Science topics: Chemistry
Chemistry - Science topic
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds.
Questions related to Chemistry
I need to know that after dissolved EDTA in suitable solvent e.g. water, isopropanol etc.. what are the ionic species will form and how to confirm those ionic species presence using which characterizations? any references regarding EDTA dissolving reaction chemistry will be helpful. Thank you.
I have read few articles (mostly based on simulations) that show metal nanoparticles bond with graphene or graphene oxide. However, I am thinking about how can metal (i.e. 0 oxidative state which is already in the lowest energy form chemical bonds with graphene (with no functional groups) or graphene oxide (has functional groups). I personally believe that metal nanoparticles are mostly adsorbed (Vanderwall forces) and no chemical bonding can occur. Please let me know your thoughts.
- Product is achieved using 1:1.
- Oil route is used instead of methyl ester or FA.
- Reaction is conducted under ambient pressure throughout.
- Our color test is consistently below 300 alpha but we have received enquires on whether we can make Alpha 120 requirement?
- Kindly please advise what can be done to achieve this? Thanks.
I need the free amine of Cystamine for my next reaction step but Cystamine is only available as a HCl salt.
i cant find any procedures/instructions on how to release the free base.
I tried dissolving it in 2M and 10M NaOH solution and extract it with chloroform and then evaporate the Chloroform on the rotavap – did not work
I also added NaCl to the aqu phase to saturate it – also didnt work.
anyone who worked with Cystamine or Cysteamine before and has a clue on how to Free the base?
I see that silver mostly has a coordination number of two, and have seen to complex with two mono-dentates. Can Ag+ form complexes with di or tri or any polydentates ligands?
What kind of complex can Ag from with O- ? (when conditions are such that Ag2O does not form)
Kindly let us know the difference between white PAF and grey PAF. Will it cause any difference in the application?
Does these two types of PAF are used for separate applications?
Apart from chemistry, what is the difference in Super grade, grade I and grade II based on its applications
Which PAF is used for which specific application.
Thanks and regards
I am looking for a software that can predict the chemical reactions that will occur when I mix certain substances. For Example: Na+Cl --> NaCl.
Dear to whom it may concern,
I wonder whether benzopyrylium ion is permanently or temporarily positively charged because I would like to convert its positive charge to its neutral form.
Would you mind if you may give me some suggestions in this case?
I was preparing a phosphate buffer and adjusting its pH to 7.2 from 9.0 by adding monobasic phosphate. In the beginning, it started to decrease fast but then, it went slowly (it was about pH=7.6). Even though I added too much monobasic solution, its pH was not increased easily. Then, it went to pH=7.3 easily but it stopped at pH=7.3 again. I wonder why it happened. I know it is related to its titration and the titration graph is fine to understand but I need a comprehensive explanation for it.
We have small molecules, measured the critical micellar concentration. we getting keep negative value. it is a bit surprising. if anyone can explain the reason with support of literature will be helpful for us to come over the issue.
I've attached a picture of manually drawn organic compound using "Pubchem Sketcher". I was planning to synthesis this molecule using synthetic chemistry protocols.
Considering me as a fresher to synthetic organic chemistry, I'd like to learn more about the following questions.
1. What are all the different synthetic routes/steps that could be used to synthesis this compound?
2. How do I find the chemicals list, the steps involved, and the reaction environment required for this compound synthesis?
3. What are all the computational tools to predict the organic synthesis pathways?
If organic synthesis protocols for this substructure is available, please share them for references.
Hari Prasath Nagaiah,
Interested in knowing molecules with two or more sulfonic/phosphonic acid groups without a common endpoint (excluding phytic acid) and are available from natural resources or utmost commercially available.
Any relevant reading suggestions are also much appreciated. Thanks.
Please help me on how to synthesize low molecular weight N-methylol melamin resin that can penetrate the wood cell wall.
and what should be done to reduce formaldehyde emissions?
Thank you for your time.
Research chemists continue in their slow uptake of preprints. I've lately suggested one key reason for this unique behaviour of scholars in the basic sciences in two OA studies, one published by Publications:
and another by Insights:
What is your opinion on the origin of this delay? Has your team recently embraced preprint publishing? What are your favorite preprint repositories?
Thank you in advance for your insight.
I have a serious problem with coating the Pd/C catalyst uniformly on the glassy carbon.
I prepared the Pd/C ink by adding 20 mg of Pd/C into 9 mL of DI water. Then I sonicated it for 10 mins. I added 1 mL of IPA into the mixture and sonicated for another 10mins. I pipetted 5 uL of the ink on the center of glassy carbon (Diameter=3mm) and dried it in the air. To avoid any dusk from the air, I used a biker to cover the glass carbon. But I can't get a uniform layer of Pd/C catalyst on glassy carbon. Here is the picture of the Pd/C film. Can anyone help me with this problem?
I have to use a variety of chemicals to identify and separate out the different red pigments within certain species of crabs' eyes, one of which it is suggested to used acidified methanol for ommochrome pigments. However we do not have any premade in the labs and they have told me to make some myself and i have no clue what the best method (or acid) to use for this is. There are some papers that say to use hydrochloric acid and some that say to use sulfuric acid.
Please help me on how to synthesize low molecular weight phenol formaldehyde resin that can penetrate the wood cell wall.
Thank you for your time.
I'm doing a survey as part of an Audacious program (https://www.startupdunedin.nz/audacious), which essentially is a StartUp initiative at Otago University. I'm curious to understand what level of programming do biologists these days need during their day to day research.
For all the biologists out there here are some questions to start the discussion on this topic:
1) Have you done any programming till date? If so which language did you use and for what purpose?
2) How have to overcome programming limitations? For example, did you get the work done through bioinformaticians, or sought help from your programming friend, etc?
3) Have you used online biological databases for your research? If so, which one?
4) How much of artificial intelligence have you used in your research? Do you see AI potential in your current work?
If you have anything else to add, please feel free.
In the (electro-) conducting materials, as I know, there is an energy gap between the valence band (VB) and the conduction band (CB) that can be brought to or near-to the Fermi level by doping (p-type or n-type dopant).
But ( My question is ), If I want to design a (semi- or super-) conductor's materials (inorganic or polymeric) , Which properties would I look for? and, also, Which characterizations would I consider for the properties' investigations? What are the requirements for the materials' property (with regard to its band structure) to achieve the considered structure-property relationships (or requirements ) for the preparation of the conducting materials?
Dear RG Academics who Travel,
This is an important topic because many academics relish going to desirable places for conferences. My husband and I used to travel to scientific conferences but so much red tape is involved he and I are glad to attend mostly on video conferencing technologies (yes, like Zoom and others whose names I don't know. No intent to favor one or the other technology company)
It is good to remember that social bragging rights do not equal additions to knowledge (i.e., what exotic place one has traveled lately.). Yet, local economies are helped by all kinds of conferences and the money that they bring.
There are costs and benefits either way, so please share your ideas about continuing in-person conferences when there is little we cannot do via remote presentation, informal conferring and virtual "hallway" chatter.
Look look forward to your ideas.
If there is a slight shift position of the functional group or peak intensity after the introduction of a Li+ source salt, what is the possible and reasonable chemistry? Please share if there are any reliable references regarding functional polymers and Li+ solvation chemistry. Thank you!
Hi everyone! I have a question for my farm compost.
So i just do my research and try to look for a compost with :
around 3.5% of Total N Content,
around 5% for my P2O5 content, and
around 1.5% for my K2O content.
And i just wonder, if i just combine :
Cocoa shell meal with 2.5% N, 1% P2O5, and 2.5% of K2O,
Worm casting that has 1.5% N, 2.5% P2O5, and 1.3% K2O,
Would it turns my compost into 4% N, 3.5% P2O5, and 5% K2O just like that?
i'm so confused as i'm not really good in both chemistry :D (as a geophysics engineer, chemistry is such a hard subject for me).
I have tried dissolving sodium oxalate in water and I am currently trying oxalic acid in NaOH however this does not seem to be working either. it wont dissolve and I cant find the answer on the internet anywhere. Someone please help
I need to choose a topic on design and analysis of experiment as a project. The project consists of planning, designing, conducting and analyzing an experiment, using appropriate principles and software package of design and analysis of experiments. Could you please recommend me an article or any reliable resources for the project? It must encompass 2 nuisance factors and topics such as Randomized blocks, factorial designs, 2k design and NOT RSM or CCD.
After the execution of the test of PDP ( Potentiodynamic Polarization) and the plot of Tafel curves, we need to extract to parameters from the plots in order to determine the corrosion inhibition efficiency.
We need Icorr ( current density) to determine the IE ( Inhibition Efficacy)
But, concerning βc and βa, where we can use them? Can we calculate something from them? Does the change of them from concentration to concentration of inhibitor say something?
PS. I'm doing only corrosion inhibition of Mild Steel in HCl, I'm using simple equivalent circuit containing Rs ( Solution resistance), Rct( charge transfer resistance), and CPE ( phase constant element).
Any contribution to this question will be appreciated.
When we used CTAB as a capping agent in reducing 4-nitrophenol by Ag NPs, Why CTAB is not good as much as SDS with the same reaction? What is the main reason with it?
In what case would a reaction rate always show direct relation with activation energy or would it always be an inverse relation? Is it a indirect relation, inverse relation or both case can hold? (Please provide supporting resource, thank you).
I would like to know which of these reactors is expected to record the highest conversion for CSTR and batch reactor when both reactors are assumed to have a similar volume, geometry, operating condition, and stirring rate (if possible do provide supporting resource/reference).
Thank you as you share your experience.
I am doing my thesis, this is about the design of a theoretical plant to obtain furfural. I need this book to know first hand: what are the by-products during the chemical reaction and how to calculate them? all this for a balance of matter. Excuse my english, thanks
One of the most major problems of writing an undergraduate article is the lack of access to a laboratory and a professor to check the accuracy of article information in the laboratory.
For example, at my university, only postgraduate, PhD and postdoctoral students are allowed to work in the laboratory. What should an undergraduate student do if he or she wants to write an article and extract the information needed for his or her paper from the lab?
Undergraduate students do not have access to professors and laboratories to verify their ideas, what should they do to write an article?
Can he write another type of article that is published in a valid journal but does not require laboratory information? Or can he collaborate with a foreign professor to write an article?
What is the solution to the problem?
Interested in using commercially available heterocyclic/non-heterocyclic aromatic S-sources for making metallic sulfides under pyrolytic conditions.
Any relevant reading suggestions are also much appreciated. Thanks.
I have been preparing MoS2 through a hydrothermal process by combining thiourea and ammonium molybdate with 2.28 g and 1.2 grams, respectively, in a 35ml DI water and place it in 70 ml teflon autoclaves, at the end I would get 1g of MoS2 powder. Now, the issue is that I am forced to switch for thioacetamide as sulfur source, so I started with the same proportions as the thiourea (2.28g) but it appears that it is too much I get a very thick slurry in the autoclave instead of just light slurry that I can wash. So,any recommendations of proportions and weights that I can use to get similar results as the thiourea one?
Even though Artemis gives an error bar on the EXAFS fitting but it assumes the value to be zero at certain R values.
In the case of data with some experimental noise, the error bar needs to be corrected, weighted by the square root of the reduced chi-squared value, taking into account the experimental noise for each R-space spectrum from 15 to 25 Å, as described in
How do calculate the uncertainties in the coordination number when EXAFS is fitted using Artemis?
Thanks in advance
Hello, I'm an early career PhD student. When people ask me questions e.g. In conference or lab meeting, even when I know the answer my mind tends to go blank and I say I don't know just to get out of the situation. I used to be good at answering questions and taking time to think and answer , especially during my bachelors degree. As time was gone by I feel I have gotten worse mainly because I am afraid the answer will be ridiculous and made fun of as I have reached a very advanced level where everyone knows what they are talking about. After all these years sometimes I get tired of science in general and have no motivation to read up on my project , so sometimes I genuinely don't know the answers which makes things worse . I used to have a lot of passion which is what put me on this path, but at the moment I'm tired of science which is making it hard to answer peoples questions and i think people are starting to notice. My answers are generally non specific and waffley, and I was wondering if anyone has tips to overcome these problems. I am interested in my project and deep down I love science and wish I could do better and go back to how I used to be and express my answers logically and what is expected at this level. This is especially important for my thesis defense, I need help and tips please on how others process these questions and defend their work. This problem has also started to overflow into my writing where I can't think properly or focus with the overwhelming amount of information.
We are trying to prepare liquid MMN culture medium (Marx, 1949), but we have run into a precipitate problem. We observe the precipitate for the first time after autoclaving. However, when repeating the procedure for the preparation of the medium, we observed that an almost negligible precipitate was already produced after adding the FeCl3. We see that the water turns whitish paying enough attention.
Below I detail the concentration and the order of addition of each component in the medium:
- CaCl2 · 2H2O -> 66 mg / L
- NaCl -> 25 mg / L
- KH2PO4 -> 500 mg / L
- (NH4)2HPO4 -> 250 mg / L
- MgSO4 · 7H2O -> 150 mg / L
- FeCl3 · 6H2O -> 19.992 mg / L
- Thiamine HCl -> 100 μg / L
- Malt extrac -> 3 g / L
- Glucose -> 10 g / L
- Agar -> 15 g / L
Could an Inorganic Chemist or someone who has prepared this medium before help us?
Thank you very much in advance.
Note: To date we have always prepared the MMN culture medium with agar and we had not observed any precipitate, perhaps because the agar prevented appreciation after autoclaving.
C1s peak at 284.8 corresponding to Adventitious Carbon is a reference for the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. However, when using carbon-based support, say Vulcan carbon (rich in graphitic carbon), r-GO and GO for deposition of active catalyst.
The C1s peak in these cases will be dominated by sp2 carbons, not by Adventitious Carbon.
How to calibrate the XPS data in that case?
How to account for the charging problem?
Thanks in advance
I synthesized alginate methacrylate and performed an NMR spectrum. I'm not an expert in organic chemistry and I would like to be sure how to calculate the degree of methacrylation.
Thank you very much for your help
I am working with a reagent that is prone to hydrolysis for my chemical reaction. For that reason, one of the procedures that I am following recommends the use of freeze-pump-thaw cycles to degass the solvent. However, can I just use an anhydrous solvent instead of going through this process? Forgive me if this is a very obvious question.
I am working on my research proposal on the topic, "physical proximity and technology-enhanced collaborative learning in Chemistry. And am going to use the topic matter and change, using CK-12 foundation.
I have a micro array membrane from abcam and i need to view the array in the Bio Rad chemi doc MP instrument. Is there any specific setting that needs to be followed for a membrane array or is it the same as viewing a western blot?
I am using metal oxide/Graphene composite and electrospinning it using PVA/Water polymeric medium. When I deposit on the aluminum foil the surface is uniform with fewer flakes. I am speculating that this may be due to the polymer/solvent non-uniform evaporation from the surface due to annealing (450C for 2 hours). Can anyone suggest something from their experience about the annealing of metal oxide electrospun film for robust adhesion and uniform deposition? is these flakes normal? or do I need to change the polymer or solvent?
thanks in advance.
Several studies on combustion of bio diesel/petroleum fuel blends in IC engines and other power generation / combustion devices discussed extensively about the influence of fuel unsaturation on NOx emissions. A fundamental question arises on how we quantify fuel unsaturation?
I would like to start a discussion on the topic - How to quantify fuel unsaturation ? what would be an appropriate index to quantify unsaturation irrespective of the family of origin of fuels - like methyl esters, ether, alcohol , alkanes, alkenes, alkynes or aromatics or a weighted combination of aforementioned categories.
Our research group's take on this -
We have established a parameter - Degree of unsaturation that serves as a common platform across different fuel families (esters/alkanes/aromatics) to quantify the effects of fuel unsaturation, particularly with petroleum/bio-diesel blends. DOU can be evaluated based on the average molecular formula of the fuel alone without involving complex and expensive experimental procedures such as those involved in the measurement of iodine number and bromine number.
If interested, please follow the link to access the research work we have conducted at our laboratory to investigate the effect of fuel unsaturation on nitric oxide emissions.
Message me to get a copy of this article.
I use a vacuum desiccator to remove dissolved gas in a NaOCl solution (2.5wt%)
The vacuum pressure is about 2 kPa and I observed the solution start to boiling.
However, dissolved gas is still eluted after the NaOCl solution is stored in vacuum for about 1 week.
In general, dissolved gas in water is sufficiently removed in about two days.
In my opinion, I couldn't completely remove the dissolved gas due to a chemical reaction that I am not familiar with.
Why can't I remove dissolved gas in an NaOCl solution?
I have prepared natural fiber reinforced polyolefin composite for which methane emission has to be estimated once it lands to landfill after completing the service life. Is there any article which talks about this or any methodology to estimate the green house gas emission specially methane.
the result of expression analysis by by two different chemistry taqmen and cyber results can be comparable used for the same research topic.
I have prepared cerium oxide nanomaterials. I obtained the spindle-shaped morphology by agglomeration of a number of nanorods. What chemistry can be involved in the agglomeration of nanorods into spindle-shaped morphology.
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are so stable in water. It can be stable in water for several months.
What is the reason(s) for their high stability?
What is the interaction between GQDs (specially their functional groups) and water?
Is there hydrogen bonding?
Thanks for your answer.
im looking for a diy at home (home lab) molecular magnet in a chemical suspension that is stable at room temperatures and cheap
how can I find a common related project between chemistry (polymers or biomolecules) and mechanical engineering( for example fluid mechanics )???
This nickel oxide is grown on Ni substrates, and the mass of nickel oxide need to be precisely measured.
So is it possible to measure the mass of this oxide layer ? (Substrate ~0.1g, oxide layer ~2mg)
Or dissolve it thoroughly while prevent the Ni substrates from being corroded?
Allobetulin is a triterpene molecule, in which there is just one active site - an alcohol group, that can be made into an ester group. I have decided to use an acyl chloride for this purpose, because the acyl chloride is very reactive and i am searching for an efficient reaction.
I have encountered a problem though: there is a ether group in allobetulin (its tetrahydrofuran ring) and it gets cleaved by the HCl produced in the esterification reaction. I would like to prevent this from happening.
My idea was using pyridine to capture the H+ from the reaction mixture and executing the reaction at a low/room temperature, because ether cleavage generally needs heat [https://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/reaction-guide/acidic-cleavage-of-ethers-sn2-reaction/]. I would follow the reaction with TLC until completion.
Is this a good idea? And if yes, how should i work up the resulting product mixture to get a product?
Here is a link where the structure of allobetulin is depicted:
I would really appreciate the help! Thanks :)
Raw sugar is generally golden brown-honey colored. The raw sugar is converted into white sugar using the refinery process, in which the raw sugar solution (melt) is treated with phosphoric acid (which reduces the color slightly), followed by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) to reach 7-7.5 pH and heated to 85 Deg Celcius generate calcium phosphate flocs, which reduces the color and turbidity of the solution. Flocculating agents (polymers) are also added to increase the flocculation rate. This process is called "phosphitation" in the Sugar industry and is able to reduce the color of the melt by upto 30-40% (the color is measured using the ICUMSA method). This requires around 400 ppm of phosphoric acid, which is a huge quantity considering the volume of melt treated in a refinery.
I want to know whether the same effect can be obtained by using any other chemicals/biochemicals in lower amounts?
Need to form uniform coating of ZnO with readily available ZnO powder on a substrate. So which liquid solvent I need to use and which procedure I need to follow to prepare such solution? Very new to field of chemistry. Please help
I am working on polishing abrasives. I need to do few characterizations ? which can provide the on time surface chemistry of substrate with polishing abrasive during optical polishing. I would also like to know the physics behind it.
I'm trying to run excitation-emission matrices on some water samples, but I'm running into some software issues that the manuals aren't helpful for. In order to use R studio to extract my data, I need to save my output as a .eem file, but I don't see how to do that.
When I try to save my matrix, the only option I get is an .spc, which it doesn't even let me do that - I get an error saying I need to change my matrix into a worksheet. I can't even figure out how to do that.
Is it saving these eems automatically somewhere I can't find? All I've been able to do is save an ASCII version of my data, which isn't a format the eemR package lets me import.
Hardware: Horiba Fluoromax 4
Software: Horiba FluorEscence, R studio eemR, Matlab drEEM
I am currently working on lead halide perovskites that are bromine-based. The issue with my material is that it falls out of phase very quickly under ambient settings, and I am trying on ways to keep it more stable, such that its PL also does not degrade. Any suggestions on how I can solve this problem?
I am developing a tablet of bcs class 2 molecule. I used here Magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone K-30, sodium starch glycolate. Coating: Hypromellose, iron oxide black, PEG 400), polysorbate 80, titanium dioxide.
Dissolution media -50 mM Sodium Acetate buffer, pH 4.5, containing 0.75% SDS.
The problem is that when i conducted dissolution test the tablet crumble into large particle and rotated under the paddle. It seems a invisible boundary block them to release.
In chemistry review they mentioned- "during review it was seen that as tablet density becomes very low or porosity very high, dissolution performance deteriorate"
In our field of research (chemistry), successful PhD research often requires a lot of experimental work in the laboratory. The completion of a PhD usually takes between 3 and 5 years. What's the duration of a PhD in your area?
This is my first time dealing with chemicals, KOH, so I am preparing a protective equipment.
When using such a strong base solution, What kind of face shield should I choose?
Is it okay to use face shield made of Polycarbonate?
I know polycarbonate melts in sodium hydroxide, so I don't think it's suitable for Potassium hydroxide.
We know that superplasticizers' properties vary in terms of PH, Density, Mass average molecular weight, Sidechain density of carboxylic acid groups, Impeller rotational velocity, Viscosity cP, and so on.
I wonder which type of superplasticizer can disperse Nano-SiO2 in water in the best way possible to make concrete?
Furthermore, is there any test that shows how well the nanoparticles dispersed in water?
I have seen in the book of mechanism and theory in organic chemistry (1977, Lowrey, et al) that (Me)3P is stronger nucleophile than (MeO)3P. Table 4.5, page 188. But what about alpha effect? I think that because of alpha effect, trimethoxyphosphine should be stronger nucleophile.
when I wash the cells that emit fluorescent by PBS for flowcytometry, emittion of rhodamine b is very low