Science topic

Cities - Science topic

A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
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Hello to all dear friends!
Can you introduce suitable sources for studying the topics of urban segregation, inclusive city and informal settlement?
Thank you for your help
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Thank you very much
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Our scape is currently overwhelmed with physical structures that act as obstructive forces towards humanity-oriented progress. The globalised format of our cities has dominated its roots on other aspects of architecture, including education. Hence, in some schools, architectural education follows this emerging imagery of the market, and not the other way around. This has led to a critical phenomenon of poor development of architectural pedagogy, i.e. lack of individual and collective creativity.
Do you think that architectural schools should shift its methodology towards not building anymore? Should they focus more on creating open spaces and flexible structures?
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Anwaar, you want everything and thats nice, only impossible. Academy must have priorities and not a bit of everything. Sorry
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How are urban agglomerations coping with water shortages and increasingly frequent periods of drought caused by progressive global warming?
The effects of progressive global warming include increasingly higher average air temperatures, record high temperatures recorded annually during the summer heat waves, longer and more severe periods of drought, and rivers, lakes and wells drying up. Drought is becoming an increasingly serious problem in agriculture. In some regions of the world, crop production is already declining due to increasingly frequent periods of drought. In metropolitan areas, too, increasingly frequent heat and drought are generating a number of serious problems. Many urban agglomerations lack clean water and rivers are heavily polluted. As a result, in some cities restrictions are being imposed on water use beyond food and sanitation purposes. For example, watering lawns may be allowed once a week in some cities. During periods of drought, total bans are imposed on watering lawns and washing cars from clean running water intakes. In addition, during hot weather in the situation of large areas of concrete and small areas of green space, the lack of urban parks in metropolitan areas, the air temperature rises strongly. In the situation of lack of water and strong heating of concrete surfaces, living conditions in urban agglomerations deteriorate significantly. In addition, in a situation of underdeveloped renewable energy sources and thermal power generation based on dirty fossil fuel combustion energy and a large number of internal combustion cars, smog characterized by strong air pollution from toxic wastes of combustion processes is increasingly appearing. As a result, some residents of large urban areas are moving out of city centers to the outskirts of cities, suburbs or the countryside. This is fostered by the development of remote work provided via the Internet. However, problems related to the shortage of clean water are steadily worsening. In the long term, it is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to slow down the ongoing process of global warming. In view of the increasingly serious problems caused by scarcity of clean water, city governments are introducing new solutions for reducing water consumption.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
How are urban agglomerations coping with water shortages and increasingly frequent periods of drought caused by ongoing global warming?
What does this issue look like in your city?
What is your opinion on this issue?
Please answer,
I invite everyone to join the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Warm regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I am not sure if I can answer in Polish so I will try in English, as you maybe know in Poland water usage is monitored, in many cities there is a possibility to check it in real-time mode. Based on that the water municipalities can try to control and adjust the usage and pressure within the network. It might lead to avoiding pipes failure and saving water resources.You should check the ISS- Ewatus project which I was in. https://cordis.europa.eu/docs/projects/cnect/8/619228/080/deliverables/001-D43UsermanualoftheDSSPolish.pdf
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A house located in a city centre with a large garden that is full of all types of spiders of all colors brown, bland, black, brown, green yellow .... very large Small and medium .. I have 2 questions please:
-- first how all these guys can come to this garden (knowing it was empty for 10 years). --- secondly how we can eliminate these spiders because it comes home especially in the period from the end of August until the month of September.
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Spiders are, like all other living beings, part of our environment. They contribute to its equilibrium by eating a lot of insects. It is estimated that the world's 25 million tons of spiders kill 400–800 million tons of prey per year. Likely spiders invaded your garden because they found, momentarily, a good place to be. They need insects as nutriment, and when this insect population will decrease, spiders population will decrease too. I suggest just waiting!
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I am willing to do reserach and work hard,collect data but I need a person already a research ,as my teacher,here in my city Multan Punjab pakistan.so I can conduct more reseraches.As I have lot of patients turn over.but I am lacking ,as there is no such platform.
looking forward.
Dr Rizwan Mushtaq ..+923004551159
consultant psychiatrist MBBS FCPSych
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@Dr.naeemullah leghari
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park-culture-management-social-public-city-children- family rest-safely-religion
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I have conducted a study on the number of pulic parks in the Khobar Metropolitan area. The results are shocking
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To what extent can rooftop gardens and flower meadows in cities increase the biodiversity of natural ecosystems in cities?
Given the ongoing climate change, including global warming, air pollution, limited areas of urban parks and other green spaces, gardens, flower meadows established on the roofs of buildings in cities can significantly increase the areas of urban green space. When urban green areas are significantly expanded, the biodiversity of natural ecosystems in cities can also increase significantly. In addition, additional green areas can have a positive impact on the air quality of cities. Air quality is not only a question of pollution levels, but also humidity levels and summer temperatures. Additional green spaces can play an important role in the rest and recuperation of residents, which can translate into improved health for people living in the city. Additional green areas, including gardens and flower meadows, also mean more foraging areas for insects, including pollinating insects, whose numbers are rapidly declining due to the over-chemicalisation of agriculture. Besides, additional green areas in cities can increase the level of sustainability in terms of sustainable development, green building and environmentally and climatically sustainable urban agglomerations.
In view of the above, I would like to address the following question to the esteemed community of scientists and researchers:
To what extent can gardens and flower meadows established on the roofs of buildings in cities increase the biodiversity of natural ecosystems in cities?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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It is possible to review many of the research papers published on the ResearchGate, including:
Roof garden as a healing garden
Energy Perspective of Roof Gardens
Best Wishes
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Hi, I am new to this and am currently publishing a paper. I have a specific question related to the material and method. In particular, in the material section, I list all materials used in the experiment. I know I need to get the trade name and manufacturer's full name, including the address, city, and state. But I do not know if I should go by the city and state on the ingredient bottle or the manufacturer's headquarter that I found in a google search. Please, if you could answer me, I would greatly appreciate it.
Thank you,
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I appreciate each of you for taking the time to reply to my question and providing me with this valuable information.
Thank you,
Ramia
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What role in the shaping of citizens' pro-environmental attitudes and the implementation of pro-environmental and pro-climate measures do local government units play?
What arguments can you give in support of the thesis that local government units play an important role in shaping citizens' pro-environmental attitudes and implementing pro-environmental and pro-climate undertakings.
What examples can you give of pro-environmental measures and pro-climate projects implemented and/or coordinated by local government units?
For example, do the local and regional authorities you know develop waste segregation programmes, expand green areas in cities, build municipal and/or other wastewater treatment plants, organise events to raise pro-environmental and pro-climate awareness among citizens, create flower meadows on city lawns, promote and develop electromobility on city public bus transport, subsidise the purchase of hydrogen-powered buses, etc.?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The functions of municipal governments include the following: Provision of state-run home services and basic unmet needs as regards health, education, environmental cleanliness, drinking water in homes, recreation and sport.
The role of municipal governments | Guide for Monitoring and Evaluating Land Administration Programs | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (fao.org)
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If yes or if you are interested in this question, I would like to have a chat.
I have been working on this question for a long time. Most of us already know that the first best solution to externalities revolving car driving does not involve registration taxes. Taxing cars instead of driving would thus have distortive effects.
I believe we might be undermining this distortion. I believe that when you take into account long run decision making often not accounted for in welfare models, the distortion is even bigger. Long run decision making such as people's decisions of where to live, firm's decisions on where to locate, and the resulting developmental decisions about where and how densely to build.
I have the hypothesis that if a government is given the choice between using registration (fixed cost) taxes and gas/kilometre (variable cost) taxes on driving, while holding revenue from these taxes constant, the variable cost choice would cause the city to be built more densely over time than the fixed cost choice. (Over time since rome wasn't built in a day).
First attempt was in my Master's thesis, where I used a monocentric city model with Cobb-Douglas utility and two travel modes. I was able to show that reducing the fixed tax and increasing the variable tax holding revenue constant indeed did make the city smaller. It also reduced the total amount of kilometers driven in cars (despite more people owning cars since they got cheaper) because people lived closer to the centre. I also showed that when you held the city shape constant in this proces, the total kilometers from the same change increased because the decisions didn't show in people's movement choices.
I have later come to realise that there are some flaws with my model, and have since worked on an improved model with log-linear demand utility with just the one mode (the car). It has proven to be a big technical challenge for me.
I have also tried empirical methods. I have a dataset of 100 cities worldwide and across developmental levels. This includes variables such as vehicle cost per kilometre, yearly capital cost per car, yearly driven kilometres in cars, commuting time, commuting distance, and 100 other variables. And have been looking at a model that measures the effect of variable costs and fixed costs on kilometres driven in cars (controling for gdp per capita for metropolitan areas) to see which has the biggest effect, but apart from obvious endogeneity issues, I also am not really able to show through which mechanism there might be an effect (whether it is indeed due to how the city is developed differently), but the model does indeed show that registration taxes are insignificant and that variable taxes are not.
I could use some brainstorming with other researchers interested in the same question. If you're interested in having a discussion about it in any way, please let me know.
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A registration tax only increases the annual fixed cost of a vehicle, while fuel taxes account for a significant portion of variable costs. Therefore, it goes without saying that the amount of variable costs influences the decision on where to reside much more than fixed costs do. In order to recognize this, I do not need any empirical analysis!
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Modis overpassing time for a specific area
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MODIS is on board of sun-synchronous orbit satellites, (AQUA and TERRA). Therefore, it should pass over your study area at about the same local time each day.
you can find a recent track of TERRA orbit globally and can also zoom in some specific regions. You may also check it for AQUA. Have in mind that the instrument's swaths are pretty large so the time depicted might be really close to what you are expecting.
However, depending on the precision you need, it is also possible to live track those platforms:
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Ive collected temperature data from different locations in a city using data loggers. How can I validate these temperature results to measure UHI intensity.
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You Can review some researches as:
Quantifying urban heat island intensity in Hong Kong SAR, China.
on Researchgate
Urban heat island intensity in London: An investigation of the impact of physical characteristics on changes in outdoor air temperature during summer.
on ScienceDirect
Urban Heat Island Gold Standard and Urban Heat Island Atlas. & The influence of atmospheric circulation on the intensity of urban heat island and urban cold island in Poznań, Poland.
on SringerLink
Good luck
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Solar electric car
Reduce the need of recharging cars; and is especially beneficial in cities with traffic jams; as peak traffic hours are usually during the day.
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Solar electric car
Reduces the need of recharging cars; and is especially beneficial in cities with traffic jams; as peak traffic hours are usually during the day.
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From sculpting the Himalayas and shaping the planes to cultivating civilisation water has been the most essential resource for building civilisations. Rainwater was harvested in India using lakes, wells, bands, step-wells etc. The question is what is the role of water in shaping a city. With the emphasis on paths and connecting roads acting as rainwater channels feeding the groundwater recharge and storage bodies. It further dives into why planned cities like Harappa did not survive the test of time, whereas organically developed cities did. The question hopes to critically analyse the reasons for severe water shortages in planned and semi-planned cities like Chennai, Bangalore and Delhi. hoping to provide some guidelines for eco-friendly development at various levels of planning and design. New methods inspired by traditional techniques for efficient rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge e.g building and using step-wells for water storage instead of overhead tanks. The focus is on developing guidelines for proper rainwater management systems for cities and urban areas. by adopting groundwater recharge techniques that could integrate with the present urban fabric.
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I suppose Interventions are needed at all aspects of human activity!
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Subject: 
Reduction of Homelessness in the City of Inglewood
I just started the petition "Reduction of Homelessness in the City of Inglewood" and wanted to see if you could help by adding your name.
My goal is to reach 100 signatures and I need more support. You can read more and sign the petition here:
Thanks!
Rev. Anthony T. Johnese
P.S.
Please send to 5 more friends or family members... and, please... do not send any donations. Solid Rock Spiritual Center will never solicit money.
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Hello everyone,
I need to measure noise pollution level but I do not know whether it should be done by modelling noise or there are agencies that provided measured noise pollution.
I appreciate your suggestion in advance.
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Depends on which city. I would hook up with the environmental agency of city hall to get data - after checking their website. For my city of Budapest, we have the "stratégiai zajtérkép" (strategic noise map) for each district, albeit, they are only static images - you can inquire for data. On EU level, the EEA is responsible for harmonizing this kind of data, you can check that out too. In a limited sense, you can directly get data for road/rail noise pollution from Eurostat as well, because they are included in the urban audit.
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In a GIS environment
in remote sensing technology
Using satellite visuals to measure change over different time periods and detect spatial changes
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يتم قياسها ضمن مجموعة من الخطوات الرئيسة المسخدمة في تحليل المرئيات الفضائية فيما يسمى بعلم الاستشعار عن بعد
انظر الصورة اسفل
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So far my investigation led to WHO data and the OECD metropolitan database on air pollution. Are there other data sources, other indicators? Maybe not at the global scale but more regional (e.g. Europe, North America)?
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Thank you, Copernicus can bring nice "natural environment" variables to the analysis.
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Hi,
I have a question for data analysis, I have a column in my dataset including locations "Brussels", "Flanders","Wallonia". I have postal codes too and I want to split the Flanders and Wallonia based on the main cities and other cities. How can I in R or excel split data then I want to have Brussels, the main cities of Wallonia and Flanders, and other cities of Wallonia and Flanders instead of "Brussels", "Flanders", and "Wallonia.
thank you
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Couldn't find it on arcgis online and neither on govt. backed gis service websites.
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Dear All,
You are most welcome to participate in this survey if:
1- You live in Auckland city,
2- You are part of the engineering industry,
Your time is greatly appreciated.
Kind Regards,
Anita Rabieyan
**********************************************************
Date: 16Mar2022 – 18June2022
Area of the Survey: Auckland city of New Zealand
Research topic: Resources Planning Productivity
While appreciating variety of Resources Planning models, tools, software or packages in the market globally which assist us to complete our project successfully, engineering industry may not always achieve the highest productivity from the utilised Resources Planning tools for completing their projects.
If Resources Planning is the area of your expertise, your participation benefits this research which studies the productivity of Resources Planning Tools (packages) in use by engineering industry in Auckland for the purpose of making the most productive Resources Planning model.
All consultants, managers, project managers, general planners, planners & schedulers, engineers, IT experts and other project team members who have interest in increasing the productivity of their Resources Planning are also invited to participate in this online survey.
You are welcome to click on the below link for more information and participation:
Thank you very much for your time,
Auckland University of Technology, Design and Creative Faculty, Engineering School:
Dr Stephen Thorpe, Primary supervisor stephen.thorpe@aut.ac.nz
Dr Ramesh Lal, Secondary supervisor ramesh.lal@aut.ac.nz
Ms Anita Rabieyan, Doctoral candidate anita.rabieyan@aut.ac.nz
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Yes I would like to participate in your Ph.D survey
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Why Are Wind Turbines Built In Rural Locations Instead Of In Cities Where The Energy Is Used?
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Because the open spaces can provide better situation , also it does not really fi urban areas as the old fashion way. However, the new technologies and design is some parts of the world can fit them in certain cities.
I think we need some more adjustments before installation in cities....
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I need SAR data of Sentinel to analyze the ground deformation (or subsidence ) of my capital city before 1999. Any chance to get data any where ?
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Hi,
Sentinel was launched in 2014, but maybe you can find some ERS-1 or 2 data ( the previous SAR missions from ESA) at that time, regards
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Hi everyone,
I want to study a festival's economic impact in a city. I have an I-O table of the state yet the event took place specifically in the city. I derived Leontief inverse from (I-A)^(-1). Can I apply it on the city or should I need to do something about it to make it specifically for the city? Maybe by multiplying a ratio (eg. GDP_city/GDP_state)?
Thank you very much!
Best,Laura
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I don't think generating and using a state level information is necessary for your study.
In addition, the derived Leontif model can be applied if you deem it suitable and if you feel it will help you communicate your research better.
You must note that state level indicators and measures can be applied at the city-level if such indicators are not available on city-level. However, the variables and data must reflect the city-level scenerio. Furthermore, you'll need to show this in a detailed format in your methodology, given that you're trying something (relatively) new.
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I wanna do ethnobotanical study about plants in in my region which is a small city , so what's the minimum and maximum number of intreviewees needed?
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in between (25-99)
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The dogma of agricultural primacy says: agriculture first, cities later. Jane Jacobs in his famous book The Economy of Cities (1969) is a strong proponent of city-primacy: Cities First—Rural Development Later. Could it be always true that rural (agricultural) development follows innovations in the cities and hence a policy of city-primacy than agricultural-primacy to pursue? Is it always true that agricultural productivity lags behind urban productivity? And, could it be that there is no way to increase rural (agricultural) productivity first and city productivity later in the currently developing countries? Is it true that rural development always waits for innovations in fertilizer, seed, pesticides, etc from the urban sector, not from the rural (agricultural) sector itself? Given multitudes of development theories and models, what could be the third-best alternative way for economic transformation in the currently developing countries?
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Binary choices of the either-or variety never shed much light. Around the world, 80% of the rural population live near cities. Urban and rural areas enjoy different but complementary assets. Potential linkages cut across, say, agricultural productivity, demography, environment, labor, and public services. Better integration of rural-urban linkages by way of rural-urban partnerships is essential for better socio-economic and environmental performance.
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If anyone can guide me regarding the above relationship. I want to work on the idea that a city would require some fixed number of plants to reduce the urban pollution.
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1) The data generated from 90 plots of South Bengal Forest Divisions in the state of West Bengal were analysed to evaluate the inter-relationships between sequestered carbon of each species, Soil Organic Carbon (SOC), soil pH and near surface atmospheric CO2level.
2) For all the species, significant positive correlations were observed between sequestered carbon and the underlying SOC indicating considerable contribution of carbon of the trees to the soil compartment through litter and detritus. The significant negative relationships between sequestered carbon by the selected tree species and near surface atmospheric carbon dioxide confirm the potential of the trees as unique sink of carbon. The sequestered carbon is taken from the CO2reservoir of the ambient atmosphere due which the negative correlations have been generated as the output.
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I am planning to conduct a study about the preparedness of a local city if it passes/conforms to the standard of ASEAN. A lot of city has been awarded and recognized already by achieving the criteria set by the guideline. I want to make a research investigating if my city is ready. What research approach/design/methods should i use? Who are the possible respondents? The guideline is found here:
Thank you
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Usually every research needs an appropriate strategy which means a suitable framework for your own objectives. The suggestions written before, could set a basic framework for your strategy and research, in which you may complement your specific interests for the investigation.
The methodology is a detailed description of stages, steps and mechanisms to develop the strategy. I presume your research would need an specific combination of quantitative and qualitative information. I hope the following read could be of help:
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The free source that provides soil maps for a country and not for an Indian city. How to solve this?
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Dear Dr. Namrata,
I trust you are doing well. Kindly have a look into the following research paper. I am hopeful it would be helpful.
Thanks and sincere regards
Gowhar Meraj
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The idea is to share different experiences of researchers of different countries.
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Domestic tourism helped local communities to survive during the crisis, locals got feeling to be tourists in their own region and country.
Some research on this topic:
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Gary M. Lovett 1994 set the constant median dry deposition velocity of PM10 at about 0.0064 m/s in the equation; PM10 deposition = Vd.Ci.Ti. 24.3600. How to determine the constant average value of the dry deposition velocity of PM10 and PM2.5 from literature? Is the same constant value of the dry deposition velocity of PM10 can be used for different cities or need to change depending on climatic factors? And what is the constant dry deposition velocity value of PM2.5 ?
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Hello,
You will not be able to define an average deposition rate of PM10 or PM2.5 without knowing the composition of this range of aerosol. Indeed the deposition speed is linked to the size but also to the density of the particles. The difficulty in the fraction PM10 or PM2,5 is that you have potentially completely different particles in size going from 0,3 to 10 µm for PM10 for example and completely different compositions thus different densities.
Kind regards,
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Hello,
I was trying to find spatial pattern of water-borne diseases in Dhaka city. But I cannot find any source. I was hoping to find a clue or leads to such data.
Yours sincerely
Khandaker Akif Razzak
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Thank you, Professor Faraed Salman . I looked into yours suggestions and these helped in many ways. The primary issue is I am unable to find any geolocated data of the cases. I tried contacting few organizations that might be able to help me with this, if Allah wills. Thank you for the time you spent on suggesting me the URLs.
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Dear, I am a university student of architecture and urban planning. I am looking for various information on the city of Odessa in Ukraine to understand its urban composition and its human characters. I'm looking here for someone local / some research that can be consulted for my project.
Thanks to everyone who will help me
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Dear,
I recommend you to read this article. Hope it will help you.
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Hello, colleagues!
My name is Christiano Piccioni Toralles, I am a professor at the Inst. Fed. of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) and student of the Doctoral Program in Spatial Planning at Un. Coimbra (Portugal), under the supervision of prof. Anabela Ribeiro. I'm here inviting volunteers to collaborate as an expert with my Ph.D. research on urban mobility, specially dedicated to walkability, in an inter/multimodal, inclusive, and participatory perspective.
The form link is found below. It starts with a brief explanation of the proposal and the Consent Form, then moving on to the questionnaire itself.
Globally and mandatorily, this questionnaire has 222 questions with multiple choice answers, except for two open-ended questions (one for the name of your city and the last one for optional comments or suggestions), with an estimated duration of 30 minutes.
This research has as its target audience only professionals who work in urban planning, mainly dedicated to the theme of urban mobility, in public or private institutions, including academic-scientific. Planners, designers, researchers, and teachers are invited to respond. There are no restrictions about their professional qualification (for example, in Urban Planning, Architecture, Engineering, Geography, Public Health, Environmental Psychology, Tourism, Sociology, Anthropology, etc.), as long as they have some experience in the subject.
If you have any questions or would like to request further information, feel free to write on this forum. Or you can contact me by email: <christiano.toralles@riogrande.ifrs.edu.br>.
Thank you for your attention.
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Walkabity has to have some real numerical basis, otherwise its just wasted words.
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Does anyone know of a university that has good laboratory equipment and I can continue my research on concrete there?
I am very interested in research on concrete, but unfortunately my city university is very weak. If anyone knows a good professor and a good university, I would appreciate it.
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National Council for Cement and Building Materials have all major advanced types of equipment related to concrete
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This is my project of Focus for humanity, especially those whom are students in need of a DOE school; however, this will do for all humanity that needs to grow academically.
The Teacher, Tutor & Mentor!
'Teacher, Tutor, Mentor Academics Converter System'
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Most countries whose academics for growing young students needs all or some of it to give them betterment of their life to be
The Benefit of the TTMA-LS
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Hii,
I have implemented genetic algorithm with partially mapped crossover for solving tsp. Here I'm using different random.seed vlaues(24,42,72,112). When I run the algorithm , can I get the same graph with different seed values without changing the parameters but city co-ordinates are randomly generated.
Please can anyone answer..
best regards
Annapareddy
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Well, I still don't understand the point of your experiment.
I don't understand why you use "random cities" since the TSP requires "all" cities to be visited, BUT regardless, I understand that you have a problem with generating pseudo random numbers.
Please, tell me, what language are you using for develop your experiment ?
Have you developed your own genetic algorithm?
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How can one estimate the quantity of water that can be recovered from a wastewater treatment plant?
Many utilities in cities are nowadays exploring how to reuse water (treated effluent) from their treatment plants for potable and non-potable purposes. I am wondering if there is any research or studies that look into how to estimate the quantity water that can be obtained from such water reuse initiatives. Of course I understand that any calculations would include aspects like evaporation, potential leakages within the treatment plant as well as any portion of water that is not recoverable. I would happy to have anyone point me to any relevant studies they have encountered on these issues.
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Hi Daniel,
I think perhaps the main question prior to making such an assessment is what the use of the recycled water is. Additionally, what type of treatment steps are done in the current form? In many cases, the WWTP effluent is (at least) as 'clean' as typical surface water, which can be used as an input for making drinking water.
When you mean water available for reuse, do you mean compared to the initial consumption, i.e. what the losses are starting from the distribution of the water and it's flow back to the treatment plant, or just during the treatment processes? Is there data available or do you want to induce losses a priori?
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Hi all!
I am researching the peculiarities of the planning organization of the territory of the "innovation city".
Interested in your opinion about the following question. Are "innovative city" and "smart city" the same thing from a planning point of view?
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I would argue that an "innovative city" is a broader category than a "smart city" so that a smart city is one type of innovative city. My assumptions for the design of a smart city are that high density and a compact area are particularly helpful in creating a smart city. In that regard, it is probably easier to designate and design a relatively limited compact high-density space with potential for incremental growth and addition to the smart technology, whether through new development or through redevelopment. Florida's "creative class" is ostensibly attracted to technology (as in smart cities), but also to clusters of talent, as well as a climate of tolerance. All three elements are not necessary (Terry Clark, for example, has demonstrated that there can be creative innovation without the sort of tolerance Florida envisions, making it a normative requirement rather than a descriptive requirement) so there may be other paths to making an innovative city through culture, business concentration, human capital development, design, and other methods. Obviously, a confluence of these factors is highly desirable (Silicon Valley is in a tolerant area with an entrepreneurial culture and already had a high concentration of high-tech businesses and talent that then spilled over into remaking surrounding areas in innovative ways) and this can be designed, to some extent. New Songdo was an early smart city made from scratch on land reclaimed from the sea and then infrastructure was created and businesses were attracted to emphasize innovative industries within a context of innovative design. That it is on reclaimed land makes it relatively easy to expand in controllable and planned ways.
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Almost all of the recent experiments usually smaller than microscopic size, moleculer, even in nanometre size or more scrutinize than that.
It maybe not a matter for rich countries have complete and supporting tools, divices and compatible researchers. But how about small city in developing country that also very less for those have been mentioned ?
Is it still possible to explore macroscopic aspects that "maybe" not too expensive cost ?
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Healing is only possible by regarding the whole human body; acute treatment is principally microscopic, due to the pharmaceutic aspect (illness/disease vs. remedy).
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I am looking for daily/ monthly / annual temperature and precipitation data for southern African Cities and National parks. If there is anyone with a link, please help and also on how to extract it. I tried Worldclim.org/data but cant extract it....is there a special software for this?
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Hi Lazarus Chapungu , the worldclim data is given as raster and you can easily extract values using the raster package in R; here is an easy-to-follow guide (https://gisday.wordpress.com/2014/03/24/extract-raster-values-from-points-using-r/comment-page-1/).
The CRU dataset suggested by David Mendes is good but If you are looking for station dataset, you can find them on the Ogimet website (www.ogimet.com), a Weather Information Service. However, please note that this is given in the United Nations World Meteorological Organization’s Synoptic, METAR, and SPECI codes. To decipher these codes, please find the key to the codes here: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/archive/arc0021/0002199/1.1/data/0-data/HTML/WMO-CODE/WMO4677.HTM.
I hope this helps!
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The development of smart cities is a part of the broader concept of sustainable pro-ecological development based on the use of modern, innovative information technologies and in addition to ecology.
In this way, the development of smart cities also improves people's lives and can make people happier.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dear Leila,
Yes, I agree with your thesis that the development of smart cities will significantly improve people's quality of life, because modern infrastructure and amenities mean fewer development, system and infrastructural constraints. In my opinion, the development of smart cities should take into account the implementation of the principles of environmental policy, sustainable development goals and the green circular economy. Therefore, the development of modern cities should follow the model of sustainable, pro-environmental smart cities.
Thank you very much,
Best wishes,
Dariusz
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  • What are some of the most important biophilic design strategies? How biophilia impacts the built environment?
  • In terms of biophilic design, why do we think it’s important that we have easy access to nature in our cities?
  • What are our biggest hopes for biophilic design and biomimicry? What is our vision of the city of the future?
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Love for animals and plants is not enough to surround the building with greenhouses, lakes or forests. A sustainable and biophilic design can also be bad. It was not only Frank Lloyd Wright who wrote about this at the dawn of modernism. You need to understand that a person is not only a body (bio) but also an invisible spirit (psycho) and a soul (sociо) represented in his creations (artefact).
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Such a system can mean less volume of cars in large cities, which can free up parking spaces and facilitate traffic.
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Dear Dr. Aref. Thanks a lot for the articles.
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Does anyone know where I can find publicly available travel surveys from low and middle income countries and cities?
Travel surveys such as travel diaries (with trip purpose, mode, time, possibly distance) - and also user intercept surveys.
Thank you!
Christian
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Search through scholar
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According to ASHRAE the values of tb and td for Atlantic, I want their values according to cities or latitude and longitude 
Thanks 
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Calculation procedure for the Clear-Sky Beam and Diffuse Solar Irradiance as dependent on the time and the location can be found here (developed in Python):
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If I were to make a half dome as an umbrella to protect a city from rain and sun how would I proceed. Are there special materials or do you have an idea on how to make this? What do you say about an energy shield ?
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Dear all, I think the easiest way is an underground city. Shullters are built for similar protection purposes. My Regards
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How can heavy metals be eliminated in a laboratory?
Dear researchers,
We have significant amounts of heavy metals in our laboratory, and we would like to know the process of removal or degradation before we discard them.
Unfortunately, there is no company that deals with this process in our city. That's why we are looking for an elimination process.
Thank's in Advance
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Dear Yousra Sbaoui thank you for sharing this very important technical question with the RG community. For giving you a qualified answer, it would be helpful if you could specify in which form the heavy metals are present in your laboratory (e.g. dust, waste water etc.), and which metals we are talking about. Please clarify! As correctly mentioned by C.A. (Kees) Kan heavy metals / transition metals cannot be degraded in the sense that they just disappear. Perhaps the safest way to convert them into less toxic materials is to convert them into insoluble compounds, particularly the metal sulfides (cf. the answer provided by Shuraik Kader). These can then properly disposed. For example, spilled mercury can be disposed by covering the droplets with sulfur powder or commercially available absorbents (e.g. iodine-loaded active charcoal). In the case of mercury the iodide is also insoluble.
Please stay safe and healthy!
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Urbanization, besides different benefits over time, has also caused various diseases. In addition to biological factors, environmental factors such as urban lifestyle also play a role in cancer. Is Cancer an Urban Disease? As an urban planner, how do you analyze the impact of the city on cancer?
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Cancer is caused by mutations in the DNA within cells. Some gene mutations we are born with but most occurrences are to be found after birth and are caused by smoking, radiation, viruses, cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens), obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation, and lack of exercise. Urban lifestyles that somehow increase the number of such forces might be to blame but some research, for instance in the United States, has found that cases of lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and cervical cancer are higher in rural areas. While geography alone cannot predict risks of cancer, it can impact prevention, diagnosis, and treatment opportunities.
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I want to measure the ratio of open spaces such as parks and gardens to the number of children in a city.
There are quite a few parks in the city, and their width and fun park vehicles are also very few.
However, my understatement is not based on a scale. I want to compare it with other cities and reach a conclusion based on the number of children in the available park areas. I need sample research and scales on this subject. I would also like to benefit from studies evaluating the subject in terms of city planning approaches.
Thank you for all the help.
Abdurrahman
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Thank you very much, dear Espiñeira and Libardoni. I will consider your suggestions. As you said, although these are not exactly what I want, they will be useful to me in my research. Thank you for your answers.
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I am trying to do a linear regression with walking speed of pedestrians as the dependent and population size as the independent variable. I have collected the same amount of samples (200) for each city. Other studies work with the average walking speed per city. My guess is because they have an unequal sample size. My question is, should I regress with all the samples or should I use the aggregated values (average walking speed) for my regressison?
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Hello Lars John. You have multilevel data with individual pedestrians (level 1) clustered within cities (level 2). If you have a sufficient number of cities, and if they are considered a random sample from some larger population of cities, then a random intercept model (with city as the level 2 grouping variable) would be sensible. And city size (population) would be a level 2 explanatory variable. You may also wish to include level 1 explanatory variables (e.g., age & sex of individual pedestrians). If you say what software you use, readers may be able to point to helpful resources specific to that software. Meanwhile, here are some other resources you can look at:
HTH.
PS- How many cities do you have?
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Hello to all!
Recently, I am researching on the changes in urban jobs (modernization of jobs, replacement of new jobs with old ones, developing online and smart jobs, etc.) and its impact on the formation and morphological changes of cities.
My problem is that despite a lot of searching in books and articles (especially in google scholar), I haven't yet been able to find appropriate sources for this research.
What do you suggest to me? also im wondering if you know any appropriate articles related to this research, may you introduce to me? Even interduce the important researchers who have done research in this field?
Thanks in advance for your help
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You may need to tap into adjacent fields of research and there are some grey literature out there (reports) that will point to emerging trends, which you can then build on. Additionally, there are some great bibliometric analysis which outlines emerging patterns. We did one, available here: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/13/7140
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Hello,
I have created a machine/deep learning to predict the Spatio-temporal distribution of parking occupancy rates in city A. Then I want to apply the developed model for scenario experiments, e.g., to know how a newly constructed hospital in block X influences parking occupancy. The presence of hospitals is considered in the modeling development process. My question is that can I directly do this, by making up an input variable corresponding to the tested scenario, to know the effects.
Support: the model learns the implicit relations between the presence of the hospital and the parking occupancy, it should be able to make the predictions.
Against: the model is constructed based on the data collected in city A. The additional hospital in block X creates a virtual city that is not city A and therefore, the approach is not valid.
Any replies or recommendations for related articles are appreciated.
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Yes, most of the people do the same. However., if you are obtaining some qualification certifications, this way is never preferred.
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I have average level household- income data of 26 statistical divisions of Turkey (NUTS 2). I need to break down and estimate this data to city (81 sub division NUTS 3) or town level (LAU) level to assess economic conditions of each local area. I have demographic data at the city and town levels. I did some research in the small area estimation field, but I couldn't find the exact method which proposes solution for my research question given above. Can you please recommend any book, article, or method on this case? Thank you very much.
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Hi everyone,
I have a question regarding how to find and calculate the average precipitation of an entire city using different observation stations' datasets.
I'd be glad if someone could inform me how to solve this issue.
Thanks in advance
Best of luck
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Average precipitation based on observation stations can be calculated with the help of:
Theissen Polygon method
Average mathematical method
Isohyetal method
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In response to the challenge of today's cities, can the smart city approach in low-tech countries also be a solution for their cities, or is it only for developed countries?
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I'm going to agree in large part with Luis Fernando Gallegos-Rodríguez here. He rightfully starts with the issues of equity, access, sustainability, before even mentioning the technological aspects.
Certainly, there are benefits for cities looking to improve access and interactivity for their citizens, but there are challenges.
First, I think it is useful to consider what sustainability means. Yes, there is the environmental perspective (obviously, a primary concern today), but there's a functional element as well. Is it sustainable if your city hires contractors to come in and set up the necessary technological infrastructure, leaving staff without the necessary knowledge and skills to maintain the network and correctly leverage it to improve the lives of residents? Clearly no.
Second, smart cities rely heavily on data gathering and analytical tools, and data without context can be counterproductive if your city is indeed striving for the goals mentioned above. Avoiding the pitfalls of overvaluing specific data requires a highly professional decision-making team that understands the subtleties of administrative systems and their application in social science.
So, aspiring toward becoming a smart city can certainly bring benefits to a city in need of digital administrative tools, but smart cities are not in and of themselves an appropriate choice for all cities and should not be pursued without due care and attention to the fundamentals of city administration.
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I'm planning on doing research about the relationship between city components (like buildings, streets, open areas, vegetation and etc.) and the thermal comfort of a city.
I would like to know there are any special methods, software for this.
Thank you.
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Нужно определиться с субъектом теплового комфорта. Кто определяет, что субъекту комфортно? Как определить числом состояние комфорта? Если человек находится в помещении, показатели комфорта определены стандартом. Комфорт в городе - часто оценочное суждение. Нет четкого критерия.
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We're conducting research that require a trash filling model as our input: trash bin locations and filling level in a city. Is there yet any method to create a realistic model to generate this data?
If there is no one correct tool, maybe anyone knows a data generator model that can be fed on a data and generate the same pattern randomly?
We would be happy if you have trash filling dataset for us to cite.
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We collected data from six communities in one city with the help of the local waste collectors who weighed the trash before it was thrown into the garbage truck. It meant more work for the waste collectors so we made sure there was an incentive for them to do this.
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I will use a survey in 3 settings ( A.B.C) in one city. Setting A is holding the National training programme in the country.
I find that the program was changed according to the needs of staff in each setting(B,C), but in setting A, it has branches around the country that used the same national training programme and applied it in another region in the country with no changes. So the national training program is the same in one setting in my study setting but modified in the other settings in the same city( setting B, C).
I am still waiting for the ethics committee approval in setting C, but I got the approval from A, which I can request amendment and collect the data from the settings using the same national program in different regions. Do you think an excellent chance to have a great study collecting the data from the setting that used the national programme in different regions or collecting the data from one city in different settings that provide the modified training in different objectives?
I hope to hear your suggestions.
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If you are thinking of doing a cross sectional and then another sub set analysis, you might need to think of how many respondents you can get. The more independent variables are included in your model the more respondents you will require....
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Given millions of GPS points located in the same area. What would be the least cost method to extract all the neighboring points of each entry in the dataset ( i.e. all the points that are within a given range of another one) ?
It is to be noted that this process will only be done once for the entire dataset.
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I have successfully used kd_tree (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-d_tree) to create a data structure capable of handling milions of 3D points. There are also some libraries that can help you implement it such as https://docs.scipy.org/doc/scipy/reference/generated/scipy.spatial.KDTree.html
Good luck!
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Is there any dataset available containing the mobility patterns of people within any city? Can we know which places people have visited in different time intervals with exact location information (i.e geo coordinates latitude and longitude)?
It is ok to have data annonymized to preserve the identity of individuals.
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We did a paper based questionaire survey in a city in Indonesia asking citizens for the origin/destination address and the number of kilometers for commuting/schooling everyday. Though it was not using sophisticated IoT technology the data was good due to the skilled staff members asking the questions.
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Have you ever met some indicator which has been created basing on data from specific area and then has been used for calculating the value in different area despite the fact, that the result might be less accurate than in the origin area?
Example: In the City of Boston (USA) an indicator for the forecast of the increase of air pollution has been invited. It bases on the population density, the degree of city ventilation and the area of green spaces. Let's call it 'The Boston Indicator'. Someone in Tokio uses this indicator for his city, despite the fact that the city ventilation has smaller role than in Bostone. Nevertheless the indicator is still good enough.
For sure there are alot of similar situation in the real world but I cannot remind myself any fo them. Are you able to help me?
I hope my question is quite clear - if not,please don't hesitate to ask a question.
Thanks in advance!
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I think the Japanese environmental building indicator CASBEE was developed in Japan but modified for use in Malaysia. It was localized to reflect the climate. hope this is relevant
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Dear researchers,
I want to apply clustering tasks for city traffic time series for a research in Intelligent Transportation Systems.
Can you recommend a city traffic dataset that contains the speed, flow, or occupancy measurements for roads and also contains the type of traffic pattern for each road? This type can be provided as a class label for each road, or a class label for each day measurements on each road (a class label for the whole time series).
Any help is much appreciated, thanks in advance.
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Hi Muhammad Zahid Khattak , I have this kind of data.
Write me and we will discuss about the possibility to make some experiments together.
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I am particularly interested in cities in the Global South. The Asian Development Bank and the World Bank report data for nations rather than cities. I already know about EPOMM but it only covers European cities. Perhaps the OECD-ITF or UITP?
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About Brazil, I have already used modal split data, but on a national scale. They are given from the annual reports of the ANTP (National Public Transportation Association). It is important to note that there was a change in the estimation methodology between 2013-2014, so the data show divergences. Therefore, better seek patterns of change rather than an absolute percentage, and look for pre-2013 and post 2014 separately. The link is <https://www.antp.org.br/system-de-informacoes-da-mobility/pringentacao.html>. Note: this page is not in English.
Maybe some Brazilian municipalities have this data (probably the capitals of the states). But, unfortunately, those of my region, which I know, do not have. I did not look at others because there are almost 5500 municipalities in the country, and this search would be endless.
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Hello,
My team developed a survey to investigate issues related to intelligent transport solutions in cities. I would be very grateful if you could fill in the questionnaire, which can be found at the link: https://forms.gle/2694VFj3XFaXb3qv8.
Thank you in advance for your help!
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Hi Marta Daroń , i have done
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I am looking for case studies/examples of either succesful and unsuccesful place branding strategies followed by SMST - Small and Medium Sized Towns.
I am particularly interested in those that were affected by processes of decline - economy, population, deindustrialization, etc. -.
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It can be useful, maybe the case studies in our article could give you some ideas?
This book will also be helpful:
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Dear fellow researchers,
I have a question concerning LCZ modelling for a masterplan. My case study is on a new city the city is still under construction not completed yet. I want to classify it's masterplan to LCZ to evaluate its behavior from an urban climate point of view. Is it possible to create a map of LCZ since the remote sensing is not an option in this case because nothing is completely built. Can you recommend a tool that I could work with
Thank you in advance.
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Hi Manar, in this case I would go either for a manual sampling (based on visual interpretation and personal knowledge of the master plan) or a GIS-based approach. This will depend on how you intend to use the LCZ maps and for what reason. The GIS-based approach is generally preferred but it requires the availability of a digital topographic database, primarily including buildings and their heights (so that relevant indicators can be calculated, e.g. SVF and H/W ratios of representative street canyons) but also land use (to account for the different ground cover characteristics). For the GIS-based approaches, see, for example, the work of Lelovics et al. (https://doi.org/10.3354/cr01220) and the work of Geletič and Lehnert (https://doi.org/10.1515/mgr-2016-0012), where a full procedure for a applying a GIS mapping of LCZs is explained. Combined approaches, even if they are not directly applicable to your case, might be also a useful source of information for the GIS part. See, for example, the work of Gál et al. (shorturl.at/giDFS) or our recent work (http://dx.doi.org/10.5821/ctv.8663).
Lastly, have a look at these two recent publications, by Lehnert et al. (2021) and Jang et al. (2021) that comprehensively compare different mapping methods of LCZs and their application.
Best,
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I'm looking for Egyptian architects and urbanists who, at some point along their line of work, explored the representation of cities, societies and cultures in Egyptian films.
It would be very helpful. Much appreciated
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The city and cinema have a formidable relationship. The images and sounds of cities found in movies may be the only experience many people have of cities they will never visit. Films influence how we construct images of the world and, as a result, how we operate within it in many cases. Cinematic Cairo: Egyptian Urban Modernity from Reel to Real provides a history of Cairo's urban modernity through the lens of film, with cinematic space serving as both an analytical tool and a medium of critique. Cairo has been a rich source of subject material for Egypt's film industry since the art form's inception at the end of the nineteenth century.
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There is a network of weather meteorological stations in a city and I would like to assess the representative ratio of each one. Would you suggest to me a methodology to do this assessment? Thanks
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Lady, it is possible that the site is influenced by the buildings in the surrounding areas. First, I suggest making sure that each station is somehow measuring unperturbed flow conditions and that temperature and humidity sensors are not heavily influenced by buildings and the contrasting vegetation/built footprint.
Correlation or regression approaches among the sites, as suggested by other RG members, may work, but the influence of the rather strong diurnal cycle on surface station parameters will obscure a deeper insight of such regression approaches.
I also suggest looking carefully how the sites are located relative to the aspect of the complex terrain (if any).
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how to assess urban climate of city master plan before implementation. How urban planners can assess and evaluate the behavior of a proposed master plan for a new city (new development) before implementation to find the vulnerable zones and enhance this zones performance for climate proof cities.
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Dear colleagues,
Does anyone know if there is any rainfall threshold (mm/year, month or day, etc.) for a city to be considered "rainy" or "very rainy"? Or the rainfall intensity thresholds (weak, moderate, heavy, etc.)? Are there any international standards, for example from ISO or another institution? If there is a reference to support it, it will help better.
Ditto for wind speed thresholds (m/s or kt) for a place to be considered "windy". Does anyone know any references?
Thank you in advance for your attention.
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Dear Christiano,
The concept of Precipitation Concentration is crucial to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitations. Many authors define thresholds which mostly converge: the most common (you can find in the following open access article) are :
Wet day: >= 1mm/day
Heavy wet day: >= 10mm/day
Extreme wet day: >= 50mm/day
Best regards,
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I have been looking for information on non volant mammals (excluding domestic mammals) in chinese cities and so far I've been unable to find this info. I'd appreciate any information or reference you could provide!
Cheers
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Yeah, small mammals and some mesocarnivores can be seen. I remember during my time at Peking Univ. there are at least hedgehogs, squirrels, chipmunks and Siberian weasels on campus. Actually there is a book (in Chinese) called 燕园动物 indexing the animal species in Peking Univ. Otherwise I know a group lead by Fang Wang in Fudan Univ., Shanghai is studying native common raccoon dogs there but not sure if they've published anything.
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We are working on a project entitled: Tourism and technology "Developing e-tourism for the city of Tire".
I would like any related ideas that you think are good to be proposed; Also, any similar example that enriches our work.
Thanks in advance for your participation.
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