Science topics: Chemistry
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Chemistry - Science topic

Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds.
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Book on Paddy field Pest
Inorganic chemistry for beginners which have focused on heavy metals chemistry
Thank you
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1. Inorganic Chemistry by J D Lee
2. By Huheey, Keiter, Keiter
3. Chemistry of Elements 2nd Ed. - NN Greenwood and A. Earnshaw
4. By Cotton and Wilkinson
These are best books.
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Can you please help me in calculating the concentration of this methylene blue solution in g/L or mol/L?
Methylene Blue Solution- 0.05 wt. % in H2O
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"wt %" means weight percent which is the unit of mass fraction. In the case of such a dilute solution, 0.05 wt %, the mass of the solution in grams is almost equal to its volume in millilitres. So, 1000 mL of the solution contains 5·10-4·1000 = 0.5 g of the substance and the mass concentration is 0.5 g/L. Taking into account that the molar mass of methylene blue is equal to 319.8 g/mol, the molar concentration (also called amount concentration) of this solution is 0.5/319.8 = 0.00156 mol/L.
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Is the reaction rate constant, k(T), of a molecular chemical reaction affected by the kind of a third inert species (CO2 or N2 for example) under the constant temperature condition ?
The reaction considered could be for example : H2+ O = H + OH
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Prof. Kemal Büyükakın in addition to all posts & answers from the specialists, you could find the following paper interesting to read:
Best Regards.
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I am working on a chemistry lab report that revolves around the relationship between coagulant dose and its effectiveness at coagulating orthophosphates in lake water.
One of my theoretical questions is as follows:
Calculate the dose of coagulant in mg·L -1 , if the alkalinity of the water before treatment was 5 mval·L-1 , and its acidity was 0.4 mval·L-1 , and the pH of the treated water after coagulation with AlCl3 must be neutral (pH 7).
Thanks!
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Aluminium salts will react with phosphate salts to form relatively insoluble poly aluminium phosphate complexes, usually in the mole ratio of one to one. Other substances present in the lake water will also react with the aluminium. Coagulant doses cannot be calculated but must be determined experimentally by simple jar tests. This calculation will provide you with a starting point to undertake jar tests to determine the optimum dose for that particular water.
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while drill in some reservoir observed detected helium and Co2 , could we figure out the environment from this geochmical fingerprint. or we can understand the paleo- climate in these reservoir.
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Mohsen,
You are not going to infer much about paleoclimates based on geochem data from hydrocarbon reservoirs. The report you get from a lab such as Isotech will include concentrations of fixed gases (He, Ar, CO2, etc) and the C1-C6+ hydrocarbons, but there is nothing in the fixed gases that can be correlated to specifically to paleoclimates ... at least, I haven't seen anything. Many of the gases are mantle-derived. As such, their occurrences and concentrations are not related to atmospheric/climatic factors of the distant past. The matter is much different, however, if you consider geochem data from aquifer systems, specifically dO-18 and dD, the abundances of which are related to temperatures of condensation, sources of moisture, etc. You should look into the large body of literature compiled by the researchers whose works have been published by the Isotope Hydrology Program of the International Atomic Energy Agency. There is enough material there to keep you busy for a very long time.
Best of luck,
BK Darling
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Few year ago, a friend publish an article in a journal that was not quoted as 'prédator'. Rencently the same journal was found in the list of 'prédator journal'
1-Which are the Criteria to Identify a Journal as predator?
2-In which circonstances a scientific journal can move from 'non predator' to 'predator'?
3-Which agencies (structures) are qualified to classify a journal as predator or not?
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I am able to attend two conferences/events with a focus on gas chromatography in 2022. Do you have a recommendation? Preferably in the US, and in the field of chemistry, safety, environment, fire or forensics.
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Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh's response had nothing to do with the question posed at all (Even though the poster has little training, they did not ask for a definition of what GC was). Vaishvachi Fernandance replied with agreement to the response by Vaishvachi that was also unrelated to the question and implies both did not read the original question. *Very interesting and continued evidence of pointless posts and responses that do not add any value (much like this one). RG would be of more value if members took the time to first read the question, then decide if they could add anything relevant and of value.
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For my artificial intelligence study, I need to create a database of chemistry molecular compounds. So, I am in search of free open software or tools which can help to collect and create the database of the chemistry molecular compounds. Some suggestions or tips would be appreciated. Thanking you.
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Thank you Li Xiaolong and Paras Gulyan for providing me the useful materials.
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Chemistry
Thermodynamics
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Hi, you can watch this video that has complete answer to your question. I suppose meet your need.
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Hello everybody
I want to simulate MXene by means of molecular dynamics method. But it seems that I need the Mxene atomic structure as a file in .cif, .pdb, or .mol format.
Is it possible for anyone to tell me how I can get the files or how I can build the atomic structure of MXene?
Thank you so much
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VESTA Software - Build Monolayer PtSe2
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I need to make 3 solutions of 5, 10, and 20 wt% of Co(NO3)2 but I'm not sure how many grams I should take for each solution. Can anyone help me?
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the challenge to calculate here the amount of Co(NO3)2 for a 25ml solution of given concetration is, that the volumes of the two components ( here Co(NO3)2 and water) do not simply add, but merge in an unknown way.
So I suggest to first produce the 5, 10, and 20 wt% solutions irrespective of the 25ml goal and then pick up the 25 ml of these solution(s) e.g. by a calibrated pipette.
The solutions may be mixed for example by
a) 5g of Co(NO3)2 and 95g (or ml) of water for a 5 wt% solution, and
b) 10g of Co(NO3)2 and 90g (or ml) of water for a 10 wt% solution, as well as
c) 20g of Co(NO3)2 and 80g (or ml) of water for a 20 wt% solution
good luck
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I am aiming to keep the humidity more or less stable in a closed chamber.
Therefore I am using a saturated salt solution in a closed chamber for that experiment.
What bugs me is, that I always end up with salts growing up on the inner faces of the vessel where I put the solution in.
The salt is, btw, growing even above the initial fill level. So the evaporation seems no to be the only reason. I guess this is related somehow to the capillary effect?
Is there a way to easily prevent this
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Dear Flo Do thanks for sharing this interesting technical question with the RG community and sorry to see that it has not yet received any expert answers. I'm not familiar enough with the experimental setup, but my initial thought was if you can't just use distilled water to keep the humidity stable in your closed chamber? In any case I would try to avoid any dissolved salts. Instead of using salts you can perhaps use a mixture of e.g. glycerol and water.
Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Different authors prefer different terminologies to indicate the forms of trace elements present in the soil. Hooda (2010) in Trace elements in soils used trace element fractions. Kabata-Pendias (2010) in Trace elements in soils and plants used trace element species. Basta et al., (2005) in Trace element chemistry in residual-treated soil: key concepts and metal bioavailability used trace element pools.
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You're welcome. Happy Christmas
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Is the reaction of Anthocyanin to pH reversible? I mean if we increase the pH and get the color change, if we then decrease the pH, the color will be changed back to its original color?
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I also recemmend you to read these two interesting articles (in attached).
Best wishes,
Sabri
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Hi
Does anyone know how I can find the specific substructure of each bit in CDK fingerprints and CDK extended fingerprints which are implemented in PaDEL-descriptor and Chemistry Development Kit (CDK) software?
As an example, I am searching for SMILES representation of FP40.
Thanks,
Maryam
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Hi,
it is not easy to find. I had that problem recently, and my only choice was to identify two/three molecules with FP40 and compare its structures, because they should be common to all. In my case it seemed to be an aromatic ring.
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Hi all, let me introduce my self. My name is Aini. I got my bachelor degree in chemistry education major so my research related to educational field. I don't think I enjoyed to do research in educational field. So in short, I decided to continue my study in Chemistry Department. It was a tough years to finish my master degree but I like the research. I like the research because the results are very real, measurable, having high level of validation and accuracy. But because my bachelor degree is not relate with my master degree, I have no confidence to continue my study to doctoral degree. I really want (and also have to) continue my study but I thought that I must have a certain field about my research, while I am not expert in any certain field (since I do different research at bachelor and master degree). Now I really got confusion in making my proposal for the doctoral degree and still not sure what topic (in chemistry not in educational field) I should take. Can anyone please give me advice how to start finding a topic or start making a proposal for doctoral degree with my condition? I am looking forward for your replies. Thank you
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It seems that you have already taken some directions for your future: “I decided to continue my study in Chemistry Department” and “I like the research because the results are very real, measurable, having high level of validation and accuracy”.
Take the opportunities to get deep understanding in the field of chemistry that you enjoy. The future is open to people with strong background (in your case it will be chemistry) and the future will be not limited to specific research area.
A humble advice, research could also be frustrating for limited resources or not always so accurate results. The researcher should have sufficient motivation to overcome these problems.
Good luck
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Hello All! I am working on a project that uses stable isotope analysis (C and N) to look at the diets of California reef fishes. I am going to be collecting Liver and White muscle tissue. It was suggested to me to use 20ml borosilicate glass scintillation vials (urea caps with polyurethane lined caps/not foil lined) for my tissues. I will be freezing the tissue samples in the vials and drying them in a 65C drying oven in them as well. The issue I am running into is that every brand of vials are back ordered for about 4 months no matter where I look.
So I wanted to see if 1. Anyone in the southern California/greater LA Area had vials I could buy off of them to use. Or 2. If anyone knew of a substitute I could use. It has been suggested that I could hand make aluminum foil packets, pre combust them, and store/dry the tissue in those. However, I would prefer the glass vials for both, organization/storage sake as well as I will eventual be grinding the powder into a powder and vials would be less likely to fail with the powder.
Thank you in advance for any advice!
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Thermo Scientific ™
EPA, COT and scintillation vials and caps
Reference: B7950-B
Related applications: Industrial Chromatography
Choose from one of the 100, 200 (pre-cleaned), or 300 (pre-cleaned and certified) levels of clear glass vials or amber EPA vials containing a total capacity of 20ml and 40ml. Assembled kits contain vials with pre-attached caps and septa..
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I'm working on a project with this topic and this is my first time and I don't know how to go about it
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Hello!
Ive been trying to use the ninhydrin assay to measure concentration of PEIMax accurately after dilution. PEIMax is deacetylated 22kDa linear PEI*HCl so it should only contain secondary amines and should supposedly only form yellow compounds that absorb at 440nm with ninhydrin reagent. When I run the ninhydrin assay with PEI however, i see an obvious purple color and i can make wonderfully reproducible and linear standard curves using either 440nm or 570nm absorbance. I am using the Sigma 2% ninhydrin + hydrindantin in pH5.2 LiAc, reacting at 80C for 10 min in a PCR plate sealed with nitrogen blanket (https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/US/en/product/sigma/n7285).
Anyone have any ideas as to why I might be seeing such strong absorbance at 570nm even though i dont have any primary amines in the sample to form Rheumann's purple?
Another point I suppose that might be worth mentioning is I reconstitute my PEImax in 0.1M HCl however Ive run HCl alone in the assay and not seen any color change.
Thanks in advance!
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SNAP
How to use SNAP as a nitric oxide donor correctly? Is it possible to prepare a stock solution and store it in a freezer, and prepare the working concentration by dilution before application?
Or should SNAP crystals be dissolved immediately before use?
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Hi,
Anyone know of any bases with boiling points < 100C that I can pretty easily boil off after a reaction? the lower the better and cannot contain any amines so ammonia is out
thanks in advance!
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Dear Nikhil Goel many thanks for sharing this interesting technical question with other RG members. I think that in order to give you a qualified answer it would be helpful if you could provide a few more details about your reaction system. For example, it would be useful to know why you cannot use ammonia or organic amines. The latter would of course be the volatile bases of choice. Moreover, you might want to specify if you are working in aqueous solution or in organic solvents. Please also clarify what the fundtion of the base in your reaction systems is supposed to be. In any case, the choice of volatile bases is clearly limited of you strictly exclude any amines. I should be glad to help in this case, but for that I really need a few more basic informations.
Good luck with your work and best wishes!
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Hi everybody: i need your help to solve this issue about chemical equilibrium calculation
On this case my available datas are
Volume: 1 L
Temp: 25°C
Reaction (already balanced) --> N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) <--> 2 NH3 (g)
Moles of reagents and products (at equilibrium condition)
N2= 1 mol
H2 = 1,5 mol
NH3 = 1,8 mol
I need to:
- calculate equilibrium constant
- set up a new equilibrium equation (no need to solve) to determine new composition when 0,5 mol of NH3 are removed from the container
Basically i am stucked in a certain point and i can't go any further. I'd be really grateful to everyone who will reply and also will have the patience to explain step by step the method applied
Thanks a lot
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Use the mass action law. Here Kc=1.82/(1x1.53). In order to determine the equilibrium composition beyond the equilibrium concentration of ammonia, you must also assume the initial concentrations of hydrogen and nitrogen. One should also remember to take into account the change in volume.
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Any help is appreciated.
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The (molar) solubility of the salt (S) for a pure NaCl aq. sol. (mol / dm3) can be obtained as I have shown elsewhere at this forum: https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_the_maximum_concentration_of_sodium_chloride_in_water
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Hello. I received a compound with molecular weight 453.292 and the only mass information for it is 1 micromol. This is very confusing because usually chemicals have a mass in grams or milligrams. I do not know how to calculate from this. I need to make up either 10mM or 1mM of the compound. Please can someone show me your calculation for either obtaining a final concentration of 10mM or 1mM (please show calculations for both, as i havent decided which one to make yet), how much DMSO I will need to use. Thank you
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I agree with dr.John Machell,it’s far a away from my speciality.
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This thread is for those who want to know how to calculate Research Interest (RI) and participate in this validation study. *** Welcome to the validation study of my formula for Research Interest (RI) on the RG site! Details are in the first reply in this discussion.
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Going by the recent complain in UK about E10 fuel. Please do share your thoughts.
Thank you
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Dear Dr. Toyese Oyegoke ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following paper:
-Corrosion assessment of metals in bioethanol-gasoline blends using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Libia M.Baena, Ferley A.Vásquez, Jorge A.Calderón
Helion, Vol. 6, e07585 (2021)
Good reasearch and my best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Im thinking about trying to synthesize some poly beta amino esters, however Im not sure if the chemistry is air sensitive or just water sensitive. The reaction is a polymerization reaction between amines and acrylates via Michael addition.
Also was wondering if you are supposed to remove the inhibitors from the monomers using inhibitor removal resin or keep them in, the materials and methods sections of these PBAE synthesis papers dont mention it, but it seems like something that would be necessary.
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Dear Nikhil Goel, it is not air sensitive. Inhibitors in C=C monomers are active against radical species, but their elimination prior to their use is necessary, at least they are considered as impurities. Please have a look at the attached file. My Regards
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Hi there,
I've been noticing that after adding my blocking chemicals (TEA-Cl and CdCl2) to isolate sodium current, my pH increases beyond my ideal point (I'm trying to stick around 7.4 and it drifts to around 8.0 after adding both) and there is first cloudyness and then precipitate forming in the solution after addition of the CdCl2.
Prior to adding the blockers, I am bubbling my ACSF with carbogen for twenty minutes. I also do not add sodium bicarbonate or dextrose to my 10X stock. My concentrations for ACSF (working solution) are as follows:
125mM NaCl
2.5mM KCl
1.25mM NaH2PO4
1mM MgCl2
25mM NaHCO3
25mM dextrose
2mM CaCl2
75mM TEA-Cl
0.2mM CdCl2
Again, target pH is 7.4. Would really like some input on this, as well any any relevant chemistry as to what is happening. Thank you!
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Cadmium binds to phosphate and forms an insoluble compled that precipitates out of solution. If you wish to block calcium currents, leave out the NaH2PO4.
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I am performing an experiment in which I am taking 35ml 100% ethanol in a small glass tank. I want to reduce this 100% ethanol concentration by a time-dependent chemical reaction. which reaction I can use for this?
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Thanks, @Alan. By 'time' mean I don't want a very fast or quick degradation process. For my experiment I want a slow degradation process of ethanol.
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hi everyone.
Is there any accurate formula to find the diffusion coefficient of peptide and its ions (COO-) and (N+(CH3)3)?
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Dear Afroza Begum, but the end groups of a peptide are also carboxylic acid and an amine, not a radical 'R'. My Regards
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My current work is producing a reasonable amount of dibenzyl ether contaminated with a small amount of dichloromethane, approximately 10% vol. I would rather reuse the reagent than throw it away, so can anyone recommend a simple method for extracting the dichloromethane.
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Dear James,
thanks for posting this interesting technical question. As already mentioned by Salim, the boiling points of dichloromethane and dibenzylether are far apart so that a separation by distillation is easily possible. However, I would not recommend to use a rotary evaporator. This way you can easily remove the low-boiling dichlormethane, but high boiling impurities and decomposition products will remain in the dibenzyl ether. Thus I would recommend to use a classical distillation apparatus as shown in the attached picture which was taken from the very instructive Wikipedia entry on the term "Distillation". First you can distill off the dichloromethane under normal pressure. Then replace the receiving flask and distill the dibenzyl ether under vacuum (oil pump etc.). This will give you a pure product. I'm pretty sure that some brownish residue will stay behind... 😎
Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I need to make the following HEPES buffer:
"Dissolve 1.6g NaCl, 0.074g KCl, 0.027g Na2HPO4.2H2O, 0.2g dextran (glucan or dextran) and 1g HEPES in 90ml of distilled water, ..."
The buffer is for plant leaf infiltration.
The instruction don't specify what MW dextran/glucan to use and dextran/glucan are really uncommon chemicals to have around. Is there anything comparable biochemically I can substitute for them? Maybe polyethylene glycol (PEG) or Ficoll?
Additionally, would using dextran sulfate be suitable to using dextran or would there be undesirable effects from the sulfates?
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Okay, I see. My gut feel then is that the dextran is adjusting the osmotic strength of the buffer. If so, PEG may be a valid substitute. This of course does not tell us which size to use, or how dextran and PEG of the same size would compare (I guess data on osmotic strengths could be found in the literature). The osmotic strength will definitely be affected by both size and concentration and you may have to figure out these parameters empirically if the technique is new. Good luck.
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I am trying to imagine a problem where particles in water climb/coat onto an air bubble in bulk water. Is this even possible?
If yes, if we form equations, will that have the same surface tension as water-air (say 25 C) along with a force balance?
To complement this: Yes, using solid bubbles (say beads of glass) or simply a glass slide, we can make the water stick to it using surface tension
Your inputs are much appreciated! Thanks:)
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I believe the Navier-Stokes equations are pertinent here also.
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The Chemistry of reaction and detailed mechanism leading to the formation of the green nanoparticle would be greatly appreciated.
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Hello Rotimi,
many thanks for sharing this very interesting and fundamental question with the RG community. In addition to the helpul literature references provided by Yuri there is a large body of relevant literature available even right here on RG. Just search RG for terms like "green synthesis of nanoparticles" and then click on "Publications". You will be surprised to see how many articles about this topic have already been posted by RG members, many of them even as public full texts:
To give you a more general answer to your question, "green synthesis" of nanoparticles often refers to the use of environmentally benign plant extracts in combination with silver and gold (and other metals). The magic word in this case is "reduction". As you know, many plants are valued for their content of antioxidants such as polyphenols. When a compound is an antioxidant, this also means that it s a reducing agent. This is the reason why plant extracts are able to reduce Ag+ and Au3+ salts under formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles.
Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Hi there,
It is clear that we use many types of hydrophilic additives containing hydroxyl groups in the PES dope solutions to provide a less hydrophobic membrane.
Is there any physical interaction between the sulfone group of PES polymer chains and hydroxyl groups of hydrophilic additives in the membrane matrix?
Best regards
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Dear Foroogh Khodadadi, if you are suspecting Hydrogen bonding between SO2 and OH groups, sulfone group is a poor H-forming group due to the orientation of H-donor-acceptor counterparts. Please check the following documents. My Regards
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In Becke's B3LYP hybrid functional, Fock exchange is being mixed with Slater LSDA exchange (and then plus gradient correction), plus correlation expressions. But what LSDA exchange parametrization is used?
  • It appears to me that Becke in his DFT Thermochemistry I paper (J. Chem. Phys. 96, 2155 (1992)) uses the VWN parametrization, being the then modern alternative to the older Perdew-Zunger version.
  • Then in his Half-and-Half paper (J. Chem. Phys. 98, 1372 (1993)), he apparently switches to the then recent Perdew-Wang 1992 parametrization.
  • In his 3-parameter hybrid (DFT Thermochem III) paper (J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5648 (1993)) he seems to only comment on correlation being taken from the PW 1992 parametrization and not mention which LSDA version he uses for the exchange part, presumabely still the standard Slater exchange (E_X ~ int n_(alpha)^(4/3) + n_(beta)^(4/3) dr.
So which LSDA parametrization is used nowadays in B3LYP? Did people stick to the VWN version from Becke's initial paper or did they switch to the more modern PW version as Becke probably did? Or do different implementations in program packages use different versions?
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There are some references that might prove helpful:
Sholl. D.S. and Steckel, J.A., Density Functional Theory: A Practical Introduction, Wiley, 2009. Page 218.
Here some parameterizations are specifically mentioned.
(3) The Bretonnet article is attached.
I hope you may find something of these to be of use.
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Hello. Thank you for paying attention.
What is the typical values of excess air in natural gas power plants? Is 100% excess air an appropriate value for natural gas (methane) ? When I modeled the power plant the time I set excess air about 100% true range for the turbine inlet air temperature was obtained (around 1300-1400 K).
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Hello everyone!
I have found an article where the authors have mentioned that the typical range of excess air in the industrial gas turbine cycle is 100-600 %.
Martínez, F. Rueda, et al. "Evaluation of the gas turbine inlet temperature with relation to the excess air." Energy and Power Engineering 3.04 (2011): 517.
Hope this would help the researchers who would come across this post.
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So I was running an IR on a sample that I had thought (or rather hoped) was phenol (hydroxy benzene), but what came out was either trash and noise, or I simply did not have phenol. My professor and I were quite stunned as it showed no signs of organic peaks at all, especially no -OH peak near 3100. My professor suggested to run my reaction again, but sadly I do not have the reagents on hand at the moment and it will be some time before I get them.
The reaction I ran was one taken from an old book on recycling benzene waste. When I conducted it, I took a mixture of nitrobenzene and benzene waste and I added a random amount of relatively pure Fe2O3 and 13% Hydrogen Peroxide to try and oxidize anything in the waste to phenol or hydroxynitrobenzene. After I treated it with NaOH to make a phenoxide salt and then I did some work up to isolate. What I was left with was a nice white crystalline salt (or so I thought). But the IR says it contains zero organics as far as our IR machine can tell, and our machine is used daily if not hourly, and is kept in great condition.
If someone could help me understand what I have or teach/lead me how to identify inorganics, that would be very appreciated.
Because the attached picture is possibly hard to see small details, I have listed the peaks as well.
Peaks:
-610.07 cm^-1 transmittance: 60%
-635.08 cm^-1 transmittance: 79%
-1091.13 cm^-1 transmittance: 64/65%
Rizal Awaludin Malik After rereading my notes, I have come to realize that I distinctly changed my procedure because I was having trouble with the Iron Oxides previously mentioned. My pseudo-procedure looks more like this:
Fe + 2HCl -> FeCl2 + H2
2FeCl2 + Cl2 -> 2FeCl3
FeCl3 + H2O2 (13% aq) -> Fe(OH)3 + Reactive Species
And my idea was to combine the benzene/nitrobenzene wastes I had with the final reaction in the scheme (combining the reactive species) to try and produce hydroxylated benzene and nitrobenzene.
Some notes from my notebook leave me further puzzled:
"Smell of nitrobenzene and benzene has totally disappeared, and lots of gas evolution. A red precipitate (likely iron oxides) has formed at the bottom of the beaker. There is no longer 2 layers (2 phases) and the yellow color of the solution is very faint, where it was quite deeply colored beforehand."
I'm not sure what exactly happened but I have done a little bit of searching and came across Hexaaqua iron (III) chloride, which may be what I have crystallized out.
To explain further, after the whole reaction was completed, I filtered off the red precipitate and tried to crystallize out whatever product I had formed. When I did so, I was left with a pure white free-flowing powder. The powder seems hygroscopic in nature.
I will likely try this again, with pure benzene to see if the same result occurs.
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Aidan Bradley as we know the range 1085-1050cm-1 is for strong-
C-O stretching. This is a primary alcohol. You have a pick is the 1091.13 cm-1 so it is more likely that is indicating the presence of C-O stretching. The other two picks are 636.06cm-1 and 610.07 cm-1. We know 690-515 cm-1 range indicates the presence of strong C-Br stretching, which is a halo compound. So those two picks are indicating the presence of C-Br stretching.
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We are interested to establish a Chemistry Research Institute/Department here at Sukkur Institute of Business Administration University (SIBAU), Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. Suggestions and Guidance will be highly appreciated.
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Indian Institute of Chemical Technology - https://www.iictindia.org/
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There were five pretests administered to both groups. Each pretest represents a different topic in chemistry (Matter and Its Interaction). In lesson 1, the experimental group has significantly higher group means than the controlled group. In lesson 2, two groups have statistically equal group means. In lesson 3 and 4, the control group has significantly higher group means than the experimental group. In lesson 5, the two groups have statistically equal group means. In the overall pre-summative test, the two groups have statistically equal group means.
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Hello Mohamed Khedawy. Using a statistical test of normality as a precursor to a model that assumes normally distributed errors1 is not a very sensible thing to do, IMO. Normality of the errors is most important when n is small, and becomes less and and less important as n increases. And tests of normality, like other tests, have low power when n is low and increasing power as n increases. Therefore, your test of normality has low power to detect non-normality when non-normality is most important, and too much power to detect it when it is not very important. This is the main point of a short conference presentation I gave on this topic some years ago:
1 Notice that it is the errors (not the Y scores) that are assumed to follow a normal distribution. Note too that nothing in the real world is truly normally distributed. The best one can hope for is approximated normality. See George Box's classic paper, Science & Statistics. Fortunately, linear models are quite robust to non-normality of the errors. Independence (and homoscedasticity) of the errors is far more important than normality of the errors, particularly as n increases.
Box, G. E. (1976). Science and statistics. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 71(356), 791-799.
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Dear science community!
I need your help, please!
I`m totally disapointed and at a loss!
In 2020 (at the end of October) there were the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (ICoSiET 2020). Me and my colegues took part in these conference. As the result (like a result of any other conference) the thesis collection should have been published (at the 4th quarter of the 2020)). Unfortanately, these collection still haven`t publised (despite the fact that 2021 is already at its end).
So, I wonder, if there are anybody, who know something about this situation? Maby there are any of those who also waiting for their thesis?
We have wrote lots of messages to the organizators and the head of the university (in which this conference took place) but they stoped to respond us.
I think this situation shows disrespect for the conference participants. And I believe that such situations should be inlighted in our community!
Thank you, for your attention!
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I perfectly understand your indignation! Our entire laboratory invested money in the conference. It is very unpleasant that they deceived us, they still do not get in touch. Here is one of the organizers of this conference: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Andri-Pranolo
Here is a link to this year's conference: https://icosiet.org/2021/
Be careful not to be deceived either.
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I have extracted polyclonal antibodies with PEG 6000 in PH (5.2, using HCL to adjust PH). Using dialysis membrane (12000 cutoff), the PEG was successfully separated from the polyclonal antibodies and I purified my product.
Currently, I am trying to establish product in industrial scale. But, I do not know what can be used instead of dialysis membrane in industry scale???? What is your suggestion? Could you please kindly help me regarding to the separation of PEG from polyclonal antibodies (180 KDa) in industry scale??????
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I have done that by an ammonium sulphate precipitation, PEG is insoluble in AS solutions and forms an organic layer on top after centrifugation. You remove first that, then the aqueous phase and retain the protein pellet. Quick, simple and cheap.
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Dear all
What are the best books in chemistry that can be used for curriculum design "i.e. for Materials Chemistry"?
Please write the name of the best books that you read/know in the field of "chemistry"? General Chemistry, Organic, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic, Biochemistry, Polymer synthesis, Polymer Chemistry, Computational Chemistry, Solvents and Solvation theories, Analytical Chemistry, Electrochemistry, etc [...] and Chemistry Laboratory Design.
Thank you very much
- - -
* Additional comment:
You can, also, send to me links (or the books' front page photo) or E books (PDF or any) here or in private message. Thank you!
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Top 3 Chemistry Books | Personal Statement Reading
  • 1) Periodic Tales: The curious lives of the elements - Hugh Aldersey-Williams.
  • 2) Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie - Barbara Goldsmith.
  • 3) H2O: A biography of water - Phillip Ball.
  • Bonus: Periodic Videos.
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Good research is based on good relationship between the mentor or supervisor and the scholar. What are the qualities a supervisor or mentor must have to have a healthy and friendly environment in the laboratory?
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with collaboration with University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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HI All,
I'm doing a survey as part of an Audacious program (https://www.startupdunedin.nz/audacious), which essentially is a StartUp initiative at Otago University. I'm curious to understand what level of programming do biologists these days need during their day to day research.
For all the biologists out there here are some questions to start the discussion on this topic:
1) Have you done any programming till date? If so which language did you use and for what purpose?
2) How have to overcome programming limitations? For example, did you get the work done through bioinformaticians, or sought help from your programming friend, etc?
3) Have you used online biological databases for your research? If so, which one?
4) How much of artificial intelligence have you used in your research? Do you see AI potential in your current work?
If you have anything else to add, please feel free.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with collaboration with University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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I extracted the essential oil and I found that my major compound represent 95 % of the mixture and only less than 5 % as minor constituents ( 20 constituents).
I'm I allowed to take my major constituent as starting material to perform chemical reactions?
Do the minor constituents representing only 5 % will not disturb the obtention of the desired compound?
I would like to insert some functional groups to increase bioactivity.
Any help in this regard will be appreciated.
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Dear Alexander Sinko, well done ! 95% !!!, as dear Dr Erdal mentioned , I advise you to be careful to remained 5% ( 20 components), you can use Column Chromatography or Solvent extraction........
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What kind of functional groups do we need to insert by the synthesis in organic chemistry to have anti-cancer activity in perspective?
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It's not usually the functional group, but a pharmacophore! Increasing the cytotoxicity/toxic nature of your substrate will help a lot. Check for sulfo, sulphonamides, nitro, amine, etc. in a set pharmacophoric pattern, which can be deduced from know anti-cancers, especially the synthetic ones, methotrexate is a case in point!
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A performance task? A standardized test? Or some other means? Why?
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A question that needs more thought
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I want to start from phenol to synthesize this compound, but I dont know about the detailed mechanisms and conditions.
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Dear Jialiang,
many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with other RG members. I did a SciFinder search for this compound and found that it is not known from the previous chemical literature. However, the analogous compound is known in which the ethyl group in para-position of the phenyl ring on the left side is replaced by a methyl group. This compound has been reported in the following article:
Chemoselectivity in the Cu-catalyzed O-arylation of phenols and aliphatic alcohols
Fortunately this paper has been posted by the authors a public full text on RG. Thus you can freely download it as pdf file and print it out if required. The synthetic route is outlined in the attached reaction equation. You just need to replace the starting material 4-iodotoluene by 4-iodoethylbenzene.
Good luck with your reserach work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Dear All
Our publication house “M/s Har Krishan Bhalla & Sons” has been actively engaged for the promotion and utilization of essential oil bearing plants, and sharing the international research experiences in the field in form of a international peer reviewed Journal subscribed in Worldwide, Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants (JEOBP, <www.jeobp.com>) since 1998 aiming to benefit to all who have interest in essential oil-bearing plants.
Now, it has been planned to bring about a new Journal Entitled “Analytical Chemistry Letters” under above mention publication house.
Analytical Chemistry Letters is a peer reviewed international journal which provides rapid communication in all areas of Analytical Chemistry. Six issues per year are proposed and the first issue is planned to publish in January 2011. The Journal will also available online.
The journal publishes original research articles, short communications as well as review articles in all relevant areas of analytical chemistry which includes modern analytical and bioanalytical, Analytical Chemistry with multidisciplinary approach, Mass Spectrometry, Separations, Spectroscopy, Biological and Clinical sciences, Genomics and Proteomics, Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Science, Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Natural Product Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Food Science, Forensic Science, Environmental chemistry / analysis, Electrochemistry and Instrumentation.
We invite you please be a part of first issue and first volume of said Journal and send us 1-2 good articles for publication. Please send your article at the address given below, you can send your article by E-mail. For this the publication house shall be highly thankful to you.
Dr M K Verma
Managing Editor
Analytical Chemistry Letters
Instrumentation Division
Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu-180001 (J & K) INDIA
+91 9469502270
Thank you very much. I look forward to hearing from you.
Arvinder Singh Bhalla
For “Har Krishan Bhalla and Sons
7/1/2C, Prem Nagar
Dehradun – 248007, India
+91 9219506760
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what is the IF for this journal?
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I need to know that after dissolved EDTA in suitable solvent e.g. water, isopropanol etc.. what are the ionic species will form and how to confirm those ionic species presence using which characterizations? any references regarding EDTA dissolving reaction chemistry will be helpful. Thank you.
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Dear Umesh Nakate, dissolution is a physical process, which means one can not expect a chemical reaction to occurs. EDTA dissolution is pH dependent, because COOH groups are ionizable only at pH's higher than 2.24. the ionizable groups are behind the complexation interactions with metals for exemple. Please check the following for more details. My Regards
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I'd love to see a rough sketch of how the task would go.
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  1. Give students raw data and ask them to write an argument or analysis based on the data.
  2. Have students explore and write about unfamiliar points of view or “what if” situations.
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I have read few articles (mostly based on simulations) that show metal nanoparticles bond with graphene or graphene oxide. However, I am thinking about how can metal (i.e. 0 oxidative state which is already in the lowest energy form chemical bonds with graphene (with no functional groups) or graphene oxide (has functional groups). I personally believe that metal nanoparticles are mostly adsorbed (Vanderwall forces) and no chemical bonding can occur. Please let me know your thoughts.
regards
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As XPS/ESCA shows the surface (top 10 - 15 atomic layers) of metals is not in the 0 oxidation state. Oxygen in the atmosphere conspires to have the metal in a higher oxidation state on the surface. In the late 1970’s we showed that even gold on silica matrix was in the +3 oxidation state. Zerovalent elements could only be revealed by Ar ion etching of the top layers. Silver is probably the best example.
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Hey
I need the free amine of Cystamine for my next reaction step but Cystamine is only available as a HCl salt.
i cant find any procedures/instructions on how to release the free base.
I tried dissolving it in 2M and 10M NaOH solution and extract it with chloroform and then evaporate the Chloroform on the rotavap – did not work
I also added NaCl to the aqu phase to saturate it – also didnt work.
anyone who worked with Cystamine or Cysteamine before and has a clue on how to Free the base?
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Hello Sabrina,
many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with the RG community. First of all, let's recall the difference between cysteamine and cystamine in order to avoid any confusion. Cysteamine is the simple compound 2-aminoethanethiol or 2-mercaptoethylamine, H2NCH2CH2SH, while cystamine is it's oxidation product, namely the disulfide derivative H2NCH2CH2S–SCH2CH2NH2. Pure cysteamine is a colorless, crystalline, and hygroscopic solid with an unpleasant, mercaptane-like odor. Due to its high solubility in water, free cysteamine is very difficult to isolate. Thus it is not really surprising that your first attempts to isolate it failed. What makes the situation even more complicated is the fact that the free cysteamine base is extremely sensitive to oxidation. Auto-oxidation in the presence moisture, light or heat leads to easy formation of the disulfide-bridged dimer cystamine.
My personal advice to overcome this problem would be to stay away from working in aqueous solution. To the best of my knowledge, cysteamine hydrochloride is soluble in methanol. Thus you can prepare a solution of your cysteamine hydrochloride in methanol (or ethanol) and combine it with a solution of 1 equivalent of KOH in methanol or ethanol. This should lead to quantitative precipitation of KCl, while in solution you have the cysteamine free base. Then separate the KCl by filtration and carefully evaporate the methanol (or ethanol) under vacuum using a "Wasserstrahlpumpe". This should leave behind the free cysteamine base as a solid or oil. Ideally, the entire reaction should be carried out under nitrogen using e.g. a Schlenk line (I assume that Schlenk apparatuses are still available in the labs of Professor Heinicke 😎) in order to avoid oxidation to the disulfide cystamine. The reaction should work even if cysteamine hydrochloride is not completely soluble in methanol or ethanol. It will dissolve during the course of the reaction, because the driving force in the insolubility of potassium chloride (KCl).
Alternatively you might consider if your next step could be done without isoplation of the free cysteamine free base, i.e. if it can be produced in situ and then allowed to react with the next reagent wthout isolation.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your experinents and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Dear to whom it may concern,
I wonder whether benzopyrylium ion is permanently or temporarily positively charged because I would like to convert its positive charge to its neutral form.
Would you mind if you may give me some suggestions in this case?
Best regards,
Khoa.
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I agree with Miguel that a ring-opening or destruction can be used to obtain benzopyran or an alternative.
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I see that silver mostly has a coordination number of two, and have seen to complex with two mono-dentates. Can Ag+ form complexes with di or tri or any polydentates ligands?
What kind of complex can Ag from with O- ? (when conditions are such that Ag2O does not form)
regards
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Hello Deepak,
this is in fact a very interesting technical question (or better two questions). For the first part of your question (Can Ag+ form complexes with di or tri or any polydentates ligands?) the answer is clearly YES. This is easily possible when the ligands are of the so-called tripod-type. The most prominent examples of these ligands are the tris(pyrazolyl)borate anions. The are also ferquently called scorpionate ligands. The tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands and their coordination chemistry were developed by the Ukrainian-born chemist Swiatoslaw Trofimenko (1931–2007) in the mis 1960's and are still highly popular in coordination chemistry. The potassium salts ofc these ligands are easily prepared from KBH4 and various pyrazoles in a melt reaction. The resulting tris(pyrazolyl)borate anions for stable complexes with almost every metallic element in the Period Table including silver. Due to their special tripod-like geometry the scorpionate ligands are almost always tridentate. Thus with Ag+ they form tetracoordinate complexes. For a good overview of scorpionate complexes of copper, silver, and gold please have a look at the following useful review article:
Trispyrazolylborate coinage metals complexes: Structural features and catalytic transformations
Unfortunately this paper has not been posted as public full text on RG. However, two of the authors have RG profiles. Thus you can easily request the full text of this review directly from one of the authors via RG.
Good luck with your research work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Kindly let us know the difference between white PAF and grey PAF. Will it cause any difference in the application?
Does these two types of PAF are used for separate applications?
Apart from chemistry, what is the difference in Super grade, grade I and grade II based on its applications
Which PAF is used for which specific application.
Thanks and regards
Pallavi Deshmukh
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Dear Dr. Pallavi Deshmukh thank you for your kind response and explanation. First of all this case shows that the use of ambiguous abbreviations can cause quite a bit of confusion. At least now it is clear what you mean. To my knowledge cryolite (Na3AlF6) and potassium cryolite (K3AlF6) are often contaminated with calcium and iron. The iron can for example be present in the form of siderite, FeCO3, which can cause yellow, brown, or even black colorations. Thus the main differences between white and gray potassium cryolite is purity. The white version is the purest material and therefore more expensive than the gray one. For a short explanation about the differences between the two please have a look at the following potentially useful link:
However, the explanation of the origin of the different colors given here is rather ridiculous (Citation: "The difference between the gray and white of potassium cryolite is actually the difference of a color."). Thus the article should be read with some care. However, the link provides a useful statement about the different uses of the two forms of potassium cryolite (gray: aluminum alloy additives and fluxes; white: grinding wheels, soldering fluxes and related high-end applications.
I hope you will find this information useful. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I am looking for a software that can predict the chemical reactions that will occur when I mix certain substances. For Example: Na+Cl --> NaCl.
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Some software of quantum mechanics such as Gaussian, Hyperchem, Material Studio, Gamess, and so on could support you to solve well it. Have a good day!!!
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I was preparing a phosphate buffer and adjusting its pH to 7.2 from 9.0 by adding monobasic phosphate. In the beginning, it started to decrease fast but then, it went slowly (it was about pH=7.6). Even though I added too much monobasic solution, its pH was not increased easily. Then, it went to pH=7.3 easily but it stopped at pH=7.3 again. I wonder why it happened. I know it is related to its titration and the titration graph is fine to understand but I need a comprehensive explanation for it.
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Dear all, one point should be considered, buffers in the alkaline part of the pH are unstable because of the ambiant CO2 (having acid character), so better to work under an inert atmosphere. My Regards
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We have small molecules, measured the critical micellar concentration. we getting keep negative value. it is a bit surprising. if anyone can explain the reason with support of literature will be helpful for us to come over the issue.
Thank you
Raj Kumar
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This can be a consequence of instruments errors or inaccurate use of mathematical equations if the extrapolation method is used to find a solution.
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Respected Sir/Madam,
I've attached a picture of manually drawn organic compound using "Pubchem Sketcher". I was planning to synthesis this molecule using synthetic chemistry protocols.
Considering me as a fresher to synthetic organic chemistry, I'd like to learn more about the following questions.
1. What are all the different synthetic routes/steps that could be used to synthesis this compound?
2. How do I find the chemicals list, the steps involved, and the reaction environment required for this compound synthesis?
3. What are all the computational tools to predict the organic synthesis pathways?
If organic synthesis protocols for this substructure is available, please share them for references.
Thanking you
Hari Prasath Nagaiah,
Research Scholar,
Contact: +91-6382704953.
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Dear Hari,
many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with the RG community. We have 40+ years of experience in inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Thus I'm not a proven expert in multi-step organic synthesis, but for our organometallic research we synthesized numerous organic ligands. So I would just like to add a few personal comments in addition to the very valuable expert answers provided by Corentin Lefebvre. I did a quick SciFinder search and found that this molecule has never been reported in the previous literature. When you ask "What are all the different synthetic routes/steps that could be used to synthesis this compound?" my impression is that the answer can perhaps be found in the course of a Master or PhD thesis, but not within an answer on RG. However, in my personal opinion the main question is "Will this compound have any useful applications which justify the efforts of synthesizing it?". If not, it is perhaps not worth spending months to develop a suitable synthesis.
As for the possible purification, it is clear to me that the compound will be a solid, so that recrystallization will be the purification method of choice. Since it is a carboxylic acid, chances are that it could also be dissolved in aqueous NaOH and then precipitated again by adding hydrochloric aid.
Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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  1. Product is achieved using 1:1.
  2. Oil route is used instead of methyl ester or FA.
  3. Reaction is conducted under ambient pressure throughout.
  4. Our color test is consistently below 300 alpha but we have received enquires on whether we can make Alpha 120 requirement?
  5. Kindly please advise what can be done to achieve this? Thanks.
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Hello Tan Wee Soon,
to get low colour products you have to do at least two things.
* Working at low temperatures
* Working in the absence of oxigen
The inert gas of choise is Argon because it has a higher density as Nitrogen has.
Reduced pressur is also benficial.
Regards
Andreas
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Interested in knowing molecules with two or more sulfonic/phosphonic acid groups without a common endpoint (excluding phytic acid) and are available from natural resources or utmost commercially available.
Any relevant reading suggestions are also much appreciated. Thanks.
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Dear Nagapradeep N. that's a really interesting technical question. As an inorganic chemist I'm certainly not a proven expert in this field. In fact, without running a detailed internet search, no such compound immediately come to my mind (at least no naturally occurring ones). For a very good overview on the chemistry of organic phosphonates (including bis- and tris-phosphonates) please have a look at the following useful review article:
Phosphonic acid: Preparation and applications
This article is freely available as publiic full text on RG.
The situation looks much brighter when it comes to commercially available compounds of this type. For example, please check benzene-1,3,5-tris(phosphonic acid) and benzene-1,3,5-tris(sulfonic acid).
Good luck with your research!
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Please help me on how to synthesize low molecular weight N-methylol melamin resin that can penetrate the wood cell wall.
and what should be done to reduce formaldehyde emissions?
Thank you for your time.
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Dear Maryam Haseli, the question is a bit unclear, melamine is hexa-functional, methylolation is a function of the ratio melamine/HCHO, so may be you have to reduce the amount of formaldehyde. The attached study is concerned by HCHO low emission. My Regards
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Research chemists continue in their slow uptake of preprints. I've lately suggested one key reason for this unique behaviour of scholars in the basic sciences in two OA studies, one published by Publications:
and another by Insights:
What is your opinion on the origin of this delay? Has your team recently embraced preprint publishing? What are your favorite preprint repositories?
Thank you in advance for your insight.
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Dear Mario, this is certainly an important technical question which will be of broad interest to many RG members. When you say "Research chemists continue in their slow uptake of preprints" I can only agree with you from my personal experience. We have 40+ years of experience in chemical publishing, and during this long time we never ever posted a preprint on a preprint server. The reason? I may be old-fashioned, but personally I'm strictly against any form of preprints. I simply see no benefits in them, but only potential disadvantages. We always published our research work in international, peer-reviwed journals. What would have been the benefit of publicly posting an unreviewed manuscript? What if the manuscript is later rejected? What if someone else is "too interested" in our results and copies them? So why not wait until the peer-reviewed manuscript is published online by the journal? You can always use the waiting time for doing new research, writing the next manuscript, or working on a review article. In any case, I do not plan to post any preprints during the rest of my scientific life.
Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Hello everyone,
I have a serious problem with coating the Pd/C catalyst uniformly on the glassy carbon.
I prepared the Pd/C ink by adding 20 mg of Pd/C into 9 mL of DI water. Then I sonicated it for 10 mins. I added 1 mL of IPA into the mixture and sonicated for another 10mins. I pipetted 5 uL of the ink on the center of glassy carbon (Diameter=3mm) and dried it in the air. To avoid any dusk from the air, I used a biker to cover the glass carbon. But I can't get a uniform layer of Pd/C catalyst on glassy carbon. Here is the picture of the Pd/C film. Can anyone help me with this problem?
Thanks,
Jay
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Palladium nanoparticles supported on carbon black powder as an
effective anodic catalyst for application in a direct glucose
alkaline fuel cell
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