Science topic

Choice Behavior - Science topic

The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
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Is your current job related to your academic specialization ?
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Yes. In moment my job is health of black people. My academic specialization is in sickle cell disease, a hematologic disease prevalent in Brazil.
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I developed logit models for mode choice behavior using a questionnaire-based dataset. However, a reviewer suggested me to go for mixed logit models. I do understand that mixed logit model solves the limitations of the logit model. However, logit models are easier to estimate (using software packages such as SPSS) and interpret, and I have already developed and explained these models in my paper. So, I want to know if there is a way to determine whether or not developing mixed logit models will be any good.
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Conditional logit model (this is what you mean by logit, right?) assumes the property of independence of irrelative alternatives (IIA). If your data don't satisfy this assumption, your parameters would be biased. In that case, you can use mixed logit model. The interpretation of parameters is not that much different from the conditional logit model. The mixed logit model adds an error component to the equation, which induces heteroscedasticity and can be correlated among alternatives. Thus, the marginal utility of attributes is allowed to vary among individuals. I don't know for SPSS, but in SAS, the code is very simple.
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Nowadays being alone, stay at home, walk alone and ride alone are the best options to protect the transmission of Coronavirus, COVID-19. Even if COVID-19 is a typical situation, there are other situations that can create dangers for mass transit users.
So, what kinds of scenarios, policies, and strategies can accommodate such disasters and how can we regain the trust of Public transport systems in the future?
Any innovative idea is appreciated.
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UITP, the International Association of Public Transport, has just released this very helpful factsheet summarizing best practices for public transport operators to deal with Covid 19 and similar infectious diseases. The guidelines reflect practical experiences and are rooted in reality. https://www.uitp.org/sites/default/files/cck-focus-papers-files/Corona%20Virus_EN.pdf
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I am asking for some thoughts about the topic which is about Trade offs and the influence of technologies in perspection of health.
To what extent are people willing to forego "fun and enjoyment" (e.g. less alcohol, healthier lifestyle) today in order to live healthier lives in the future.
Does anyone know interesting literature streams such as Intertemporal choice, future self etc. or technologies which bring the future in the present.
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This is the question of intertemporal choice.
In Tolstoi's War and Peace, the Russian general Kutuzov is made to say that it's the time of the decision which has precedence over what the decision is
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I'm an aquatic ecologist making a first foray into behavioral studies. I've conducted a fish behavior study where a fish was placed in the center of a tank divided into 4 quadrants (left side, center left, center right, right side) and placed two different stimuli were placed in the left and right quadrants. I'm recording the time fish spend in various portions of the tank before and after opportunities to learn about the stimuli. One stimuli is presented as being negative or positive while the other remains neutral. I'd like to compare change in time allocated to each compartment of the tank before and after repeated learning opportunities. I know that time allocations are not completely independent (i.e. if the fish wants to move from quadrant left to quadrant right, it must pass through the center quadrants; spending more time in one quadrant inherently requires the fish to spend less time in other quadrants), but I am not sure how to handle these challenges in the analysis. Any suggestions are appreciated.
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Hi Avery,
I'm attaching a few papers on conditioning and tracking in zebrafish that I think will help you with your experimental design and analysis.
  • Braubach et al. use a similar tank design as you describe
  • Mathur et al. describe a quick, efficient place preference assay for fish
  • Stewart et al. demonstrate the importance of also tracking depth
Are you using olfactory or visual stimuli? If you're using odorants, I suggest doing control trials using dyes to determine whether your odorants are diffusing across your 4 quadrants. That may influence the fishes' preferences.
Hope this helps!
Cheers,
Max
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The best type of bioassays choice and non choice for arthropods for indicate preference for plant varieties of same species. Four varieties and a phytophagous.
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Dear you can rear the insect which you want to use or check the host preference, and now grow new seedling for this experiment under laboratory condition and then apply the insect and evaluate the host preference.
For this purpose you must rear the insect up to five generations and then you able to evaluate.
I hope you understand.
Regard
M. Ramzan
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Actually i'm doing research on modal shift, so, i'm considering objective as, develop the models to study the mode choice behavior of travelers, to investigate the forecasting performance of mode shift models, to assess the impacts of the different government policies to be incorporated based on the model.
I read papers regarding these, but i ended up in confusion like which logit model i have to apply either multinomial or nested logit model.
Can anyone suggest me which model should i use to satisfy my objectives.
Thanks in advance.
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Thank you so much Tarapada Mandal
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In case of the simple multinomial logit model, alternatives will be listed and their percent of choice is collected in data collection.
My question is there are modes which will be less selected and will have less amount in the count. what percent of mode choice count is viable for modeling cases? and why? is it possible and correct to use those modes which have the minimum count of choice from the data?
Any help is appreciated.
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Amir Pooyan Afghari
,thank you for your response.
you have mentioned a good point on checking how the model works or not due to variability of choices, attributes and variables . But I have a question for you in case of revealed preference survey.
--> In what way you checked the percent you have is enough for modeling? (you used less than 1 percent and also more than 10 %....could you tell me more on the challenge you got in your model calibration?)
-->what is your criterion for checking the model works or not?
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What are the main topics, researched currently in the field of preferences? What are the more relevant open questions? Are the general definition of preferences among them (or equivalent: is there any attempt to create the foundations of the Unified Theory of preferences?).
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@Mubashar Shah Yes, questionnaires are tools for obtaining specific information from some fields of study. But I think, It is necessary to have a general "picture" of the researched area, in order to determine relevant components, their relation. That can be got by means of some kind of "brainstorming", where people expose their ideas around the topics. And discussions can act as a mean for that aim. On that basis, the researcher can identified some trends, regularities, structures, functionalities, which can be detailed later, using other methods, techniques and tools.
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I am planning to conduct a DCE and I'm also planning to understand if the clinical course of a given health condition can play a role in individual's choices. My idea is in its infancy yet, but would involve conducting two "waves" of data collection in the same population using the same DCE. Specific questions are:
1. Does it make sense to do that?
2. What are the possible pitfalls of that approach?
3. If it is possible, are there any specific details regarding the development of the survey and/or method of analysis that need to be accounted for?
I'd appreciate hearing from you. You can also email me if you prefer: giovanni.ferreira@sydney.edu.au
Thanks!
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Hi, Giovanni,
I've been involved in creating/testing an AI health diary--which properly used involves single users recording their outcomes, and their behavioral choices, on a daily basis. The idea is for users to "mix-up" their choices to find ways to manipulate their health (and other tracked) outcomes. Some users refuse to introduce variance to their choices, and have little improvement in outcomes. Others experiment with their choices and achieve hoped-for-gains in functional status--the one works the device, the greater the gain.
So, individual difference variables will likely affect how subjects interact with your task.
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I have a dependent variable (Y) say choices of different modes (car, bus, train, car share), a categorical variable and several independent variables (age: categorized into three different groups 18-25, 26-40 and 40-60 & education level, gender), all categorical variables. Is it possible to form a multinomial logistic regression model to establish relation between the dependent and the independent variables?
I also have perception of safety, security of the respondents (in 1 to 5 scale) about using different modes. What different tests can I conduct?
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Hi, Tarapada,
The question "what different tests I can conduct" is incorrect--even though it is the standard operating practice:
The more important scientific question is "what alternative hypotheses can I conduct"?
Age, education level, and variables having an ordered (Likert-type) response option are NOT categorical, they are ordered and should be treated accordingly.
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It seems that many choices are torned between the drive for pleasure and our reasoning.
For example, we may know that taking a plane will produced Co2 and contribute to climate change but we also tend to take plane anyway out of the pleasure we get from it (fast travel or reaching remote places). Similar behaviour can be seen about animal products consumption. A lot of indivduals in the west actually want to cut some of their consumption of animal products but in reality the pleasure individual get from their consumption is frequently taking over.
I would like to know what kind of studies/books are out these about this phenomenon. Thanks in advance for your help!
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I recently developed one paper related to your question:
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
Let me share the core references I read and cited with you as follows:
  1. Kahneman, D. (2013). Thinking fast and slow. New York, NY, U.S.A.: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
  2. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263-291. —Their work earned Dr. Kahneman the Nobel in economics in 2002—(see http://www.its.caltech.edu/~camerer/Ec101/ProspectTheory.pdf; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prospect_theory; see attached).
  3. Higgins, E.T. (1998). Promotion and prevention: Regulatory focus as a motivational principle. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 30, pp. 1-46). New York, NY, U.S.A.: Academic Press.
  4. Higgins, E. T., Friedman, R. S., Harlow, R. E., Idson, L. C., Ayduk, O. N., & Taylor, A. (2001). Achievement orientations from subjective histories of success: Promotion pride versus prevention pride. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31(1), 3-23. doi:10.1002/ejsp.27 (see )
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Hello,
I am currently conducting a Meta-SEM, with different concepts like satisfaction, trust or loyalty. Among the articles I selected for this meta-analysis, the authors are using different definitions. For example, for the loyalty concept, some authors are using only the behavioral approach, while others are using the attitudinal approach, or even a mixt approach. For my meta-analysis, I then coded the type of definition used (Loy-be, Loy-att and Loy-mix). This way I will be able to run a moderator analysis and see if there are differences amongst the effect sizes, depending on the type of definition used.
First, do you think it is a good approach?
Plus, I have another issue, based on this problem. If the articles are using different definitions under the same term “loyalty”, some are defining these dimensions as strict different concepts. For example, I have one article with two different concepts in the model: attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty. How can I treat these articles? Indeed, there is an issue, because since there is 2 concepts, there will be 2 correlation coefficients for the relationship “satisfaction-loyalty”. But in the correlation matrix, I can only have one correlation coefficient for this relationship.
Then, I was thinking of two options:
- Removing these articles from the analysis
- Choosing only one variable: to analyze either “attitudinal loyalty” or “behavioral loyalty” but not both
- Building two correlation matrixes for the articles with the two types of loyalty: it seems to be a bad idea because there will be a repetition of the other correlation coefficients.
What do you think?
Thanks in advance for your help,
Kathleen
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You are on the right track and asking important questions. I'm wondering whether you plan to conduct seperate (bivariate) meta-analyses first, construct the meta-analytical cor matrix then, and run SEM | or if you will conduct TSSEM (Cheung, 2016) by constructing correlational matrices for each study and then, in two stages, optimizing the model . This makes all the difference in the world for answering your question correctly, but I'm assuming the latter here.
First, you may be interested in the general relationships. In that case, it doesn't matter how they defined the construct and you include all relevant measures. If a single study uses multiple, you can average the correlations. You construct a single correlation matrix for each study.
Second, you may be interested in the relationship for a specific construct definition, such as the behavioral approach to loyalty. In that case, you select only correlation coefficients for your MA that reflect this approach, i.e., only loy-be constructs. You can construct seperate correlation matrices from each study for each distinct construct definition.
Third, you may be interested in whether there are (significant) differences between these approaches to define loyalty. In that case, your suggested approach of coding the type of construct at the study level works. In for example metafor, you should be able to cluster matrices from the same studies using the inner|outer formula for random coefficients (with something like ~Construct|ID, [construct = loyalty definition; ID=study identifier]). However, Im guessing from your description that you will use metaSEM (Cheung, 2016), and I have not seen any approaches to including this type of moderators or clusters in random coefficients there. You might reach out to Mike, he's very responsive in my experience.
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Other things being equal(Ceteris Paribus), it can be said that types of democratic outcomes possible under majority rule based democracy are normal democratic outcomes and extreme democratic outcomes.…,,,Under normal democratic outcomes the majority view rules, either as a full majority or a partial majority.  Under extreme democratic outcomes the true minority view rules, which raises the question, can extreme democratic outcomes take place if there is no chaos?. I think no, what do you think?
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It is a contentious view that Brexit was the minority view, and here already we have a problem on who decides what is a minority view and what is the majority view. Brexit was favoured in most parts of the UK outside London. Only, I believe, in London was it the minority view. Those who desired to remain, rightly or wrongly, have merely been extremely loud in their denunciations and have tended to have celebrity status. A minority in effect!
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Is anyone aware of implimentation of modelling of two interval forced choice behavioral data (like drift diffusion models for two alternative force choice experiments)? There are mutual inhibition models for modelling neuronal data (Machens, Romo, & Brody, 2005) and also one indirect implimentation using psychometric function for oculomotor response that I have found (Liston & Stone, 2008). My experiment is a two interval forced choice experiment with button responses. Help appreciated!!
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Hi Björn,
Unfortunately, I didn't pursue the idea to completion. However, I would be more than happy to share the (little) progress that I made.
First of all, Drift Diffusion models (at least the current implementations to the best of my knowledge) are not really suitable for a 2IFC task for multiple reasons. Most of the current implementations require certain conditions to be met (see Ratcliff and McKoon 2008 - Drift Diffusion model :
"The model should be applied only to relatively fast two-choice decisions (mean RTs less than about 1000 to 1500 ms) and only to decisions that are a single-stage decision process (as opposed to the multiple-stage processes that might be involved in, for example, reasoning tasks)"
In principle, however, the 2IFC can be modeled as suggested in Machens et. al. 2005 :
"Subjects first perceive a stimulus, then hold it in working memory, and finally make a decision by comparing it with a second stimulus"
Implementation for this can be done in probabilistic programming such as in pymc (https://pymc-devs.github.io/pymc/). As an example, I attach a figure for a putative implementation.
Hope this is of some help,
Best of luck!!
-Atesh
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I am teaching a module in consumer behavior and got this question from a student: "How do consumers chooses a given service from a broad selection base. For example, if a consumer has 50 €/$ for a fun activity which factors will guide his/her decision to choose to go to an amusement park over an aquapark or vice versa?".
While there are a plethora of idiosyncratic reasons, A) what would you answer to the student, B) do you know of any good research that has studied this and could you point me to it?
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Hi, Ville:
Perhaps this can be explained via a recent research with ethical claims and labelling study.
Hoek,  Roling, & Holdsworth (2013) study argued that although consumers' growing interest in ethical consumption has been well-documented, their understanding of specific claims, and the link between their stated concerns and behaviour, has not. Using a framework from systematic-heuristic and behaviour modification theory, this study explored consumers' understanding of varied ethical claims and a specific eco-label, and then estimated the effect these stimuli had on their choice behaviors.
In-depth interviews revealed a strong interest in environmental and social attributes but considerable scepticism about specific claims. However, a choice modelling experiment found ethical attributes nevertheless influenced respondents' choices. Two distinct clusters whose views and choice behaviors differed markedly existed: one was primarily price-driven and the other more responsive to specific claims. Discrepancies between the qualitative and quantitative studies appear attributable to differences in information processing; many consumers respond strongly to heuristics, even though they believe themselves sceptical of the claims these communicate. The findings raise important policy questions about the scientific basis of many ethical claims, since consumers were strongly influenced by these, despite their views to the contrary!
  • Hoek, J., Roling, N., & Holdsworth, D. (2013). Ethical claims and labelling: An analysis of consumers' beliefs and choice behaviours. Journal Of Marketing Management, 29(7-8), 772-792.
Hope this helps!
Thanks, Nadeem
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In environmental literature, it is argued that three different value orientations
may be relevant for understanding environmental beliefs and intentions: egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric. Until now, the distinction between altruistic and biospheric value orientations has hardly been supported empirically. But my question is can these values directly affect the choice behavior of an individual for green products or there should be a moderation and mediation scope?
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HI Vivek:
You ask whether Individual values affect the green behavior. As I see it green behavior is any behavior that respects nature (e.g., not to  pollute water, air, and the like). 
I wonder whether you are acquainted with Peter Kahn's work on ecological-moral reasoning. He formulated two environmental orientations or two types of ecological-moral reasoning: Anthropocentric reasoning and biocentric reasoning. The former values natures because it is useful for us (e.g., "We should not pollute water because polluted water is dangerous for our health"). The latter values nature in itself (e.g., "We should not pollute water because water has value in itself and, hence,  it should not be polluted "). The existence of these two environmental orientations has been found in different cultures. It has also been found that biocentric reasoning appears more in adolescents and adults than in children. 
I think that it should be highly interesting to analyze individual's green behavior as a function of their Kohlbergian level (pre-conventional, conventional, post-conventional) and stage (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) of moral reasoning.
Let's us suppose that you ask to a sample aged, for example, between 8 and 30, the following. "Should/Should we not pollute water and why".
Consider the case of an individual who says that we should not pollute water because if we pollute it we can be caught up and put in prison. In Kohlberg's theory this answer would be a stage-1 environmental answer. Think of an individual who says that we should not pollute water because if we pollute it we can be caught up and have problem with the police. This answer would be a stage-2 environmental answer. As you certainly know, stages 1 and 2 are pre-conventional stages in Kohlberg's theory. Pre-conventional individuals' moral reasoning is egocentric in its very nature. At this level, individuals' moral or moral-ecological reasoning is guided only by personal, individualist, and egoistic concerns.
Consider now the case of an individual who says that we should not pollute water because if we pollute it and are caught up people are going to say that we are not decent and nice guys. This answer would be a stage-3 environmental answer. Note the case of an individual who says, for example, that we should not pollute water because when we pollute water we, as  it were, are opening a dangerous precedent, which can give others the idea that there is nothing wrong when we pollute water, air, and the like.This answer would be a stage-4environmental answer. As you certainly know, stages 3 and 4 are conventional stages in Kohlberg's theory. Conventional individuals' moral or ecological moral reasoning goes beyond egocentric and personal wants and desires and takes into account others' expectations and existing social rules and moral norms.
Consider now the case of an individual who says that when we perform, say, non-green behaviors, such as to pollute water, air, or destroy forests, we are introducing chaos in the  harmony of the universe and, hence, we are distancing ourselves of a cosmic perspective which seems, as it  were, to govern the universe. As the late Kohlberg gave up his stage 6, this answer would be a stage-5 environmental  answer.As you certainly know, stages 5 and 6 are post-conventional stages in  Kohlberg's theory.
Although Kahn's work is related to Kohlberg's theory, I know of no study that analyzes one's green or environmental concerns according Kohlberg's theory of levels and  stages  of moral reasoning.
I hope that I have got your  question and that this helps.
Best regards.
Orlando
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Hello,
I conduct an inter temporal choice experiment where each trial consists of two different reward options with different time points. Subjects need to decide for one of the two options per trial. For instance, participants either choose the reward option 10 euros today versus 30 euros in 2 months. My aim is to get the discount rate resulting from the indifference points. 
To analyze the data I worked with the scientific article: A Tutorial on the Use of Excel 2010 and Excel for Mac 2011 for conducting delay-discounting analyses by D. D. Reed, B. A. Kaplan & A. T. Brewer (2012). Please find the article attached. However, they only show how to calculate the discount rate for sooner options involving immediate rewards (today, 30 euros) and not for delayed sooner rewards (in 3 months, 30 euros). 
Also having delayed sooner rewards in my inter temporal choice experiment, my question is how I can best include them in the analysis in order to get the discount rate involving a hyperbolic delay discounting function.  
I would highly appreciate if someone has any suggestions regarding this question.
Thanks a lot in advance!
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Dear Marco,
In line with the first answer, you may also try to look at this paper: 
Wileyto, E. P., Audrain-Mcgovern, J., Epstein, L. H., & Lerman, C. (2004). Using logistic regression to estimate delay-discounting functions. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(1), 41-51.
They use a logistic regression (with no intercept) to estimate the discount factor.
Best,
Rodica
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  • I conducted a study where the participant had to decide between a sooner smaller and a delayed larger reward option. Across the experiment the delayed larger reward option stayed the same while the sooner smaller was adjusted per trial depending on the choice the subject made
  • That means that I collected all the adjusted sooner monetary reward options getting adjusted across 7 trials. I ran these 7 trials 30 times involving different time points 
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It's not exactly clear from your question but it sounds like your design is not incentive compatible. In other words the subjects could manipulate the choices they saw later in the experiment via the answers they gave earlier in the experiment. Leaving that aside, a classic reference is http://www.jstor.org/stable/3083267 - Estimating Individual Discount Rates in Denmark: A Field Experiment, Glenn W. Harrison, Morten I. Lau and Melonie B. Williams
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concrete steps?test methods?
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These articles may help you (good luck!):
Edwards, D. P., M. Hassall, W. J. Sutherland, and D. W. Yu. 2006. Assembling a mutualism: Ant symbionts locate their host plants by detecting volatile chemicals. Insectes Sociaux 53: 172–176. DOI: 10.1007/s00040-006-0855-z
Dáttilo, W. F. C., Izzo, T. J., Inouye, B. D., Vasconcelos, H. L. and Bruna, E. M. (2009), Recognition of Host Plant Volatiles by Pheidole minutula Mayr (Myrmicinae), an Amazonian Ant-Plant Specialist. Biotropica, 41: 642–646. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00518.x
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...or it could be used to asses delay discounting function from procedures that use other measures of reward value, like proportion of choices of the larger later rewards?
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Dear Pedro
In my opinion, yes: the hyperbolic function describes the relation between 'value' and delay. 'Value' may be measured as the size of an immediate reinforcer that equates to the delayed reinforcer (in behavioural terms, equal value means indifference in a choice situation). Alternatively, 'value can be eliminated from the equation by the laborious process of obtaining indifference delays to a larger reinforcer for a range of delays to a smaller reinforcer, and then plotting the indifference delay against the delay to the smaller reinforcer (described by Mazur, 1987, An adjusting procedure for studying delayed reinforcement.In: Commons M et al (eds) Quantitative analyses of behavior, vol V: the effect of delay and intervening events. Erlbaum; also Ho et al, 1999 Psychopharm146:362–372). The relation between %choice and delay is better described as a 'preference function'; its shape is not intrinsically related to the hyperbolic discount function (Valencia-Torres et al 2013, Eur J Behav Anal 14 313-239
Best wishes
Chris
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Monetization levels vary widely by context and over time. Macro-level data is not very helpful because it jumbles many differently monetized contexts. Are there studies in behavioral economics, microeconomics, cognitive psychology etc. that address this question?  
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Dear Brett Matthews 
Greetings,
Please find the two attached files , may be related to your topic and useful for analyzed monetization as a discrete variable in processes of financial inclusion ,
Best Regards,
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I need a quick way to get participants to think/act as if they have made their own choice, while actually have their choice correspond to their assigned condition. In other words, I am looking for a way to get them to "choose" their assigned condition. 
I am considering offering multiple choices (out of 4) and telling them that their choice has to match a random selection in order for the task to begin. But wondering if there is a better, more efficient way to do this.
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Forcing sounds like a very interesting method and one I'm going to have read more about. On the other hand, many experimentalists are extremely reluctant to directly lie to participants. This shibboleth is particularly strong in experimental economics where Nick Bardsley offers an alternative method: Bardsley, Nicholas. "Control without deception: Individual behaviour in free-riding experiments revisited." Experimental Economics 3.3 (2000): 215-240.
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What does the consumer perceive when he looks at the wine bottles on a shop's shelf? Why does he choose one bottle rather than another? How much is he influenced by the label? Why, at the restaurant, does he order or re-order that particular wine? Which reasonments, memories or emotions are involved? And when he tastes the wine, to which extent his evaluation, if not his degree of satisfaction, are biased by aspects such as the reputation of the producer or the comments of the attendants? These are some of the questions we are triyng to partially answer in our work.
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I would also suggest browsing Armando Corsi and Larry Lockshin's google scholar profiles.  They have both done a lot of work in this area with a variety of co-authors. Links are below.
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I’ve become interested in the literature on the measurement of social value orientation (SVO) because SVO is of increasing interest for behavioral economists. What puzzled me about the SVO tests is reciprocity. Assume you want to measure SVO for two players, A and B, using a test that relies on decomposed games like Liebrand’s ring test or the slider measure by Murphy, Ackermann and Handgraaf. Take as an example the dictator game in which both players choose between two self-other-allocations, x=(2,0) and y=(1,1). Assume that A chooses y. There are two reasons: (1) a concern for B’s payoff, and (2) a preference for reciprocity. (2) is a possible motivation behind A’s choice if A expects B to choose y and wants to reward B’s kindness by being kind. But this implies that SVO is sensitive to players’ expectations.
In the literature, I’ve found no discussion of reciprocity motives in relation to SVO tests, hence my question is: Has anyone seen a discussion of this issue, or does anyone know why the SVO literature remains silent about this issue?
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Very interesting question, and worth to investigate!
I do know that SVO can be used as a dependent variable as well (I've published about it used in this way, even) as a trait-like (independent) variable - using a continuous scale.
Also, the underlying reasons why people are prosocial might very well be reciprocity expectations, but these simply cannot be measured in the current version(s) of the SVO. Perhaps the reason why someone is prosocial isn't as interesting as the fact that he/she is?
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Research involving information processing stream literature, for example.
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thanks for ur reply.
Few more questions ill put across out of curiosity !!
If one has to show the managerial relevance (like its mandatory), then how should they refer to this journal's contribution to the theory (or look for other journals).
How does one deal with the questions related to the relevance of the consumer research (in terms) of their implementation, by the managers (or broad audience).