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Dear, I am aware of literature regarding the correlation between higher level of violence against civilians and foreign fighters presence (for example Bakke 2014, Moore 2019, Doctor and Willingham 2020, Doctor 2021, ...). I was wondering if there is anything that compares (also with qualitative methods) IS foreign fighters and IS local fighters in their relations with the locals in Syria and Iraq.
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There are numerous examples of this within both the Chechen wars (foreign fighters coming to fight with the Chechens) and the Taliban in Afghanistan so I would perhaps focus on these two additional cases as a potential boon to your supposition as I believe it will prove accurate!
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Hello friends I hope you all are doing well,
Dear Seniors, I am a PhD aspirant in Civil Wars Studies and new to this area.
I request experienced scholars in the field to please suggest me some good books/articles readings for understanding the basics in the area.
Any suggestion about good articles/books on the Research Methods in Civil Wars studies would also be welcomed.
Thanks
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Good question, and good answer by Stuart B Jennings
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Yemen recorded its first confirmed case of COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, on April 10. Half of all medical facilities in the country are not functioning, so it is not clear how much testing for the virus is available.
The country, already the poorest in the Middle East before its civil war started five years ago, is also badly positioned to treat victims of the respiratory virus, while protecting its health care workers.
"Yemen cannot face two fronts at the same time: a war and a pandemic. (See Margaret Besheer
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It's Allah's will
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I am working one a civil war final paper for my graduate course. I am interested in examining the dynamics of Sengal civil war.
First, I will be exploring the root causes of civil war from 1982-2014. What are the difference contexts and greivances that trigger the civil war?
As the main conflict essentially ended in 2014 with a ceasefire, I will then go on to explore how that ceasefire was initiated and access the effectiveness of the stabilization/nation-building elements within this ceasefire period.
However, despite ceasfire in place, low-level violence remains and the problem seems to be unresolved. This leads me to my last part, why the previous ceasefire manage to successfully end the war, but not mitigating the unrest in the region altogether. In other words, why is 2014 ceasefire successful in reducing violence but why the major problems unsolved leading to current low-level violence in Senegal? In short, this last part will explore why 2014 ceasefure is not perfect?
I am urgently in need of literature for that, any form of assistance will be highly appreciated. Thank you!
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I am conducting a qualitative content analysis research that wants to prove that the Nigeria civil war of 1967-1970 was a social revolution sustained by strategic communication. Do I need a qualitative data to back my findings? Must I use the Nvivo metrics procedure to do the analysis?
Thanks
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If you have a hypothesis, it is typical to count codes in content analysis to show a pattern that either does or does not support your prediction. If this is what you want to do, then counting codes makes your analysis a quantitative rather than a qualitative content analysis.
If you are counting codes, then any process that helps you accurately keep track of those codes and counts would be highly desirable. NVivo or any other qualitative data analysis program could be useful in this regard, especially if you have a large data set.
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Was the civil war in Iraq (the Northern War) and the civil war in Lebanon in the 1970s part of the new Middle East project and the U.S.-Israel alliance to strike Arab countries from within to weaken them?
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Of course, we, Iraqi citizens, have seen with our own eyes the results of the ongoing wars that ravaged our country, which ended with the abhorrent occupation ... For more, see the following research:
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I am looking on literature analysing how Islamic State recruited civilian experts as computer technician, experts in managing public goods, doctors, nurses... from Western countries. Is there anything in the literature? I am not looking on fighters' recruiting but on civilian experts in order to improve rebel governance expertise.
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Many fighters/members and supporters come from Europe, mostly from the UK and the Netherlands. Whether there are any European experts, and what kind of experts, is debatable, except for information on the development of chemical and biological weapons. Islamic State allegedly recruited experts in chemistry, physics, and informatics to develop mass destruction weapons and continue to wage war against the West.
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We from the third world fall under the many difficulties and obstacles that hinder our academic work and especially civil wars that do not end, for us the science of mathematics, is the lung from which we breathe and feel with our presence on the back of this world. My question is, are there any organizations that can help us technically and financially in our university, the University of Aden, in establishing and running the master's and doctorate programs in mathematics?
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You are welcome Sir
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I am doing my masters in INRM in Berlin and for a term paper on nature conservation and civil war we would like to dig into the FARC case.
Regards,
Raffael
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Hi Mario and Raffael. If I can help in anything please count on me.
J.
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I am looking for a theory that can explain the effect of multiple and various external interventions within the same civil wars. By external intervention, I mean military intervention in favor of either belligerent party, economic sanctions, and mediations. I am willing to test the effect of interventionary patterns in which single and multiple external interventions are sequenced. Some examples of patterns include only diplomatic, military-diplomatic, military-economic patterns etc.
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Thanks to all for the responses. I have used a lot from Idean Salehyan's work. It is certainly a good start and also provides insights especially for the rebel groups' dynamics. USIP studies might be helpful, especially regarding the policy-oriented questions, which would be really helpful for any likely cases in my project. And well-aware of the variation in the incentives of third parties, I aim to hold no prior assumptions about it while focusing on the effects of different combinations of interventions taking place in civil wars.
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I've seen some literature on FDIs before or after civil wars, but I'm curious as to whether anyone is aware of circumstances in which investors came in prior to the outbreak of a civil war and stayed for the duration of the war. If so, what type (sector) of investors were they?
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Civil wars often occur in third world countries where the data is rarely available for this kind of question. However, you may look at the individual companies data that are known for investments in unstable regions such as the ME countries.
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Countries whose ethnicities, faiths and identity were torn in civil wars.
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You are welcome. Good luck in your research. :)
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Dear all,
Just a question about civil war in Latin America. Did Nicaraguan civil war (1979-1990) and Guatemalan civil war (1960-1996) take place across their whole territory?
Btw, is it correct to call what happened in Nicaragua and Guatemala as civil war but what happened in Colombia (FARC) and Peru (Shining Path) as low-intensity guerrilla war/armed conflicts?
My reasoning is that the relative intensity of the wars in Nicaragua and Guatemala is heavier than those in Colombia and Peru.
but I am not sure if I am right.
Thank you!
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Dear Yue,
Re: your first question about the territorial scope of the armed conflicts in Nicaragua and Guatemala, I would say that both conflicts did not encompass the whole national territory. Rather, they were regionally focused, although the regional dynamics changed of course over the course of the wars. In Guatemala, for instance, the 'scorched earth' strategy of the military and military-sponsored governments of the late 1970s and early 1980s, which implied massive human rights violations, was focused on the indigenous highland regions north of Guatemala City. In Nicaragua, most of the fighting between the Ejercito Popular Sandinista and the 'contras' took place in the northern parts of the country, though there was also a violent challenge to the Sandinista regime in the south. I analyse these wars in some depth in my book 'Pacficacion y poder civil en Centroamerica', which is on ResearchGate.
Re: your second question, in my work I conceptualize the wars in Guatemala and Nicaragua as 'anti-regime wars', which I believe is more accurate than the term 'civil war'. The armed conflict in Colombia, by contrast, has been conceptualized by French scholar Daniel Pecaut as a 'war against society' (guerra contra la sociedad). This term speaks to the hybrid nature of the war in Colombia, which evolved from its beginnings in the 1960s to something quite different in the 1980s and 1990s, when the insurgents began making an appearance on the national scene and drugs and drug trafficking (and US-led counter-drug 'efforts') started hitting the country hard, alongside the emergence of the infamous paramilitaries. As is clearly shown in the Basta Ya report of the National Centre for Historical Memory (2013), most of the more than 220,000 fatal victims of the armed conflict in Colombia are civilian (and millions more were displaced and otherwise victimized). They were killed by the paramilitaries, the insurgents, organized crime and the state armed forces. Were the wars in Nicaragua and Guatemala more 'intense' than the one in Colombia? It's difficult to say. In terms of ratio of fatal victims/population, probably yes, especially in Guatemala. But then the wars in the isthmus represented quite different types of wars when compared to the Colombian conflict. I would think that the Colombian conflict was - and is - more 'complex', in terms of the actors and interests involved as well as the historical moment in which it has been playing out - than the (end of Cold War) wars in Central America.
Hope this is helpful.
Markus
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I've just had the time to pare down my thesis down to around 3000 words and am looking for a suitable 'home' for it. Essentially, using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, my research evaluates the Turkish risk perception of Syrian refugee inflow, utilizing cultural cognition as a theoretical spring board. The abstract is below:
[Title]
Syrian refugee’s and risk perception in Izmir, Turkey: Understanding Turkish attitudes through the evaluation of cultural cognition
[Abstract]
Since early 2011, Syria has been undergoing a brutal civil war, displacing millions within the country and forcing others to seek protection in adjacent countries. Turkey, amongst other regional refugee-hosting countries, has taken in the bulk of Syrian forced migrants. The impact of these refugees on Turkey, still developing as time goes on, is largely undocumented amidst the development of Turkish attitudes towards this group of over two million migrants. This exploratory research sought to investigate these attitudes, utilising cultural cognition as a theoretical sounding board. Delimited to the city of Izmir, the aims of this research were to ascertain what perceived risks Syrian refugees pose onto Turkish society, how these perceptions relate to worldview adherences amongst Turkish citizens and what psychological processes may explain the development of such perceptions. Using a mixed-methods approach, the research found statistical significance between the perception of inflow and social risks posed by Syrian refugees and the hierarchist and egalitatrian worldviews. To explore the development of such perceptions of risk, the processes of identity-protective cognition and reactive devaluation were utilised to explicate the data
[Key words]
risk perception, refugees, cultural cognition, Turkey
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Nice work! Congratulations!
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In this respect, radicalism associated with identity refers to any `essential` attitude that attempts to reject the `other` who is different from the self. In fact, this kind of fundamentalism has led to several civil wars as well as disintegration especially in the third world.
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In relation to 'plural and inclusive identities' and 'rejection of the 'other'' I think it is worth keeping in mind the nuances within these pluralities (see, for example, Sara Ahmed on multiculturalism and 'stranger/danger' in her book Strange Encounters 2000). I do not think we can find 'real causes,' but awareness of the histories which have inform these radicalisms linked to identity might shed light on the factors that we must pay attention to (in order to have a more fully understanding of the conflict). 
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Please clearly state your position and support, but most importantly, have fun
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Arsalan,  
For political demographers, that's a question that is more Interesting than you might think.  From the perspective of the Age-structural Model of State Behavior, the likelihood of an intra-state conflict (>25 battle-related deaths per year, appearing in the UCDP/PRIO data set), which is "civil" rather than "ethnoreligious," is very low for countries in the "mature phase" of the age-structural transition (median age 36 to 45 years), such as the US (current median age, ~38.5 years).  Although, for age-structural models of intra-state conflict, there is no rigid tipping point along the "age structural domain" (an X-axis measured in median age), true civil wars (without an ethnic component) nearly always begin in the youthful phase of the transition (median age <26; often called "the youth bulge" phase). 
Note: When this method is used, temporary labor migrants in the Gulf Cooperation Council states are discounted in those populations, leaving population age structures composed predominantly of citizen-residents. Thus, each of the GCC states is considered to be in the youthful phase of the age-structural transition. 
In addition to the low risk associated with its age structure, the US is assessed as a liberal democracy (assessed as FREE in Freedom House's annual survey), which makes the state even less statistically likely to experience a civil war in the near future. In the mature phase of the age-structural transition, partial democracies (PARTLY FREE in Freedom House’s survey) generally carry more conflict risk than states assessed as either FREE or NOT FREE.
Analyses that indicate this low likelihood of civil war for states with non-youthful populations are:  
 Urdal, H. 2006. "A Clash of Generations? Youth Bulges and Political Violence." International Studies Quarterly 50:607-629.
 Hegre, H., J. Karlsen, H.M. Nygård, H. Strand, and H. Urdal. 2013. "Predicting Armed Conflict, 2010-2050." International Studies Quarterly 57(2):250–270.
I have also looked at this relationship using an age-structural model, and it will appear in the following publication (I’ve attached a draft version that I presented as a conference paper):
Cincotta, R. in press, expected 2018. "The Age-structural Theory of State Behavior." in Oxford Reference Encyclopedia: Empirical International Relations Theory, edited by W. Thompson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Here's some web essay on the topic:  
Cincotta, R. (New Security Beat), June 2017, “Eight Rules of Political Demography that Help Forecast the Future World”.   https://www.newsecuritybeat.org/2017/06/8-rules-political-demography-forecast-tomorrows-world/ 
More on the Age-structural Model of State Behavior can be found on my web site: www.politicaldemography.org 
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what are the possibilities of cessation of southern Nigeria from the Nigerian state in the light of brexit and neo nationalist  global politics?
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Alright i understand the point which you taking your argument, that why i would like to read your research project once you done but i still believe a more peaceful stand would lead to a lasting solution, like granting the Biafra's president or vice-president position, just like it was done to Niger Delta. And they became more silent.
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I'd be happy to have your suggestions on reading materials focuses on Afghanistan-based Uzbeks from 1979 to 2001. 
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Here's a good summary account from the popular press (Cockburn is a very good investigative journalist with wide experience):
Rashid Dostum: The treacherous general
By Patrick Cockburn Saturday 1 December 2001
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The civil war is most probably one of the best researched conflicts in world history. However, there is still a lot of space for discussion and speculation.
Hope that this is scientific enough as a topic for discussion?
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If General James Longstreet had commanded the Confederate forces at Gettysburg instead of Lee the Confederacy might very well have won the Civil War.
The outcome of a Confederate victory would have been the break up of the United States but not quite as President Jeff Davis wanted.  The Confederacy was never a country, which is obvious from its name.  The Southern states were allied by expediency but were as disparate among each other as they were with the North.  It is difficult to see how they would have formed an alternative long term Confederate States.
The Confederacy could not have occupied the North and had no intention to do so.  The invasion of the North by the Army of Northern Virginia was tactical, not strategic and the Southern Government's intention was to sue for peace based on a rather naive idea that capturing Washington would have ended the war.
If they had captured Lincoln and his government that might have happened, more likely though they would have decamped to another major Northern city before the Army of Northern Virginia got there.
Great question, I was looking forward to a debate on the Civil War!
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Chunnakam aquifer in Jaffna Sri Lanka is contaminated with nitrate for long period by high usage of agrochemicals. Last couple of years, due to a thermal power station the aquifer is contaminated with used oil by this power station.
Now some people in developed countries are trying to say there is no harmful oil contamination for human constitution in the ground water by testing with FROG 5000.
The following two protest is there among the academic society about the FROG 5000 field equipment
1. Nitrate contamination will give low BTEX levels
2. All the BTEX volatile contents of the Oils in Chunnakam water will evaporate away and will show ZERO results with much more tests by the Famous FROG 4000 
I want guidance and advice from all of you 
I am attaching one report published by National Water Supply and Drainage Board and a report of Institution of Engineers Northern Chapter on this issue.
These two reports will give you a very good insight of this problem
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Thanks for sharing very good conducive comments and documents
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I am familiar with COW and ACD, and recently I also had a look at Banks' Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive. The latter seemed promising but is not exactly what I am looking for.
What I am looking for is a database which codes wars according to the way they are fought, e.g. 0 for mostly conventional, 1 for unconventional/ assymetric/ guerilla however you want to call it. Banks seems to list the number of ambushes etc. staged per year. That is nice, but it does not tell me whether the war itself was predominantly fought with guerilla or conventional tactics.
If anyone knows of such a dataset I would be very grateful if you could tell me! If you think, as I do by now, that this does not exist, please write me, too!
Much oliged!
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You can have a look at the ECP Database on Conflict and Peacebuilding. It does not have exactly the information that you are looking for, but it contains updated information on the intensity of worldwide armed conflicts.
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we have witnessed the rise of fundamentalist forces around the world, most notably, in west Asia.Why UN and other powers(Russia , China ,India) have not extended their explicit support ?
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Yes the UN has passed resolution regarding counter terrorism efforts as as above these resolutions have not been specific in regards to countries or procedures. When looking at anti-terrorism and why certain countries assist the US it i important to understand the politics behind these decisions. China has a strong non invention approach to foreign affairs and is of  course very interested in promoting Chinese export and imports of raw materials etc.
Russia supports the concept of anti terrorism strategies but has had terrorist attacks on its home soil and perhaps is a tad worried that if it supports the US actions this could at a some stage relate to attacks on them under the guise of anti terrorism. Plus ideologically Russia does not usually align itself with the US. 
While some would argue that counter-terrorist strategies are legal there is no international law that covers terrorism or counter-terrorism. It can be looked at through humanitarian law etc and until there is agreement on what is terrorism and as such what is counter terrorism the debates will continue
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Dear All,
I am researching on the role of the Nigerian railways in the Nigerian Civil War. I am looking for materials on how the Nigerian forces and the Biafran armies appropriated the railways to achieve or sabotage the war.
I am particularly interested in texts that describe how the railways were used in transporting troops and materials; what and what were transported on the railways and how the government controlled the system during the war. I am also interested in text that describes or suggests killings of Igbo and other Nigerian groups in transit, as well as how the Biafran forces used the system to scuttle the Nigerian forces or achieve their mission.
I also welcome suggestions on texts with further insights on the role of railways/ transport and logistic in warfare on comparative level.
I Thank you in anticipation of your response,
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This is an interesting but rather dry topic. Dry in the sense that very little documented information is available. I worked for the Nigerian Railways when the war broke out. I was at a remote station that was used primarily for traffic operations (crossing trains) on the single line block system. The only link between the station and the world outside was the railway block telegraph system.The phone was an open line system, connecting all stations from Lagos up to Minna at the Northern end of the Western District sector.  Through this phone the traffic controller in Lagos gathered information about the position of any train on the network. When the war broke out, it was the means by which Ibo railway officials living in the North of Nigeria informed themselves of developments in the civil unrest.
I cannot give exact dates here. But when the first round of kiilings of Ibos started in 1966 in Northern Nigeria, the railway stations served as a haven for fleeing Ibo natives. They took the first available train (passenger or goods) going south to Lagos from where they found their way to the East. An Ibo staff at my station,asked m e to check for the position of any train. He returned to his quarters to prepare his wife and new-born  baby to leave. He came back out with just a package, probably food for the baby. The train stopped, they boarded, and were gone.  I remained because, although an Easterner, only Ibos were originally the target.  About the next evening, I received a call on the block telegraph from a staff at a station close to Minna. He reported a mob attack on a waiting room full of passengers waiting for train to flee, but were killed indiscriminately. Other Easterners non Ibos began to leave, using the railway because it seemed the safest means. However, a mob attack on on a passengers train at a station was a cause for concern. There was the report of a bold train driver who decided to break the rules to save his passengers fleeing southward. The train was booked to stop at a station (Zungeru, I believe). The driver had been hinted that a mob awaited his Ibo passengers if he stopped at the stain. The driver, reportedly drove through the station without stopping, and so could take his passengers through, alive. 
Reports of attacks on stations and trains compelled me to leave my station on a goods train. It became clear that strategic locations on the railway line were now in some way check-points. For example, every train coming from the North must cross the bridge over the River Niger on its way south. Every train was stopped on this bridge for military checks. So was mine. The soldiers searched everyone and every coach before it was allowed to leave the bridge. I arrived in Lagos and was assigned to Ibadan where I worked until the war was over. in 1971.
As regards use of the railway for movements of soldiers or for the war effort, it is very unlikely that the railway could serve such a purpose efficiently. I have three works on the civil war. (1) Thirteen Years of Military Rule 1966-1979 by James O. Ojiako mentions plans to revolutionize transport and communication only in the famous 30 billion Naira budget. (2) Why We Struck by Adewale Ademoyega (1981) offers some insight into the movement of troops by military vehicles from he barracks. (3) The Giant of the Cemetery by Jimmy Essien (1985) virtually weeps over the deplorable state of public transportation as "trains strain" along at snail speed. Such transport system could hardly serve reliable military purposes. Soldiers travelled by train or by road, etc, but I do not know of any real effort to use the railway for such a purpose. I would suggest that you find out if the railway served the purpose of transporting heavy military equipment from North to South.  I do not think that it would be difficult to find out by inquiring at the goods sheds at depot stations such as Apapa, Iddo, Ebute-Meta, Ibadan, Kaduna and Kano. 
Good luck with your work.
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Does anyone information about the legacy (memories, archives, letters and so on) of Coronel Casado, Besides the published books everybody knows? I mean:  
Casado, Segismundo (1977) Así cayó Madrid, Madrid, ediciones 99.
Thank
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Hi Lourenzo. i suppose you know the book written in 1968 by Segismundo Casado: Así cayó Madrid.
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Currently doing field research on the impact of armed conflict on women in conflict-affected areas in the Sudan, we are proposing a literature review as part of the introductory chapters of the research, seeking assistance on the most recent theoretical work done on this area.
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Feminist critical security scholarship in international relations might be a productive place to start.  You might try reading some of the work by Jane Parpart, Megan MacKenzie, and others, which looks at both the effect of armed conflict on women, and the role of women in armed conflict (and other aspects of gender analysis of conflict) in Africa. 
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The business operated in Manhattan from the Early National - post Civil War period and dealt in hardware and plate glass imports.  It was located on Maiden Lane (94 Maiden Lane but included at times adjacent buildings).
Besides the landmark study on the building and brief references to CVS Roosevelt in various secondary sources on the Roosevelt family, can anyone lead me to any primary sources? I am curious (and question the accuracy of the statement) about how secondary source claims that the company achieved a monopoly on the import of plate glass. I want to understand how the business operated. I know family members sometimes traveled to take orders but did they use jobbers, and how did they operate?
The company received most of their shipments from Liverpool but bought glass from France, England, and Germany. How did that work? Did they have a representative abroad? When plate glass arrived in New York, how was it transported and stored? Did they only order by the job or did they keep an inventory in their maiden lane warehouse? Was the plate glass stored on upper floors and the office on the ground floor? Different sources say the plate glass import part of the business was sold to the Briish firm in 1876 (date?). Which firm?  How did they advertise their wares?  Also, family members sometimes operated additional hardware import companies including one titled Roosevelt & Company. Were they rivals or connected?
Any sources (business or otherwise) about CVS Roosevelt (Cornelius V. S. Roosevelt, or Cornelius van Schaack -- sometimes spelled Schaick) would be most appreciated. He had a "mansion" on Union Square at Broadway and 14th St. until his death in 1871.  
He had a son and a grandson with the same name unfortunately.  Also any info on the business dealings of Theodore Roosevelt Sr (the presdient's father).
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt
When was FDR born?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, at the family home, "Springwood," in Hyde Park, New York.
How did the Roosevelt and Delano families make their money?
The Roosevelt family was New York based and involved in commerce, banking and insurance, shipbuilding and seafaring, urban real estate and landholding. Although a lawyer by training, James Roosevelt's interests were in business where he was a respected figure in the field of finance, transportation (railroads), and philanthropy.
The Delanos were a New England seafaring and mercantile family. FDR's maternal grandfather, Warren Delano II, was in the China trade in which he made and lost several fortunes.
Was FDR an only child?
FDR was the only child of James Roosevelt and his second wife, Sara Delano. Franklin had an older half brother, James Roosevelt Roosevelt (1854-1927), born to his father and his first wife, Rebecca Howland, who died in 1876.
When did FDR's father die?
James Roosevelt was born in 1828 and died on December 8, 1900 in New York City at the age of 72. Franklin was eighteen and a freshman at Harvard College.
When did FDR's mother die?
Sara Delano Roosevelt was born in 1854 and died on September 7, 1941 at the family home "Springwood," in Hyde Park, New York at the age of 87. Franklin died less than four years later.
Where did FDR go to school?
In September 1896, at age fourteen, Franklin entered Groton School, a small boarding school in Massachusetts which prepared sons of wealthy and prominent families for college. Before entering Groton, Franklin had a series of governesses and tutors.
What was FDR's first job?
In the autumn of 1907 Franklin became an apprentice lawyer with the Wall Street firm of Carter, Ledyard and Milburn. It was a typical arrangement at the time-no salary the first year and then a small one to start.
What was FDR's first public office?
FDR was elected New York State Senator from Dutchess, Columbia and Putnam counties in 1910 and re-elected for a second term in 1912. He served only a few months of the second term before President Woodrow Wilson appointed him Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1913.
Was FDR ever in the military?
No. When the United States entered World War I in 1917, Franklin held the civilian post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy. He was eager to enlist, but President Wilson urged against it, citing his important service in the Navy Department.
During World War II, President Roosevelt served as Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces.
When did FDR run for the Vice-presidency?
In 1920 the Democratic Party nominated Ohio Governor James M. Cox for President and Franklin D. Roosevelt for Vice President. They were defeated by Republicans Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge.
When was FDR elected Governor of New YorkState?
FDR was elected Governor of New York State in 1928 and 1930 for two two-year terms.
Who was Lucy Mercer?
Lucy Page Mercer, daughter of a well-connected Washington family living in reduced financial circumstances, was hired as Eleanor Roosevelt's social secretary in 1914 to assist with the heavy social responsibilities of the wife of a sub-cabinet secretary. In September 1918, Eleanor discovered love letters from Lucy to Franklin and Eleanor offered Franklin a divorce, which he declined for political reasons. In the end, Eleanor agreed to preserve the marriage and Franklin promised never to see Lucy again.
In 1920, Lucy Mercer married Winthrop Rutherfurd, a wealthy widower. Despite his promise to Eleanor, Franklin and Lucy continued to maintain contact. Lucy was present at the Little White House, Warm Springs, Georgia, when President Roosevelt died in 1945.
When did FDR die and what was the cause of his death?
President Roosevelt died of cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945 at the Little White House, his cottage at Warm Springs, Georgia, the rehabilitation center for the treatment of polio that he founded.
What events and ceremonies occurred during FDR's funeral?
On the morning of April 13, 1945, the Presidents' casket was carried to the railroad station at Warm Springs, Georgia, accompanied by a procession of 2,000 soldiers from Fort Benning. Moving no faster than 35 miles per hour, the train passed through the Carolinas and Virginia, arriving in Washington, DC on April 14. All along the way sorrowful citizens turned out to pay their respects to the passing funeral train. President Truman, members of the immediate family, and high-ranking government officials met the funeral train at the Union Station.
Full military honors were rendered in the procession from the railroad station to the White House through the streets lined with units of the nation's armed forces and the grieving public. Behind the casket two flag bearers bore the American flag and the presidential standard. At the White House, the casket was placed in the East Room where the funeral services were conducted at 4:00 p.m. The Episcopal Funeral Service lasted twenty-three minutes.
That evening the casket was removed from the White House and taken in a small procession of soldiers and police to the Union Station for the trip to Hyde Park, New York. Again mournful citizens turned out to witness the passing train. The morning of April 15 the funeral train arrived at a siding on the Hudson River four miles from the Roosevelt home. The casket was transferred to a gun carriage and driven to the Roosevelt estate along a route lined with soldiers, sailors and marines. The caisson was preceded by a military band and a battalion of West Point cadets and followed by limousines containing President Truman and the Roosevelt family. Full Military honors were rendered from the train to the burial site. Great numbers of ordinary Americans young and old traveled to Hyde Park to attend the funeral.
Interment was in the Rose Garden at the estate in Hyde Park. The rector of St. James Episcopal Church read the burial services, three volleys were fired over the grave and taps were sounded as the casket was lowered into its final resting place.
What lifelong hobby did FDR pursue?
Stamp collecting was one of FDR's lifelong hobbies. His interest began when he was eight years old and his mother passed her collection on to him. He enjoyed stamps, he said, because of their link with geography and history, not for their intrinsic value. While recovering from polio, he spent many bedridden hours arranging and annotating thousands of specimens. As President, there was scarcely a day when he did not spend some time with his collection.
At his death, his personal stamp collection numbered over 1,200,000 stamps, 80% of which was of little value-"scrap"" as the President called it. The collection was sold at public auction in accordance with his wishes and realized $228,000.00. The stamps he received officially from foreign governments were not sold, but are a part of the holdings of the Roosevelt Library.
What were FDR's "vital statistics"?
Born: January 30, 1882 at 9 pm, weighing 10 lbs
Height: 6'2"
Weight: Approximately 182 lbs.
Complexion: Fair to ruddy
Hair: Brown
Eyes: Grey-blue
Voice: Tenor
Shirt Size: 16 3/4 neck, 35 sleeve
Hat Size: 7 and 3/8
Shoes: Size 12
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Burma has adopted a Constitution in 2008, which features fake federal system. It has a long history of ethnic conflict between majority Burman and many other ethnic minority groups. The political system under the current Constitution is 2008 semi-presidentialism (literally, it is not correct to say).
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Parliamentarism is certainly better than presidentialism in the abstract, if by presidentialism is meant a one-person office. (Collective presidencies have their merits). But in a deeply divided place it is just as important to consider how to create a properly collegial cabinet, under either parliamentarism (which can be combined with an overly powerful Prime Minister) or presidentialism. The electoral system is just as  important: list-PR will likely be the most suitable option in Burma. For more information see J. McEvoy and B. O'Leary (eds). Power-sharing in Deeply Divided Places, and A. Lijphart Thinking About Democracy. So-called semi-presidentialism (the French model) is not to be recommended: its sole use in a deeply divided place that I know of is in Sri Lanka. In Burma it would ensure permanent Burman domination. Enough said.