate cataclysms, including tsunamis, increases.
Tsunami may be a derivative of the global warming problem. Global warming generates an increase in climate disasters, including more cases of tsunamis.
But not only is the risk of more violent and more dramatic tsunamis rising. Also in recent years, there has been more other types of climate and natural climate catatics, such as droughts, rainstorms, tornadoes and weather anomalies.
At present, it should no longer be asked whether global warming generates an increase in natural disasters only what rate of growth will be recorded in the future? So many data, research centers confirms the progressing process of global warming, that the problem is unquestionable.
More and more data points to the growing risk of climate change, unfavorable for human and life on the Earth, increase of climate disasters, climatic and weather anomalies, which are the result of global warming, rising average annual temperature near the Earth's surface.
Now we should just ask: How can these adverse processes be counteracted? What ecological technologies, renewable energy sources, how to help natural environments, how to rebuild them, such as afforestation, to build natural ecosystems absorbing greenhouse gases?
How to develop ecological business ventures? How to create financing systems for this type of pro-ecological projects? How to dispel international cooperation in this matter? What actions should be taken to move towards the development of a new ecological green economy?
How to develop environmentally sustainable economic development to slow down the unfavorable warming of the Earth's climate?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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The economic recession that occurred due to the developing SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic in 2020 resulted in a decline in economic activity in many countries. There has been a significant reduction in the demand for raw materials used in various production processes and for raw materials for classic energy based on the combustion of fossil fuels. The scale of international air traffic and other means of transport has significantly decreased. Consequently, there has been a periodic significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and environmental pollution. An improvement in the condition of the biosphere of natural ecosystems has been observed. There are also short-term, so far single-season changes in the weather aura and the local climate. For example, in the temperate climate zone in which I operate (Central and Eastern Europe), for the first time in several years, there was a real winter with snow and frost after the previous, many years of the so-called warm winters, during which it practically did not snow, frost did not occur and the average temperature of the winter period, instead of minus temperatures, was positive at the level of several degrees C. , i.e. the correlation between the decrease in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental pollution and the change in the weather aura in the winter season consisting in restoring this weather aura to its character typical for a long-term scale and similar to the image before the current acceleration of the development of civilization, industry and greenhouse gas emissions.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Global warming has got more and more concerns owing to its various effects for nature, social and human health. Carbon neutrality has been recognized an ambitious aims for whole world. However, there are many questions needs scientists to give the answer. for example, what kind of practice is suitable for different countries? Is it possible to curb the climate changes? Is it a political thing or scientific-based solution? what can we do from our daily life, social activities to governmental policy. We have only one-earth, and in-deep discussion will put forward the idea to action. Welcome discussion on these.
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It is not difficult as demonstrated by a small country - Bhutan which is Carbon Neutral by virtue of its vegetational cover maintained well. The disadvantage with others is indiscriminate erasing of vegetational cover for developmental activities (including Reserve Forests/Protected Forests). One hectare of new forest sequesters 6.24 tons of carbon dioxide and you can imagine the potential of mature forests. All the best.
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Green cover is reducing all over the world and temperature is increasing concurrently as well.There are so many factors are responsibe for the rise of temperature & Humidity), but what's the effect of tree/forest cover reduction on it?
  • Is there any direct relationship between tree/forest cover reduction on temperature and humidity? (i suppose yes, there is)
  • How to calculate the effect of tree on temperature and humidity?
NB: Article reference would be appriciated
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You can use the NDVI, LST, and Soil Moisture index
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What would be the methodology of this work and how should I conduct this research?
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Climate change needs data for a long period say 30 years.
The methodology is
Desktop study of water quality of rivers as well as rainfall in a certain portion of a river in your region.
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Dear community,
I am aware of Bio-Oracle where climate change scenarios can be downloaded. However, due to the comments of a reviewer, I need to use another global circulation model. I was wondering if someone knows where to download another database for the RCP scenarios. It would be very helpful for our work.
Best regards!
Luis
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What about the NOAA portal here: https://psl.noaa.gov/ipcc/ocn/ ? Or if you have a particular GCM in mind you can download the netcdfs at their native spatiotemporal resolution from here: https://pcmdi.llnl.gov/mips/cmip5/data-access-getting-started.html , but that's a bit more involved.
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Earth's atmospheric temperature is increasing faster than climate change models predict. Heat from anthropogenic friction may explain this observation. Conservation of energy dictates that energy used to propel and stop vehicles eventually becomes heat. This previously unacknowledged heat emanates in part from vehicular boundary layer aerodynamics and braking systems. The number of aircraft and ground-based vehicles in use suggests anthropogenic frictional heat may be a significant contributor to global warming. These observations support much wider use of regenerative braking systems.
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Any transformation of energy on planet contributes to all
functioning mechanisms of planet.
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I am wondering if there exists any good paper that has analyzed the relations between climate change and the standard of life before the Industrial Revolution. As we know the real wage rates for British building workers since 1200, I am particularly interested if we can detect any correlation between temperature in England and the real wage before 1750 or before 1850 before England shows a sharp growth in real wage rates.
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Dear Julius,
thank you for responding to my question. As for a long-term real wage rate, I believe Gregory Clark's series is the best result as far as I know. Please See
Fig. 1 (p.29)
As you see the series starts from 1200 although it lacks several years for 1200's. This is the real wage rates for building workers mainly in London and Oxford. The nominal wage rates are constant for long years. Consequently the real wage moves oppositely with bread or wheat prices. If we assume that there is no rapid change of agricultural technology, the real wage movement must depend much on the goodness or badness of the crops.
Please tell me your opinion. The most remarkable fact for before the Industrial Revolution is that real wages are higher in the 15th century than any real wages before and after that until 1850. Does this signify that England was warmer in this century than other centuries?
As I am not a specialist in these questions, any information will be helpful to me.
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In the coming decade, Africa will be met with an avalanche of challenges. The consequences of not taking the required steps to avert the coming climate crisis and for not capitalizing on the 4th industrial revolution. These two pose the greatest threat to the welfare and lives of the average African. However, they also present an unlikely opportunity for Africa to shock the world. An opportunity that must not be missed.
If Africans (not necessarily African governments but Africans themselves) can in joint action, create an unprecedented transformation of the African society between now and the end of the present decade (just in time for the climate crisis and the wave of the 4th Industrial revolution), I.e. If Africans can create a new African society capable of averting the impending climate crisis, then Africa can and will capitalize on the 4th industrial revolution.
Subsequently once this happens, Africa will be placed on an unstoppable path of drastic developments in areas such as, infrastructure, agriculture, commerce, media, science and technology etc. In easier terms - A golden age..
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I think the role of joint actions of people should grow. The role of cooperatives will be important in this process. Here is information on promising types of cooperatives for Africa.
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I am looking for an answer to the question related to data for future climate change. On several forums I found that tmp and pcp data should be used for climate change. I wonder if you can also use slr, hmd and wnd data?
Thanks and regards
Damian
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Yes, solar radiation, humidity and wind data can assist in refining the reference crop evapotranspiration if you are doing studies on climate change and crop productivity in future.
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Dated: 24-June-2020
Why “roadblocks are often been overlooked by forecasters” before moving to the “prediction system (PS)”? Can it (PS) be considered a sustainable in the long term?
Now a days most of the forecasting agencies in India are busy in giving seasonal weather forecast (regional) including extremes and making it instantly available on the net. Many are in race of launching new portal to do so without comprehension of the predictability charade. Mostly been done using numerical modelling systems without exploring (disclosing) the some main factor which are essentially are the roadblocks in predictability.
I think, correcting spatial bias via embedded station data network should not only be the focus, though it will be a help but not sustainable solution. Why main problem lies been often overlooked before moving to PS? For example- intraseasonal variability (main roadblock to the predictability) is not well resolved in GFS forecasting model (or alike other models) and these oftenly used by the forecaster as an input data to their chosen prediction model. My question is, if unresolved or inadequate in specific sense (exam.- not having tendency to reproduce intraseasonal signals) inputs goes into the main predictive model then how sustainable will be the forecast in the long run. I feel, to do any less may result in prediction unsustainable. Surely, it may results in few right prediction and leads to self-acclaimed commendations but in longer run chances of failure in prediction will be higher. In terse, these prediction will have no substantial value in the long term.
For example – in a year when these charade processes will be predominant, forecast will be failure and it leads to socio-economic loss and setback to forecasting organizations. In general it will then, as usual, follow with post-mortem which will again highlights the need in the improvement of microphysics, intraseasonal signals variability, lead lag relationship, issues associated to AWS, standards rules or norms, installations, implementations policies, and money etc. aspects and in some cases probably leads to blame game to defend the failure. Remember, these reasoning to defend the prediction sometimes makes other agency competitive and robust. Healthy criticism can substitute constructiveness. I think, scientific failure must be constructively accepted to explore afresh scientific causes behind instead politicization.
If such things continue then it will be followed with actions such as --- Despondent with exiting forecast, Govt. decided to search for new options, leaving or updating the existing.
I think, Obliviousness should not a substitute for decisive forecasting. Forecasters must ensure that all roadblock are properly addressed or informed properly to tackle forecasting related failures and contingency. The truth must not left to postmortem and implications of the words.
Best,
Vaid, B. H.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Global warming?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Global warming.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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… The human influence on global warming is no longer simply a hypothesis, but an established fact …Skripnuk, D. F., & Samylovskaya, E. A. (2018, August). Human activity and the global temperature of the planet. In IOP conference series: earth and environmental science (Vol. 180, No. 1, p. 012021). IOP Publishing.
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Hi
We are going to research climate change in a large scale area (Iran). We can minimize the size of calculations and the volume of data (Precipitation, Minimum temperature, and Maximum temperature) to download by using monthly data instead of daily. So I want to know, is it scientifically ok if we use monthly data for bias correction and downscaling?
Best regards
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as recommended by sir Péter Csontos, you can take ideas from New Phytologist (2020) 228: 1535–1547. doi: 10.1111/nph.16740.
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Is there a specific hydrological model for simulation sub-catchment area that are including RWH structures in arid regions and how will adapt or deal with the changes of climate (local CC) ?. In other words I need to assess RWH structure for different climate change scenarios.
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SCS-CN and HECHMS
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If No, why ?
If Yes, how ?
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Ok mister Corlett, I understand ! Thank you.
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Hi
I have the time series described below:
1) Observed monthly cumulative precipitation data (mm) - attached (data.xlsx)
2) Historical monthly cumulative precipitation data (mm) produced by the MIROC model for the nearest node to the physical station (Observed data coordinate) - attached (data.xlsx)
I couldn't find a regression or relation between them. I tried ANN and Data analysis tools and some statistical methods.
Could you please let me know how to find a relation between these time series?
Best regards
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Go to CODEX - COORDINATED REGIONAL CLIMATE DOWNSCALING https://cordex.org, and download as suggest by our senior Professor Fabrice L. and continue. Thank you.
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Who can give me up-to-date source references on non-European legal philosophical discussions, dealing with anthropogenic climate change (e.g. references to conference proceedings or similar)?
Thank you!
Eckardt
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Danke Eckardt,
Glad to learn about Radbruch and would also like to hear your views on whether anyone actually follows his view today in Deutschland or Europe, or whether the systems specifically select and train lawyers to assure that they don't. Perhaps we should discuss this privately. For this thread, I have also been looking at this question of accountability to interntional law, particularly in sustainability and development, and have now codified international development law. I have put these on my ResearchGate page. The international community no longer follows its own laws and an analysis of the SDGs is a good example. “Testing the Global Community’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Against Professional Standards and International Law,” Consilience, Spring 2017. Even GIZ's legal development projects seem to have an agenda to avoid following existing measures and international laws. “Germany’s Rule of Law Interventions Need to Follow the Laws, Principles and Measures that Germany Claims to Promote,” Law, Social Justice and Global Development, Issue 24, 2019, pages 150-153. I'm glad to see that there are professors like you asking these questions, hope that there are many more like you, and hope that this thread gets more attention. Best,
David
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We are conducting a respirometer trial with salmonids and want to access SDA variables in relation to temperature. We are wondering, if we can measure the Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and the SDAcoefficient at the same time? We believe, measuring the MMR would add oxygen consumption, that is not directly related to SDA, but we would love to have the MMR as a measurement of potential growth. Is there a way, to measure both (e.g. by Q10 values, SDA values)?
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Hi Philipp, I would advise against measuring these variables (MMR and SDA) at the same time. In my experience, I believe this would confound your results. MMR is the maximum metabolic rate attainable, and it is already affected by numerous other parameters such as temperature and hypoxia, for example (see ). With SDA, you have a lot of variables you could measure (such as peak metabolic rate during SDA, SDA duration, SDA factorial scope, etc.). When you are studying aerobic contributions to SDA, it is best to have the fish moving as little as possible. I've recently published some work on SDA in salmonids (brook charr), hopefully you will find the methodology helpful.
If the goal is to measure both of these, I would recommend measuring MMR first, letting the fish return to SMR, then beginning your SDA trials.
Best wishes,
Nicole
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Climate change, i.e. the ongoing global warmin process, causes the drainage of many areas of the tropical and subtropical zones, and therefore freshwater resources are falling. This will probably be one of the most serious effects and problems of the global warming process that is progressing faster and faster. The issue of falling freshwater resources is one of the most serious problems and challenges for humanity in the 21st century. It is also a problem for biological ecosystems that undergo drying and, therefore, biodiversity, including biodiversity of flora and fauna on Earth, is also diminishing.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What is the impact of the global warming process on freshwater resources and the issue of biodiversity on Earth?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Freshwater ecosystems are vital for global biodiversity and ecosystem services. Freshwater ecosystems are susceptible to the impacts of environmental change, which may cause irreversible damage to these ecosystems upon which huge amount of biodiversity and ecosystem services are dependent. Within the next few decades the climate change will have considerable ecological impacts on most of the fresh water ecosystems as per the current climatic predictions.
Please see the link:
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Groundwater is a vital resource for sustaining life. In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the use of groundwater whether it is for human consumption or for industrial, irrigation ... so how can we protect these resources? how we can detect and delineate aquifer recharge zones?. Is there a relationship between overexploitation of groundwater and water quality?.
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Ground water pollutioncan be prevented by:
  1. properly dispose of all waste; don't dump chemicals down drains or on the ground.
  2. test underground fuel oil tanks for leaks; if possible, replace them above ground.
  3. safely store all chemicals and fuels.
  4. minimize the use of chemicals; always use according to directions
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Hi RG colleagues,
Is anyone familiar with a good climate-related vulnerability scale? I have not landed on a valid climate-related psychological vulnerability scale so far. Now I am wondering if someone can make a recommendation. Please advise if adapting The Psychological Vulnerability Scale would be a good idea? The psychological vulnerability scale is a 6 items scale (PVS; Sinclair & Wallston, 1999). I have used it in the past with high reliability in the covid related PVS.
Best wishes,
Gulnaz
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Thanks for your answer. I must admit, I'm still unclear on the context. "We" was changed to "he" in the passage you included here, which is otherwise identical to the first passage I asked about, but I have no idea who "he" or "we" are referring to.
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Surface water level in wetlands varies in different seasons and will there be merits? Will it help in creating awareness on climate change? Please share your comments and suggestions. Thank you
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We now recognize that certain essential environmental and public resources are provided by the wetlands. They include important fish, waterfowl and other wildlife habitats, clean waste water, and track the devastating force of floods and storms. They also offer a wide range of leisure activities, including fishing, hunting, photography and watching wildlife. Since these and many other functions and qualities of wetlands are becoming more well recognized, wetlands are becoming more and more regarded as productive, important and restored properties. Due to it many functions wetland called "The kidney of the earth"
we need to protect and beware for our wetland.
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Hello,
Can someone recommend a model (preferably not too input demanding) that simulates climate change and/or land use-change scenario using Ecosystem services as output (e.g., soil c stock, primary production, landscape aesthetic value, ...)
Thank you
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Matteo,
You've presented a very relevant and timely challenge. Why? Because if we cease to produce any anthropogenic CO2 moving forward, we would still have to manage the significant excess of CO2 humans loaded into the atmosphere since 1950. Regenerative agriculture practices offer the potential to permanently sequester excess atmospheric CO2 into the soil. Please check out these basic sources to help launch your inquiry:
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Traditional varieties are doing extinct day by day in the race of high yielding varieties. Many indigenous varieties were cultivated past 20 – 50 years. How will allow again the traditional varieties in the situation of climate change? Human diet diversity was played pivotal role during forefather’s life or before 50 years past. Would it be right to say that the native varieties helped to increase immunity? In todays’ situation every person is ready to do something to increase immunity. If today we had food made with native varieties in our plate, then we would not have to run for immunity?
#Climate Change #Food diversity #Immunity #Traditional Varieties
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Manoj Dash Thanks for sharing the article.
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Humanity has reportedly only had a decade of time for the necessary changes in the energy sector to avoid a global climatic catastrophe
Much has to change in consumer awareness, business must change and different social groups should force policies and change legal regulations. It is necessary to develop co-financing of investment projects in the field of renewable energy sources by the state from public funds. In addition, businesses must see this business. The development of renewable energy sources should be profitable, and it is not because it is cheaper to mine minerals, to devastate the natural environment. It is cheap to run classic energy based on mineral combustion because this classic energy and mining industry of hard and brown coal, oil refinery industry, automotive industry of vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines etc. is not burdened with the costs of natural environment devastation, costs of treatment of people who suffer from due to poor air, smog and no negative effects of global warming. If the mining, energy, processing and automotive industries were burdened with these costs, then it would not be worthwhile to devastate and pollute the natural environment. Then it would be more profitable to develop energy and industry based on renewable energy sources. Inventions of electricity have over 100 years of history. 100 years ago, electric cars should be produced, but the oil business this scenario of more sustainable development has crossed out. Therefore, for over 100 years, archaic energy based on the burning of minerals has been developed. During these 100 years, the average temperature of the Earth's surface has increased by 1 degree ° C. From specific scientific studies, it appears that humanity is only 12 years left to make the necessary changes, to switch energy and industry to renewable energy sources and the automotive industry to electromobility, to reduce poor quality of stoves and domestic ovens, on the development of large and small, home solar, wind and other power plants. At the same time, investment projects in renewable energy sources should be widely developed and entire economies should switch to sustainable pro-ecological development according to the concept of a green, new economy. If during this time these changes are not implemented then the average temperature of the Earth until 2030 will increase by another min. 1 degree ° C and then in the following years the greenhouse effect will accelerate and the problem of global warming will become an irreversible process, which will mean the widespread apocalyptic climate disasters covering most of the Earth's surface before the end of the 21st century.
In view of the above, the current question is: Can we still avoid a global climatic catastrophe and what should be done to avoid it?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Interested
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  • Does normative legal philosophy also have a potential critical function vis-à-vis existing, empirically provable injustice where the injustice is not so much promoted or brought about by discriminatory laws, incorrect court rulings or actions contrary to human rights in the sense of an ideology, but rather by legislative and political laissez-faire or even omission (cf. e.g. mediterranean migrant crisis, anthropogenic climate change or pandemics)? From my point of view, this should be the case (but where is it explicitly stated and conceptually discussed?).
  • Which concepts from the field of normative legal philosophy/ legal ethics could be used to transparently and rationally criticise such state and supranational omissions from a normative perspective? Should new concepts of legal ethics be developed, can existing concepts be adapted? Who are the primary addressees? From my point of view, the minimum connection between law, serving as the basis of state action, and justice, which can be assessed against Radbruch's formula, enables a normative evaluation of state and supranational omissions, but also provides the contours for corresponding (political) duties to act.
What is your opinion regarding these issues?
Some legal philosophical approaches to these questions can be found in my paper "Extreme Wrong Committed by National and Supranational Inactivity: Analyzing the Mediterranean Migrant Crisis and Climate Change from a Legal Philosophical Perspective", Göttingen 2021.
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The question, among other things, is whether the State has a positive duty to improve people's lives. Can a person demand that the state intervene in a particular social area? The great Russian philosopher N. Berdyaev said: "The state does not exist to turn earthly life into a paradise, but to prevent it from finally turning into hell»
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I Will be more than happy if somebody help me in this case. Does it has an specific function in R? or we should utilize quantile -copula methods...? or other???
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#Duration
d1<- plnorm(1, meanlog = 0.3634072, sdlog = 0.5528144)
d2<-plnorm(2, meanlog = 0.3634072, sdlog =0.5528144 )
d3<-plnorm(3, meanlog = 0.3634072, sdlog = 0.5528144)
# severity
s1 <- plnorm(1.01074, meanlog = 0.5194543, sdlog = 0.6528333)
s2 <- plnorm(1.365706, meanlog = 0.5194543, sdlog = 0.6528333)
s3 <- plnorm(2.324932, meanlog = 0.5194543, sdlog = 0.6528333)
s4 <- plnorm(4.439569, meanlog = 0.5194543, sdlog = 0.6528333)
library(copula)
cop_model <- gumbelCopula(param = 3.195)
D_meanlog <- 0.3634072
D_sdlog <- 0.5528144
S_meanlog <- 0.5194543
S_sdlog <- 0.6528333
gumbelCopula <- rotCopula(gumbelCopula(3.195))
pCopula(c(plnorm(1, D_meanlog, D_sdlog),plnorm(1.01074, S_meanlog, S_sdlog)),gumbelCopula )
can anyone help me more for this expression,?
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Methane production from a CBM Reservoir:
In the absence of a conventional gas trap, what kind of hydrological conditions associated with a coal-bed may not allow an efficient de-watering process?
Since the production of coal bed methane gas significantly mitigates the emissions of green-house gases from mines; and with roughly 2000 TCF availability of methane gas all over the globe, shouldn’t the extraction of methane from a CBM Reservoir be encouraged - as the stored methane gas can also be released to the atmosphere resulting from the dropping of water table - resulting from climatic changes as well?
To what extent, the presence of ethane (Saprolelic source); and CO2 (Humic source) will hamper the generation; and in turn, the production of methane gas from a CBM Reservoir (particularly between 50 and 200 degrees Celcius during generation)?
Since the measurement of down-hole gas-phase flow velocity remains extremely difficult, to what extent, the real time detection of down-hole operating parameters (down-hole pressure, temperature and wellhead flow data) and its associated dynamic water level measurements will actually aid to estimate the total gas output from a single-well? Will it also help to precisely predict the specific gas output from a particular coal-bed (and in turn, to estimate the total gas output from all the related coal-beds) – over a particular period of time?
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I have worked on this question and I suggest considering which source of methane is of interest. There will be some incorporated into the coal itself. Other methane will be biogenically produced in the water using the coal biomass. At that point it is operating more like a landfill than a natural gas extraction project. The same can be done with MEOR in spent or depleting reservoirs.
Dewatering is a custom solution based on the existing native conditions and the desired conditions to be achieved.
I look forward to having a conversation with you about this topic.
Best regards,
Ned
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Citing Surendra Adhikari at NASA, I would like to ask how it is possible to claim that the North Pole drift is caused by climate change:
"Climate change does not only cause the rise of the oceans, it also disturbs the magnetic field of the Earth. "There has been a dramatic change in the direction of pole drift, undoubtedly caused by climate change, which is linked to the disappearance of the ice sheets,  especially in Greenland," said Surendra Adhikari, researcher at the NASA. The North Pole has lost 278 gigatonnes of ice since the beginning of the third millennium.  As a result, the magnetic north pole moves eastward, and faster than before. The melting of ice would account for 66% in the acceleration of the phenomenon."
The magnetic pole drift is caused by the magnetic field strength of the North American flux lobe and the Siberian flux lobe (Ref: 1, 2, Figure 1). This is also based on a comparison with the magnetic South Pole in Antarctica, which is immobile and entirely surrounded by ocean, while the magnetic North Pole is driven by continental mineral density of the two major continents forming large magnetic fields. These mineral densities of the Siberian and Canadian regions are fluctuating with the activity of the internal core and the rotation of the iron core of the earth, seismic activity and change in mineral composition of the mantel over several years. The geomagnetic properties of these region can change drastically by the alterations of the electromagnetic field of the planet Earth, which is also affected by the electromagnetic field of the Sun. How can NASA claim that the North pole ice, which is virtually the same as water around Antarctica in magnitude of electromagnetic strength, alter the position of the magnetic North Pole?
References.
1. Gubbins, David, and Peter Kelly. "Persistent patterns in the geomagnetic field over the past 2.5 Myr." Nature 365.6449 (1993): 829.
2. St-Onge, Guillaume, and Joseph S. Stoner. "Paleomagnetism near the north magnetic pole: a unique vantage point for understanding the dynamics of the geomagnetic field and its secular variations." Oceanography 24.3 (2011): 42-50.
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Facinating topic. Thanks for sharing.
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I am doing a case study/ analysis of a permaculture site to prove its effectiveness in climate resilience and sustainability on a remote island as an example of what can be replicated on other remote islands that are vulnerable to the same climatic risks/ disasters. I have been reviewing papers on climate risks, permaculture and sustainability specific to islands. Because permaculture is not well practiced on this island and also because of covid i will refrain from interviewing local farmers and focus all my attention on the actual permaculture site and its merits and shortfalls and offer suggestions for further studies. Would i offer possible solutions to potential pitfalls based on what has been documented? My focus is permaculture as a solution to climate resilience.
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Studying islands from climatic point of view needs to consider the holistic ecosystem into consideration. Understandably, developmental activity could be low and therefore the score on climate change could be positive. However, please take into consideration the human activities that otherwise would contribute in this regard. All the best.
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The political handling of numerous issues and challenges of our time (for example, with regard to anthropogenic climate change or the pandemic) gives the impression that too few consultative formats are used that are geared towards interdisciplinary exchange from the outset and, in addition to scientific analyses and recommendations, also articulate ethical, social or economic consequences, among other things, which could be included in joint consideration processes. Against this background, do we need more interdisciplinary elements in university education? And how can interdisciplinarity be structurally anchored within curricula?
Thank you in advance for all contributions!
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Oh yes, there is a desperate need for interdisciplinary education that opens up a broad view on many issues, instead of giving a very narrow expertise in one particular topic. Depending on the system of higher education, a curriculum can be enriched through compulsory courses, or through optional interdisciplinary research-based learning courses for students where they can obtain diverse perspectives on one certain issue.
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In many climate studies the reference period was 1961-1990 and the first predicted 30-year period was 1991-2020. Since there are now the observations for the period 1991-2020 I was wandering if there are already some validations of climate predictions with the observed values, to see what climate trend was realized?
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How about this.
Hausfather, Z., H.F. Drake, T. Abbott, and G.A. Schmidt, 2020: Evaluating the performance of past climate model projections. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, 1, e2019GL085378, doi:10.1029/2019GL085378.
(In this study it been found that climate models published over the past five decades were skillful in predicting subsequent GMST changes, with most models examined showing warming consistent with observations.)
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1. Which software is comparatively easier to learn in order to analyze the available satellite data for air pollutants such as tropospheric ozone, PM10, NO2 etc.
2. Please recommend a guide to follow as well, if possible.
3. Approximately, how much time will it take to analyze data spanning 6 months?
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Thanks Dr. Nick Jordan
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Hi Guys!
I usually download future climate data from Worldclim.org.
Their website says that "Data at 30-seconds spatial resolution is expected to be available by the end of March 2020", however, this has not materialized . . . https://www.worldclim.org/data/cmip6/cmip6climate.html
Does anyone know of alternative sources to download future data at this (1km) resolution?
Many thanks!
Joshua
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CMIP6 modelers, data managers, and data users can find answers to most of their questions in one of the three specialized guides available at the PCMDI CMIP6 website.
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Obviously this is an open ended question, but I am curious if there are any research teams that have attempted to (predictive) model this at a regional scale. The benefits to soil health are known (carbon sequester benefits, etc.), but how effective can it be in mitigating climate change?
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Regenrative agriculural practices are effective in mitigtaing climate change-related issues , but effective models for small farms are consicuously missing ...
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Even here in Canada they are saying that climate action is a science based action as a promoting slogan for change, but if science based climate action is implemented through non-science based markets is not that a problem?.  UNCSD 2012 / Rio +20 in the Future We Want formalized a paradigm shift from the traditional market to green markets/green growth/green economy but instead of moving towards creating green markets by internalizing the environmental externality in the price mechanism of the traditional market to shift to green markets they are fast moving into creating carbon pricing based markets to continue treating environmental issues as they were in the traditional market still as externalities….
Carbon pricing based markets are dwarf green markets as they do not reflect perfect green market theory and they are unconnected to the green market price….Does not a science based climate action requires a science based market?. If yes, carbon pricing is not the way to go as they are not green markets and we are supposed to have shifted towards green markets in 2012, why are we going that way? Does the shift to green markets in 2012 made the scientific method and perfect green market theory irrelevant?
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Dear Lucio,
In the general philosophy and strategy of pro-environmental policy, markets based on carbon dioxide emission prices should meet the assumptions of pro-ecological transformation of the economy and should motivate economic entities to implement the goals of sustainable development. However, the operation of these markets in the scale of international trade in greenhouse gas emission rights needs to be improved so that these markets effectively meet the environmental objectives for which they were created.
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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They shifted to green markets in 2012 and they did not have a theory of the perfect green market to guide them.
They have gone the route of environmental externality management instead of environmental cost internalization as required by perfect green market theory without having a theory or a plan linking environmental externality management to the road to green markets.
In other words, environmental externality management based markets are not linked to green markets or green market pricing; and therefore they still operate under an envirornmental sustainability gap..
Is environmental externality management a short term cash cow and a long-term environmental nightmare in the making for governments and the world? I think yes, what do you think?
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Dear Lucio,
The above question was asked in 2016. Since then, a lot has changed in terms of pro-environmental policy, including motivating economic entities to implement the sustainable development goals. Since 2019, the European Union and several other countries have adopted a plan to achieve full climate neutrality of the economy by 2050. This is a big, positive step in terms of the pro-ecological transformation of economic processes towards the emergence of a green, social market economy, also known as a sustainable, green circular economy. More and more countries are taking important steps to implement the process of pro-environmental transformation of the energy, transport and construction sectors in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the scale of environmental pollution. On the other hand, taking into account the pace of the ongoing global warming process, the pace of the pro-environmental transformation of the economy so far is still too slow. It is necessary to increase the scale of pro-environmental state intervention, increase the scale of financing pro-ecological investment projects and increase the scale of pro-environmental, general social awareness of citizens.
Thank you, Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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According to a theoretical Greenhouse Gas Effect of 0 with 0ppm CO-equivalents the global temperature were 0°F or -18°C.
Due to the fact, all natural systems tend to show a maximum threshold value instead of infinite growth I wonder if there is a value of CO-equivalents that causes the maximum Greenhouse Gas Effect related to the current Energy output of the sun.
If there is an investigation or estimation on this value, how high is it and how high is the resulting rise in temperature?
Assuming a theoretical scenario with:
Energy Output of Sun = constant
Circulation System of Earth = constant
time = infinite
CO-equivalents = infinite
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Yes i assumed my result also to be a very low estimation. my numbers are widely used for surface radiation and downwelling radiation, also in the first fig in the paper you cited.
My approach was to calculate the ratio of both of them and then assume, that a ratio of 1 was equal to a "100%" GHG-Effect where all the radiation is absorbed and reflected downwards. But I assume I lack alot of understanding where these numbers come from.
You mentioned Venus. Are there similar estimations for W/m² for our neighbour planet? If we have a GHGE of +33°C, then how strong is it on Venus? How much of the 450°C does the GHGE contribute.
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Is there already literature about that issue? Maybe regarding to Mignolo´s concept of 'the colonial matrix of power'?
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There are two aspects of scientific colonialism that I experience profoundly:
First, scientists in "the colonies" are poorly funded , so locally funded programs are seldom global or international. Yet well-funded scientists implement programs in "the colonies" in a manner that is condescending: Local scientific engagement is seldom real - local scientists are good enough to provide facilities and carry out menial tasks, but genuine partnerships are not common. They are seldom work package leaders or lead authors on the publications that emerge from the program. They will not be paid anywhere near the salary of the international collaborators working alongside them. This is despite the fact that local scientists may match or exceed the the competence of the international PIs.
An ironic aspect of this is the perception that certain funding bodies have around investing in science in "the colonies". More often than not the funding is spent on the scientists from the country of funding origin, effectively creating an extended works program for scientists to do somewhere else what they would do at home. Example: A fully funded local program that I ran was budgeted at about 1/4 of the Euro equivalent of a partner program out of Europe, despite the strong overlap in the scope of the projects. Taking exchange rates in to account this meant that the same outcome for the European team cost about 60 times the local implementation costs. Stated another way, had the funders wanted to achieve impact, their money would have been better spent on the local team.
The second colonial aspect of climate science (actually all science) relates to the historic advantage that prominent publishers hold. In order to publish a manuscript in a good open source journal, the fees are the equivalent of my entire funding budget for 3 years. This is in spite of reduced rates that are offered by some journals to scientists from developing countries. My budget allocation includes provision for student research, and so the dilemma is whether to publish a paper or support students for 3 years.
The consequence of the colonialism entrenched in international science programs in emerging economies is to widen the gap between the scientific status of researchers based on their place of origin. Unfortunately there are international conventions around scientific collaboration that facilitate the current collaborative regime, which is intrinsically a good thing, but funding bodies seldom assess the genuine local impact of their funding at proposal stage, and certainly are remiss in assessing the impact that their funding had after the program is complete.
The reason why international scientists implement programs in other regions of the world is that those locations hold a strategic advantage, and roll-out strategies should make use of this while bearing in mind that to come to a developing country and do the science for us is colonialism. Instead, the strategy should be to come to a developing country to do the science with us. Criteria for genuine local engagement need to be entrenched in proposal assessments, and project reviews. Scientific colonialism is entrenched by the lip service given to this.
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Which category of particulate matter is most harmful to human health ?
How does air polluted with particulate matter affect human beings ?
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Apoorva... Regarding the size of particles, the smaller the particle size the greater will be the damage the cause to the living bodies. For the chemical composition, the presence of silica and asbestos particles exerts destruction of the respiratory vessels and the whole system damage. An appreciable hazard of the smoke come from the micro particles suspended in it. Good luck
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Marine debris such as fishing nets and other man-made debris affects many species and has been shown to cover large areas. But, as you believe this waste affects the biodiversity of the deep. Is it less important that it affects the depths than the surface?
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It is very shocking to hear from collegues that they have found marine debris in the deepest point of the oceans. This information shows how serious pollution by plastics is !
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Global temperature has been increasing , and many people consider it as a major threat to life on the Earth. This has long been described as 'global warming'. Arguments are emerging to call 'global heating'. Which one is technically correct to describe the rising in temperatures due to climate change? Global warming or global heating?
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Global warming is a softer term of the two. But heating means deliberate effort to raise temperature but warming can be deliberate or not. So heating is more harsh.
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Since climate change has become more common day by day, how it affects different communities differently.
What and how community-led intersectional adaption should be?
How can local traditional knowledge and practice be considered a scientific solution in our (academic researcher) climate change research?
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Dear Ilan Kelman ! Thank you for information. Best wishes, Ozodbek.
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What is the future of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Paris Agreement? Since we, as humanity, are struggling to reduce significantly the emission gap, how the future of interstate climate change negotiations looks like?
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I htink all these agreements make sense and will need a bit more time to become effective. 200 years of industrial development cannot be corrected within a decade, weather extremes will increase, so will the related restrictions and money spent on respective counter measures. Renewable energy never made more sense - economically (!) - than today. New technologies and many little progresses are on their way,. However they still need to (and will) take up momentum. It is scary how minimal the impact - globally - of the Covid related travel reductions is on carbon emissions!
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Hello,
I hope you have a good time.
I work on a research project about temperature indices. Due to the high number of indices, I only work on tables and maps on an annual time scale. In other words, I do most of my analysis for the annual time scale. Now I want to draw a box plot for studied indices. It should be noted that I have access to daily data. Do you think, for example, I should plot the average air temperature box plot using daily data or annual data?
Also in the case of precipitation, is the box plot better drawn from daily data or annual data?
I am waiting for your answer. Also, it would be great if you could introduce some reference.
Thanks in advance for your answer.
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Amin Sadeqi, I think it depends focus of your study. If you are looking for a trend in the short term scale, for example, 5 through 10 years I would suggest daily time scale would be better representation of climate, both for the temperature and precipitation data. But if your objective is to observe the long term climate effect then, annual data with box and whsiker would be okay. All depends on the scale of the analysis. Even bar charts with error lines (max and min from average) would represent annual data if it conveys the message that you would like to make. I hope it helps!
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Dear RG memebers
Is the effect of climate change on groundwater visible and can it be quantified?
It seems that the effect of human activity ( deforestation, overexploitation of groundwater, irrigational activity, etc ) ate easly observable and can be quantified than the effect of climate change on groundwater. What is your idea and research experiances on it?
Thanks
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Very important question.
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•The first 7 SDGs is an extension of MDGs
•Second group is inclusiveness (jobs, infrastructure industrialization, and distribution).It includes goals 8, 9, and 10
•The third group is on sustainability and urbanization that covers the last seven goals
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The pandemic has drastically halted progress
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Dear All, Do you think that we should consider the biotic stress tolerance when selecting climate-resilient crop varieties? As per the definition given by Climate Essentials (2019), climate resilience means the ability to prepare for, recover from and adapt to the impacts of climate change. Climate-resilient crops provide means of adapting diminishing crop yields in the face of droughts, higher average temperatures and other climatic conditions associated with climate change which mainly cover the abiotic stress factors, but not biotic stress factors. Your constructive criticism is highly appreciated. Thank you.
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Dear Thushari Wijeratne Climate resilience in general includes tolerance to climate extremities (excess or limited moisture, heat or cold stress, etc). Of course, genetic composition of varieties play an important role in conferring climate resilience. However, because of change in climate factors, the pattern of occurrence of disease and insect pests also changes. Therefore, while breeding for climate resilient varieties, one must also consider biotic stress tolerance. The details of breeding for climate resilient smart pulses can be accessed at the below mentioned link:
Regards!!!
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There are a few papers dealing with the effects of climate change on the pollination of European orchids, but I wonder if similar studies have been carried out in the Tropics.
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Hi Professionals!
Due to Global warming the earth temperature increases (https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/), which generates floods, storms, and tornadoes because of melting of ice glacier, in response it caused increase in the sea level up to 3mm/year, now if the sea level is increased and already the temperature is high, which will cause fast cycle of vapor formation having comparatively high temperature, these vapors will go up and will cause rain again, so as, rain reduce the earth temperature as we feel normally, and this phenomena will occur in a cycle. Then why we are concerned about global warming causes, also if there will be rains and floods and sea level is going up throughout, then how the literature says that cause of global warming water shed is going down and down and rivers lacks etc are getting dry day by day?
Just one reason I know, we have to control GW to stop those acid rains its true rain reduce temperature but acid rains has multiple negative impacts....
Your Thoughts Please!
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Atmospheric circulations and changes in them thereof due to global change, some of the regions get drier and the other regions get wetter despite changes in water sources in the atmosphere. However, the present models/the methods we employ do not permit us to ascertain the atmospheric changes due to global change.
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Dear Researchers,
I am applying interpolation by kriging method using GIS and interpolation did not cover the whole of area under consideration.
How to do this? Please guide me.
Regards
Naveed
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Most of the comments are wrong or incomplete. First of all you need to distinguish between a particular software implementation and the underlying theory. The theory of kriging, i.e. geostatistics is not based on GIS. Nor is an software package implementing kriging limited to or necessarily related to GIS so the original question implies a serious mis-understanding about kriging and GIS
One of the basic assumptions underlying kriging is either second order stationarity or intrinsic stationarity. Unfortunately with only a finite data set it is not possible to test whether either of these assumptions is really valid. There are ways to ascertain whether it is "reasonable" to make one of these assumptions or rather whether there is evidence that both assumptions are unreasonable. e.g if the empirical variogram increases at a quadratic or higher order then intrinsic stationarity is not reasonable.
If having modeled a variogram with a sill and hence at least a practical range then you would want to be cautious about using kriging at a distance greater than the range from all the data locations. Two things will happen; the kriging variance will be much larger and secondly the "kriged" value will be essentially just the arithmetic mean of the data values. A particular software implementation of kriging might then prevent generating kriged values too far away from all data locations.
Software manuals, particularly those for commercial software are likely not sufficient to address questions such as these. Instead one should consult a book on geostatistics, e.g the one by J.- P. Chiles and P. Delfiner (John Wiley & sons)
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Amid a dangerous escalating amount of extreme weather - bushfires, the destruction of the Great Barrier Reef and alarming amount of animal extinctions, the Liberal party continues to do nothing. How we make our Government act?
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Attached is where they took an area of the Sahara desert in Tunisia, kicked out the domesticated animals, and the native grasslands came back on their own in less than 10 years, like magic.
We need to remove the domesticated animals off a lot of the world's arid grasslands, and use those one billion acres for carbon sink--and have the native grasses solving Global Warming problem for us. And the ranchers will benefit, when they go from raising cattle or sheep on these marginal lands, to raising the native grasses for carbon credits instead.
I am speaking as a person who has already restored 800 acres of 8-10 inches of annual rainfall desert-grasslands back to 95% native cover in six months, that you can see at https://www.ecoseeds.com/greatbasin.html
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  • How likely are we to see the infectious disease spread as a result of climate change?
  • How are the communities most at-risk, and how and why both COVID-19 and climate change harms them?
  • Why is it so important for health professionals to talk about climate change now?
  • Do we need to rethink/deconstruct public and media those who are largely treated as separate issues?
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There is no any direct connection between climate change and the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus.
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Do we have any empirical model to model the combined effect of carbonation and chloride attack in concrete concerning time-dependent temperature, relative humidity and concentration of carbon dioxide?
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Dear Murali
Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures is induced by two chemical attacks: chloride attack or carbonation. Carbonation is control by the amount of CO2 in the air and generally happens in an industrial city where there is a lot of industrial activity. Besides, chloride attacks take place in the structure expose to seawater. Models have been developed to predict the depth of carbonation and the chloride ingress. Nevertheless, the recent literature does not mention a model to predict simultaneously the carbonation and chloride attack.
I encourage you to carry out research on this good topic
Regards
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The climate change has different aspect, some country became hotter in summer, while other country, be cool, some increased in precipitations , others become more drought (arid) .
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In general--the spatial variations (say region to region) in the temperature are linked to hydrological cycle. Reminisce here direct and indirect effect of different atmospheric, oceanic and induced parameters or the processes and its interactions play a significant role in their linkages. And thus makes the whole process substantially different in different spatial scale.
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Over the years, there have been improvements in technology which in turn had direct/indirect effects on the climate. We can't say that technological advancement should cease nor allow some disruptive process should continue.
Equilibrium must be achieved while the means of carrying out our day-to-day activities keep on improving.
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Mathias Ekpu Thanks sir for the clarification.
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Weather forecast has utmost importance in Aviation, Ship routing, safety measures, planning and designing of structures, urban areas, offshore maintenance, natural resources, coastal areas, Agriculture, pollutants management and in many more weather applications in world wide.
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The prediction depend on the available data,should there be enough data the prediction can be 100%, but in absence of reliable data the predictions are very low say 25%.
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Water as a resource is most intensely contested natural resource in the world. We need water to meet all the social, economical and environmental activities/ objectives of a country.
Question: How could we save and enhance our precious water resources?
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Thank you very much
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The Tigris - Euphrates water conflict is frozen conflict between three riparians (Iraq, Syria and Turkey). The conflict came up because of upstream water projects by Turkey and therefore the restriction of water access to individuals of downstream failed states (Iraq and Syria). There are two principles are conflicting: Territorial sovereignty of Turkey and human right to water of individuals (This is issue of global justice and not international justice due to failed states). My question is: whom belongs water and how property (connected with territory) theory of Locke  can be connected to the sovereignty principle of Turkey?
Thank you beforehand
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My consideration of the question is why would an esoteric philosophical perspective from Locke alter the literally thousands of years of praxis basically based on Roman Water Law ( http://www.fao.org/3/y5692e/y5692e00.htm#Contents ), probably the oldest codification of multi-faceted tensions between common pool resources and private uses. Any 'sovereignty' claim which disregards these well established perspectives might have some temporary benefit but essentially establishes a ticking time bomb for all future transnational relationships, if not laying the track into direct military confrontation.
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COVID-19 exposed many divisions among countries and prevented the formation of a united front to combat this pandemic. Even the very closely networked blocs such as ASEAN and EU failed to coordinate their efforts to combat COVID-19 because of national interest. Undermining the world organizations such as WHO, ICOJ, and the United nation various agencies are not painting a very good picture of what to come in the future. Can globalization survive?
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Due to the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic, a lot will change in terms of economic globalization. International, intermodal logistics chains of supply and distribution are shortened.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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We are looking a SSCI journal that do not need processing and publication charge to publish a a case study on perception , community vulnerability and adaptation measures to climate change. Your suggestions would be appreciated.
Thanks.
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I'm afraid things have changed. These journals are charging a lot now so it is hard to find one that is not. If anyone finds a climate journal not charging as of 2021 please list it.
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I would like to promote a discuss if the recent global climate changes can influences microsporogenesis, microgamatogenesis, megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis. I was wondering, based on the million years of terrestrial plant existence, if the plants can adapt the sporogenesis and gametogenesis for the possible changes in climate. Also, what is you thought about the possible plasticity in crop plants?
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@ Joao, plant fertility is highly sensitive to elevated temperatures. Heat stress has pleitropic effects on male sporogenesis. Heat interferes with male meiotic cross-over designation and cell wall formation, providing a mechanistic basis for plant karyotype change and genome evolution under high temperature conditions. The male reproductive system has been repeatedly found to be most susceptible to temperature stress.
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How to the climate change influence upon land and change to desert
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Just as food for thoughts, what type of macroeconomy the integrating of innovation and climate with economic growth leads to?.: To the same traditional macroeconomy or to a dwarf traditional macroeconomy or to a green macroeconomy or to a dwarf green macroecomy. What do you think?
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I appreciate Lucio Muñoz for the valuable topic. Would be interested to know as well.
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Dear all, I search a material and methods, with reference, in order to simulate climate change in the field for agronomy study. Which climatic variables should I change? How? Thanks in advance for you contribute.
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How to simulate climate change in the field?Climate change has a disproportionate impact on the poorest and most vulnerable countries, including
small island developing countries, landlockedn countries, arid and semi-arid
areas, and countries where people depend on natural resources for their lives. The farming, pastoral, fishing and forestry communities that provide food for
most of the planet are the most affected by climate change. Adaptation to climate change for such communities is equivalent food security. If the situation
develops according to the "normal scenario", the number of people suffering from poverty may increase by 2030 in the range of 35 to 122 million people.
Our ability to eradicate hunger by 2030 depends on whether we can ensure that the entire agricultural production chain, food systems, and the communities that depend on them are healthy, productive, stable, and resilient to climate change. In doing so , climate justice must be taken into account, establishing a link between
development and human rights, ensuring a human-centered approach, protecting the rights of the most vulnerable, and sharing the hardships and benefits of climate change and its consequences equally and equitably .
Food security is inextricably linked to achieving the SDGs. The elimination of hunger and malnutrition is the foundation for all other forms of socio-economic
development. If the necessary measures are not taken today, the devastating
impact of climate change on food security and nutrition will continue to undermine our efforts to achieve these goals.
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The Capparis scabrida species, Family of the (Capparaceae), is known as dog sapote, it is one of the species with the greatest adaptability to desert ecosystems, it belongs to the flora of the dry forests of Northern Peru, and Central and South from Ecuador, between 0-2,500 m of altitude. It is a species that never loses its leaves, always turn green during its life cycle and it does not have seasonal precipitation, it has to wait for the rain every year. My question is why it forms many rings of growth if it does not present seasonal precipitation and never loses its leaves. That is an image of a cross section so you can see the great presence of growth rings, It was collected in the South Region of Ecuador (Loja-Catamayo,Ecuador 2020).
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Los anillos son los tejidos vasculares del arbol (xilema y floema) atraves los cuales (xilema) sube el agua desde el terreno hacia las hojas, y el floema que desde las hojas distribuye a todos los organos del arbol la glucosa que es el producto de la fotosintesis. Entonces yo diria que si Capparis scabrida nuca pierde sus hojas la fotosintesis continua y por eso se necesita agua que probablemente se almacena en las raices del arbol para subir a las hojas en un flujo continuo. La misma agua contribuye al desarrollo del tronco y a la formaccion de un nuevo anillo de tejido vascular, por cada temporada.
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I artifically elevated the air temperature in the heated plot by 3-celsius degree compared to that in the control for 7 days.
I want to figure out the effect of the temperature manipulation on soil temperature.
The datalogger collected the soil temperature every 30 minutes.
In that situation, can I calculate daily mean soil temperature using 30 minute-unit data to go ANOVA?
Additionally, can I treated the respective days as repeated factors for repeated measures ANOVA?
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The design is not very clear to me. Did you observe several soil plots? If so, you might perhaps compute the means of 120 collected temperatures per hour for each of the 7 days and then run a repeated measures ANOVA with 2 Within subjects/plots factors :24 Hours and 7 Days). If you do'nt have many plots, maybe you can further reduce the Hours, e.g. from 0 to 6 A.M., from 6 to 12 A.M., from 1 to 6 P.M. and from 6 to 24 P.M.) You could also run 7 one-way repeated measures anovas, but then correct the p-values for multiple tests.
If the distributions of the means is normal (check this with a histogram and Shapiro tes) you can run the parametric repeated measures ANOVA; if not normal, uou can run the non-parametric lf.f2 from the nparLD R package (see attachment and https://rdrr.io/cran/nparLD/man/ld.f2.html ) (The one-way repeated measures nonparametric equivalent is the Friedman test.)
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I am having this idea of reclaiming part of the Sahara by planting trees to see whether it will assist in combating Climate Change.
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In Kenya we we have a package of "Kazi Mtaani", meaning community work. Youth from various localities have been mobilised to de-silt culvert, clear bushes, clear drains. We have plenty of this labour and if they can assist in greening the world it will be very good.
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I am doing lesson plans and am looking for examples of environmental claims that do not stand up to close scrutiny.
There are more than enough examples of this related to climate change...so no climate change discussion needed, thank you though.
The idea is that I will give my class a faulty environmental claim and they have to find the weakness in the claim as a homework assignment.
For example, here is claim that does not stand up:
"The lead dust found in the soil of Gotham City can get into the groundwater and pose a human health risk through drinking water."
What is wrong with this claim? The lead dust is most certainly harmful and may have leached into the ground-water, but five minutes on the city water department web page will show that the drinking water comes from a reservoir miles away. So the route of exposure is the reason this claim is faulty, and if we want to protect people, we need to worry about airborne dust and skin contact with soil.
In another case, I encountered a claim from a chapter of the REDACTED ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATION that Carbon Dioxide is linked to asthma.
Carbon dioxide is of course linked to climate change and in confined spaces can be deadly. But the claim is faulty because asthma is linked to nitrous oxides, ozone, and particulates.
Do you have any other examples?
Please let me know
Kevin
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El Niño and La Niña are complex weather patterns resulting from variations in ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific that are a good example of natural weather variability. Glaciations are another example of climatic variation that occurs naturally and is not related to current climate change.
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I am thinking of working on a research topic relating to ESG Investment and Climate change reality. I am no expert in research for now and Its been quite confusing how to capture Climate change and ESG with this regards to show the relationship between E Investments and Reduction in climate change. So far, with my little research done, to capture climate change, one could use "rising sea levels" or "average temperature overtime" but is that really sufficient? Plus what would you suggest I use to capture ESG Investing (Be it Global or Regional).
Looking forward to reading responses :).
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You can read Understanding the Challenges of Climate Change on Business: A Study on RMG Sector in Bangladesh.
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In very recent years there has been a heightened public concern and awareness about climate change and sustainability. When we talk about sustainability, is it clear that we are all talking about the sustainability of populations of other species and their habitats, and the activities of humans to have an impact on those species and habitats?
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The concept of sustainability is related to to the existing ecological interspecies relationships in natural ecosystems. On the other hand, the concept of sustainable development in recent years more and more often, apart from the issues of biology and ecology, is also to pro-ecological economic processes that are implemented taking into account the issues of solving global problems of the development of civilization, corporate social responsibility and social environmental (ecological) responsibility. In addition, the concept of implementing the principles of sustainable development to economic processes is related to the implementation of pro-ecological reforms carried out in specific sectors of the economy, e.g. to the pro-ecological transformation of the energy sector through the development of renewable energy sources. The process of implementing the principles of sustainable development into economic processes is an important element of the pro-ecological transformation of the traditional brown economy into a sustainable green economy / circular economy. The pro-ecological transformation of the economy is carried out, among others, by in order to increase the scale of protection of nature and climate of planet Earth. At the same time, as a result of these processes, the scope of sustainability of economic processes increases. In view of the above, there are many indirect relationships and correlations between the issues of progressing climate change, counteracting the progressing global warming process and the issue of sustainability in the economy and in natural ecosystems.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Any paper about the relation between butterfly lifecycle and temperature will be very helpful, please let me know
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Dear Alex Naveen Alex I also suggest like Tharindu Ranasinghe follow the attached link below, you may get some related information
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Hello,
I will like to know the best spatial modelling technique to investigate the effects of climate change on biodiversity.
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MaxEnt
Logistic Regression
Artificial Neural Network
MaxEnt results are usually better.
You can also study the results of the methods
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Hi everyone,
I am looking to collaborate with any researcher(s) that is/are interested in applying the principles of cellular automaton to climate change research. Kindly reach out to me by commenting, sending a private message or an email to hemenseter@knu.ac.kr
Please share this with your colleagues so it can be widely read. Thanks
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Dear Butu,
Do you want to relate cellular automaton to climate change and sustainability research with business?
If you want to do this I can collaborate.
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Global warming is being addressed through a sustainable development lense formally since 2012 Rio +20; and therefore, it is being addressed outside sustainabiltiy rules.
And this raises the question, is not global warming a sustainability isssue? I think it is a sustainabiltiy issue. What do you think?
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In the last 100 years, the warming of the air has increased. This led to the melting of the glaciers and the fact that the steppe was overthrown.
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During climate change women and men perform different roles to combat the climatic events
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What role do men and women play to combat climate change? The negative role that men and women play to combat climate change, several times, is partly due to their ignorance, missing information and misinformation.
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Dear all,  
I am currently a guest editor for the special issue "Mediterranean Olive Trees and Olive Oil under Climate Change", which will be published by the journal Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395, 2019 JCR impact factor = 2.259, Quartile 1).
The deadline is June 2021. Please feel free to contact me if you are interested and also feel free to disseminate this message in your groups.
Yours sincerely,
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Bon courage et bonne chance Olfa
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A study by researchers at Imperial College London, published in the magazine “One Earth”, highlights the need to deepen knowledge about how global warming affects polar ice sheets, in order to be able to estimate sea level rise in this century and believe that current knowledge about the behavior of ice sheets suggests that sea level rise may be greater than the "probable range" predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2100.
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I think that we should avoid living in that area.
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The greenhouse effect is gradually progressing on Earth. Consequently, the risk of new climate disasters increases every year.
Currently, technologies are being developed with the help of which space ships will be built to enable a manned space mission to Mars.
In the 21st century, will man be able to overcome greater distances and get to know some other planets of our solar system?
Is it possible to develop on Earth a technology that a man can leave the solar system and, for example, one day he can reach the nearest Alpha Centauri constellation?
In connection with the above, the question arises: Will man manage to create technologies thanks to which he will leave the planet Earth, the Solar System and reach other planetary systems?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Nice discussion. In this case, the mission of voyager 1 and 2 can be mentioned. The two spacecrafts have been sent to the space with close time distance of each other 42 years ago to explore the solar system and its beyond. Still some parts of voyager 2 is functioning and sending data to the stations on earth and it is passing the heliopause and entering a new era and thereafter a new constellation. It is surprisingly sending unexpected news from beyond our planet and the whole solar system. In my opinion first of all such missions can be designed and performed to receive and send us the accurate data of the meta space outer our blue lively planet, then researchers can decide to manage sending existing humans to outer planet or better to say to plan building a new residential area on other planets. As an example after moon and mars the next destination can be the titan the moon of the planet Saturn. Titan with a thick atmosphere is a negotiable opportunity.
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