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It is known that the berth number or dwell time of curb side Bus Stop depends upon the saturated flow of that road lane. But there must be maximum values guided by standards, as 8 or 9 or more berths on street side, 2-3 min or more dwell time doesn't look good, specially near intersections.
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There's a literature and modeling paper on ResearchGate at this link..... . Guidelines to operation at this lin..https://www.apta.com/research-technical-resources/standards/bus-transit-systems-standards-program/ iF you scroll down you'll fin info about operatio- Bus Rapid Trasist"......And thisd paper (PDF on Setting Frequencies on Bus Routes--- http://www1.coe.neu.edu/~pfurth/Furth%20papers/1981%20setting-frequencies.pdf And this paper from City of Philadelphia (in US) for the city and suburban SEPTA Bus Stop Design Guidelines--- at this link; https://nacto.org/docs/usdg/septa_bus_stop_design_guidelines_delaware_valley.pdf N.B - In the US we're testing electric buses. My guess; info about parts inventory, frequency of repair and maintenance will be altered in coming years.
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Hi guys,
I never would have imagined posting this, but I have a hard time coming up with novel ideas for my PhD (which I have to submit this week and stick by it for the next 3 years). As part of my project, I'll be conducting a life cycle assessment for around 8 buildings using Simapro. I've read numerous papers and tried to find a knowledge gap, however, I failed to find one. There're already standards for LCA for buildings. It has been my main focus in the past 5 weeks to learn dynamic life cycle assessment. But this has been challenging since I have a background in civil engineering, am doing LCA for 8 buildings in different countries and have to complete it in 3 years.
Any ideas would be appreciated.
Abdul
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Really, its depend on your branch and your interesting,...
Check study the effect of sudden collapse on building..
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I used binary logistic regression to model the behavior of drivers' stop and go decision in dilemma zone. Now I have to estimate the elasticity of variables (corresponding change in outcome probability on changing one unit of X). My variables are of continuous and categorical nature. Any help would be highly appreciated.
P.S: I have uploaded the screenshot of one of the papers where author has calculated the elasticities.
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FGS try the videos or even z-library for some examples
Best, D Booth
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I am working on potholes detection algorithms using image processing. Is there any appropriate dataset of potholes available or not? Anyone who also worked on it?
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Taking into consideration the human index, finding better work during or after education, salaries and better benefits
Especially for PHD students in engineering programmes.
Thanks
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I fully agree with Frank T. Edelmann . If the choice belongs to me, I will choose UK.
Regards
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I am looking for asphalt binder database containing DRS data for frequency or Temperature sweep of Unaged/RTFOT/PAV samples.
It could be modified or neat asphalt.
Can someone assist me with it or give me a link to where I can download an open open-source database?
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Ikenna this is the link, in this site there is a lot of bibliography related to the topic, you must spend some time to find what you need
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Life of the structure... is it real issue to be considered by the designers ... or its left to time to handled ..
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Nima Ghafari ... Thanks for your wonderful answer..
You are almost touch the right and show a very impressive point of view...
Estimation of structure life done on paper.. with some limited factor... related to quality of materials and construction techniques.. but even that ... could these estimation consider right... ??? regardless to other nonstandard condition..
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Can you Share with us a world class achievement or a well known World recognized project in which you contributed or participated effectively in its success?
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As a method of the research we used Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis), which is a new innovative method of artificial intelligence: it also has its own software tool – an intelligent system called "Eidos" (open source software) [1, 2, 3].
The Eidos-X++ system differs from other artificial intelligence systems in the following parameters:
- was developed in a universal setting, independent of the subject area. Therefore, it is universal and can be applied in many subject areas (http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/index.htm);
- is in full open free access (http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/_Aidos-X.htm), and with the relevant source texts (http://lc.kubagro.ru/__AIDOS-X.txt);
- is one of the first domestic systems of artificial intelligence of the personal level, i.e. it does not take special training in the field of technologies of artificial intelligence from the user (there is an act of introduction of system "Eidos" of 1987) (http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/aidos02/PR-4.htm);
- provides stable identification in a comparable form of strengh and direction of cause-effect relationships in incomplete noisy interdependent (nonlinear) data of very large dimension of numerical and non-numerical nature, measured in different types of scales (nominal, ordinal and numerical) and in different units of measurement (i.e. does not impose strict requirements to the data that can not be performed, and processes the data that is);
- contains a large number of local (supplied with the installation) and cloud educational and scientific applications (currently 31 and 199, respectively) (http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/Presentation_Aidos-online.pdf);
- provides multilingual interface support in 44 languages. Language databases are included in the installation and can be replenished automatically;
- supports on-line environment of knowledge accumulation and is widely used all over the world (http://aidos.byethost5.com/map5.php);
- the most time-consuming computationally, the operations of the synthesis models and implements recognition by using graphic processing unit (GPU) that some tasks can only support up to the solution of these tasks is several thousand times that really provides intelligent processing of big data, big information and big knowledge;
- provides transformation of the initial empirical data into information, and its knowledge and solution using this knowledge of classification problems, decision support and research of the subject area by studying its system-cognitive model, generating a very large number of tabular and graphical output forms (development of cognitive graphics), many of which have no analogues in other systems (examples of forms can be found in: http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/aidos18_LLS/aidos18_LLS.pdf);
- well imitates the human style of thinking: gives the results of the analysis, understandable to experts on the basis of their experience, intuition and professional competence.
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I compacted unbound aggregates at optimum moisture content and then let it dry in the oven for one day. The repeated load triaxial test was carried out on this sample in which I faced a weird behavior (please find the attached figures). The permanent deformation initially increases with a high rate and then its rate decrease slowly and finally it has a negative displacement (like expansion).
This behavior only happened in dried samples and the lower stress conditions (1.59 KN and 1.767 KN deviatoric stresses and 120 and 41.7 confining pressures). These samples have normal behavior, the permanent deformation keep increasing with load cycles, at higher loading environment.
I appreciate your time.
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Cohesionless soils when sheared at low confining stress will dilate and generate negative pore pressures. The particles are interlocked but at some point of continued axial stain they must lift to ride across one another. The perfect example can be seen in the direct shear device with vertical axial stain measurements. Taught in basic soil mechanics. At high confining stress soil is contractive. Dense soil is dilative and loose soil is contractive and depsnds on confining stress.
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Upon your site experience, what must done, if the consultant reject part form the work carried out by the contractor?
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If the reason for the rejection is based on a real scientific basis .and the error was simple and can be treated and did not affect the performance of structure in any way my opinion is that the contractor pay all costs for the difference and if the error is essential and can be repaired, I do the same procedure ... If it can not be repaired, the contractor should remove construction with paying all the costs and even those resulting from the delay of work.
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I am trying to design a pavement using the MEPDG method in africa. since it can be calibrated anywhere how best can i go about the methodology without the AASHTOware software for a thesis?
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You can calculate the stresses and strains induced by your representative truck loads and at the different temperatures using any existing free software (Kenlayer, ELSYM 5, Bisar), then use the failure model (Fatigue, rutting) to calculate the damage using Excel or any other spreadsheet software. Of course, the MEPDG software uses models to find the temperature at different depths, etc. For your case just use uniform temperatures. The same applies to the water content of the subgrade soil and untreated base materials.
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Upon your site experience, What is the main problems appear when concrete delay two hour during casting?
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The delay will impact greatly on workability and obviously compaction, but apparently very little on the compressive strength.
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Making many High Skyscraper is Dangers for rotations and spinning of the Earth ? Do Scientists and Engineer have any idea in this regard ? The world becoming densely populated day by day and skyscrapers become more on the earth as Energy of the Earth remain same like we are transferring Mass from other places to a place in well organized manner. Is this affect the Earth Rotation And Revolution ?
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it is a very intresting question, the key is that the sum of the angular momentum (push) of the solid Earth plus atmosphere system must stay constant unless an outside force (torque) is applied,” Salstein said. “So if the atmosphere speeds up (stronger westerly winds) then the solid Earth must slow down (length-of-day increases).Also if more atmosphere moves to a lower latitude (further from the axis of rotation), and atmospheric pressure increases, it also gains angular momentum and the Earth would slow down as well.
Regarding this, it can definitely be true, but! I don't think that it is that much noticeable for being worried about it right now!
btw, thank you for such a nice challenging question!
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Within all assumption made on these theories, ... did you think upon your academic and general point of view.. that it will match all cases, .. without no more assumptions...?
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From the question that commonly asked by engineers during casting concrete that can we neglect the expansion joints, if the construction of concrete is carried out in summer?
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Dear Saad Sarsam .. thanks for your answer..
Actually, mt question is on special case, .. concreting on summer time, .. with most higher temperature degree...
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Important question related to applying epoxy adhesive in joints of precast concrete bridge segments.. is that important..?... what will happened if we did not do it...?
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Application test parameters like longer pot life, right viscosity, squeezability , sag resistance etc are also need to take care.
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For elastomeric bearing, the vertical load is resisted by its compression while shear resistance of the bearing controls the horizontal movements, So, How might the size of elastomeric bearings find out?
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Thanks Chitaranjan Pany .. for your answer...
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Whom concern with prestressing works, always asked about the function of using grouting inside tendon ducts....
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Grouting inside tendon ducts after pre-stressing operation
protects tendon from possible corrosion .
helps in maintaining pre-stress force reducing losses.
protects structure from sudden failure, if local damage takes place for tendon.
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For marine piles, there are several options available for selection, namely H-piles, circular pipes and box piles. However, only circular piles and box piles are suitable for marine application... why?
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Thanks .. Chitaranjan Pany .... for your answer
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Dear researchers/engineers
I was reviewing a report of a dam monitoring during construction. considering a specific piezometer, it is installed at time t1 and elevation z1. but the casing datum is z2 (near 15 meters above z1). the overburden pressure is zero until t3 days after installation. after t3 the B-value is calculated 1.350. B-value is calculated by this formula : [the piezometric pressure (read at time t4 - initial read)]/[overburden pressure (gamma * elevation at t4 - z2)]
the first thing comes to mind as an issue is without overburden pressure there's an increase in piezometric pressure.
can anyone suggest anything?
Thanks
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Thanks Dear John for sharing this. that was useful. the important thing about this dam (the one in my question) is there's no water behind the dam and not situated in impounding phase.
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I am trying to understand the effect of Geocells on Infill material's Young's Modulus. For example if a material as a modulus of 70MPa, how much it will be if was placed in Geocells. (the modulus of the composite of material {infill + Geocells}) ?
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Thank you for your answer. This is may be true for bearing capacity, but one can not assume that this will be the case for Young's Modulus of the material. Material modulus is not always a function of bearing capacity, so a 10 time increase in bearing capacity may not lead to an equivalent increase in Young's Modulus.
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Corrosion Technology Forum 2018: Annual losses due to Corrosion are about 75000 crore per annum in India. A major share in this loss is due to corrosion in Chemical and process industries, refineries and petrochemical plants. Is chemical industry is aware of systematic approach to fight corrosion and make their plants safe without loss of production and man days?
  • Learn about corrosion protection methodologies for future development, expansion and maintenance projects
  • Gain updates on the latest trends and technology advancement in corrosion protection for various industries (oil & gas, power plants, automobiles, aerospace, infrastructure, chemical plants)
  • Understand the challenges faced by major industries and implement concepts of corrosion management for a long term perspective
  • Get to know different corrosion control technologies and identify solutions most suited to your requirements
  • Acquire up-to-date knowledge of ongoing research in corrosion technology to mitigate risks
  • Learn about the latest development in health monitoring of plants and periodic maintenance methodologies
  • Gather insights to enhance safety of equipment, people and the environment
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This is not a question! it is an invitation to a forum!
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How to convert each of these factors (Co2 emission, accident and noise ) to trafic volume or thier effect on the level of service of the highways
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Hi Harith. I wonder why you need to convert that values in traffic volumes. In my experience, the problem is usually the contrary.
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I would like to know what works and what does not work to reduce or eliminate this problem.
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I have come to the conclusion that you can reduce the settlement by making the Sleeper Slab very wide, but , you can not eliminate the settlement as the addition of  more fill material at the abutment gradually compresses the layers below the approach slab and sleeper slab, so it is best just to make the approach slabs very long ( 30 to 40 feet ), and let the settlement happen.
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What is the ideal mixture for granular subbase construction?
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Yes, subbase type B is better.
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Red mud 10%, fly ash 80% and 10% sand have proper binding as well as concreting properties.
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No, not preferable.
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As a major sub-branch of civil engineering highway-engineering is a serious concern for the experts around the world, the modifications coming to this field has make several minds thinking about the future of highway or road construction ,
Which technologies will be introduced in the near future? Or far ? Which structured methods will be used? Material analysis?
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I think LRFD method for structural design.
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Road rehabilitation
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Exactly Dr Amjad, as we do in our lab.
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As pavement starts serving traffic, the distresses propagate in pavements be it concrete or flexible pavements. The distresses increase progressively with time. But in HDM-4, incremental type of predictive models are used only in case of flexible pavement but for concrete pavement absolute models are used. Can anyone mention the reason behind this? 
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The concrete models in HDM-4 have now been updated to use incremental models. See www.hdmglobal.com
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Which geotechnical parameters are most sensitive during analysis with PLAXIS 3-D software? Is there any available link that demonstrates the analysis procedure briefly? Thanks in advance.
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Hi Mohammad,
As Jason said, your question is very generally. Many items are effective such as:
- Which constitutive model you want use?
- What's your problem? tunnel, dam, and etc.
- What's your goal?
- What's your analysis? Statically, Dynamic or hydraulic.
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I am doing a traffic assignment on the highway transportation network. Does anybody know how I can find the Origin-Destination table (trip distribution) data?
I need a data for the Shelby County (Memphis) Tennessee, USA.
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OD data can be generated by volume counts. If they have any kind of sensors that provide data for the selected highway links, you can generate your own OD data for your network. Please check if they have any sensors deployed on the highway you are interested in such as RTMS sensors.
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what is the best and simplest theory to analyse the flexible pavement to find the stress and strain at any point within the flexible pavement?!(I knew that the multi-layer system is the common theory to analyse the flexible pavement but the charts and tables are prepared for specific location and properties)
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I agree with others that a layered elastic analysis approach is what would be better to use.  There have been many over the past 30 years, starting with ELSYM5, CHEVPC and BISAR.  The State of Washington in the US has a variation that is available for download called "EVERSTRESS".  It works well.  Also, thought not particularly user friendly, Huang's KenPave analysis program can be used.
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Hello,
I am trying to do a study on time headway on an urban road that is preceded with a signalized intersection. After gathering the necessary data, I had to do a sampling process to eliminate the trending and periodicity on the data.
I had to eventually divide the data on 2 distinct categories, which are the phases of the preceeding signalized intersection (the intersection has 2 phases with different durations).
Now I am finding myself with two different patterns. in order to study the Time Headway on different trafic levels. I need to define different increments (number of vehicle arriving in a period). Since I have two categories I would have different resulting hour volumes.
Let me give you an example, Phase 1 has a 36s duration and phase 2 has a 29s duration. So for example If I define an increment of 5-9 vehicles per period for the two categories, I would have a 500-900 veh\h for the samples of phase 1 and 620-1117veh\h for the samples of phase 2.
So I am not sure about this. Do I need to define different intervals for each category ? Did I go to far on dividing the data on two categories ? 
Any suggestions are welcome.
P.S : I am not a traffic engineer so I am not familiar with the procedures of time headway study. I am just trying to follow what my fellow researchers did in their papers
Thank you !
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Hi,
in order to find stationary time intervals I would suggest you the trend analysius of Luttinen:
In your case, I would try to adapt the trend test to small intervals by modifying the test parameters. If the intervals are small, you can aggregate them (umong different cycles) by respecting some criteria (same flow rate for example)
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i am in the middle of measuring average headway for 5 minutes time interval, how to compute the avg headway if the vehicle are in platoon with the single vehicle in a platoon for 4 consecutive platoon and duration between them are 20sec, 25sec 108sec and 209sec. except for lat platoon consist of 5 vehicle with 5,4,6,7 sec..
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The Poisson arrival process/exponential time headway assumption is only plausible for light traffic with flows Q significantly below capacity (typically around 2000 vehicles/h/lane on freeways). Otherwise, i.e., if the arithmetic mean 1/Q of the time headway is of the same order than the minimum time headway due to safety reasons, the ensuing "repulsion effect" distorts the exponential distribution (see the attached figure). Notice also that there is a difference between the (bumper-to-bumper) time gap which is relevant for the driver's action, and the time headway:
time headway=time gap+occupancy time
where the occupancy time is the vehicle length divided by its speed. See Treiber/Kesting, "Traffic Flow Dynamics" (Springer, 2013).
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How to find this flyash suitable for make bricks or not?. Kindly give your valuable answer.
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Vignesh,
Check for the following properties in your fly ash :
Amorphous silica content - Higher the better
Unburnt carbon - Lower the better
Lime content - higher the better, but even if it is low you can optimize by adding hydrated lime to it
Mean particle size - lower the better, if possible grind it to reduce your particle size. With the reduction in particle size you increase the surface area that takes part in the pozzolanic reaction
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I am fitting a SPF with Negative Binomial and the ADT was significant and negative. The data corresponds to rural mountainous with low traffic volume. Do you have any possible explanation for this? perhaps a similar experience? suggested references?
Thanks!
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Yes, congestions also came up my mind... But since AADT is usually used (which is aggregated annually), I would think it is not likely that congestion would influence this.
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I am designing a car park for a univeristy project and am trying to work out the spacings of my RC columns.
From further investigating and researching I have decided that post tensioned beams would be better as they can increase the spans. I've seen in a forum post that someone said to 16m but I am having trouble finding any official specifications to confirm this? Is it possible to have a beam span of this length with post tensioned band beams?
The footprint of my carpark is 82x68m
I would greatly appreciate any light that could be shed on this matter.
Jake
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Theoretically speaking, you could have a beam of any length as long as it is designed properly. However, the issue you are talking about here is an issue of practicality. as it is theoretically possible to have a 16 m long RC beam but it is extremely difficult to have a reinforcement bar that is longer than 12 m.
Another issue will be thermal expansion as a beam of such length must be designed to resist thermal stresses induced from temperature variations.
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About GPS Bernese daily solution
Can we get access to loose strained daily solution of Bernese software
As we know GAMIT and GIPSY provided daily solutions free access on line(garner.ucsd.edu, Hfiles and yyyy-mm-dd.stacov.loose.gz),
I wonder whether there some free products on Bernese solution, if existtd, please let me know, Thanks.
Best regards.
Xiaoxing He at wuhan university
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To Andreas Wagner 
Thanks for you help.
Best regards.
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It looks like the organisations responsible have been changed, with the new IMT, and also that the CCDRs may have their own standards.
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Hallo Ponkumar -,yes, road classification is an interesting topic, and can be both more complex than people think (and also, not so well applied in practice). The CCDRN documents also have a section on geometric design standards - but there is also a document from the national INIR organisation which gives geometric standards. I wonder which one takes precendence?
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In order to fill wheel rutting with micro-surfacing mixture, I need some references or useful papers to study.
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Hello Raheb -
The University of Texas at Austin - Center for Transportation Research hosts the on line library for the Texas Department of Transportation which is at the following link:
If you will type in the word 'microsurfacing' in the key word search field you will find several research reports and other resources that address use of microsurfacing in Texas.
Hope this helps.
Dr. Mike Murphy
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Sand or clay particles have adsorbed water, which makes them compressible. There are any enzymatic preparations that react with these particles to reduce the adsorbed water layer. I would like to know which type of enzymatic activity can do this?
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Briefly the story goes like this:
The clay grains are generally negatively charged, so in order to form a stable structure from the electrostatic point of view in the soil there are necessary free positive ions to insure the equilibrium. The role of the positive ions may be the best illustrated by a special soil called "quick clay" that may be found in Norway. This soil was depleted of free ions and if subjected to loads liquefies, yet as soon as a little amount of salt is added, it regains the strength. On youtube there are a lot of short movies with this subject and on NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) channel there are some documentaries about liquefaction of quick clay.
Coming back to our story, the role of the enzimes for soil stabilization IS NOT CHEMICAL. Enzymes are catalists so dedicated they could never work for soils, yet, due to their high number of free ions ends in the molecule necessary to form the "enzyme key", they provide the necessary bonding to the imballanced clay soil systems. An important remark is that if the soil is ALREADY ballanced, the enzymes addition will produce no effect whatsoever. On the soils I tested, some behaved either very well (improvement of about 30% of the elastic modulus and shearing strenght parameters as well as the decrease with one order of magnitude for the permebility) or very poorly (no improvement), meaning that LABORATORY TESTS MUST BE CARRIED OUT before seting an engineering solution.
Another important aspect is the fact that the clay is a colloid, so by adding the enzyme the water is better bonded. Worth to mention here that in the clay there is no mechanical interaction between the soild grains (as in the cas of sand), everything being done through the means of the adsorbed water. In consequence, even if the enzyme stabilised soil DRAWS MORE WATER than the natural one, the behaviour is improved. So, this is a little counter-intuitive for the civil engineers who are used to have better behaviour when the water is drained out.
So, you wil reduce the adsorbed water layer thickness because you are influencing the "potential pit", but you increase the amount of water in the system.
From the manufacturing point of view, there are several products on the market, mostly obtained from fruits or sugar plants processing.
Good luck with your study!
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I am looking for general explanation on how nano particle can reduce surface friction when used as coating on stainless steel surface
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Dear Abdullah,
There may be also some positive rolling of particles in nano-grooves parallel to the sliding direction. The article below may be of interest to you:
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) ,
"MICROSTRUCTURE AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OFNANOPARTICULATE WC/AL METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES" by Amarnath.G and K.V. Sharma
Good luck!
Luiza
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Anyone tried? Or can anyone give me link where I will get a good answer?
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I am done with literature review. And found the solutions for the problems mentioned above by Koustubh. But still, I am not satisfied with those solutions. 
So, If possible, can anyone provide me related articles? or references? like comparative study between the mechanical and thermal behaviour normal aggregates and crushed coconut shells as a aggregates or anything related to the same?  
Thanks a ton in advance. 
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The emergence of Trimble Centrepoint RTX solutions (which I will call Generation 4) begs the question as to the comparability of its accuracy when contrasted with traditional high-accuracy (non-GPS) surveying (generation 1); high-accuracy mobile field-mounted single-base GPS (or generation 2); and networked multi-bases solutions (generation 3).
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OK
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I want to know the different methods of comparing artificial lift systems in order to aid the best decision for selecting the most suitable and appropriate lift system for maximum productivity and profitability.
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There are several merhods to compare artificial lift systems. You may start with simple decision trees toward to artificial network. If you search online you may find this Thesis "Decision Matrix Screening Tool to Identify the Best Artificial Lift Method for Liquid-loaded Gas Wells" by Soponsakulkaew, Nitsupon who was one of my Students. Have fun with  decisions matrics....
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I am working on flexible pavement for my M.Sc degree dissertation.
First, the work was to determine the stress and strains of lateritic pavement under a repeted load just considering a wheel of the single axle wheel.
Now, the goal is to use a superposition principle to find strains and stress with a dual wheel axle.
PS: nonlinear behavior
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One possibility could be the use iof nfluence maps defined on the pavement domain, as an application of the Maxwell-Betti theorem, generalized to account for the pavement elastic flexibility. You may refer to standard books of Mechanics of Materials and Structures.
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thanks Mahmoud
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What are the types of emulsifying agents
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Thanks , that is very kind of you
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Dear Aria,
Thanks alot
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Pervious roads can be a key where there is very poor drainage available on roads.
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Water my cause Stripping on road surface and damages the all structure
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I'm trying to characterise a number of different samples according to presence of fines and set up a basic contamination index for my research. My maths failed me in this approach and I'm wondering whether anyone can suggest how to implement this particular method. What I've done thinking to weighted geometrical averages, is to calculate the exponential of {Σ[(sieve size)i X (percentage passing)i] / Σ(percentage passing)i}. Any ideas?
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For correlation with the contamination, I would prefer using the index of colloidal activity of the soil, which is Ia=Ip/n, where Ip is plasicity index (%) (Ip=wL-wP, liquid limit minus plastic limit) and n is the content of clay particles under 0.002 mm (%). Ia indicates also the presence of swelling clay minerals/smectite and is useful to distinguish between good and bad sorbents when the grain size distribution of the soils is similar.
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Most highway and traffic engineers agree that road classification and road hierarchy are essential to good road network management and traffic management.
Most locations (whether a country or a city) have them. But how can you check if what you propose is actually a good idea, how can you check if it works?
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Hallo Christie, fair comment. My original question really should have been, what is the purpose of a road network, and how do we measure if a road network is meeting this purpose? Since I posted my original question I have discovered that there are many ways in which people "classify" roads (see my publication). Then, partly through suggestions in previous comments, I found ideas for what could be useful indicators of "purpose" - for example: connectivity, accessibility, route factor, consistency, robustness. It begins to look like road network analysis could be a new discipline all by itself.
Praveen, yes - even the development of a structured road network can be done using people rather than computers. One research paper talked about a methodology using a workshop situation, where the "stakeholders" themselves participate in the network design process. By the way, I need to read up about ROMDAS before I can sensibly comment on it.
Ian, maybe average trip times are not a good indicator of whether a road network is right or not. For example there is the link between land use and road networks (If you change one you change the other). Any increased travel times could be due to poor land use planning, so that a better solution to building more roads would be to correct the land use planning. It would also be nice to avoid the use of complex traffic models, since these can hide assumptions made in the analysis. Simpler tools, like tests for connectivity or accessibility would give a more open, practical approach.
Mauro, I need to brush up my understanding of AHP and fuzzy analysis first. Your ideas on a user-oriented index are interesting. You mention elsewhere an index which had more than 50 indicators, and I have found at least 50 ways in which people" classify" roads.
To add another angle, I wonder if has anyone used 3D-GIS to view and illustrate multi-variable presentations of a highway network? Indeed I think that general use of a GIS to study a spatial object such as a road network (and features such as connectivity, accessibility) could make life easier for the analyst and his audience.
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Could anyone tell me the way to calculate water evaporation heat transfer on a titled plate?
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Heat transfer from water evaporation in any surface is pure latent heat transfer. It is represented by enthalpy (latent heat) of evaporation of water that can be find in thermodynamic table for saturated water. However, if water evaporation is below boiling temperature of water (100C) then the latent heat transfer (water evaporation) is because of the vapour pressure of ambient air that is below the saturated pressure of water at ambient temperature. Under this conditions, the water evaporation will stop when vapour pressure of ambient air equal to saturated pressure of water at ambient temperature. This heat transfer equal to air mass flow rate times enthalpy of evaporation of water times absolute humidity increased of the ambient air. You may have better picture when you read thermodynamic book by Cengel chapter 14.