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I am in the process of making an experiment that requires dPCR testing so I cannot stain the Ciliates I use for analysis and because of time constraints. Due to the time constraints, I am thinking of using a computer program like ImageJ to measure the size of the individual; however, I am worried that ImageJ might not work for the ciliates because of the lack of a stain on the cell. My question is if anyone has experience on using ImageJ on unstained cells like ciliates and how well it worked for you.
We are trying to see if there is any pattern between SSU copy number and the size of the cell in Paramecium tetraurelia so we can more accurately determine the actual quantity of cells in a water sample for later experiments. The reason for not measuring by eye is because my supervisor is suggesting we do triplicate cultures in parallel with ten individuals per culture and we want to make sure that they are all on the same growth stage for better control on the size/copy number.
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Brent E Gowen Thanks for the suggestion, I will have to see if my lab has a Phase Contrast microscope I am allowed to use. If not I think the regular brightfield as Johanna Marie Dela Cruz suggested may work as I tested their visibility yesterday with a microscope and they seemed to have enough contrast at the cell wall but I have not gotten access to a microscope with a camera mounted so I am not able to verify yet.
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We are analyzing the behavior of groups of Stylonychia mytilus and have already some interesting preliminary results. Unfortunately our strain died and we are not able to find a new supplier. Is there a culture collection - possibly i Europe - that can provide the species or does someone work with the organism and can help us?
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Unfortunately, we also lost our culture. We work with other ciliates - Tetrahymena pyriformis and Paramecium caudatum
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I am looking for ways to get rid of ciliates in cultures of Tetraselmis. We believe they are contaminating via the air lines. Any ideas are welcome!
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Install 0.22 micron filters in your air-piping to prevent contamination.
Use some treatment (ie. quinine sulfate) in case you want to eliminate them from cultures. Attached please find a reference
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We are trying to compare the complexity of the myoneme structures in different families ciliates. Due to protargol not being on the market anymore and the insane price of Gold(III)chloride I was wondering if there are any other methods which will elucidate these structures.
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Frank - thank you so much for these two papers. Im a big advocate of cross discipline advice! I will have a look at these papers asap.
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I'm trying to grow up a rotifer culture, but I have a lot of problem with ciliates contamination.
I have tried several times to clean all the culture with a 55 um sieve, clean with bleach all the material that I use, but after one day ciliates are there again.
Do you have any advice?
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The collected rotifers should be immersed in chlorine-free fresh- water, for 5–10 min, followed by suspension in seawater at the culture salinity. This treatment removes several of the parasites, such as ciliates, flagellates and bacteria, and has little effect on survival of the rotifers. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/9780470995143.app1
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Hello everyone, greeting, hope you are doing well, I need some significant information, which is related to the use of silver nanoparticles in the aquatic ecosystem. My question is this when we apply different concentrations of Ag-NPs on Ciliates to check the toxicity of silver nanoparticles. We know that silver nanoparticles kill the ciliates, disturb the aquatic ecosystem. Anxiously waiting for your kind response. Thank You
Md. Masud Parvez.
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Although, it depend on your objectives, otherwise your expectations from using different AgNP concentrations to asses the toxicity of such Nanoparticles to ciliates. However, you have to bring in mind that increasing the concentration in aquatic system would forcefully increase agglomeration rates either auto-agglomeration or hetero-agglomeration, that means yo will increase the potential formation of bio-eco-corona, which forcefully will lead to an increase in the dynamic size of your particles, thus decreasing the bio-availability, in case that you aim to use natural entry into organisms.
Otherwise, it might be possible that you want to know which is the most suitable moment to add your AgNPs to the exposure media, that means that you have other considerations to take into account dependently on the type of exposure (in vivo as exemple...etc).
Furthermore, its important to highlight, that in general when there is no previous studies have been done using the model-organism, nor the pollutant that you aim to use, you may use to determinate the LC50, which also presents some controversies among nanotoxicity community, because the matter of the bio-availability, which may be reduced once the concentration (i.e. mass concentration) have been increased.
I hope that this helps you, otherwise please do not hesitate to ask for any further information that you feel may helps you.
Best wishes,
Younes,
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I'll be looking at air-liquid interface sections of primary human airway epithelial cells and am interested in multiciliated cells.
There are multiple references in support of both ac-a-tubulin and b-tubulin IV, but to the best of my ability I can't find whether there's any real difference or advantage to using one over the other. 
Thanks!
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thx
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Has anybody grown algal biofilms from stream inocula on ceramic tiles and observed such bare areas as in the photos? They look like a virus infection to us. We have observed this phenomenon a few times already and it disturbs grazing experiments…  The first bare spots appear after some 7 days, grow up to 5-6 mm diameter, more appear, and after another two weeks (approx.) they slowly start to vanish again from their centre. Of course, we have also protist grazers (ciliates etc) in our biofilms but they are not responsible for these spots, we think.
Thanks for any helpful information on what that might be and how it could be prevented!
Susanne Worischka, Felix Grunicke and Thomas Petzoldt
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Hi,
I don't know if its the same, but we observed similar things in microbial mats (and also in sediments), and we also thought it was viruses, but it was fungi. Sorry to 'highlight' my own research, but here's the paper:
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Hi,
I am looking for a software that would allow me to record real-time videos of my ciliated epithelia primary cell cultures using an inverted microsope and Canon camera.
Currently, I am using QuickPHOTO Camera 3.0 which does not allow me to record videos (only time-lapse with intervals 13s between images).
Thank you.
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Thank you very much Charles D Anderson
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Dr. Martina Schrallhammer,
I have received an e -mail form you depending on a contribution to a Special issue at Diversity as Biodiversity of Ciliates and their Symbionts”.
I would like learn ıf thıs is really from you or a predatory one.
Thank you for your cooperation.
sırma çapar dinçer
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If you agree to pay the amount ...upload the manuscript through their web. Check the IF ...APF ...etc ..Or else Predatory...be alert.
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I found this ciliate in a sample of activated sludge.
Very similar to Thuricola (lorica; body size), but with big "leg".
What genus is it?
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Dear Katarzyna, cannot see good from the image.
Can be Cothurnia (more possible, or Ophrydium) but they are normally epibiontic or periphytic. Photoimage not enough. Make good figure. Configuration and proportions of lorica is very important. Leg can be contracted or streched. For good preparation should use Foissner dry method. For preidentification -
eg page 251 of
Foissner W., Berger H., Kohmann F. Taxonomische und ökologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems – Band II: Peritrichia, Heterotrichida, Odontostomatida. -Informationsberichte des Bayer. Landesamtes für Wasserwirtschaft. -1992. -5/92. -502 p.
Andrey
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Hi, I am looking for some information about Vorticella morphology. In some Vorticellas I found lot of granules I think it is a reserve granules but I am not sure. Some publications called they as " refractile reserve granules" - what does it mean? What does they large numer mean? Also why are they iridescent yellow sometimes?
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Kasia, they look like granules with stored substances, but what is inside? You should do specific staning to detect e.g. carbohydrates. These granules reflactile and therefore they are iridescent (especially when you observe moving Vorticella). Best, Ania
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We would like to perform experiments concerning virus infection (prevention) of mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. I am not very familiar with virology, so does anybody know a kind of "handicapped" virus, which can infect ciliated epithelium cells, but is not pathogenic?
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Hi Marianne, this is an interesting and simple virology experiment. Influenza virus attach to silialic acid molecules on epithelia cells of the respiratory tract, good news is they adapt well in mice showing good mucosal immunity. You can get the virus antigen from The Pirbright Institute UK. To demonstrate this, you can use flow cell to profile immunological markers that are indicative of exactly what you want. Please do not hesitate to let me know if you have any problems.
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One of the main calculation method for ciliates abundances is using Madoni(1984) sub-sample methodology.
However for ciliates is anybody using other methods and how, to calculate abundance in lake?
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Dear Serhat ,
first of all, you should specify what eco-group of ciliates you are interested in. I'm familiar with Paolo's papers and it seems that they are mainly about ciliates in rivers bottom. But methods for lakes are not differ much. Nevertheless I think that priority in sub-sampling is of Prof. Jakov Tseeb (my teacher!) who realized such approach in 30-th (1937) of the last century in the Crimea peninsular. For this field investigations he was put into prison for 3 years by soviets as a spy of Germany !!! as some salt lkes were closly near the miltary object. Detailed citation you can find in my book
Between publication in English you can see my authorized publications of Chapters of the book published long time ago in Russian in Kiev:
for benthos
For periphytos approach somewhat differ esp for the aquatic vegetation
As periphytic can be classified communities of ciliates on pebble and other macroobjects (for ciliates'' size!).
As well you should take into consideration verical distribution of ciliates
I'm not alone in this investigations and should note that existing a lot of publication on lakes (esp on protistoplankton-cilioplankton) that are cited in my modest papers as well...
Do not hesitate to contact me for further attempts...
Andrey
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I am trying to specifically kill ciliates in a community of cyanobacteria. Our growth medium is high pH and high alkalinity, and has to stay that way so the community doesn't change.
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500-1000 mg/L cycloheximide
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For my master thesis I need to analyse Illumina 18S rRNA sequencing data with regard to the composition of Ciliates (protozoa) in my samples. So the OTU´s that really drive my interest are only a very small proportion of all the OTU´s in my OTU table. The samples were taken from prefiltered seawater, but sometimes some metazoa got into several but not all samples and for example once or twice 1/3 of the total reads (sample depth) consists of one Taxa, which I will not take into account in the ordination techniques, because I only focus on ciliates.
When I use standardization techniques like rarefying or ANCOM or DESeq2 do I use it on the whole OTU table, or do i discard the taxa which I will not use for further analysis in advance?
I am looking forward for your answers!
Best wishes,
Anita
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Thank you very much, Anita,
I think you are in the perfect hands (of your director).
On the other hand, I am not able to help you with the molecular part (my maximum of molecular methods were FISH and CARD-FISH methods applied in my lab to study ciliate vacuole content). Other publications were made with my prokaryote-colleagues (again, limnology & microscopical methods from my part). Now, the student of mine will look for molecular characterization of anoxic ciliate (potential) cyanobacterial-symbionts, however, this part of her work will be managed in the lab of my colleague. I have not got the lab equipped for such methods, I will die in front of the microscope...
Since 2014 I has been analysing protargols from ~100 lakes in Finland and now they will try compare RNA data with those of mine. Just today I am sending the enhanced data set including biomasses. However, until now I do not know anything about the molecular results.
As you can see, I am not against such methods; on the other hand, I prefer to share my data with my colleagues specialised on molecular biology, even from other countries (I am of Czech origin, working in Mexico already for a quarter of century).
If you are interesting to continue exchanging information, I will be glad.
Best wishes from Mexico
P.S. Who is your supervisor? Somebody from Sabine or Ulrike group?
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I wish to remove bacteria from freshwater samples of monocultures of flagellates (Chrysomonad and Bodo) and ciliates (Colpoda, Cyclidium, Colpidium).
Could you recommend a paper that is commonly used for such techniques?
Thanks a lot.
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I have some samples (few cells of ciliates) are preserved in RNAlater. So is there any problem if I start my work by adding lysis buffer for RNA extraction in my preserved samples stored in RNAlater. Becuase my cells are very small and very few. If I remove RNA later completely then I can lose my samples. And what is the best way to remove RNAlater for ciliate RNA extraction?  
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Use RNAlater, this is a common procedure
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I am looking for a fairly easy method such as lower/raise pH or salinity. Any experiences ?
I know that solation of T. suecica cells is one method but this will take too long before a new clean culture is up and running.
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Thank you - yes, I ended up with a clean culture again.
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Hello Mam's/Sir's,
I want to analyse my ciliates data for ecological network modeling purpose, but i don't know how to make matrix formation using R.
Thanks.
Sincerely
Mamun
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Thanks, L. Varela.
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We (= Evolution Lab of Faculty of Science in Zagreb) have collected fresh samples of swamp water from bog in continental Croatia a few days ago in which we found a lot of Paramecium bursaria specimens. Since this ciliate species is very interesting for research and for teaching students on endosymbiosis, we are interested where to find information, published or unpublished protocol how to maintain acidic medium similar to that in bog in lab conditions (I assume it is by adding some swamp-similar buffer and it would be very nice to know its compounds). We have gotten info that P. bursaria is very in the long run, we need something better. Thank you for your time and answers in advance.
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Dear Josip, my experience with this species is connected with medium of cabbage solution. Should take a heard of somewhat decayed c. Couple g. (2-4) per l is enough. Should exp with proportion. Anyway this exp. is not of purely scientifically approach - just field experience. As well good light is necessary. All this is following by the very bad small!!! Try...
For genetically pure culture should call may by Foissner lab.
Andrey
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Dear brilliant minds...I am relatively new to molecular taxonomy of ciliates and was wondering where one can find details for determining new species or genera for ciliates (Peritrichia) using the 18S SSU gene?
Thank you very much
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Hey Gerhard,
A good place to start is to BLAST your 18S gene sequence against a known database (NCBI etc) and then make a phylogenetic tree (comparing a bunch of Petritrichia species 18S genes) to see closely related your sequence is to its closest relative.
I hope this helps.
Regards,
Nicole
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Some protocols?
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@Ali Mahmoudpour Thank you for the detail protocol.
Does the no of cells count in extraction and what should be the method to increase the count if it matters? 
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Dear all,
Please identify these algal taxa.
micro-graphs are at 1000X magnification.
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If your sample is the fresh water, maybe your first pic is A species from Crucigenia sp.
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Hi!
Is anyone aware of any attempt at separating ciliated from non ciliated cells by means of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) of live cells?
I would like to use genetically encoded biosensors selectively expressed at the cilium and purify cilium positive cells to perform functional assays with them.
Thanks!
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Thank you!
I will read the papers and let you know if I have further questions.
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In the deep Skagerrak I found several specimens of Nephtys hystricis at different stations with ciliates attached to its gills. Obviously only this species was suitable to host the ciliates. Other Nephtys-species and also other polychaetes were not "infected". I konw the paper by Alvarez-Campos et al. (2014) describing ciliate species on Syllidae. Maybe somebody knows about similar observation on Nephtyidae.
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probably entoprocts. Loxosomella varians is known to live on Nephtys hombergii.
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I think it's a Gonyaulax because of it's very angular shape and it's ornamented theca, but if someone can help me to identify this cell, I will thank you.
This cell has been found in a brackish and eutrophicated water.
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Hello Amandine,
I think judging by my personal experience that the last two pictures are also Scrippsiella trochoidea. Of course since this is a different water areas, and the fact that speaks of the existence of complex Scrippsiella, the most exact definition should probably be approached with a detailed morphological or genetic analysis.
Best wishes,
Dimitar
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I need to check presence/absence of chloroplast ribosomal Rpl23 protein in barley mutants.
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Hi Surender! I still don't find it but thank you anyway.
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I want to transport Ciliate samples which will take 4-5 days. I would like to ship these alive. 
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Thank you all for very helpful tips. Hope to ship these isolates in correct form now. 
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I am working on the evolution of protozoans in activated sludge and am trying to collate as much published and unpublished data on diversity in activated sludge from around the world. Any data sources or unusual references or links would be really helpful. Thanks
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Dear Nicholas!
Sorry, it took me a while, but I hope there is some usable information for you,
With kind regards,
Hubert Blatterer
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Hi, I am do phytoplankton taxonomy and I am debating whether the following is a Mallomonas sp. or a ciliate (or something else). Thanks for your suggestions
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Dear Jennifer,
this is absolutely sure Ciliophora. You are using not wright format for the photos. Better to use jpg. Sp, No 3 cannot download.How did you make this photos? This is the same cell or different? For me two different species. No 4 looks like Genus Cyclidium (may be glaucoma group). Oral membrane is enough transparent so should use phase contrast. If the specimens jumping, so not hesitation. Period between jumping is feeding! But jumping is not the only one important char. as Halteria or Urotricha can do, like a lot of others. Should inhibit by special liquid for precise investigation. Look my paper from 1979 with Boshko.
First two photos look like Cyclidium as well, but other species with small membrane (related view have some repr. of Uronema & Dexiotricha but diff oral structure). serious identification is possible only by silver (dry or wet) or protargor impregnation.
Andrey
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I have found this ciliate in hay infusion and do not know what it is. I expect it is quite common so I went through the pictures on Google and found some opaline ciliates as the most similar. But I really do not know. Does anyone know what it is? Sorry about the quality of the picture, it is taken by cell phone.  
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Dear Jan  and Gunther,
this is Stentor coeruleus, ciliate enough different in form, size and pigmentation. Species is  the very widespread and normally can be find in alfa-mesosaprobic conditions. It play extremely large role in freshwater ecosystems as leading ciliate in energy transformation in ciliocoenoses. For Stentor even devoted special monographs... This species is polyphagous.
Andrey
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The data is from RNAseq sequences of one ciliate species (unicellular protist). I used program getorf to do the translate. Getorf gave 6 result for each contig ( nucleotide sequence). How can I recognize which one is the correct one? Should I choose the longest one, or should I refer the blastX information? Any other suggestions are appreciated as well.
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@Mireya Plass: Thanks for the helpful answers.
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I need a method to measure the rate of photosynthesis (apart from DO method) in micoralgae, wherein my algae is in mixed culture of bacteria and ciliates. 
Also, how do I measure the health status of the algal cells (anything apart from fv/fm ratio calculation and microscopy).
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consult this
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It is look like a leaf under microscope, but it could be a plankton. Earlier I heard that it was a ciliate, but I didn't get this picture again in my samples. This too found in Bay of Bengal waters. Please help me to identify this specimen.
Thank you.
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looks in first instance like a scale from a butterfly or a moth.
Best wishes, René
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Is there any good resource of ciliates that talks about species specific feeding habits (eg feeding type, trophic role, clearance rate)?
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Dear Lennart,
may be i can help you. Cannot do now any complicated work because gathering with family for Suth-East Asia (Thailand, Indonesia, East Timor, Malaysia and after that into East Africa). This country science is over so may be will try smth other. It all cost 6 month period, but I will try to be in permanent contact with colleagues, except of climbing Cota Cinabalu etc. So, I'm attaching for you my database for ciliates. Please, do not distribute, as it will be for a patent attaining (still have no time to prepare). We are using it (one of a lot of databases) for calculating structural and functional parameters of communities. Open it like txt file. For help look attached file. Can send you program, but it needs experience to use. Moreover, the database for the Baltic Sea should be improved.
Previously we use some sub-program I wrote for the prim. pro. decomp. of benthos, and peryphiton but now V. Pliashechnik elaborated Excel program to do it.
Frankly,
Andrey
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Dear all,
I transformed the fresh water ciliate Tetrahymena termophila with GFP. The transformation was successful, as they conferred resistance to a selective antibiotic.
The expression is inducible with Cadmium chloride (at 1ug/ml). When I did fluorescence microscopy, I got no signal in living cells, but a visible signal in Glutaraldehyde fixed cells. I am now wondering why. Has someone experienced similar things? Or can someone explain why?
The signal in the fixed cells is relatively weak (1sec exposure time), I thought about increasing the Cadmium concentration. But I don't know if it actually would help something..
Thank you!
Cheers
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When aldehydes react with endogenous tisue amines, the products are strongly fluorescent in the GFP channel; glutaraldehyde is particularly bad for inducing strong autofluorescence.
This can be alleviated somewhat by fixing in paraformaldehyde, but  some autofluorescence will still be present. I would recommend taking this step first, then attempting to separate autofluorescence signals from any that your GFP may be producing, if indeed it is.
Best of luck
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Since the taxonomy of ciliates is fastly changing, is there any database
assembling the taxonomy of ciliates. I know that WORMS is pretty good but
is it trustworthy? And is there any other databases for marine species?
I am also interested in fresh and brackish water ciliates' taxonomy.
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Hi Lennart,
The authority on the ecology and taxonomy of free-living ciliates is Dr. Wilhelm Foissner from Salzburg University. In his many scientific papers and books you can find all relevant  information.
Cheers and good luck with your research!
Jeroen
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It was very abundant in hypersaline waters from South Spain (150g/l approximately); it is over 0.5mm long and of black colour. We wonder if it is a ciliate species...
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It is a characteristic for hypersaline waters ciliate Fabrea salina
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Does anyone know a function of thin thread connecting macronuclear nodules? I want to know it is a phenotype of presence/absence in a single species or a diagnostic character between species.
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Hi Jae-Ho Jung!
Good day!
I would be referring you to one of our experts in the field of protozoology.
you can email him concerning your question.
have a most pleasant week ahead!
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Zooplankton may have different types of epibionts, like diatoms, green algae, ciliates, bacteria, etc.
Many of these are free-living cells during the reproductive stage, but then attach to the host turning themselves into sessile individuals, attached by a mucilaginous stalk.
I can imagine the free-living cell simply encounters it's host via direct interception, then adheres to the carapace. But how is the in between mechanism? From first contact to final attachment? is the stalk formed immediately? or it is already developed and "waiting" for a trigger? If so, what is the "trigger" and what factors influence a successful attachment?
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no hay de que, do not mention it. Actually. I as involved for some time with primary fim formation in view that this is important in antifouling paint evaluation
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I am trying to prepare SEM from respiratory epithelial cells, to visualize cilia on the surface of the cells. I see cells and cilia, but everything is covered in a layer of 'mud', or 'webbing'. Does anyone know what could be the reason for that situation? I am a beginner in the area of SEM, so all suggestions are welcome!
Zuzanna
Procedure:
cells from nasal brushing washed & attached to collagen-coated cover glasses
Fixation: 4% glutaraldehyde in 0,1M cacodylic acid, 1hr @ RT, 1hr @ 4oC
Wash: 3x 20 min, 0,1M cacodylic acid
Dehydration: 10,30,50,70 % EtOH -2 x 10 min in each conc, ON in 70% EtOH; next day: 90%, 100% - 2x10 min in each conc.
Observation of the wet material (no drying). Tried CPD & HDMS but got  similar pictures - all cells were covered in something.
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Do not use ESEM! Not good for dry biological specimens. CPD is a must. Sputter coat and observe at high vacuum. 
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I expect the repeat to be the Oxytricha type [G4T4]n repeat motif, but am struggling to find a way to confirm this in the unknown ciliate.
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Helpful?
1. The development of telomerase inhibitors: the G-quartet approach
JL Mergny, P Mailliet, F Lavelle, JF Riou… - Anti-cancer drug …, 1999 - ingentaconnect.com
... This is a simple and rapid method for the identification of G-quartet ligands. ... Biochemical methods are also extremely useful to study these interactions. ... Nevertheless, because telomerase- positive tumor cells generally have short telomeres and divide more rapidly, they might be ...
2. A single telomerase RNA is sufficient for the synthesis of variable telomeric DNA repeats in ciliates of the genus Paramecium.
M McCormick-Graham, DP Romero - Molecular and cellular …, 1996 - Am Soc Microbiol ... Telomeric DNA consists of a variable number of tandemly arrayed simple repeats, with a characteristic compositional ... all other ciliate homologs at the template region would not be detected by this method. ... 0.5 ng) that included either G-43 or A-43 (see Materials and Methods). ...
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I would like to find a way to perform a yeast-two-hybrid screening with Paramecium cDNA. Thank you in advance for any help
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Please contact Dr. Nataraja Karaba @ University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore. They are working dedicatedly on plant hormone and Signalling aspects. Search Crop Physiology department here www.uasbangalore.edu.in. You can also mail Dr. Uday Kumar, one of the pioneer in this field to answer efficiently
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Microalgal culture experts
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Consider using ammonia to pH 10 to kill them
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There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and non-motile. But why are non-motile also called primary cilia?
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The original designation of Primary came from studies of vertebrate ciliated epithelia.  As the cells differentiate, they at first have a single, non-motile (sensory) cilium, as typical of most vertebrate cells.  They later dock hundreds of basal bodies to the apical membrane and assemble motile cilia.  The first, non-motile cilium was called a primary cilium.
Don't confuse this with the medical terminology related to the 'primary' cause of a disease, which names all diseases that result from defects in motile cilia as Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia.
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I am trying to image the chromosome ends of a ciliate using an oligonucleotide probe designed to hybridize with the 3'overhang.
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We have done FISH in Tetrahymena thermophila using telomeric oligos. See Loidl and Scherthan, 2004, attached. Let me know if you need a more detailed protocol.
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Mesodinium with apical spine.
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I used to culture Mesodinium pulex which had a tube-like process for feeding; however, M. pulex is an obligate heterotroph and doesn't retain chloroplasts like Myrionecta. Yours looks like Myrionecta, but I don't recall one with spines...was this found in marine or fresh water?
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I have search in all the literature about ciliate taxonomy and systematics that I have available and the only information I have found is that family Trichodinidae was first described by Claus in 1874.
Thanks!
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Claus introduced the family group name in 1868 in Grundzüge der Zoologie (p. 44), with the spelling Trichodina (same as the genus name). He used Vorticellina as a family name for Vorticella on the same page, so his intention was clear. In the second edition (1872: 135), he changed the spelling to Trichodinea and in the third edition (p. 179) he used the modern spelling. Under ICZN Article 11.7.1, it appears that Trichodinidae should be attributed to Claus, 1868.
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I am using the cell line mIMCD3 to study the influence of some proteins in ciliogenesis and from a while I've experienced a new problem. Cells are not ciliated in a homogeneous way; there are clusters of cells among the slide where I have normal cilia (with expected length) and then around these clusters I have cells unable to form cilia or they do form it much later (delayed).
Did any of you experienced this problem? I thawed different vials, that should be fine, but no better outcome. Also I did not change serums or media brand.
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Dear Cecilia, try 0.05% and 2 % for 24h
regards
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I'm planning an experiment where I want to investigate the dietary preferences of four different predatory protists (two sarcodines, two ciliates). I also want to do some controls where they have no food in order to see how long they can survive so that I can better understand their population dynamics.
I can see two potential ways of performing this experiment - one is two put predator and prey together and observe abundances of both for a week or two which, when compared to the controls, will allow me to indirectly see how much feeding is taking place. The other is to either watch the predators under the microscope while they feed or else put them in a high density of prey and then sample them after a set time to see the stomach contents.
In order to do any of these options I need the predators to be free of contaminants. Papers speak of 'washing' the protists but don't seem to give details of how this is done. They also speak of taking individual protists but again, don't give details of how they are able to select one protist at a time.
I'm new to this field and don't have any experience working with protists so these may be very basic skills that every microbiologist knows, but is there anyone who can tell me how to wash protists and how you go about dealing with them on an individual basis?
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It highly depends on what organisms you are using for the experiments and what measurements you want to make. For ciliates that feed primarily on phytoplankton, you don't have to worry too much about bacterial contamination. To "wash" the ciliates you can use a fine pipette to do successive transferal of the ciliates between "clean" water until you get rid of the background prey. Beware that ciliates are very delicate organisms and need to be handled with care.
If your goal is to get ingestion rate, a week-long incubation is too long because the protists will multiply many times (or die) during the incubation and you will end up with questionable per individual ingestion rate, unless you are dealing with very slow-grow ciliates. 
If your goal is to observe the feeding behavior, you will need a high quality video-microscope. Beware that many ciliates swim and eat at the same time, so you will have a hard time keeping the organisms in the field-of-view, unless you are dealing with attached ciliates.
Your last option is in essential the fluorescent-labelled-prey technique. You will have to follow the 'filling' of food vacuoles over a very short time to get the ingestion rate. Check out papers by Sherr & Sherr, who pioneered the technique.
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I tried to predict some 18S rRNA structure of ciliate following recent publications. Especially for the variable region 2 and 4 of 18S rRNA. However, I couldn't get the same with the published results. Depending on the length of input sequence, the results were highly variable from the mfold and RNAstructure. 
Could you inform me of a more detailed guide or manual to predict the structure? For example, how to prepare the input seq. The input seq should have stem region in begining of 5' and ending of 3' as a pair?
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Hi, I used RNA folder (http://mfold.rna.albany.edu/?q=mfold/rna-folding-form) and RNA viz program to finish this kind of secondary structure. Some  constraint information like (P 1 0 15
F 16 47 2
) is needed to fold the sequence to follow the structure in the Van de Peer 's 2000 model. Here "P 1 0 15" means to force bases 1 to 16 to be single stranded, "F 16 47 2" means to force base 16 and 47, 17 and 46 to be base pairs. 
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I found this ciliated protozoa from a sample in coastal water. It looks like genus Dysteria, but there are difference in cell form and cilia. Can anyone identify this protozoa?
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My pleasure~
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This protozoa is fast moving probably some ciliate.
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Coleps, I think.