Climate Change - Science topic
Climate Change is an any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Questions related to Climate Change
recently, all the globe is talking about climate change and its effect, so i would like to make a research article about climate change and its relation with drug residues in food of animal origin starting from drug administration to animals
I have received data for 50+ rainfall stations in my study area. Is there any mathematical formulae which gives optimum number of rainfall stations for trend based climate change study ? All of them have missing values in them, ranging from 1% to 50%. Upto what percentage of missing values can be filled by statistical methods and how to determine the threshold limit (whether 10% or 15% or 20%). If any literature is available on this, kindly intimate me
For instance, i want to use the IPCC 2013 method for the impact category climate change, but use Usetox for ecotoxicity and CML-IA baseline 2013 for eutrophication and resource deplition (fossil fuels). Is this possible? How do i make a method that incorporates all the different already existing methods?
There is a lot of demand for information about the potential of different tree species (and also other types of crops) to capture and store carbon.
Such information is critical to designing farms with a better climate footprint.
This is particularly true for agroforestry farming systems relying on one or more tree species!
However, information on this topic seems completely scattered and not synthesized.
Does such a database exist?
Do you agree with me that we have to combat desertification in each of its locations in order to reduce severe climate changes and dust ؟
Those who read the 1987 Brundtland Commission Report know that it was about sustainable development solutions to the social and environmental sustainability issues embedded in the traditional market model due to the assumption of social and environmental externality neutrality that had led to social problems(poverty, over population) and environmental problems(Pollution, environmental degradation) that the commission highlighted as the reason for the need to go, not half way from business as usual, but away from business as usual, and they gave us the definition of sustainable development, not of sustainability…..
But look at the UN related page below and its content:
Sustainable development requires an integrated approach that takes into consideration environmental concerns along with economic development.
In 1987, the United Nations Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Today, there are almost 140 developing countries in the world seeking ways of meeting their development needs, but with the increasing threat of climate change, concrete efforts must be made to ensure development today does not negatively affect future generations.
The Sustainable Development Goals form the framework for improving the lives of populations around the world and mitigating the hazardous man-made effects of climate change. SDG 13: Climate Action, calls for integrating measures to prevent climate change within development frameworks. SDG 14: Life Below Water, and SDG 15: Life on Land, also call for more sustainable practices in using the earth’s natural resources. “
See we know, a) sustainability(optimization based) is not sustainable development (maximization based); b) The commission gave us a definition of sustainable development and not of sustainability as they saw the social and environmental issues created by the traditional market in terms of sustainable development thinking; c) that is why we have sustainable development goals, NOT sustainability goals.
We know the sustainability model is different than the sustainable development model and according to the model inconsistency principle sustainability and sustainable development can not be equated or defined one as the other or the other as the one.
But the UN defines sustainability as sustainable development there, a scientific inconsistency as it violates the theory-practice consistency principle.
Which raises the question, Do defining sustainability as sustainable development requires alternative academic facts? If yes, Why?
I think YES, what do you think?
Feel free to provide your own view when answering the question.
Do you agree with me that we need to take care of green building and sustainable development in light of climate changes?
The goal of shifting from pollution based markets to clean markets is affected by going green markets and by going dwarf green markets in opposing ways.
The working of green markets moves away from pollution based markets and it tends towards clean markets while the working of dwarf green markets stays far away from clean markets and very close to pollution based markets.
Which raises the question, What are the clean market consequences of green market paradigm shift avoidance?
What do you think?
Please try to answer the question first, and then make any comments you think are appropriate.
And I will reply.
In view of the recurring droughts in recent years because of climate change. We have an idea to establish a national project to confront climate change in Iraq.
Air pollution and climate change are unstable or even very bad, causing many lives to be affected by cancer, heart, lung, malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and heat stress.
What role can we (as in health) play in dealing with this?
Electrical vehicles have been touted as one of the major ways to combat global climate change. Without combustion of fossil fuel producing gases harmful for human health is a major step towards using electric vehicles but it requires some drastic steps to replace the gas fired vehicles. The cost of vehicles and the lack of supercharging stations are some of the obstacles need to be overcome before making it a potential solution. Unfortunately, this type vehicles are not yet available in many countries. What are your comments?
I am researching the recovery of sandy soils (Arenosols) affected by desertification due to climate change. Recovery methods do not include irrigation. What methods have you tried and worked out?
I plan to research the impacts (climatic and man made) of mangrove on fishery stocks. It would be wonderful if I could get some of your expert advice to make my research more precise and accurate.
The new scenario family that IPCC is using in its new reports is a combination of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). You can read more about them at these papers:
As there is no probability assigned to different scenarios, scenario users are left with a numerous scenarios projecting the future world regarding the emission (RCPs) and societal and economic conditions (SSPs).
When you are planning to adapt to climate change, the impacts differ with each scenario (SSP-RCP combination. For example, planning for adaptation when you are facing a condition like SSP1-RCP2.6 is much cheaper, easier and achievable compared to a high emission scenario like SSP5-8.5 (combined with a socio-economical condition making adaptation challenging).
The discussion that I'm trying to open here is about the approaches you use / assumption you make in your studies when working with these scenarios. As my main audience is the people who use scenarios, I'll be grateful if you could share this post with people working in these areas.
Research Assistant at University of Waterloo
PhD System Design Engineering
I am looking for a way to build land-use models for the future 2050 and 2100. In addition to social and economic variables, I would like to include in these models the effects of climate change following the scenarios of SSPs 4.5 and 8.5. Do you have any suggestions for me? What are the limitations of these models?
My PhD research proposal is to determine the impact of climate change on farmers in the different agro-climatic zone of West-Bengal. I am quite confused to frame the sample size as I am not getting the proper theory to fit against the farming population of Bengal.
Methane (CH4) is nearly 86 times stronger as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO2) (Dean, 2020). Scientists believe roughly one-fifth of the increase in radiative forcing by human-linked greenhouse gases since 1750 is due to CH4 (Nisbet et. al., 2014, Javadinejad et. al, 2019).
How would you connect the findings of Nisbet/Javadinejad and Dean? If you find methane to be more harmful, then how much is it contributing to global climate change? In such case, why the global climate research community and policymakers are prioritizing CO2 reduction over CH4?
You may have a look on my thesis to know more about the impact of methane on our environment.
So, which CMIP6 models are suitable for the case of East Africa, specifically, Ethiopia?
Please, I need suggestions for the appropriate model? Any scholar/researcher with experience in climate change modelling can give me constructive suggestions or feedback on this?
I thank you for your suggestion!
I want to receive ideas of dear researchers about providing better soils for increasing the farmers' resiliency and adaptability in combating climate change effects and conserving soil biodiversity.
Weather forecast has utmost importance in Aviation, Ship routing, safety measures, planning and designing of structures, urban areas, offshore maintenance, natural resources, coastal areas, Agriculture, pollutants management and in many more weather applications in world wide.
Climate change has adverse effects on devastating environmental changes, human health, and agricultural production. How about that impact on plants to produce secondary metabolites that have been known to possess a tremendous benefit to human health?
- About 25% of all the global climate change problems we are observing can be attributed to the food and the choices that we actually make on a daily basis. Different foods and diets have different carbon footprints. Livestock accounts for over 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions, which is that sort equal to transportation (cars, trucks, planes, trains and ships combined).
- We do not have to be Vegan; we can swap to chicken and fish, obviously. If we can just reduce our red meat intake a little bit, we can help the climate a lot.
- On another note, just switching to a Mediterranean diet can potentially solve 15% of global warming pollution by 2050.
A time series is said to homogeneous if it undergoes any change in the pattern of series due to climate change and not due to other instrumental and manual errors.
I have 47 years’ monthly temperature data for 2 observatories, thereby it accounts for 564 data-points for each observatory. I wanted to know whether the rainfall time-series is homogeneous or not? Thereby I ran Pettitt, Buishand, Von_Neumann ratio test & SNHT test using XLSTAT trial version.
The thumb rule is that if the p-values is less than 0.05 , then the null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted which means the time series datasets has a break point and non-homogeneous
The result obtained is that The p-values for all the 4 methods is less <0.0001 for both observatories. Does it mean the time series in in-homogeneous or does it indicate there is climate change phenomena? How can it be possible for all the test and for all observatories to be in-homogeneous (p<0.0001)?
CO2 Emissions from a gallon of gasoline: 8,887 grams CO2/ gallon
CO2 Emissions from a gallon of diesel: 10,180 grams CO2/ gallon
1 us liquid gallon = 3.785 litres
Trees required for Petrol vehicle
CO2 emissions from a liter of gasoline = 2348 grams
For five letters = 2348*5= 11,740
Per year = 11,740*365=4,285 Kg
A typical tree can absorb around 21 kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year
Number of trees required for a vehicle consuming 5 L petrol per day
4285/21 = 204
Trees required for Diesel Vehicle
CO2 emissions from a liter of diesel = 2,690 grams
For five letters = 2,690*5= 13,450
Per year = 13,450*365 = 4,909 Kg
A typical tree can absorb around 21 kilograms of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year
Number of trees required for a vehicle consuming 5 L Diesel per day
4909/21 = 223
We mostly associate drought with vegetative traits. I wonder if flower characteristics of dryland plants are shaped by drought. Is the presence or absence of the perianth and the type or structure of reproductive parts of a flower affected by this? I need sources on flower buds, flowers, fruit and seeds. Do you have any recommendation on this matter?
When you look at discussions about human population, whether from the overpopulation point of view in particular or population dynamics view in general, they lead to policy actions and recommendations that appear to be independent of the traditional market structure structure(price, consumption, and production) that supports them, but the nature of markets seems to shape the nature of the population and population dynamics they encourage.
And this raises the relevant question once and for all:
Is the nature of human population dynamics dependent or independent of the nature of the traditional market structure dynamics that serves them?
I think that the nature of the population and its dynamics is dependent of the nature of the markets that serves them as they shape their nature, what do you think?
Are they independent? Yes or No, and why do you think so?
Are they dependent? Yes or No, and why do you think so?
What do you think?
While many businesses are aiming for net-zero goals, do we have sound evidence that net-zero farming is possible or has already been achieved?
Some food crops such as sorghum and millet are known to suit the arid and semi-arid areas of the world. It is obvious that the importance of such crops is increasing in the years to come with the changing climate and expanding desertification. What crops on the feeds side (feed materials) can go in line with the changing climate and how promising are they? Please share materials published on "climate-smart" feed crops. Thank you!
I have found many scientific papers and edited books on global value chains. But I do not find any book that combines global value chain, buyer-supplier/seller relationships and climate change together. I am looking for a textbook that covers the issues together.
I am doing a PhD and one of my objectives is to use DSSAT for modeling effect of Climate change scenarios on maize productivity in SW Uganda. My study area lies btn
0.8435° S, 30.8039° E
Where can I download the above current climate scenarios datasets for simulation of impact of cc on maize yield ( early, mid and end of) century?
At what time scale should we consider the priority measures to be implemented in order to ensure the protection of natural resources and guarantee their sustainability? (i) direct and urgent measures associated with the modes of exploitation and development of resources ; (ii) indirect and very long-term implications of Climate Change on the potential of resources. Has everything been done on (i) to decree that it is urgent to tackle (ii) head-on with all its uncertainties, particularly with regard to time scales involved, incompatible with the scales of concrete actions?
Is it absurd to assume, like for the evolution of species and their adaptations to natural changes of all kinds, that adaptations and resilience to the effects of climate change should readjust themselves, to changes in natural conditions, which by definition are very slow and loaded with uncertainties?
Moral: what are the urgent actions for scientists, decision-makers, actors, and active civil societies, and on what issues should scientific, technical, and financial resources should be concentrated?
I would be glad to exchange ideas on this important matter. To start the discussion, I will begin by giving some examples from Tunisia (ranked among the countries that suffer the most from lack of water).
Example 1- On the adaptation of Tunisian olive groves to bioclimatic conditions: The olive tree has been cultivated in Tunisia since Roman times under different bioclimatic conditions in exclusively rainfed groves: in the south with less than 250 mm of rainfall and in the north with more than 600 mm . Apart from the different olive tree species in each of the regions, it is clear that the density of olive trees is strictly correlated with rainfall, ranging from 16 olive trees per hectare in the South to nearly a hundred olive trees per hectare in the North; so that it is possible to faithfully superimpose the density map of olive trees on the map of isohyets. Empirically, over millennia and outside of any protocol or procedure, the peasants have naturally adapted to the natural conditions of the environment and it is difficult to imagine that things can be otherwise.
Example 2- On floods and hydraulic disorders: Indigenous, Carthaginian, Roman, and Muslim cities were, without exception, located high up, sheltered from flooding (they were unfortunately not immune to drought). The centrifugal developments of urban agglomerations during the last century have reached flood zones. The transformation of watersheds and the artificialization of the water cycle have increased the concentration of flows so that flooding has become a national plague. What are the urgent actions: (i) to rethink territory development and planning for better resilience to flooding or (ii) tackle the impact of climate change on the frequencies of floods, admittedly real but at much larger time scales which escapes the scales of concrete actions.
Example 3- On groundwater overexploitation and aquifers depletion: Most of the groundwater is subjected to disastrous overexploitation leading to drawdowns and irreversible degradation of water quality. Some aquifers are withdrawn at more than 250% of the average recharge rate and the oases of the South draw on very weakly renewable “fossil” aquifers to produce dates sold at prices ranging between $ 1 and $ 3 (approximately 8 m3 of water are required to produce 1 kg of dates) . Coastal aquifers in the Cap-Bon region are used in the production of citrus fruits sold at less than $ 1 per kg. The aquifers are stressed to such an extent that marine intrusion has, in some cases, resulted in definitive depletion of the resource. If the decision-makers and the scientific community do not put urgently all their human and material resources and all the scientific and technical means, to solve this nagging problem; well, the time needed to define and put in place measures of resilience and adaptation to the hypothetical effects of Climate Change on groundwater recharge will be more than enough for the squandering of these resources to be total and definitive as it is already the case of certain coastal aquifers.
(5) (PDF) Alleviating water scarcity by optimizing "Green Virtual-Water": the case of Tunisia (researchgate.net)
(4) National Water Security, Case Study of an Arid Country: Tunisia | Request PDF (researchgate.net).
Rsoner test will detect outliers that are either much smaller or much larger than the rest of the data. Rosner's approach is designed to avoid the problem of masking, where an outlier that is close in value to another outlier can go undetected.Rosner's test is appropriate only when the data, excluding the suspected outliers, are approximately normally distributed, and when the sample size is greater than or equal to 25. My questions is that can we use it on univariate time series or should we apply it for univariate datasets only?
Think about it, science is supposed to be an open environment, one where if ideas are shown to be lacking or inappropriate or wrong, they are either improved or discarded. A system where if assumptions about reality turned out to be wrong, it will shift to catch up with the actual, now new reality leaving the previous reality/previous knowledge behind. That would be consistent with the thinking of Popper and Kuhn.
That was the expectation after the 1987 Brundtland commission said business as usual model has not worked as the assumptions on which it has been based were wrong, and that was the expectation after 2012 RIO + 20 when the UNCSD commission said to go green market, green growth and green economy was the shift to go….to internalize the wrong environmental externality assumption found in the business as usual model...
If that science expectation does not happen and invalid ideas and/or previous paradigm ideas are used to address the new reality, which by now everyone knows or should know is a reality not consistent with those previous ideas, is that still science or is this now an ideology?.
Which raises the question, at what point science, in general or economics in particular, becomes an ideology?
What do you think? Please express your view through answering this question.
Can we model (mathematically) the resilience of populations (at the village level) to climate change to see the dynamics of this resilience in the future ? In other words, what parameters should be taken into account? How can these parameters be quantified?
Do you think that large-scale exploitation of shale gas would be a solution to alleviate the energy crisis which seems to be taking hold? What support measures should be put in place to mitigate its impact on health, on water resources and on the environment in general? What are the research efforts and technological developments that would be necessary to undertake to anticipate and prepare the ground for large-scale exploitation of shale gas throughout the world? what would be the legislative and regulatory provisions to be put in place as a priority to control the associated risks?
Graph: Schematic geology of natural gas resources, Source: https://www.eia.gov/
Climate change, a topic of high global importance. It has an impact on the environment, economy, health, ........
How can we explain the adaptation or reproduction of sterile insects to this climate change?
Thank you for sharing the materials you have with me for a research paper.
I have the time series described below:
1) Observed monthly cumulative precipitation data (mm) - attached (data.xlsx)
2) Historical monthly cumulative precipitation data (mm) produced by the MIROC model for the nearest node to the physical station (Observed data coordinate) - attached (data.xlsx)
I couldn't find a regression or relation between them. I tried ANN and Data analysis tools and some statistical methods.
Could you please let me know how to find a relation between these time series?
Please share methodologies to quantify the hypothesis that the "reduced evaporation" and "increased transpiration" from tree cover area (forested region) results in increased water conservation.
How can all these can be integrated in a best way? I would love to hear and read case studies, especially from least developed countries.
Someone could help me to make this type of map on QGIS or R. I already have data from the 11 synoptic stations as in the figure but unlike the map my data is from 1960 to 2020. I would like to make this map to highlight the climate change of the last decades.
Climate change vulnerability is not an emerging issue but the importance of adaptation is always neglected. Inequity makes women’s health vulnerable from their birth and regional variation makes it more prominent specially due to climate change vulnerability. Disparity in healthcare access is more problematic in third world countries like Bangladesh and it occurs at each level: individual, family, social and even in regional variation. Men’s perception about women’s health is not satisfactory at rural-coastal level in Bangladesh and the problem is more deeply rooted in disaster prone areas where early marriage and adolescent pregnancy are just in epidemic always.
Today, unforeseen situations, such as climate change and local and international marketing, will negatively affect agriculture investors. I need your guide recommendations according to your scientific and applied experience to get agriculture to overcome this dangerous situation. !!!
I've been researching literature related to the effects the land-use (namely, agriculture) has on climate change; precipitation patterns, temperature, wind circulation, etc.
I'm not sure if I'm looking in the right place so I need to know some renowned journals that actually had papers tackling similar research interest and/or researchers who have published papers on this topic.
Also would be extra thankful if you could provide good research engines (in addition to Google Scholar) that can aid in this research.
I am working on the impact of climate change on dust events.
I have completed our survey regarding the same however, I don’t have daily meteorological data for the past 40 years (1980-2020). I need this to do my study.
Hence can anyone suggest to me how to obtain the same from various freely accessible sources (i.e., satellite data or any other sources)? As this is a part of my freelance research and I do not have any funding; I am not in a position to pay.
I really appreciate any help you can provide.
my name is Carolin Fischer, a sociology student from the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena. I am currently writing my Bachelor's Thesis in the field of Cultural and Environmental Sociology. As this will be a qualitative study on environmental topics I am looking for interview partners, who work (or used to work) in the field of environmental and climate change research. The interviews will be held via video chat either in German or English.
If you're interested in being interviewed and in helping me with my thesis please feel free to contact me via Research Gate or mail: email@example.com
Thank you and kind regards,
I would like to know, if the scale for attitude in climate change is in English or spanish and if you are willing to share it for possible research ?
I usually download future climate data from Worldclim.org.
Their website says that "Data at 30-seconds spatial resolution is expected to be available by the end of March 2020", however, this has not materialized . . . https://www.worldclim.org/data/cmip6/cmip6climate.html
Does anyone know of alternative sources to download future data at this (1km) resolution?
-So long as there are adequate and reliable datasets, it is possible to show the effects of land use and land cover changes on river flows in a given time period/s.
- The same is true for showing the effect of climate change on river flows using appropriate models, if there is data.
But, how can one show the combined effects of climate change and land-use and land cover changes on a given river catchment/flow?
Which of the existing tools and models could be helpful in this regard?
Thanks for your time and usual help!
I have predicted the trend in water quality using past 12 years data. My aim is to predict the impact of climate change on groundwater quality for coming decades. In order to achieve so, which data and software is required I am not so sure about it.
I have prepared 6 manuscripts related to green roof substrates, 4 of them consist of experimental studies and 2 literature reviews. I have previously submitted some articles for 8 journals. But unfortunately I am continuously getting rejected due to "inappropriate content" for the corresponding journal. Meanwhile, some of the journals have facilitated me article transfer options and still I am getting rejected by those transferred journals with same reason of "inappropriate". I don't want to let my works in vain. Can anybody suggest me some suitable journals with high acceptance rate and have subscription options for publications?
It would be a tremendous help.
Gray literature vs. scientific literature
-What are the advantages and disadvantages of gray literature compared to scientific literature.
-What are the repositories that you know about gray literature.
-What is the importance of gray literature for developing countries
Gray literature is "materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels. Common gray literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations"
Scientific literature "comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences. Within an academic field, scientific literature is often referred to as the literature. Academic publishing is the process of contributing the results of one's research into the literature, which often requires a peer-review process".
Why continue studying the carbon reservoirs (stores) in the soil of the SAF and SSP, what information could we continue to obtain with it?It is necessary to continue evaluating the soil resource as one of the strategies in the face of climate change
Is there websites that give accurate wather data to use them in a study of the physiological rythmes according to climate changes ?
Numerous papers talk about creating latilong or lat/long blocks of 1 degree or 2 degrees. Is there a way to do this in ArcGIS? We have nest location data for three species of shorebirds in six states of the US, as well as the location and data for all the weather stations in those six states. We would like to find average temperature during the breeding season in those six states and see if changes in average temperature are correlated with changes in clutch initiation date in the shorebird species. One way we can do this (according to previous studies) is to create latilong blocks and use the data from the weather stations in those blocks where our nests are located. However, we are unfamiliar with how to do this in ArcGIS or if there is another way to do it. Any suggestions are much appreciated!
Dear researcher, practitioner in aviation and airports,
With changing climate conditions and major weather events, resilience has taken a new dimension. Airports must now build greater flexibility into their operations and maintenance to meet challenges posed by natural disasters. Moreover, long-term investments in airports must address the current and future risks, including those emanating from climate and disaster-related hazards.
The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) Survey on the Disaster Resilience of Airports* seeks to take stock of airport practices, risk management across regions and hazards to eventually derive a set of recommendations that can be adopted by existing and future airport stakeholders, such as airport authorities, governments, airport operators, investors, designers, engineers, etc.
The survey’s goals are to:
- Understand airport’s current perception of and exposure to disaster events
- Map out the organizational, infrastructure and operating elements influencing the airport’s resilience
- Gain insight into the airport’s expectations and adaptation to face the next 20 to 50 years
All data gathered through this survey will be kept confidential and only be used in aggregate form. The results of this study will be made available to participating airports.
Thank you for participating in this survey!
*)The survey is being conducted on behalf of CDRI, by NACO and InterVISTAS, two subsidiaries of Royal HaskoningDHV.
Our need to create alternative water sources is increasing day by day. However, while providing alternative water resources, can we adequately predict long-term effects on the natural balance? Although the dams built on rivers and streams are useful as an irrigation and energy source, serious damage occurs to the habitat on the natural passage areas of the streams. Similarly, can rainwater harvesting in urban or rural areas (especially covering large areas) cause adverse effects both in terms of feeding aquifers and soil-water balance? I don't have a clear opinion on this subject, but I think that we should question how we affect nature in the long run and that we should take our steps carefully.
During dry weather or in the semi-arid regions, the minute soil particles are carried away by the wind or water to far-away lands. This degrades the soil and results in desertification. So can we conclude desertification as a type of soil erosion?
Heinrich events occurred when iceberg armadas mostly from the Laurentian ice sheet spread across the north Atlantic depositing ice-rafted detritus (IRD) on the seafloor. It is argued that when the icebergs melt the fresh water on the surface of the ocean halts the thermohaline circulation (THC) preventing the warm water of the Gulf Stream from entering the Arctic. This causes cooling in Greenland and northwestern Europe. But ice cores show that these events cause warming. Is there a peer-reviewed model which explains that anomaly?
If anyone has an idea and the sources of published findings, please share your evidence!
The Geology of the Himalaya is a record of the most dramatic and visible creations of modern plate tectonic forces. I wonder how vegetation flourished in such a mountain system.
In the coming decade, Africa will be met with an avalanche of challenges. The consequences of not taking the required steps to avert the coming climate crisis and for not capitalizing on the 4th industrial revolution. These two pose the greatest threat to the welfare and lives of the average African. However, they also present an unlikely opportunity for Africa to shock the world. An opportunity that must not be missed.
If Africans (not necessarily African governments but Africans themselves) can in joint action, create an unprecedented transformation of the African society between now and the end of the present decade (just in time for the climate crisis and the wave of the 4th Industrial revolution), I.e. If Africans can create a new African society capable of averting the impending climate crisis, then Africa can and will capitalize on the 4th industrial revolution.
Subsequently once this happens, Africa will be placed on an unstoppable path of drastic developments in areas such as, infrastructure, agriculture, commerce, media, science and technology etc. In easier terms - A golden age..