Science topic

Chronic Disease - Science topic

Chronic Disease are diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
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For example, I want to know how baseline characteristics of patients (age, BMI...) and the confounding factors (smoking, diabetes or other chronic diseases) affect the serum vitamin D value. Which regression model should I use?
I use SPSS and R for analyzing the data
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Multi-variate regression analysis, you should run a group of independent variables analysis with dependent variable to consider confounding factors for associations.
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Dear community of researchers,
I am currently working on a small research project that will explore community- and patient-led strategies for increasing referral of diabetes and hypertension and raising awareness of these two diseases in Mozambique, a highly resource-constrained country.
I would like to ask:
- does anyone have knowledge on patient-led referral strategies and advocacy activities? If so, could you please share any relevant links and/or are you aware of any recommendations on this from international health organisations?
- do you believe that involving patients in such activities would be ethically appropriate? Why/ why not?
Thank you in advance for any replies.
Regards,
Chiara
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Thank you very much Jehan for sharing your perspective, that is very helpful.
To be more clear, with "referral" I referred to the identification by T2D patients of individuals with risk factors for T2D, such as being overweight and having excessive thirst or urination, and their referral to healthcare professionals.
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Is it medically possible to have a single treatment for all diseases? One way to proceed about it is anti-aging. Aging is a process of accumulation of impairments of aging throughout life and ongoing damage of aging. If we can nullify it, our body intrinsic ability to heal would tale over, and provide a healthier system.
Kindly answer to this question with best of your knowledge. For the ongoing covid pandemic and upcoming chronic disease epidemic, we can provide a better treatment if this method works.
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Also check please the following useful RG link:
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Dear Drs,
What are the most common urine and blood tests required for diseases diagnostics and before drug dosing prescriptions?
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Many anti epileptic drugs (AED) are minimally or not bound to serum proteins, are primarily renally cleared or metabolized by non-CYP450 isoenzymes, and/or have less potential to induce/inhibit various hepatic enzyme systems.
Basically renal function test, creatinine clearance, liver function tests should be done so that we can know the dosing and possible pharmacokinetics of the drugs.
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Stress, diabetes, hypertension, depression, and other chronic illnesses.
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Where can I find alagebrium I want to use it in my research ?
And astaxanthin also and is it expensive?
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Hello.
Take alagebrium for example, you can search it on google scholar (or others) and get some articles about it. I picked up one as below.
Am J Transl Res. 2019; 11(3): 1569–1580.; PMCID: PMC6456531
In this article, they mentioned that "......AGEs inhibitor ALT-711 (20 μg/mL; MedChemExpress, China) was added......". So you can turn to "MedChemExpress" to see if the price and distance are ideal or not. If not, turn to other papers.
It has to be mentioned that, you can go to https://scifinder.cas.org/scifinder. Using substance identifier will easily lead you to what you want, though I had not bought through this way.
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The metabolic syndrome is characterized by dyslipidemia and hypertension in obese individuals. Lipoprotein subfractionation of plasma from obese individuals indicate the presence of large very low density lipoprotein, small dense low density lipoprotein and decreased high density lipoprotein. Other defects in obesity and Alzheimer’s disease may be linked to specific lipid species. In obesity and Alzheimer’s disease toxic ceramides are found in these chronic diseases and linked to inflammation, insulin resistance and amyloidogenesis. The search for lipids associated with longevity has accelerated to extend lifespan in the developing and developed world and specific lipids by LIPIDOMICS in the plasma need to be identified to determine the lipids involved in cell signalling associated with healthy aging.
RELEVANT REFERENCES:
1. Victor Bustos and Linda Partridge. Good ol’ fat: links between lipid signaling and longevity. Trends Biochem Sci. 2017 Oct; 42(10): 812–823.
2. Duffy J., Mutlu A.S., Wang M.C. (2017) Lipid Metabolism, Lipid Signalling and Longevity. In: Olsen A., Gill M. (eds) Ageing: Lessons from C. elegans. Healthy Ageing and Longevity. Springer, Cham.
3. Constantinou, J.K., Southam, A.D., Kvist, J. et al. Characterisation of the dynamic nature of lipids throughout the lifespan of genetically identical female and male Daphnia magna. Sci Rep 10, 5576 (2020).
4. Pradas et al. Exceptional human longevity is associated with a specific plasma phenotype of ether lipids. Redox Biology. Volume 21, February 2019, 101127
5. Lim WLF, Huynh K, Chatterjee P, et al. Relationships Between Plasma Lipids Species, Gender, Risk Factors, and Alzheimer's Disease [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 26]. J Alzheimers Dis. 2020;10.3233/JAD-191304. doi:10.3233/JAD-191304.
6. W. L.Florence Lim, I.J. Martins, R.N.Martins. The involvement of lipids in Alzheimer's disease. J Genet Genomics. 2014; 41(5):261-74.
7. Martins IJ, Creegan R, Lim WLF and Martins RN. (2013). Molecular insights into appetite control and neuroendocrine disease as risk factors for chronic diseases in Western countries. Special Issue. Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Chronic Diseases and Possible Interventions. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases. 3;11-33.
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Here are some papers:
Our comparative genetic study in humans and C. elegans suggests lipid/lipoprotein metab is a major risk for AD:
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As medical advances are made in the care of patients with chronic diseases including those with (ESRD), patients are not only experiencing increasing life expectancy but also bearing the burden of illness and treatment methods for a long duration of time. Therefore, it is important for health care providers to pay more attention to their individual patient's perceptions of their life satisfaction, health, fitness, and well-being. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL includes an evaluation of the patient's level of satisfaction with treatment, outcome, and health status, also taking into account their perspective on future prospects. How we can measurably improve health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients?
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Not only taking care of their patients in the purely biomedical aspects, but also in the Psychosocial aspects, since, in effect, patients who undergo hemodialysis present a multitude of problems of this type, with sexual dysfunctions as well, serious depression with direct suicidal tendencies -autolysis- or "allowing oneself to die" due to non-compliance with the prescriptions and lack of therapeutic adherence (a clear example would be not following the prescribed diet, drinking more water than allowed, and a long etcetera); all this without forgetting the labor problems generated by dependence on the "machine", interpersonal problems due to the possible dysmorphophobia that the self-perception of their body scheme, coloration, etc. may generate. To be able to elaborate more on this, you can consult contributions in this regard, here in "RG", from my Research Team and mine ("EMOTIONAL COMPETENCES FOR CAREGIVERS"; "SELF-ESTEEM: EMERGING AND TRANSCENDENT PSYCHOSOCIAL VARIABLE"; "OPTIMISM INTELLIGENT, HUMOR AND RESILIENCE SUPPORTS OF SELF-ESTEEM, CUSHIONS OF DEPRESSION AND PAIN AND POTENTIALS OF HEALING AND COATING WITH STRESS AND ILLNESS ";" Health-Sick Personal Communication (PS-E) as the key to all health praxis and interaction ";" PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION IN CHRONIC KIDNEY INSUFFICIENCY "," PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND HEMODIALYSIS ";" SYMPOSIUM: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF CHRONIC PATHOLOGIES (THE EXPERIENCE OF CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE; INFANT; AIDS; SPINAL CORD INJURIES) " :"COMPETENCIAS EMOCIONALES PARA LOS CUIDADORES"; "LA AUTOESTIMA: VARIABLE PSICOSOCIAL EMERGENTE Y TRASCENDENTE"; "EL OPTIMISMO INTELIGENTE, EL HUMOR Y LA RESILIENCIA APOYOS DE LA AUTOESTIMA, AMORTIGUADORES DE LA DEPRESIÓN Y DEL DOLOR Y POTENCIADORES DE LA CURACIÓN Y DEL AFRONTAMIENTO AL ESTRÉS Y LA ENFERMEDAD";"La Comunicación Personal Sanitario- Enfermo (PS-E) como clave de toda la praxis e interacción sanitaria"; "INTERVENCIÓN PSICOLÓGICA EN LA INSUFICIENCIA RENAL CRÓNICA", "PSICOPATOLOGÍA Y HEMODIÁLISIS";"SIMPOSIO: ASPECTOS PSICOLÓGICOS Y PSICOSOCIALES DE LAS PATOLOGÍAS CRÓNICAS (LA VIVENCIA DEL ENFERMAR EN LAS CRONICOPATÍAS; EL TRASTORNO RENAL CRÓNICO; LA HOSPITALIZACIÓN INFANTIL; EL SIDA; LOS LESIONADOS DE MÉDULA ESPINAL)"
Thanks you
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Along several years specialist study the physical activity, bur why not everybody meke changes.
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Ricardo Muñíz I would advise a multidisciplinary approach, an investment in health literacy and educational interventions specified for each patient individually. An assessment of the social network of the patient is very important too. As Tuyen Van Duong specifies some will succeed, some will fail. And for those you can have a look what went wrong in order to try to reach results.
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Recently I have been able to discuss happiness in life with chronically ill patients (I am a research director at a private cancer foundation). We have realized that both good and bad things happen in life. What seems essential in life is how you react to these events. If events of life (good and bad) are received honestly accepting them as they emerge, then it is possible to experience deep happiness, peace of mind, and joy every day. Even if you are burdened by a chronical disesae.
In the event of difficulties we can learn from good and bad happenings. It seems paramount to find the keys of success in all events of life (good or bad). When good things happen in life, then there is a clear reason to be genuinely grateful and to feel genuine happiness.
We are learning step by step the secrets of a good life by accepting the things that happen to us.
Let’s think about this simple but important thing leading to a happy life: self-acceptance.
I am grateful for any comments and suggestions from you.
Christer Sundqvist
Petrafoundation
Finland
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I agree, self acceptance is essential to happiness. It leads to contentment and the ability to be free to be ones self with less regrets.
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I am finding COVID19 Patient's Hospitalization Dataset where the data has Patients Symptoms, Chronic Diseases and Death or survive .
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I'm trying to conduct a research from this field. There's someone to help me?
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I have a special issue entitled "Deep Learning for Chronic Disease Diagnosis, Prediction, Monitoring, and Treatment."
The issue has the following link:
You are welcome to submit your research papers in this issue. Please note that the Diagnostics
Journal has 3.110 impact factor.
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Special Issue "Advances in Deep Learning Ⅱ"
Print Special Issue Flyer
Special Issue Editors
Special Issue Information
Keywords
Published Papers
A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Computing and Artificial Intelligence".
Regards,
Shafagat
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Now-a-days, food safety is a major concern to the consumers. The consumers are interested to buy safe food to enjoy a healthy life. However, in the recent years, the concept of organic food is introduced. It is well known that for the production of organic food all type of chemicals are strictly prohibited. Therefore, it is a little bit difficult to produce organic food. Could you please clarify that what are the major differences of safe food and organic food? Do you agree that the consumption of safe food is enough to ensure a sound and healthy life?
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Fully agree with dr. Salman Ajlan 🌹
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I am looking for a valid and reliable way to measure the medication/drug use, adherence and interactions to evaluate the efficiency of an intervention to reduce inappropriate polypharmacy. Any ideas or experiences with self-assessment questionnaires that are suitable for (older) patients with chronic diseases?
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We can measure medication use by direct and indirect methods involve patient questionnaires, patient self reports, pill counts, rates of prescription refills, assessment of patient's clinical response, electronic medication monitors, measurement of physiologic markers, or patient diaries.
We can also measure adherence by In some instances, providers might wish to measure adherence directly by measuring the concentration of drug levels in the blood. More commonly used, however, are indirect measures of adherence which include patient questionnaires, pill counts, refill rates, and clinical response.
Drug interaction can be identified by software drug interaction checker(Medscape).
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I am checking the barriers and facilitators to retention in care for chronic disease. While doing the literature review I found some studies used grounded theory while some used phenomenology.
Which is more appropriate in my research question?
Any suggestions would be much appreciated.
Thank you and warmest regards
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It depends totally on your research questions. I would suggest you to read on both of these methods to know which one is more suitable for your research.
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With coronavirus cases increasing every day, countries are installing various methods to curtail the effect of the virus spread. Disinfection is considered as one of the ways to keep the virus in check. Countries including Turkey, Thailand, China, Vietnam and even some parts of India have installed disinfection tunnels with the aim of keeping the virus away. Please put your views on the below questions.
1. Is it safe?
2. Is it Effective?
3. Is there any long term hazard of disinfection spray like invitation to chronic disease?
4. is it safe for skin and eyes?
5. How poor designs of tunnels in India is making it worst?
your answers and thoughts will help.
please spread awareness and block opportunistic thoughts in these critical times..
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Thank you Rocio Campos-Vega Ji,
I will go through it.
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StayHome is the advice that various agencies offer to tackle a Coronavirus infection, which will increase the degree of inactivity in individuals.
  1. What is the best methode to face the sedentarity behavior in this moment?
  2. How can people with chronic diseases cope with inactivity at home?
Farid.
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Hi Dear Farid Mouissi,
The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak caused changes in the lives of typically developing individuals, as well as some changes in daily routines among children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and their families. According to parents, children with ASD exhibit sedentary behavior such as constant watching television at home, using tablets, sleepiness and desire to lie down. Physical activity examples suggested by WHO or scientific studies which can be done during the COVID-19 outbreak, can be compiled and shared with parents. Before this, parents should be educated on the duration, severity and mediation of physical activity.
Please read these articles.
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Using an online health care system can improve the treatment plan for many diseases such as chronic diseases.
Trust factors for these systems can be compromised such as privacy.
What are the most important factors to gain trust in the oniline healthcare system for chronic diseases?
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no from my point of view
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Can you suggest a good source of data on the prevalence of the chronic disease in India?
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see GBD Lancet papers on my RG site plus the following link:
Epi Visualization | Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
These give prevalence of many conditions by country and time.
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RELEVANT REFERENCES:
1. Indian Spices and Biotherapeutics in Health and Chronic Disease. Health, 10, 374-380.
2. Indian Spices and Insulin Therapy in Diabetes and Neurodegenerative Diseases. J Diab Clin Stud. 2018; Volume 1(1).
3. Indian spices and Caffeine treatment for Obesity and Cardiovascular disease. Ann Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2018; 2: 010-014.
4. Indian Spices and Unhealthy Diets interfere with Drug Therapy in Diabetes and Neurodegenerative Diseases. NAPDD 002 2018; 3(4):555616.
5. Insulin Therapy and Autoimmune Disease with Relevance to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. An Update. IntechOpen. October, 2018.
6. Simplicity in complexity: Ian James Martins’ research on insulin therapy and autoimmune disease with a special focus on NAFLD. The Scientific News, Advances in Treating Diseases. November Edition, 2018; REPORTED BY Annie B. Coulter. RECEIVED BY WORLDWIDE AUDIENCE: 84,287,977, 2019.
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For many, maintaining high exogenous insulin levels in the diabetic state is crucial to maintaining the diabetic state.
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In planning of treatment for depression, we have to set SMART short term and long term goals. Determining the natural course of depression is crucial in setting these goals. So, do you think MDD is a chronic disease or not?
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You can reach an article that I think can be a good source for your question from the link below.
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Newbie researcher with a looming research-induced panic attack - I'm in need of some guidance.
My research project is focusing on how social interaction influence the self-management of chronic disease by baby boomers.
I would like to do a mixed methods study with a case study.
Could anyone suggest any robust ways to flesh out this methodology?
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It sounds like you want to do either qualitative interviews or surveys with three different sets of men. For surveys, the biggest limitation you are likely to face is sample size, since you might need at least 100 participants in each subsample in order to do effective sample comparisons. For qualitative interviews, you might need only 10 or so per subsample, and the trade-off would be aiming for detailed responses on a limited number of topic, rather than coverage of a wider range of variables.
One substantive issue is that might be hard to guarantee that your participants have regular, interacting groups that influence them. Instead, you might expand your interests to "sources of information," with a particular focus on that particular source, when it is available.
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As nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic understanding is increasing should resources still be spent on developing population-wide recommendations for longevity, prevention of chronic disease and treatment of chronic disease?
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In short, yes. Vaguely, there has to be a baseline set of recommendations; a starting point if you like. This is to be tailored downstream, on a personalised fashion, to meet individual needs that derive from interindividual genetic variations. By default, treating an individual entails tailoring general recommendations to meet their needs, and for example consider an acute scenario of an ICU patient receiving TPN. Bearing in mind that the practice of registered practitioners is not only evidence-based, but also governed by professional codes of conduct and national recommendations (e.g. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in the UK), I believe that the real question is how much value does nutrigenomic and nutrigenetic information really add in everyday practice.
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Sleep is biological function, its repetitive routine of day and night, its time of sleeping, quality of sleeping, ageing and chronic diseases like depression affect more of that, how can we manage insomnia or sleep disorder with physiological or pharmacological manners, this is very important issue in the world, reviews and articles related to general physiology and its control,
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There are tons of research papers, reviews, and books available online as well in pubmed.
You can also refer my book as well:
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Is cure of cystic fibrosis near in sight?
Genetic disease like Cystic fibrosis Cause a lot of young age  deaths
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For poor patients
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Cheap drugs or expensive
I feel the drug content matter more.
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Longevity and ageing is new era for study, so these are interchangeable, what are major differences between these, how can we live remaining life with safe and free from chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, parkinson and Alzehmier disease, so give perfect opinions in these cases.
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Longetivity is about time : the number of years we live. Aging is more about physiology : how our body is getting old.
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Is knowledge of the interaction between drugs necessary for patients with chronic diseases ?
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Yes
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i think the methods used to detect the septicemia and bacteriemia is critical and need a professional Technic . isn't it?
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The yield of the cultures with blood or plasma is better than with serum. The same applies to molecular diagnostics with better yield from plasma as compared to serum. The yield is poor with serum.
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I am trying to develop a study abroad class in Havana, Cuba, for my undergraduate Exercise Science & Wellness students. I think it would be a great way to expose them to a very different way of assessing and training athletes, general population and people with chronic disease. Does anybody know who might be willing to host a 2-week long course of about 8-12 students?
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How would you like to go about this? I am interested.
What exactly do you want them to learn?
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Assessment of Health- related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important measure of the individual well being especially those with chronic diseases like thalassemia. However, there few studies about the HRQoL of pediatric patients with non transfusion dependent thalassemia, specifically those with hemoglobin H disease.
I would be grateful if you can share with me such studies or references.
Thanks
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Thank you very much. Both are helpful, but the Thai study included good number of patients
Regards
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Dear all,
I need copy of Arabic version of MMAS-8. thanks in advance
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Dear Kannan,
You can find the Arabic version of Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) on the last page of the following publication:
College of Pharmacy Fourth Year. Clinical Pharmacy 2016-17: Patient adherence: http://copharm.uobaghdad.edu.iq/uploads/2017/lectuer/clinical%20pharmacy%20!/dheya/lecture-9-adherence.pdf
Or you contact the first author of the following study (you can see the mailing address on the first page of the paper). A validated Arabic translated version of MMAS-8 was used in this study:
Khayyat SM, Khayyat SM, Hyat Alhazmi RS, Mohamed MM, Abdul Hadi M. Predictors of Medication Adherence and Blood Pressure Control among Saudi Hypertensive Patients Attending Primary Care Clinics: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS One 2017;12(1):e0171255. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0171255&type=printable
Best wishes from Germany,
Martin
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I recently completed a scoping review of interventions for community-dwelling persons living with dementia and would be glad to share these results with your team and connect further.
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I would like to get information about the process and the outcome because it is from issues that I am interested in demented illness care or elderly care. good work...
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I am preparing my thesis on the knowledge gap in primary care in the the diagnosis and treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome as a chronic disease. I intend to provide an educational intervention to primary care practitioners and need a tool to determine if the intervention was effective.
Thank you
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Hello Jeanne,
I Think it will be easier and faster for you to search for similar studies then contact them directly.
After you get the instrument you may add some questions more relevant to your topic but another validation should be done. If the instrument language is different, so forward translation and back translation will be necessary. After that, semantic equivalence between the two versions should be assessed.
Pre-testing and re-testing of the questionnaire is needed to be done in an area and targeted group similar to your targeted group and area.
Statistical analysis should be performed to test the consistency and reliability.
Health education is flexible phrase, so it’s very very important to choose the most appropriate approaches and methods to deliver the messages effectively to your targeted group.
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e.g. I am collecting data from patients suffered from chronic diseases. The objectives are to estimate the prevalence, and to identify factors associated with the chronic disease.
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You can do prevalence with cases. As in many situations, retrospective case analysis is the only way to get prevalence. Things you have to check and report are: 1. your cases have to be consecutive, 2. your time slot need to be long (but not too long, e.g. more than 20yrs there can be major change of social policy and lifestyle and food environment) and representative , 3. your patients should be generalizable .
To identity factors, that's a completely different story. Sample size is crucial.
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I am writing my masters capstone paper on the effects of chronic disease/disability on adult learners' desire to engage in or persist in adult education experiences (distance and F2F programs). I hope to find reference to significant contributors or research related to this idea.
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As a PhD and having studied and worked in the field of sociology/education over a long period of time, as well as having chronic condition of T1 diabetes and related autoimmune conditions, surely the actual condition - which may or may not be perceived as a 'disability', makes a lot of difference. I have fought for much of my life to be 'able', yet this 'fight' has been, at times, made far more difficult because of this condition. At the same time, my various conditions have also given me the incentive to try harder, to achieve my academic ambitions, and most importantly, not let my chronic condition/disability, stop me from getting to where I want to be. Through recent online social networking, I have learnt that many others in my situation have also gone beyond the norm, to achieve beyond what might be expected as a way of overcoming the disabling affects of such conditions. There are many social networking sites that would be a good source of data. Good luck with your study!
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I am looking for supporting articles for a statement diet vs exercise what should be started first? should it be started together?
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First exercise then diet control
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As this is the era of new emerging technological mobile applications and/or softwares but much of the peoples do not know these and working of these, so it is better time to apply latest information for better control of obesity and diabetes. Many companies are building new artificial intelligence for detecting obesity, diabetes and hypertension, so for tackling these chronic diseases, we have to be ready for futuristic thinking for diagnosis, management and treatment of all these diseases. Thanks all for sharing and participating in questions and answers. it is not for me but for all humanity to save their lives.
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Maybe the following papers will help you:
1. Maali Said Mohammed, Sandra Sendra, Jaime Lloret, and Ignacio Bosch, “Systems and WBANs for Controlling Obesity,” Journal of Healthcare Engineering, vol. 2018, Article ID 1564748, 21 pages, 2018. doi:10.1155/2018/1564748
2. Medicine » Engineering Technology in Medicine » "Mobile Health Technologies - Theories and Applications", book edited by Wilfred Bonney, ISBN 978-953-51-2635-5, Print ISBN 978-953-51-2634-8, Published: August 31, 2016 under CC BY 3.0 license. © The Author(s).
3. Ajay VS, Prabhakaran D. The Scope of Cell Phones in Diabetes Management in Developing Country Health Care Settings. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 2011;5(3):778-783.
4. Ventola CL. Mobile Devices and Apps for Health Care Professionals: Uses and Benefits. Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2014;39(5):356-364.
5. Nundy S, Dick JJ, Chou C-H, Nocon RS, Chin MH, Peek ME. Mobile Phone Diabetes Project Led To Improved Glycemic Control And Net Savings For Chicago Plan Participants. Health affairs (Project Hope). 2014;33(2):265-272. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2013.0589.
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Hi,
I am looking at a longitudinal study of two ethnic populations. they were first seen/recruited at time T1. The total number of participants was 30k. out of these 15k were then followed up at T2. however this T2 is not same for all participants, like some participants were seen after 5 years, some after 6, some after 7 and so on. My aim is to look at the progression of chronic disease in these two populations and compare the results. I want to conduct survival anaylsis but because of the variable follow-up time I don't know how to proceed.
Can you please help me understand how to apply the tools for survival analysis and cox regression in this case?/
Kind regards
Saima
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you may not need survival analysis if you can score disease severity.
A very simple initial model would be to assume the chronic disease severity score , (including death as highest score) increases( or decreases) with time.
then a simple regression (initially assume linear) of disease score on time and a binary (0-1) variable for ethnicity would estimate difference in rate of progession between ethnic groups.
eg Disease score = beta0 + beta1 x ethnicity (1/0) + beta2 x time of follow up.
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Iam searching about data-set irises images of any chronic diseased persons to use it in the iridology field ,,any one can help me??
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study shows that their is no correlation of Iris abnormal pattern consistency with cancer disease. ref(http://edzardernst.com/2013/06/iridology-if-evidence-is-systematically-ignored-lives-are-put-at-risk/ )
you can get data-sets from the authors of already published paper.
one is in german
Recently did not find anyone working on this domain.
Best way to get related datasets is to initially find some survey papers related to that their might be links to related datasets
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Hi. I am unable to find an English copy of the “German
health and illness related control beliefs questionnaire". Could someone please suggest where to find it. Also, I am administering the questionnaire to chronic disease patients so to determine their health control orientation, would you suggest that I use “German
health and illness related control beliefs questionnaire", or The Multidimensional HLOC Scale? Thank you
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hank you MohammadTfor that
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Dear dentists,
Does clenching jaw associated with age, face exercise with open mouth, using heavy shaver, psychological state? which jaw is more affected right or left?
What is the treatment suggested? you may also suggest physical state of food, certain foods that may help, messaging, cold or hot pads...etc
Best regards
Aly
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Dear Aly,
Thanks for your feedback. It's glad to hear that can help you. And can help the others. However, you are from the exercises. It's easier to get relieved them from stress or liver toxins..
Frieda
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Sugar and/or fructose is very commonly found in drinks and other beverages, which is utilized from much of the populations in the world, so what are its beneficial and what should be done for its guidance to stop different chronic diseases like diabetes.
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Dear Abdul, 
I hope you find these research materials useful.
James
References:
Lustig, R.H., Schmidt, L.A. & Brindis, C.D. (2012). The toxic truth about sugar. Nature, 482, 27-29. http://www.environmentportal.in/files/file/sugar.pdf
Ifland, et al (2009). Refined food addiction: A classic substance use disorder. Medical Hypotheses.72, 518–526. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wendell_Taylor/publication/24021108_Refined_food_addiction_A_classic_substance_use_disorder/links/550b6ea00cf265693cef7a9c.pdf
Avena et al (2008). Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 32(1), 20–39. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2235907/?&sa=U&ei=9ickVPqqEMi_ygPm14KoAw&ved=0CEUQFjAI&usg=AFQjCNErU766kM80sBTkc55HfZ9O-jNo9Q
Simopoulos, A.P., Bourne, P.G. & Faergeman, O. (2013). Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People. Nutrients, 5(2), 411-423. http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/2/411/htm
Gearhardt, et al (2009). Food Addiction An Examination of the Diagnostic Criteria for Dependence. Journal of Addiction Medicine. 3(1), 1-7.
Lustig, R.H. (2013). Fructose: It’s “Alcohol Without the Buzz.” Advances in Nutrition. 4, 226–235. http://advances.nutrition.org/content/4/2/226.full.pdf+html
Tappy, L. (2012). Q&A: 'Toxic' effects of sugar: should we be afraid of fructose? BMC Biology.10(42), 1-7. https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1741-7007-10-42?site=bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com
Thornley, S., McRobbie, H. & Jackson, G. (2010). The New Zealand sugar (fructose) fountain: time to turn the tide? The New Zealand Medical Journal. 123(1311). https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/read-the-journal/all-issues/2010-2019/2010/vol-123-no-1311/view-thornley
O’Callaghan, T. (2014). Sickly sweet: The dark side of our sugar hit. New Scientist. 221(2954). 34-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0262-4079(14)60237-2
Miller, R.P. (2010). Nutrition in Addiction Recovery. http://mhof.net/sites/default/files/Addiction%20and%20Recovery%20Report.pdf
Ahmed et al (2013). Sugar addiction: pushing the drug-sugar analogy to the limit. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care.16, 434–439. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Serge_Ahmed/publication/236967373_Sugar_addiction_Pushing_the_drug-sugar_analogy_to_the_limit/links/02e7e51dab5fbc2754000000.pdf
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I've been presented with a case of a woman who is chronically tired at sea level, where she lives, where she is in a state of not being able to walk for 5 min at a speed of 1 km/h. It is only when she is at altitude (>1500 m) that she regains strength and endurance within hours and is able to walk at a normal speed, with frequent breaks, due to a lack of endurance power, probably caused by being unwillingly sedentary at home. Regular hospital doctors and specialists haven't got any idea what it could be.She found out by herself that the use of an altitude tent a couple of hours per day relieves inablity to be active to some extent.
It seems as it also genetic, as the children of her sister have the same symptoms.
What can cause this disease? Is there a name for it? It seems to me that an increase in the Hypoxible Inducable Factor seems to have a positive effect on her.
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Just to be clear, Andrew, not my observations, credits to Albert ;-)
It is interesting that your patient does not require full acclimatization to hypoxia to benefit from the hypoxic exposure. As Prof Zubieta-Calleja already highlighted, hypoxia-induced stimulation of the cardiorespiratory centers in conjunction with elevated catecholamine levels might be involved in these observations. Does this patient react similarly to pharmacological stimulants of the adrenergic system? In other words, can she only function ‘normal’ again during temporary increments in adrenergic activity via hypoxic/pharmacological stimulation, whereas the endogenous adrenergic activity in normoxia alone is insufficient for normal functioning due to, for example, a downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors (or malfunctioning/desensitized adrenal glands?)? Along this line, should chronic hypoxic exposure be considered a contra-indication because of potential further desensitization to adrenergic signals associated with long-term 'living high'?
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The most common chronic diseases and causes of death of our current population (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, cancer) are usually explained by the longer lifetime, and that during the evolution human body was not shaped to live that long, and therefor the body naturally degrades by time. 
However, some found that hunther-gatherer tribes, and possibly our anchestors live as long as 70 years (Gurven & Kaplan, 2007). 
Thus, to which amount chronic diseases are caused by (1) 'time passing' and a body not designed to live that long or (2) the maladaptive features of our lifestyle?
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One of the secrets of the Qur'an is
the cosmic references in the Holy Quran and the significance of its scientific significance 
by Dr. Zaghloul Najjar
 
God, who created you from weakness and then made after weakness of power then made after the power of weakness and chivalry creates Maysa which is the Almighty * (Rom: 54)
This verse came at the end of the Surat Al-Rum, a series of Makiya and Ayatah Stone after the Basmalah, and was named by this name to start by predicting the victory of the Roman Persians before the occurrence of a number of years, and after they had defeated defeat in front of the Persian armies . this story represents an aspect of the miracles of the Quran known as the miracle of predictive. the main focus is going to Sura rum on a number of pillars of the Islamic faith, like every fence Meccan. 
begins with the words of our Lord Surah rum ( Blessed and exalted): 
pain * * Romans have been defeated in the lowest land , and they after their victorious * In a few years God has the command before and after, and on that day the believers will rejoice in the victory of God.
The recitation of the verses of this blessed surah (pain) was repeated at the beginning of the six chapters of the Holy Quran (Al Baqarah, Al Imran, Spider, Rum, Luqman, Sajdah ) And came once in the form (Almer) at the beginning of the Surat Al-Thunder, and the verses cut in general are considered the secrets of the Koran, which was entrusted by most interpreters to the knowledge of God (transcendence), and some tried to interpret them as we have presented Before in a number of previous articles.
The verses pointed to the defeat of the Roman in the lowest ground, the area of Wadi Wadi Araba Dead Sea and the Jordan Valley has proved scientific studies that it is the most land parts lower than the level of the sea, while at the same time the closest land to the land of Hijaz, (Minimum) bear the concerns: lower and closer The Holy Quran confirmed that the majority will prevail after this in a few years, and a few in Arabic between the three and nine, has already been achieved. The verses also confirmed that the command to God transcends before and after, and that victory in his hand is to whom he wills (and he is the most merciful), as confirmed by Farah Muslims that day for two reasons: first, the victory in the battle of Badr Ali major Quraish infidels and heathens, and the second: the victory of the Romans over the Persians, was Alepeshrian achieved by order of Allah (the Almighty).
And then follow the verses confirmed that the promise of God does not succeed, and the denial that most people are oblivious to the inevitability of the Hereafter and is not considered the creativity of the Creator in the human soul In the heavens and the earth and between them, as denounces their kufr meeting their Lord, and not to consider what happened to the nations of before them a penalty and discredit them by the revelations of Allah and his messengers. 
and verses continue to emphasize the fact that God Almighty begins creation , then bring him back, and all creation to him we return, and that criminals will grieve in the afterlife reach deeply saddened by the extent of despair, and that Their partners, who have joined them in the worship of God, will give up their disbelief and disbelieve in them For those who believe and do good deeds, they will be rewarded in Paradise, and those who disbelieve and deny the revelations of Allah and meet the Hereafter.
The verses enjoin the remembrance of Allah, His praise, and His praise in harmony with all that is in the heavens and the earth of the indescribable creation, in the evening and the morning, and in the evening and in the afternoon, at these specific times of special blessings says: Glory to God while Thompson and when you become * and his praise in the heavens and the earth , morning and evening , and while * is revealed. (Romans: 18.17). 
then Sura generous review a number of verses of God in the universe , which is witnessing a great and fluent ability And creativity of creation, and hit the people for example from themselves and ask them in the manner of inquiring question: Do you have your partners in the ownership of the money is not Do you spend something that you possess only with their permission? If you do not like this and do not do it, they are like you in humanity and bondage to God so how to associate with God (God) some of his creatures, but some made his creatures, where you make it in your hands then worship it without God or engage in worship God?
Show the verses to the owners of enlightened minds both of the right and wrong, but those who disbelieve follow their desires without realizing the consequences of their disbelief or shirk, and the knowledge of God (Almighty) their Odilhm, and guides astray God?. 
And order (Peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and after him every believer in his mission to establish his face to the true Islam, that is, accept it as a whole because it is the religion that is acceptable to our Lord (Blessed and Exalted) It is the religion of instinct that God (God) exalted the people on it, which is not to replace it, although most people do not know it for their ignorance, or to enlarge them, or For immersion in the sins of God. As 
well as the order of verses acting to God (Almighty) and piety, and ordered the establishment of prayer, and warns of falling into the trap Conception of God.
In reference to the nature of the human psyche, the verses in the Surah Al-Rum state that when people are harmed by evil, they seek refuge in God, seeking to reveal it. If Allaah responds to their supplication, a group of them will hasten to shirk it, so the end will be disbelief. ), And warns them of the verses of the evil of that consequence, asserting that God (Almighty) if people taste a blessing of joy to the extent of the rain, and if hit them severely because of the sins they have committed to the point of despair and we have forgotten that Allah ( the Almighty) is the one who simplifies the provision for whom he will. 
and order verses Baata with al - Qirbi and his right to the poor and the wayfarer, And forbids usury, and preaches the performance of Zakat, and emphasizes that God (transcendent) is the creative, the Razak, the living, the dead, and that those who worship the polytheists can not achieve any of that, So Allah is pleased with what they associate.
The verses refer to the appearance of corruption in land and sea, which gained the hands of people, asserting that God (Subhanah) will punish them for this: ... Some of those who have worked for them may return to them 
(Romans: 41) . 
and ordered the verses to walk on the ground to consider what happened to the nations entangling before, stressing the need to adhere to Islam by the great to come hereafter Vtsda every creature and then recompense all his work.
And remember the noble Koran that the discharge of the wind is a sign of the transcendence of the divine power required to thank the worshipers, and recall the punishment of the slanderers of the criminals of the former nations avenging them, confirming that the victory of the believers right to the Lord of the worlds in every time and place. How to be the clouds of the platoon, and the drop of water from them, Vstbhr slaves so that they were desperate, and similar to the revival of the dead revival of the earth after her death, asserting that God (Almighty) to all things can, and comparing the wind and promising wind between punishment flavescens. 
The verses are similar to the infidels and the reluctance of the infidels anus Sector to God 's message Conclusion The inability of both the dead and deaf listening especially if you are deaf foul play, and it says to address the seal of the prophets and messengers (peace be upon him and bless him and them all):
You for you hear the dead and pray if you hear the deaf Lua turned away * and what you are blind Pahad if you hear only perversion of understanding of Muslims believe in our revelations * (Roman: 53.52). 
And remember the verses of the fact that the people of God (Almighty ) created them of weakness, then make them strength after weakness, then made after strength weakness and gray hair so as not to be deceived by one of its youth and Aihzn Hepth and weakness, and knows that it is God in His creation. 
the verses confirm progress on the minimum And the sedition of the people, and the absence of the Hereafter, and forget them for the inevitability of their occurrence, and then surprise them on the Day of Resurrection.
The Qur'an concludes with a letter addressed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and after him to all the believers in his message, confirming the disbelief of those who lied to the Great Qur'an. kaafirs understanding did not know the truth, and find a way to him, and ordering the patient to disregard the right call, and safe to the promise of God, which is the reality of these infidels and infidels inevitably, and in the verses that says: 
I have hit people in This Quran is of all kinds, and if you bring them with a sign, they will say, Those who disbelieve, you are nothing but apostles. So Allah will follow the hearts of those who do not know. Count the right of God and Estkhvnk who Aaouknon * 
(Romans: 58 . 60).
This has already show us all of the pillars of faith, worship and summarize the cosmic signals that came in Surat Roman, I do not see a need to return here to dedicate this article to view the scientific implications of the verse (54) of this blessed Sura. 
Connotations scientific verse precious 
first: the Almighty as saying: God who created you from weakness ... *: 
God creates (Almighty) human embryo Ba_khasab selected sperm from hundreds of sperm selected by the wife of sperm as well as between the Billions of sperm pair to come into existence with specific qualities in the science of God, there is no soul but the Creator of God, and no soul to be the day of the Otherwise Aamh it is situated. 
(Narrated by six imams.) 
And of the same ... but it Saotaha Makedr (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim Imams).
* The sperm of the man is not more than five microns (005. mm) while the female sperm diameter reaches 200 microns (00,2 mm) and is there a weaker beginning? 
* The semen (0.2 mm) begins to split into a Morula with hundreds of cells. The tweet is formed, and a thin liquid is formed inside it, known as the germ, Blastula and begin to try and hung up the wall of the lining of the womb of the mother in the period from the sixth night to fourteen from the date of fertilization. 
* after Anzeralla in the lining of the uterus wall turns to theprocess of clot , which lasts from the fifteenth night to night , the twenty - fifth of the date fertilization, and the embryo varies the length of this period between (7 mm), (3. 
mm). * from the night of the twenty - sixth to second and Forty years of age of the fetus, the larvae are transformed into the embryo stage and are between 3,2 mm (13,00 mm) long.
* From the forty - third night to night , forty - ninth increases thesize of the fetus to the spread of the bone and the length ranges between (14 mm), (20 
mm). * Taxi and then bone meat (muscle and skin) During the eighth week (from the 50th to the 56th night of the fetus), the length of the fetus increases to 22 mm (31 mm).
New years
* From the beginning of the ninth week embryo (Embryo) begins to acquire a number of human features and moves to the fetus stage, which lasts until the end of pregnancy, and the maximum nine months Lunar (ie, 38 weeks 266 or night from the date of conception to the end of pregnancy), and least six months lunar (ie 26 weeks or 177 night from the date of conception). 
this period is characterized by the rapid growth of Hamil , especially after its second week 10, and the initiation of the process of consistency between the dimensions of the head, body, and limbs, the length increases from (32 mm) at the end of the embryo stage to about (500 mm) before labor , As Ranging from weight (8 g) to (g -.3500).
Medical studies indicate that 50% of pregnancies fail before the woman learns that she has been pregnant, and that 78% of the remaining cases are aborted, dropped, decomposed and absorbed within the uterus. (which is good for those who say): God brought you out of the bellies of your mothers you know something and you hearing and sight and hearts that you may give thanks * (bees: 78). 
He says (Izz man who said): 
O ye people, if you We have created you from dust, then from sperm, then from leech, then from the mold of a creature, and not to be created, to show you, and to tap into the wombs, to give birth to your name, and then we shall bring forth a child unto you, In you who respond to the very end of life of the agent knows after learned something .... * (Hajj: 5). 
He says ( the Almighty):
Is the one who created you from dust , then from the sperm and then from leech and then bring you a child and then to tell Ohdkm then you will be old men and you who dies before and attain the indefinite term and you understand 
*. (Ghafir: 67). 
It is well established scientifically that Ahumail not He can live outside the uterus only after the sixth month of lunar month, and therefore he said: "And the man showed his parents a tenderness that his mother had given him to hate, and put him in his womb, and carried him for thirty months ..." (Al-Ahqaf: 15). he ( the man who said Ezz): the parents are breastfeeding their children full Holin who wants to be breast ... * (Al - Baqarah: 233). 
and therefore determine the lactation period according to the time spent in the baby duck His mother, if he was born after six lunar months, must complete his breast-feeding period to two full years, although he was born for nine lunar months, enough to feed him twenty-one lunar months.
And the newborn is usually larger than the female, and the length of about (--50 cm) and weight about (3.5 kg) on average, and completion of the first year the length of the baby is about 35% Faisal to its length (70 cm), double weight three times Faisal to about ten kilograms. 
In most of the baby bones are soft so be unbreakable and deformation if not treated very carefully, and then begin gradually calcified even strengthen ; And the primary teeth (usually the lower front) grow at the seventh month of life, and after the completion of the first year, the number of teeth growing to about six.
The baby is born full but small to the size, and with attentive senses and the first hearing, sight, touch, and the ability to capture things, although delayed taste slightly The cerebral cortex is completed gradually, After eight weeks of birth, the newborn can see what is around him, distinguish between the sounds of different tones and the different smells, and gradually increase his abilities, and then the sense of vision becomes complete in his sixth month, around him in a month - seventh. 
in the period between his first and second (of the month I begin to walk and walk independently, and in the full two years he has reached the stage of speech with sentences A short understandable has been stamped.
The child gradually begins to realize his meaning and to collect the knowledge units and their means, then to learn the language, to develop the memory and the ability to express and to think and conclude, and then develop his motives and desires, and then his ethics and values until he enters the stage of adolescence and begins with Children are about 13 years of age and in girls between the ages of 8 and 11 years on average. The period of adolescence to the age of 20 continues when bone growth is complete and strengthens and increases its density. Muscle growth is increased, the complete cartilage, Vtngar dimensions and shapes, perceptions and concepts. 
Second , the Almighty as saying: ...
And then made after the weakness of strength ...: The adolescent phase is characterized by rapid physical growth, height and weight increases significantly by increasing the size of muscles in males, and increase the thickness of the fatty layer in females in general. , increase the secretion of hormones, physical strength and up to the highest level, although teenagers suffered from severe allergies, embarrassment, and the tendency to isolation from society, fear of personal criticism. 
this period was also characterized by The emergence of a number of special abilities that are employed in the attempt to achieve self-realization by a kind of intellectual independence until identity is formed, Mental and emotional development, thirst for the love of others, and the desire to gain their admiration.
The period of adolescence is the development of youth, the transition from childhood to manhood. Physical, mental and psychological abilities gradually increase to reach their peak at the age of 25. (a full manhood) and then curved body begins to deteriorate to enter into the role of adulthood and old age. and called the Koran manhood as the stage of attaining one 's most intense stage and says: 
... even if it reaches its peak reached forty years He said, "O Lord, I would like to thank you for your grace, which is bestowed on me and on my father, and that I do good to satisfy him and make good in my offspring. Of the Muslims * (Ahqaf: 15) Therefore, the Holy Quran to move from the stages of the fetus, and the baby, and the baby, and the weakness to the stages of youth and virility and the strength and intensity Our Lord says (Blessed and Exalted): God who created you from weakness and then made after weakness of strength .. (Rum: 54).
It is witnessing the power of God the Creator that he is alone and Ahpha, and her salary, and his knowledge organizer, wisdom and ability. 
Third , the Almighty said: Then , after strength , weakness and gray hair ...: 
After the arrival of human (25) to 45 years of age, physical growth stops, physical abilities gradually decrease until the age of sixty-five, and the acute decline of The age of sixty-five is called the age of senescence, a state of gradual deterioration in the structure of each neighborhood, including all its cells, tissues, organs Which weakened its efficiency and its ability to perform its functions at the rates it was doing in the youth and manhood stages.
This health deterioration is a type of programmed self-destruction (phenoptosis) in the genetic code of the living cell, and the imbalance begins to accumulate at the cell level to reflect on the tissues, organs and systems and begins to appear in various forms of Change in the composition of nucleic acids in which the genetic code is written to the head, wrinkles of the skin, and weakness of the senses.
It is known that the simplest change in the composition of nucleic acids is due to the inability of the cell to do its assigned role, retracting its effectiveness and showing the symptoms of different aging on it It is said that one of the reasons for this is the abundance of FreeRadicals in the body. The aging itself is not a satisfactory condition, but if it is accompanied by many diseases, it has been transformed into a senility that is cared for in a special branch of science known as Gerontology and in one of the specialties of medicine known as gerontology The symptoms of aging can not be stopped, nor disposed of, because they result from a condition The ability of the body's cells to divide at the age of two has been discovered, and the presence of two lateral capsules at the end of each particle of the chromosome bearing genes, and that these two layers decrease each length after each split process, if they reach a certain length The cell division process stops until it dies,
(1) Shaving hair head: and gray hair is the loss of color material in the cells Melonocytes (Melanocytes) deep in the hair follicle, and decrease the number of coloring cells by about 1% every year, and subject activity to the effect of a special hormone, and gradually the lack of secretion with age weakens the activity of hair coloring cells Viphed color gradually. it is 
also proven that the reasons for accelerating the emergence of gray hair repeated cases of panic, psychological crises and hardships experienced by the human , Because of these cases associated with the secretion of adrenaline, a deadly substance of coloring cells. Its density or hair loss due to the death of blood vessels and nerve yarn feeder follicle responsible for its production.
(2) Skin shrinkage and wrinkle: This occurs due to decreased activity of both sweat and fatty glands, which leads to thinness and dryness of the skin, and weakness of connective tissue with age, and may cover the skin a number of dark spots in the parts exposed to radiation The sun, and hair may appear in the places of the mustache and chin in some elderly women Many people who are over the age of sixty suffer from many skin problems such as fungal infections, infections, and extreme sensitivity to the sun, And some skin cancers (God saved them).
(3) Weakness of the senses: As man progresses in his age, his senses gradually weaken, such as hearing, sight, taste, smell, and touch. The heart of the mystical (peace be upon him) saying Sharif: Oh God Oafni in my body, O God in my ears, O God in the eyes of me, there is no god but you ... To compensate for the shortage. A number of their senses are used by the elderly in certain ways, such as headphones, glasses, lenses, etc., and they need increased lighting and are difficult to adapt to moving to dark places. To taste in the tongue and reduce their ability to enjoy the food.
(4) The weakness of the bones: The skeleton of the human being an important part of its biological composition, the successive stages of demolition and construction since its integration until the moment of death, and with aging, and increasing rates of demolition rates Construction The skeleton enters the stage of debility due to its depletion due to the depletion of calcium, thus increasing its fragility (Osteoporosis). It is easy to break any part of it while the fastening speed is slow. The bones of the hip, wrist and spine, and the fracture gets less traumatic, and the spinal vertebrae usually compress To shortness of stature, or back pain in the back due to muscle weakness and cartilage erosion, which causes severe pain, and leads to arthritis.
As a result of the lack of calcium in the blood, it causes an increase in the number of important hormones. secretion of a neighbor known as thyroid hormone (Para-Thormone) which works on bone necrosis, or the increase in the secretion or in the abuse of cortisone , which leads to the inhibition of the work of the cells of the bones Albanian. 
(5) muscle weakness: After the age of forty-five scientists observed a decrease in the mass of both muscle tissue, neuromuscular connections, and increased fat adipose tissue Fibril gradually with age, especially with the lack of exercise, and lack of movement.
(6) The weakness of both the heart and the circulatory system: As the age of some muscle cells of the heart begin to damage, and begins the fibrous tissue and fat accumulate on the walls of the internal blood vessels, and the heart muscles, and thus Heart rate decreases gradually in the blood pump, and the speed of contraction, and increase the rates of atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and may lead to all the blood clots that could lead to death.
(7) Gradual deterioration of the nervous system: The cells of the human body are renewed for several cycles throughout his life, except for nerve cells, which die if replaced by an alternative and therefore reduce their number constantly with age, especially after the forty-fifth memory And many senses, such as hearing and sight, and many skills such as the ability to hold things, and respond to stimuli, and may become old age with some forgetfulness, dementia, and amazement for both Place and time, and his personality may undergo something of a change with the accumulation of many materials between the cell The nerve fibers are known as SenilePlaques, which are common in the frontal area - the decision-making area of the brain. Therefore, the elderly may suffer from many diseases of aging such as Alzheimer's disease, Depression, obsession, and fear, and this may develop into something of mania, frenzy and insanity.
(8) Weakness of the respiratory system: As its efficiency decreases gradually over time, the elderly are usually infected with many diseases of the pneumonia, and the membrane peritoneal envelope, and inflammation of the airways, and the sensitivity of the parts related to them, and other respiratory diseases. 
(9) weakness of the digestive system: due to the decrease in thesecretion of both juices and enzymes to help digest the food in the process, the digestive system capabilities begin to decline with age, in addition to Poor teeth ability to bite If you have not fallen yet, the weakness of the stomach to digestion may lead to ulcers and bleeding I increase the suffering of constipation due to lack of physical activity.
(10) Weakness of the urinary system: Due to the gradual decrease in the secretion of many cellular enzymes in the kidney, it loses some of its units (Nephrons), which leads to the reduction of efficiency or failure in full, in the secretion of many hormones in females once entering into menopause, and the shortage of males in the progressive stages of aging to the weak activity of the reproductive system gradually until it stops with the passage of time. 
(11) weakened immune system: immune system weakens In the human body gradually increases with age, and therefore decreases the ability to resist diseases The inability of the immune system to distinguish the healthy body cells from invasive alien species, and begins to attack the body, which was originally designed to defend it infected with a series of diseases known as diseases of loss of immune discrimination, which results in the weakening of many of the cells and tissues and processes in the body with aging .
This weakness in all overlapping organs of the body with time , said ( the Almighty) ... and then after strength , weakness and gray hair creates what He wills He is the Knower of the Almighty (Romans: 54) 
and characterized the weakness of the Koran reconstruction and relapse vulnerability The first is the weakness of creation, settlement, adjustment, growth, initiation and development, that the last century of weakness in gray, although these are manifestations of human life, but that the description of the Holy Quran has such scientific accuracy and rational logical arrangement of what is witnessed this book immortal Rabbanit exclusive, and attest to the Prophet The ring that he received by the Prophethood and the message, and prayed to Allah and blessings upon our master Muhammad, and Ali And his companions and those who followed his guidance, and called by calling to the day of religion, and our last call that the praise of God the worlds.
 
 
 
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Im against it in 90% of the cases, many questions comes to my mind in their regards, of which, what are the sources of these protiens?, how safe are they?
Many people are replacing food by protuen shakes, and as we know as maximum our diet must be composed 25% of protiens, some are consuming 40% due to these shakes, I wonder the extant of damage there kidneys would suffer from and other organs.
Protien shakes or powders can be a complimentary for the diet of an athelete if taken in proper amounts after body composition analysis, and if theur source is safe and healthy, be it plants.
I need satisfying answers.
Regards
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Protein Supplementation and Athlete Performance - Global Food Forums
by JR Hoffman - ‎2016
linked here 2016 recommendations
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Anyone know of observational studies of vegetarian / vegan dialysis patients - albumin levels, other clinical outcomes?
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Thank you both! Those were helpful!
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Is there a research that explore the efficacy of step test and breathing exercise as part of cardiac rehab program?
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Many thanks
Would be able to send me some evidence or protocol that you might have used.
Hoping to get the expert knowledge and advise, if you are willing to !
Regards
Victor
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I am looking for a standardised way to describe neurological sequelae in children after e.g. encephalitis when performing a retrospective review of Medical files.
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I suggest our Handitest. You can try it in english and different langages on internet: to tape HANDITEST
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Our study explores the diversity of microorganisms thriving on common surfaces found in the gym setting. Our body's normal processes such as breathing is much different from when at rest as compared to when we are active in sports or exercise and we are wondering if this could play a part in perhaps increasing one's vulnerability to infections.
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Generally it is not expected of a healthy person to transmit any infection during exercise. The microorganisms on a healthy skin are normal flora and would usually not cause any infection just because a person is exercising. However, certain infectious organisms such as the Hepatitis B virus can be found in the sweat of an infected person, but would not likely be transmitted to another just by skin contact except when the skin is compromised. Air born diseases could easily be inhaled when one is exhausted and probably is breathing more rapidly. Physical exertion may comprise the immune system, yes but exercises are proven to improve general well-being and immunity.
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Especially topics related to lower income countries. 
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Non-communicable chronic diseases like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and mental health disorders have been widely researched and discussed but still you can contribute. Anyhow keeping your concerns, you can think for digitizing self monitoring for chronic hepatitis B or C, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease, and kidney stones, I think exploring them would lead to good contribution.
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I theorize that intraorally adherent dental probiotics may improve dental health and overall health by eliminating morning breath.
Plenty of evidence exists supporting some efficacy of dental probiotics to reduce periodontal inflammation -- which is one of the portals of the oral/systemic link.
However, none of the research has been done on a dental probiotic that can last 8 hours intraorally.
I have observational evidence of periodontal improvement with an adherent dental probiotic lozenge.
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I'll send you three bottles  -- how's that?
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whats the role of corticosteroids in management of ARDS ?
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i assume that this relates to the aspect that - in the absence of shunting - all blood goes through the lung circulation, and consequently, this may act as a 'filter'
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The study is on health-related quality of life of women living with HIV in an African setting Please assist with information on the recent valid instrument.
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You can use the Medical Outcome Study Short Form (MOSSF36) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF)
You can consult this link http://www.revistabiomedica.org/index.php/biomedica/article/view/422 is an experience in Colombia
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Could microbiota transplantation to elderly from young people reverse some of the system clocks?
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It may assist with metabolic issues so I guess that this will also need to be studied (although it is possible that this is already happening in laboratory settings using mouse models)-
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Research topic is "level of awareness about Rota-virus among mothers and care taker".
i need a questionnaire to check the awareness of rotavrius among mothers and care taker?
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Thank u for concerning ...
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Is There any large sample clinical studies on the effect of Mudras (a type of Yoga Therapy) in various diseases?
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Published articles may mean nothing if they are methodologically defective. In Medicine the greater credibility is based on systematic reviews of randomized and controlled clinical trials published in databases of high credibility by the scientific community. This is the only way we can get rid of pseudo-scientific interventions in vain of metaphysical influences.
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As a therapist at MMH and LCCH in Brisbane this is one of our major client populations. We would be very keen to stay apprised of how this project progresses.
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Dear Louise,
For you to think of the type of early intervention to give to your client, you need to understand the nature of his/her health problem. this will give you direction of what he/she need. For every health condition, the type of intervention needed differ based on the nature of the problem, his/her social economic status(SES) and severity of the condition. Some may requires food (that contain high balance diet or supplementary foods), to others health talk/awareness/sensitization is ok, provision of drugs, skills empowerment may also be ok to others.
You therefore need to understand your client very well interms  of his need, health condition, SES status, his environment among others before you start  coming up with an intervention that will solve or minimize his/her problems 
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I'm interested in learning about what happens to people when many of their physical capabilities and stamina, strength are compromised by severe illness, an accident, or mental illness.  What makes it possible for people to move on and become productive and involved in life .... reinvent themselves when they lose many capabilities that they used to have?
I'm looking for a few or several articles relevant to what I'm interested in and/or the names of several health care professionals or academics who are active in this are of research.  I would call it overcoming disability or rediscovering oneself and our skills in a area that can make use of our minds and intellectual skills.
Here's an essay I just wrote about what I have experienced over the last eleven years:
How I Learned To Forgive And Live Again Writing On Google Plus
By Frank Elliott  January 15, 2017
I've became more and more interested in the practice of forgiveness over the past eleven years because several severe chronic illnesses had combined their strengths to overwhelm my way of life.  I had been very strong,  a gifted person in terms of my eye-hand coordination and reflex speed and academic skills,  but became housebound with terrible burning pain.  It took constant work and cooperation with seven or eight medical specialists to even stabilize my conditions.  I was mad, felt persecuted, and each day of existence was like a long, drawn-out execution.  My intense anger and emotional outbursts about how life had so cursed me became the sum of my self-talk.  I realized after living this way for a couple of years that I would need to learn to forgive myself and my diseases to move on.   The last 9 years has been a story of learning to forgive and live peacefully.  Gradually, I picked up my old love of writing and my fury turned toward concentrating on describing the world around me and in me so that other people could learn to understand themselves too.  If I can learn to forgive and live in peace and reach out in love and kindness, so can many, many others.  To do that I had to let go of all the imagined wrongs and the hate, the fury.   The concentration on describing the world of science, nature, physics, astronomy, and developments in the fields of medicine and health care gave me an outlet to the world around me through Google Plus and let the love of others in. 
Gradually, but slowly at first, many people let me into their lives and I let them into mine.   People began to love what I wrote of and how I had become so upbeat and positive.  I began to love myself too because of them.  Gradually I had become a miraculous new being of light.  I would have never imagined that eleven years before.   I've had to slow down and stop my writing and sharing sometimes for many months at a time, but I always start up again when the storm of symptoms subsides or I find a way around it, over it, or under it.  I've given myself that permission to rest and attend to my needs and restore my health. 
I can accept my own weaknesses and frailty now.  I could never do that before.  Severe illness was able to give me many gifts and open many new doors because I learned to slow down, listen to my body, and get help as well as take actions designed to mend myself.   I don't know if I could have learned this or many other lessons that changed my life either if I had not learned to listen.   The truth is that I was forced into it. I was not about me but about a kind of grace.  Life has a kind of grace that invites us to come in and change and learn more deeply about who we are.  I've found we only need to pick up the call and listen.  To me this means heading down the long road of peace building within myself and with others too.
By Frank Elliott about my interest in the Google Plus social networking site.  My Google Plus commentary and posts can be found at this address: https://plus.google.com/108713721375842222592/posts
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The International Federation on Aging (IFG) has excellent resources to draw upon. You could also draw from such resources as the Canadian Frailty Network (CFN), and, the National Initiative on the Care of the Elderly (NICE - Canada). As a brief response - be careful not to classify all aged individuals as the same. Strategies used to address chronic health care conditions vary considerably (as people vary considerably). For example, some choose to maximize whatever health they have left using health promotion strategies. Others (a growing number in fact) pursue complementary and alternative medicine - CAM. This assumes of course that people can take options - not all can. Many, for example, simply cannot afford the strategy to which they wish to pursue. There may also be access issues beyond one's socioeconomic status. 
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Those who treat patients with glaucoma, know that many patients that are on glaucoma treatment, really don`t have glaucoma. As in many other chronic diseases, overdiagnosis and overtreatment are big problems in glaucoma. Nevertheless very few publications have addressed this issue.
Which strategies should be implemented to reduce the problem of overdiagnosis in glaucoma?
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Dear All,
Greetings ! 
Happy New Year !
Overdiagnosis in glaucoma is quite prevalent among the clinical community
Only definitive evidence of glaucoma diagnosis is characteristic optic neuropathy
on dilated 90D or 78D biomicroscopic examination 
The early clinical diagnosis depends much to the experience of clinician on optic nerve head evaluation and is subjective still 
IOP is not sensitive enough for the diagnosis of glaucoma unless is significantly high at multiple point in times 
The more objective OCT may underdiagnose or overdiagnose GON and may give non correlating findings many a times due to poor quality and centration of picture acquisition and due to biologically variable Optic disc morphology
Like to conclude saying that it is better to observe and not treat somebody who doesn't have glaucoma rather than overdiagnosing and treating them giving the burden of long terms medications with its attendant local and systemic side effects, monitory loss and above all psychological trauma of a blinding disease
Discussion with the "glaucoma suspects" and close observation is the key to prevent overdiagnosis and overtreatment, considering the risk factors of glaucoma in a particular suspect
A mutually correlating documented progression in clinical or test wise evaluation is the key to diagnosis and the starting point of treatment
As Doctors we should at least not harm somebody if not treating them 
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Since the dawn of IV TPN insulin has been added to the formula as needed to keep the blood glucose below 200 gm%.  This is renal threshold.  The aim is to prevent glucosuria and associated osmolar dehydration.  An objection was that 17% of the insulin adheres to the glass.  Since what adheres is immediate, this makes no difference re clinical efficacy.  An estimate of how much insulin should be added is 5 U regular insulin per glucose + in the urine.  i.e., 2 + glucosuria requires the addition of 10 more unites to the formula. 
Ignoring glucosuria will lead to hyperosmolar nonketoic dehydration and potentially death.  Prolonged hyperglycemia will predispose the patient to fungal infection.
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Try to maintain blood sugar level between 80 and 100mg%, preferably by delivery of the TPN under strict, conscientious control, using an IV pump and well trained Nursing Staff surveillance. Add insulin to the TPN judiciously as indicated to achieve the desired TPN goal while maintaining normal blood sugar range. This demands dedicated, educated, motivated effort. If unwilling to adhere to the principles of safe, effective TPN administration and management, don't expose the patient to danger by dabbling with it. The insulin sticking to the glass is irrelevant "ancient history"-- TPN is provided in plastic bags. Moreover, enough insulin is given to achieve the optimal blood sugar level and total TPN goal, no matter what minute quantity might be "lost" during infusion. Treat the patient!!! Don't forget that insulin requirements can change during the course of illness and dosage must be adjusted accordingly, e.g. ,should infection, pneumonia, other stressful events intercede. Monitor blood potassium and phosphorus levels as insulin dose is changed, as these cations move into the cells, as the sugar and insulin move increasingly into the cells from the vascular compartment. It's all about clinical chemistry and metabolism and responses to pathophysiology and/or therapeutic measures---and good old common sense and judgment, coupled with adequate education, training, and experience. 
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Is a high basal sympathetic nervous system activity a predictor of short life- span in humans?
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Dear Adejoke,
Hope these papers are useful.
Sympathetic Nervous System and Aging in Man. 
influence of insulin, sympathetic nervous system activity, and obesity on blood pressure: the Normative Aging Study.
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I'm hoping to find a source of data that goes back before the 1940's and I would  be delighted to learn that there are places to look more for international statistics, or comparisons,even, by country.  What sort of data are available?   I'm especially looking for data on diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, autoimmune disease and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimers and Parkinson's disease.  Does anyone know of some good resources?  Many thanks!
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The international diabetes federation reports diabetes data by country
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Dear Colleagues:
There are several articles equating Periodontal Disease to an infection.  There are several articles showing the relationship of infections on chronic diseases. Is it possible to cure the infection and eradicate the disease? Can it be that simple?  I am building my research project around this question.  The relationship between preventable infections and chronic diseases.  My question to you:  What are your thoughts, experiences, and observances with infections and their impact on health?  
Thank You
Sandy Evans, MHA
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I concur with the response of John S Mamoun in relation to the basics but related to social change, poverty, literacy level and national policy are factors to reckon with in addressing chronic diseases.
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Others have provided compelling evidence that schizophrenia, like many chronic diseases, may in part be due to mitochondrial dysfunction.  As a clinician, I am aware of the use of R-lipoic acid, L-carnitine or acetylcarnitine, CoQ10, N-acetylcysteine, omega-3 fatty acids, and other mitochondrial nutrients and antioxidants in treating persons with schizophrenia.  But I am still unclear (as I suspect is everyone else) re: optimal dosing, which antioxidants/mitochondrial nutrients to use, etc....although I do believe multiple agents are needed.
Anything that would help me clarify my thinking will be much appreciated.
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Chronic diseases need nursing practice for a long time. On the other hands, there are many theories of nursing for a better client care.Which of nursing theories is more useful for nursing of chronic diseases as a long time necessity?
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I think there are many that you could use. Some which come to mind are Roy's adaptation Model, Dorothy Orems self-care and self-efficacy theory. I like SE model because it talks about living with an chronic illness and incorporates SE and spirituality. Here is an article on how spirituality and SE go hand-in had with sickle-cells disease.
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The context is, Gene-Nutrient interactions in fetal development and onset of chronic diseases
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The embryonic and fetal cells have a complex system to integrate nutritional signals from their environment and adapt their development (possible involvement in the prenatal programming of glucose metabolism in the adult) accordingly to ensure "survival". In the case of inborn errors of metabolism, nutrition in the first years of life is a key determinant of health or disease status. Additionally, the relationship between CVD factors (plasma lipid content) and gene-diet interaction could be an example of long-term consequences due to its heritability
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Brain perfusion, as referred in this article, includes delivery of nutrients and removal of wastes, besides the usual non-stop gas transfer. From my observations on REM sleep (or the deprivation of REM sleep to be exact) and taichi (the extra slow moving type which can trick the brain that he/she is not moving to simulate REM sleep), I could only say that brain perfusion happens probably not more than 30 minutes for a 7-hour good sleep. For city folks who are under constant stress, they will get less because they would have less REM sleep. During day time, the situation gets worse if they don’t do enough short walks or equivalent exercises (Note: endurance exercises are not counted at all). I believe that many chronic diseases including Alzheimer’s, HIV, cancers, etc. would be difficult to heal once the patients become immobile and/or cannot sleep well. Their brain cells would deteriorate slowly due to malnutrition and waste accumulation. Downstream organs will also be affected slowly one by one.
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For starters, neurons require an almost non-stop supply of glucose (the brain's main source of energy) or they will stop functioning efficiently or die, as they have very limited internal stores of glycogen. This is supplied via the blood, which constantly delivers glucose to the brain - if the blood contains too little glucose (such as during hypoglycemia in diabetics using insulin), symptoms like confusion and hypoglycemia start to appear very soon. This alone is a decent indicator that 'perfusion' as you define it happens constantly and not just thirty minutes per sleep cycle.
You can also map glucose consumption using FDG-PET: 18F-FDG is injected into the bloodstream, gets transferred into cells in the brain, and gets phosphorylated just like normal glucose would during metabolism. Again, the fact that this radioactive isotope passes the blood-brain barrier constantly suggests that nutrient delivery is a continuous process, and the fact that it gets phosphorylated suggests that there is metabolism going on.
Furthermore, your definition of 'perfusion' is incorrect, as perfusion simply refers to the delivery of blood to an organ. 
Finally, I'd be interested to see some proof that nutrient delivery and waste removal does *not* happen continuously, because this is the first time I've heard of it. From where did you get this 30 minute number? Increased heart rate does not necessarily imply increased brain perfusion, by the way, as cerebral blood vessels may constrict. I would suggest having a look at the literature on these subjects. I do agree that regular excercise and moving away from your desk every now and then will do your brain a lot of good, though!
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I found best correlation between type III of septal deformity and CSR in my research
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Dear Beatrice, thanks a lot for your precious comment. Please check this out. It's your turn. For figures please go directly to the website.
Most sincerely,
Prof. Mladina
Balkan Med J. 2015 Apr; 32(2): 137–146.
Published online 2015 Apr 1. doi:  10.5152/balkanmedj.2015.159957
PMCID: PMC4432693
Clinical Implications of Nasal Septal Deformities
Ranko Mladina,1 Neven Skitarelić,2 Gorazd Poje,1 and Marin Šubarić3
Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ►
 
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Abstract
The first attempts to systematize septal distortions have been given by Cottle who defined four groups of septal deformities: subluxation, large spurs, caudal deflection and tension septum. Fortunately, the variations of the septal deformities show a certain order, thus enabling more precise classification. Mladina was the first to make user-friendly classification of septal deformities in six basic types. He also described the seventh type, named “Passali deformity”, which presents individually, but is always a well-defined combination between some of the previous six types. Mladina types of septal deformities (SD) are divided in two main groups: so called “vertical” deformities (types 1, 2, 3 and 4), and “horizontal” ones (types 5 and 6). This classification was immediately well accepted by rhinologists worldwide and started to be cited from the very beginning. Since then it has been continuously cited increasingly more often, thus making Mladina classification a gold standard whenever clinical researches on nasal septum are concerned. More than forty clinical studies based on this classification have been performed to date. It is extremely important to make a strict distinction between the types of SD since all of them play some specific role in the nasal and general physiology in man.
Keywords: Classification, nasal septum, nose deformities
First of all, one should determine a difference between the term septal deviation and septal deformity, since “deviation” generally means a slight declination from the medio-sagittal plane, whereas deformity means the change of shape or change of form. The