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I am looking for the oil for oil bath application.
My target temperature is 300 C so, I found this oil
PX0045-3 in the Sigma Aldrich, but I am not sure I can use it for oil bath application.
Can I use this? or if you have an available oil for the high temperature application, please let me know!
Silicon is can be used below 250 C I think.
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You will be able to control the temperature precisely, if a heating coil connected to a Variac (Dimmerstat) is wound around the reaction flask. By varying the voltage the temperature can be maintained at 300C similar to an oil bath.
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if I synthesize AgNp via the chemical synthesis method then I want to use plga as a capping agent.
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I working on the synthesis of Lanthanum Nitride(LaN). I have Lanthanum oxide as the precursor which is hygroscopic in nature. Please suggest some methods for the synthesis of LaN.
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A wet-chemical synthesis (in water solutions) of nitrides of rare earths is absolutely not possible. Only thermochemical formation of nitrides of the rare earths would be possible, but not from oxides but from metals or other compounds (hydrides, halides and others). Because rare earth oxides are thermodynamically more stable than nitrides, a direct oxide-nitride transformation is not possible.
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Hello dear researchers
Does doping change the space group of a compound?
We synthesized a compound and noticed the change of the space group.
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Yes it is possible to observe the effect of doping on the structural, electrical, magnetic and optical properties of a compound. But each effect will depend on the type of compound, the element used for doping and its concentration. More details of your research are needed to better discuss your results.
Best regards
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I need a simple and high efficient way.
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One can synthesis dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid by sulphonating Linear alkyl benzene with either SO3 gas using continuous process or sulphonate LAB with Oleum ( 23% SO2 gas ). SO3 sulphonation will generate 95-96% LABS and Oleum route will generate 88-90% LABS both have H2SO4 as bi-product at 2.5% and 6.5% respectively. Hope this info helps .
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My synthesis method includes PEG as reducing agent and dispersant, PVP as stabilizing agent and AgNO3 as precursor.
Also, I searched through the net to find a simple chemical synthesis method for AgONP but some of them demand high tech equipment. Is there a simple way to AgO synthesis?
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Dear all, the following attached reviews give major preparation methods of AgNPs, please have a look at them. My Regards
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I want to reduce the particle size of the RGO, could any one suggest me how to reduce the particle size during the chemical synthesis?
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I think using the initial natural graphite in smaller size could help you achieve that
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chemical synthesis of PVP capped silver nanoparticle using NaBH4 fallowed a procedure of Mirzaei etal 2017.
PVP(0.1%) was kept in magnetic stirrer till it dissolve and AgNO3 was added then it was left for 30minutes later to this mixture NaBH4 was added in drop wise.
ratio of NaBH4/AgNO3=0.7 and PVP 0.1% in 100ml of deionized water
the first two step in the synthesis and characterization was successful ie, while adding NaNH4 to PVP-AgNO3 solution color changed from colorless to yellow color and in UV VIS spec peak was shown at 405-409nm in every trails. the same solution was centrifuged at 12000rpm for 30min the obtained precipitate was freeze dried for first time. the dried sample was subjected to FE-SEM and PXRD in the both cases i did not got good results. i have attached images of FE-SEM please find the attachment. in PXRD for higher concentration around 2% of PVP got only two peaks.
to the same procedure for second time instead of freeze drier it was kept in oven at 60c for 4hours but there is no changes in results
i am expecting pvp capped spherical shape silver nanoparticle. what can do now?
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Dear all, after checking the montionned paper, the solutions of PVP and AgNO3 were prepared separatly before they were combined. 0.1% I think is too low (please make a re-check). In addition, is it the same MW of PVP as in the reference paper? The following documents are interesting to see. My Regards
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I'm trying to predict the retrosynthesis of an experimental compound from its SMILE string and 3D structure using IBM RXN Chemistry Server. I got some results but not sure about their reliability.
What are the other tools/software/servers available for computational predication of chemical synthesis of a particular compound? Need some methodical answers preferably from an expert of synthetic chemistry.
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The computational predication of chemical synthesis of a particular compound by calculating reactivity index using molecular orbital theory .
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Can anyone with experience in custom compound synthesis recommend a good company with respect to quality, reproducibility, and price?
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Hello Mr. Dane Hoffman,
Have a look at our custom synthesis services - https://synthinkchemicals.com/custom-synthesis/
SynThink is relible source fora flexible, efficient, and cost-effective means of carrying out short or long-term projects like a custom synthesis of various compounds required for R&D. Synthink is so providing contract research and development (CRO) services in the area of Organic, Pharmaceutical, and Medicinal Chemistry.
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I have tried doping Al in the alpha-Fe2O3 compound using wet chemical synthesis route. The synthesis procedure with precursor details is attached herewith. Please help me to evaluate the value of 'x' if the final product has the chemical formula of alpha- Fe2-x Alx O3. The final product weighed after synthesis is around 100 mg. Please let me know if any other detail is necessary.
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Thank you for all your help. I calculated the value of X from the Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction and matched it with the value obtained from the elemental analysis using EDAX in TEM.
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Trying to improve a process I have been given. The chloro analogue is far more readily available and I would prefer to use that to couple with my acetylene.
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The palladium(II) complex is an effective catalyst for the coupling reactions of aryl Chloroaromatics.
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Hi all, I need to cleave the ester in Ethyl 2-amino-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate to make the carboxylic acid and retrieve the product from solution to use in downstream applications of linking to amines via reductive amination using sodium cyanoborohydrde.
I tried to cleave the ester with 2M equivalents of KOH in 5:1 MeOH:H2O for 1H at 40C. After 1H, i added 20mL H2O to quench and then tried to precipitate my newly made acid by dropping pH to 1, however nothing precipitated out. I then tried to see if any of my product was unreacted by mixing with diethyl ether to see if any of the light brown color would transfer to the ether layer, but again, nothing happened, the ether layer is completely clear. I guess I should just boil off some water and see if it starts to precipitate out? Im not much of a chemist so I just wanted to make sure I havent made any terrible assumptions along the way...
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Ester can cleaved by boiling it with aqueous ethanolic solution to form acid salt and alcohol. Neutralization of solution with HCL gives an acid.
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Dear Reasearchers,
I am working on a project in which I need to prepare 38% silver diamine fluoride for in-vitro testing related to dentistry. Since my background is dentistry, and not chemistry, could anyone please guide me regarding the best method for preparing 38% SDF?
Thank you for your suggestions in advance.
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I am doing my doctorat in the same research, take a look in the above article. You should look for a pharmacyst or biomedic to prepare it to you .
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Chemical synthesis
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Dear Bhavesh Socha I fully agree with Faiq H S Hussain in that reactions done under sonication conditions have many advantages. I have a colleague in organic chemistry who does virtually every new test reaction in sealed tubes under sonication conditions. Normally the reactions take ca. 10 minutes instead of many hours at reflux. For more information please see this useful article entitled "Sonochemistry: Application and Advantages". The article is available as public full text on RG.
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i want to protect thiol to avoid the formation of thioether instead of ether in williamson ether synthesis. kindly suggest me,
thanks in advance
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you may try the 3-nitro-2-pyridylsulfenyl (Npys) group.
good luck
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I made iron oxide nanoparticles via co-precipitation method and obtained a brown colour slurry with neutral pH and I did ex situ coating of oleic acid on nanoparticles and washed it with ethanol and water but i don't know if oleic acid is coated on my nanoparticles or not?
Procedure:
Nanoparticles slurry(100ml)
Oleic acid(1.6ml)
Ethanol(6.6ml)
Oleic acid:ethanol=1:4
Were magnetically stirred at 80C for 1 hour and washed with ethanol at 6000rpm for15 min and second washing was done with water at same rpm for 5 min but i didn't get two separate layers with brown colour layer on top of water. So i don't know if my particles are coated or not. All i got was brown pellet. Also i need to know the solvent which i should use for washing and also for suspending nanoparticles for my application. I want to know the suitable pH if i add oleic acid during synthesis of fe3o4 nanoparticles? I have attached the protocol below
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If they're coated with oleic acid they they won't wet in water.
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During a chemical synthesis of peptides by the F-moc method, the following happened: all the initial steps of the synthesis occurred as planned, but in the cleavage, TFA is used. In the lab, there was TFA at 0.3% and 99%. I did not find the right concentration to use. So I opted for TFA at 0.3%. Then I centrifuged with ice ether, but no pellet appeared, only two phases, like water and oil.  The protocol says to discard the supernatant, so I discarded only the first phase that probably corresponds to the ether and froze the second phase. So I would like to ask if anyone among you has experience with the chemical synthesis of peptides and knows if the concentration of TFA I used is really wrong. And also, if the non-formation of the pellet means that the synthesis was not successful or if the peptide may be in any of the phases that formed during centrifugation.
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Ana, conditions for cleavage of a synthetic peptide (removal from the solid phase) are determined by the linker, which typically is pre-loaded on the resin when you buy it. Rink amide is the most common linker, producing a peptide with a C-terminal amide group. Rink requires at least 70% TFA. Your cleavage cocktail also should include scavenger reagents based on the amino acid side chains present, as side chain protecting groups are typically removed concomitant with cleavage. For peptides without Cys, Met, or Trp, 5% water is an excellent scavenger, with 95% TFA. For challenging side chains Reagent K usually works well, although it includes 1,2-ethanedithiol which is a stench (TFA/thioanisole/water/phenol/1,2-ethanedithiol at 82.5 : 5 : 5 : 5 : 2.5). Rinse the crude peptide precipitate thoroughly with ice cold methyl t-butyl ether to remove the cleavage cocktail and scavengers.
After your attempt with 0.3% TFA, your peptide probably is still safely on the resin. If you kept it, you can go back and try cleavage again with a proper reagent.
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*Please mentioned/add the detailed CARBYNE synthesis protocol having good references links.
*How CARBYNE is used as a superb material for adsorption study?
*What are the best uses of CARBYNE?
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The inside of the quartz tubes are thoroughly rinsed with acetone and then heated in a high flame.After the flame is removed and the tubes cool down,the coating is seen to be non uniform and coming off mainly from the bottom. Is there any alternative chemical or method to coat the quartz tubes?
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Does the ester bond in my compound breaks If I proceeded a Sonogashira coupling reaction to react my compound (R-O-CO-Ar-Br) with the alkyne derivative?
The reaction condition I'm using:
Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II); DME; TEA; CuI; 200 C; 24h
Thanks!!
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You might have cleavage of the ester depending on the base you use, but most bases traditionally employed in Sonogashira couplings should be safe.
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Dear Researchers,
Is it possible to directly purchase phenylboronic acid embedded hydrogel polymer matrix, without any need of chemical synthesis?
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Hi,
You may make an inquiry at Alfa Chemistry, they offer kinds of chemicals for research use.
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To synthesize polysaccharide carbon sphere hydrothermally, is stainless steel autoclave with teflon liner needed?
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Teflon lined autoclave is to be placed in the heating apparatus to get the required temperature.
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I have performed a demethylation reaction using BBr3 and neutralized it with sodium bicarbonate solution and removed the water by lyophilization. Now, I want to separate my product from reaction mixture. My product is soluble in methanol and water. Could anybody help me to give idea for separation of the product?
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Hi
How do i separate powder it contains sodium bicarbonate,tartaric acid and citric acid by HPLC or only organic acid ?
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Peristaltic pumps can pump fluid as fast as 100 mL/min, which should be more than sufficient for the purpose of refluxing. If so, the benefits are saving water and energy compared with running tap water all night. Also, the peristaltic pumps are small and would not take a lot of spaces in the hood. They could be mounted right beside your reactor. They are also cheaper.
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Guobing Xiang Of course I know. I have mentioned it in my question that water pump you said is not ideal because of the space and energy it takes compared with a peristaltic pump if applicable.
The solution for cooling a reflux system is easy and usually no one would even think about improving it. People are simply too used to the traditional methods like a water pump or running tap water. My point here is that it is actually possible to improve the way from the minor aspects to improve the efficiency and save energy. Peristaltic pump was brought up to me at this point. I wonder if anyone is actually using a peristaltic pump when I posted the question. Jack Silver The paper you mentioned is really interesting. Never would believe people are actually publishing paper on this before.
Thanks both for the discussion!
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Dear all,
I have ordered a peptide (with 32 aa) for chemical synthesis, but I dont know after receive a peptide how to ensure from its sequence. Which method(s) are available for my purpose? Thanks in advance for your helpful responses.
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Do peptide mapping (LC-MS).
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I am looking for publications on dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP discovery, isolation, and characterization. Also on laboratory synthesis of these reagents.
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The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is arguably the most powerful ... a few for most of the history of genetics. ... by Kary Mullis and colleagues at Cetus Corporation in the early 1980's [2]. ... every conceivable aspect of biology and chemistry. .... it was first isolated, Taq DNA polymerase has become the standard reagent
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Grettings everyone.
I'm looking for technical advices: i want peptides and protein to be synthetized by chemical synthesis. I want to know good companies (maybe cheapier, i don't have such a high budget) and the time until you asked for your protein and when arrives.
I'm looking for your best advices!
Please help me is for my master thesis.
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Dear Felipe Alejandro Stambuk, solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), developed by R. B. Merrifield, will be your starting point. This process as a allows the chemical synthesis of peptides and small proteins. Wide developments are possible in this issue. N-carboxyanhydrides also lead to polypeptides via ring-opening polymerization. Anionic polymerization of acrylamide leads to poly(beta-alanine), and many other possibilities. My Regards
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Monolithic catalysts are mainly used to absorp NOx or any other environmental unfriendly particles in the exhaust.
For a industrial scale chemical synthesis, nowadays the commonly used types of reactors are the (tubular) fixed bed or the fluidized-bed reactors.
There are some studies that analize and discuss the use of monolithic reactors for the use of chemical synthesis, since they have many advantages like less pressure drop or the need of less catalystic material etc.
My question is: Why arent there large scale applications in the industry for chemical synthesis with monolithic reactors ?
I know that it is much more expensive to manufacture such a reactor, but it has much more advantages.
Does anyone has an answer for me ?
Thank you in advance!
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Methanol synthesis (i.e. reaction between H2 and CO) is under high pressure.
Try to imagine you have to manufacture a high pressure reactor where you have to introduce and organise monoliths. For this you have to examine the Pressure Equipment Directive. I think this is the best way to understand the costs.
In large chemical industry you have a lot of metallurgical constraints. So the better properties of catalysts are not always the better answer.
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Hello everyone,
We are looking to buy a new GC-MS in our lab and we are wondering if chemical ionization (CI) can bring us some useful extra information. In my lab, we investigate unknown compounds (impurities from chemical synthesis). We are familiar with electron impact (EI) but we never used chemical ionization. So, I would like to hear about your chemical ionization experiences :
-which kind of molecules were ionized by chemical ionization ?
-did it bring you extra information compared to electron impact (the molecular mass for example)?
-were mass spectra difficult to interpret? How it looks?
According to GC-MS suppliers, chemical ionization is now quite easy to use because the reactant gas flow (NH3 and CH4) are automatically adjusted by the software. They also advised us to buy 2 sources : one to only use for EI and the other to only use for CI as the use of CI is likely to clog the source.
Best Regards,
Elodie
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Dear Elodie,
I would like to differentiate between two ionization.
CI(chemical Ionization) uses a common source for ionization as EI(Electron Impact Ionization), with some modifications. CI is soft where EI is hard ionization. An electron impact (EI) or a chemical ionization (CI) ion source can be used to operate the mass spectrometer.
Electron impact ionization (EII) is of fundamental importance in understanding the physics of the collision process associated with many electron problems involving atoms, neutral, and ions. An ionization method in which energetic electrons interact with solid or gas phase atoms or molecules to produce ions. Electron impact ionization delivers the highest energy to the analytes leading to ‘hard’ ionization and causes a large amount of molecular fragmentation.
Chemical ionization requires a lower amount of energy compared to electron ionization (EI), but this depends on the reactant material used. This low-energy ionization mechanism yields less or sometimes no fragmentation, and usually a simpler spectrum, as a result causes less molecular fragmentation.
Compared to EI, this CI technique provides less energy resulting in “soft” ionization. Mass spectra acquired from a CI source generally contain the molecular ion. This boosts confidence in identification and assignment of the molecular ion, which is crucial in the analysis of unknowns. Individual components in complex matrices can also be identified using chemical ionization. However, in complex samples, all the individual components observed can be difficult to resolve chromatographically. In such situations, co‐eluting peaks can be deconvoluted using CI.
The absence of molecular ion (ion representing the charged analyte) in the EI spectra is quite common, and therefore it would be difficult to identify an analyte for which a database spectrum is unavailable. CI facilitates the ability to detect the molecular ion peak, due to less extensive fragmentation.[3] Chemical ionization can also be used to identify and quantify an analyte present in a sample, by coupling chromatographic separation techniques to CI.
To facilitate the reactions between the ions-gases, the chamber is kept gastight with a pressure around 1 torr. Electrons are produced through a metal filament, which is made of tungsten, rhenium, or iridium and travel to a longer distance in the ionization chamber, due to high energy it owns. In contrast to EI, the magnet and the electron trap is not needed for CI, since the electron beam do not travel to the end of the chamber. The pressure inside the chamber is kept below 10−4 torr.
Hope it work out for you.
Ashish
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Using chemical synthesis process, I have synthesized MXene powder from MAX phase. Now, I am interested to measure electrcial conductivity of MXene in simple way. Please suggest me, thanks in advance.
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you can do it by using the four-point method.
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I am synthesizing the compound 1 by using chan-lam reaction as the figure showing. However, the conversion yield of ortho fluoroboronic acid (less than 20% on LC/MS) is much lower than the para fluoroboronic, which is very strange since the boronic acid is a nucleophile reagent and the F is ortho/para activated substituent and smaller than H in size.
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Hi;
Steric hindrance (the reaction site is blocked by F and B(OH)2 groups forming part of the molecule).
Best regards
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Dear Researchers,
Since CNT is not soluble in standard solvents like DI water, ethanol etc, how do I make a doping/composite of CNT and metal oxide. Your suggestions will be highly appreciated. The facilities in my lab are standard chemical synthesis and hydrothermal reactors.
Thanks and regards
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Dear Sandip,
CNTs functionalization can be made through two major routs, namely covalent or non-covalent faunctionalization steps.
At first you must decide which protocol is suitable for you and then the other steps will be more clear. As Naresh answered above you can go to the acid-treatment protocols to obtain surface OH and COOH groups for further attachment of many molecules and also your metals. I think this method is more versatile for you however it depends on your final aim of project.
In the other method you might want to firstly disperse your CNTs by various polymers in the non-covalent route and then dopped your metals again through non-covalently interactions by means of many methods.
Also you might find these two papers useful as an examples of the two mentioned methods.
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what is the deadline for submission?It is OK if paper is written from a company not a university?? We have also research activity included on chemical synthesis and many types of work with nano , additionally you know my CV, I am a researcher :-)....
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Yes. Review papers are also welcome, this is also written at the description text, available if you check the relevant link. All information is there, at this link (deadlines also). I don't see any problem if the affiliation comes from a company and not from a university.
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During the synthesis of MOFs the centrifugation is done to separate MOFs precipitate from the solution .But the MOFs precipitate stick on the wall of centifuge tube ,how to make it unstick and easily obtain the precipitate without the loss of precipitate.
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When I worked with MOF I filtered it and washed with methanol to eliminate all the impurities. However, you can try to dry well your sample and use ultrasound to force the detachment
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CAS:187037-23-6, have checked with Santa Cruz, SIgma and Fisher.
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Hi,
You may buy it at Alfa Chemistry.
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I'm guessing fermentation is always a cheaper method than chemical synthesis?
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Hello, depends from sequence, in some cases peptide synthesis by peptide synthesizer is cheaper than fermentation. In some fermentation processes may be not so expensive but isolation of target compound from fermentation mixture may be much more difficult.
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hello all!
Kindly let me know how to synthesize copper sulfide CuS quantum dots. Any method aimed at lab scale synthesis is what i am looking for. Hydrothermal method is preferable. Also state the required chemicals and synthesis procedure.
thanks and regards
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With a public increasingly reluctant to consume products containing molecules from chemical synthesis, interest in natural substances is increasingly growing. Can we hope to replace chemical antioxidants with natural antioxidants in agro-food industries?
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Yes. Natural antioxidants can be used and should be encouraged to replace the chemical (synthetic) antioxidants like buthylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHT) and others because there are purported claims that these synthetic antioxidants are carcinogenic in nature but natural antioxidants especially the polyphenols can be used as food supplements because they are safe and high effective
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Hi
Can anyone suggest me a simple protocol for copolymerization of sucrose and epichlorohydrin?
thanks
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See attachments
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Here is an organic chemestry question.
I am struggling to find out how to convert 1,4 HBC(21-hydroxy-20-methylpregn-1,4-dien-3-one) to 4 HBC (21-hydroxy-20-methylpregn-4-en-3-one) through chemical synthesis. It should be a reduction (hydrogenation) of the 1,2 double bond, does anyone have any idea about th name of this reaction and how to get it ? Hope you can help me. Thanks a lot.
Please find attached the reaction in the following file:
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Dear Lorenzo Caracci,
I believe applying hydrogenation in flow chemistry under optimized circumstances might result in the selective saturation of the double bond and afford the desired product.
Kind regards,
Timea
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We are working with deuterated sulfuric acid in water, and we are interested in the properties of this mixture: viscosity, dissociation constants, etc. Principally, we are interested in the differences respect to normal sulfuric acid.
Does anyone know any material about this subject?
Thanks
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I am doing alkylation at the 1st position of benzimidazole nucleus. At the second position there is an amide group. I am trying with pot. carbonate + DMF. The alkylating agent is 3-bromo propan-1-ol. In the reaction it is not happening. Can anybody suggest the TLC spot of this product with reference to reactant amine?
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Take benzimidazole, heated to 100 oC, add 3-bromo propan-1-ol and the mixture was heated to 150 oC for 48hrs, (Neat reaction ) Check TLC. I hope this method should work , if you send your reaction details i can help more.
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this paper suggests a new Iron precursor as a stable and safe non corrosive iron compound. I was wondering if I could reduce is as others do in FeCl3 with various green methods in aqueous or oil solutions.
I search on the internet but there is no clear company that sells it, well at least not anymore.
Any tips?
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Hi,
You may buy it at Alfa Chemistry.
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I am trying to synthesize dehydromethionine. There are some methods, but these methods sometimes leave out information that is needed to complete the synthesis. Any suggestions?
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I have read several methods, but in all there exists formation of spheres, which forces to use methods of purification.
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When performing the optimization through a DoE approach, and the results of some runs are null what should be put as result in databook?
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Thank you for all the answers.
Now I understand that I cannot move on with the design; all runs must produce valid results considering the response factor. I will perform another assays aiming at finding the minimum response and start again from there.
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I need to prepare nitrate precursors of these oxides separately.
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Dear Vanjula,
Yb2O3 is soluble in dilute acid and Er2O3 is soluble in acid. Add Yb2O3 in dilute HNO3 and keep it on hot plate (temp 80-100 degree Celsius) with continuous stirring. You will get transparent solution of Yb(NO3)3. Similarly for Er2O3.
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Dear experts,
I am trying to study the affect of Zinc doped BeO, as far as I know, beryllium oxide have a large band gap about 10 eV, while ZnO have 3.3 eV, both of them crystallize in wurtzite structure.. and there is a large mismatch between Be ionic radius (0.27) and Zn ionic radius (0.6).. Can I force Zn atom to replace the Be atom in the unit cell to produce a doped powder...
Any suggestion will be really helpful...
Best regards...
mohammed
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Remember that beryllium compounds are highly toxic and exercise great care in their use especially in aerosolized form.
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Dear All,
I want to graft PBA (Phenyl boronic acid) with some polymer having pendant hydroxyl groups. From Previous literature and my own observation, boronic acid forms a complex with these polyols and forms a gel. I want to fabricate a gel system through chemical crosslinking at the end by adding a crosslinker, but i get a gel due to this complex prior to chemical crosslinking. Could somebody please suggest or share his experience that how can this complex formation b/w boronic and hydroxyls be overcomed?
Kind Regards
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you can protect the diol by carboyl group, and you can also protect the PBA pinacol. the later one is always supplied commercially.
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I want to reduce NaBO2 to NaBH4 on a catalyst (electrode). Kindly provide me suggestions of how can I confirm that the reduction of NaBO2 to NaBH4 is taking place or not?
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IR. Peaks around 2300-2400 cm-1 can't be confused with much else. not the best technique for aqueous solution though, you;d have to isolate and dry. Raman better for aqueous solution, A1 totally symmetric BH4 str breathing mode at 2310 cm-1. such peaks provide positive fully diagnostic evidence.
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For synthesis of short peptides that only contain 3-6 amino acids, it is easy to synthesize them by chemical reactions. However, is it possible that we can transform E.coli with plasmid that is designed to express specific DNA fragment that encode these 3-6 amino acids? How efficient is this method compared to chemical synthesis?
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yes but you have to express peptide with a big leader sequence and then purify the peptide.
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Any researcher related to aerogel and green synthesis can
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There is a section called "Aerogels" where you can find the required information.
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The protocol is as follows:
In a test tube:
- 2.5 ml of sample
- 3.5 ml of sulphuric acid 36 N
-1.5 ml Potassium dichromate
My question how to prepare the Potassium dichromate solution to from these products (Ag2SO4 + HGSO4+ H2SO4)
 Thanks a lot
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Download the method
Just type in google COD Oleg reflux method. And see the procedures.
Regards
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I am designing experiments to study the tribological behaviour of coated Ti6Al4V in synovial fluid. Any help would be highly appreciated.
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Did you see this paper?
Lubricants 2015, 3, 664-686; doi:10.3390/lubricants3040664
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I have synthesized gamma alumina through wet chemical synthesis with following material characterstics:
crystallite size: 5-4nm
SEM particle size and morphology 4-5 micrometer cauliflower
energy band gap 3-0eV
in bulk gamma alumina energy band gap values vary from 5-8eV. So what will be the reason for the decreased band gap value (3.0eV)in chemically synthesized gamma alumina or which experimental factors can be responsible for such decreased band gap value.??
Thank you,
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Thank you.
Wellcome.
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I use the glutathione and bovine serum albumin procedure and microbial procedure for selenium nano particle synthesis but after being synthesis in a solution I go for lyophilization and get clumps instead of fine powder. Please help me out from these difficulties.
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I have tried by Bernthsen's method and Goldberg's method but failed. I do not have any detailed procedure. Please suggest if any one knows or have the practical experience.
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I send you the source e.g. copies of the book of Adrien Albert.
please give me infos about the quantities required for your research.
JRG
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Please share your experience about the reaction between vanillin and glutaric acid. How is the condition for the experiment?
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Hello Yuyun,
I think the acidic condition is the best, the glutaric anhydride is more reactive than glutaric acid, probably it is easier to form the ester product. Good luck!
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I am looking to synthesis the above blowing agent in lab, sans high pressure reactor and using of Cyanide? I am not too particular about the size of the ADC as of now?
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What are analytical techniques to detect Azodicarbonamide? and which solvents?
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I have tried to synthesize 1,4 disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole using propargyl bromide, benzyl azide and a Cu catalyst,the reaction was unsuccessful.
Then I tried the same reaction using 4-bromobutyne instead of propargyl bromide and it worked but I got a very low yield of 100mg-400mg (theoretical yield approximately 1g).
Why did the 4-bromobutyne reaction work? Why didn't propargyl bromide reaction work? and why did I get such a low yield?  
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Hi,
If you want to go to the next step with bromine (part of propargyl bromide) after click reaction, it will be better to do that step first and then go for click reaction.  
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If yes, suggest me some reaction protocol on how to synthesis? My target molecule must have two carbamates, which should be formed from a molecule containing two OH group.I am struggling for almost three months.I get only the mono-substituted product.
Thanks in Advance.
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If you cannot get any of the above great suggestions to work, you can try ortho-lithiation of the O-phenylcarbamate then quenching with borate and peroxide oxidation followed by the second carbamate condensation.
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I am presently using diethanolamine in water at pH 7.8-8.8 at 75C requiring about 12hrs to complete the hydrolysis.  This will be used for commercial production so large scale procedure is needed.
Possibly a catalyst on a solid support that is commercially available.
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I would like to use each of the two compounds separately in a synthetic procedure, but none of them is commercially available. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxylbenzaldehyde is commercially available and its Friedel Craft's bromination would give a mixture of the two compounds.
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Try to find out if their TLC is not identical, so you can use column chromatography
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Deuteration of Ethyl acrylate (ethyl acrylate-d3)
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ethyl acrylate has more than 3 hydrogens, If you want the deuterium on the alkene portion, you can start with deuterdated acrylic acid and do an esterification reaction
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Hi everyone !
Is it possible to use other Sn compound like SnI2, SnCl2 or SnCl4 as reference compound for 119Sn NMR, since I dont have tetramethyltin right now and I need NMR spectrum urgently.
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Structure Determination by NMR Spectroscopy. Correlation of 12J( l19Sn,'H)I and the
Me-Sn-Me Angle in Methyltin( IV) Compounds
Thomas P. Lockhart*la.b and William F. Manders*la
Received June 12, 1985
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Have anybody synthesized FeBr2(THF)2 successfully?
Thanks for your help.
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Hi,
A Soxhlet extractor was set up under N2 and charged with FeBr, (100 g, 0.46 mol). The FeBr, was extracted with THF to yield an orange solution. As the extraction continued, large crystals formed. After 12 hours, all the FeBr2 had been extracted. The extract was cocled and filtered yielding large white flaky crystals which were washed with ether and dried under vacuum. Yield = 150 g, 90%. Under prolonged storage, the white material begins to turn orange because of loss of THF. The color can be removed by recrystallization from THF.
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Like the amount of click reagent to be used for the reaction and the reaction conditions (temperature, time, pH)
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For an alkyl azide and DBCO-PEG4-Fluor 545... ACS Chem. Biol. 2012, 7, 1326−1330
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Is it possible to synthesize pyrazoline from chalcone using a base catalyst?
For example: NaOH, CaO or etc?
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Yep, but expect worse conditions and more side products.
 New J. Chem., 2014, 38, 4290; J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 7113-7122 
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How to convert neutral alumina to acidic alumina to be used as catalyst for Selective monoesterification of dicarboxylic acids.
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There is no acidic aluminum oxide. Aluminum oxide has amphoteric properties. It reacts with both acids and bases. Selective monoestherification of dicarboxylic acids should be done in an alkaline medium. Then the alumina will exhibit acidic properties.
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I followed some procedure for synthesizing O-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydroxylamine from 2-(2,4-dinitrophenoxy)isoindoline-1,3-dione.
The procedure is like this: A solution of hydrazine hydrate (1.85 g, 36.4 mmol) in 15 mL of MeOH was added in one portion to a solution of 2-(2,4-dinitrophenoxy)isoindoline-1,3-dione (70; 4 g, 12.1 mmol) in 100 mL of CH2Cl2 at 0 °C. The reaction mixture rapidly became bright yellow, and a precipitate was formed. The suspension was allowed to stand at 0 °C for 8 h. Cold aqueous HCl (1 N, 400 mL) was then added, and the reaction was shaken rapidly at 0 °C. The mixture was rapidly filtered through a loose cotton plug on a Buchner funnel, and the precipitate was washed three times with 50 mL of MeCN. The filtrate was poured into a separatory funnel, and the organic phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted twice with 100 mL of CH2Cl2. The combined organic layers were combined, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford O-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydroxylamine 71 (2.1g, 90%).
However, whenever I added 1N HCl to the reaction mixture, product was not obtained but only byproduct was made.
Actually, I added 1N HCl and shaked it rapidely, then I filtered it very fast.
But, Only small amount of product was obtained.
What is the typical technich for adding 1N HCl.
How to synthesize O-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydroxylamine....
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Hii, you can do one thing when you got yellow color precipitates don't' go for workup with HCl just filter the solid and washed with water 5-6 times and then examine is this your desired product or not.
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Hi I just finished a nitration of acetanilide and aniline in my lab. But How do I identify the product that is p-nitroacetanilide (colour of product, reaction to recognize). And How do I identify the product that is p-nitroaniline (colour of product, reaction to recognize).
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p-Nitroacetanilide at neutral pH have very pale yellow colour (colouless in acid pH) and have m.p about 195 0C. In alkaly solutions becomes bright yellow. p -Nitroaniline has  orange colour and m.p about 140 0C. Ather nitration if the reaction was done accurate, no p-nitroaniline would be in reaction mixture (coclourless or pale yelow product).. If not and the product is orange you have a mixture of aniline and acetanilide. You have two ways  1) To boil the crude product wiht conc HCl to obtain pure aniline 2) To heat the crude product with acetic anhydride to obtain pure acetanilide. See my profile and read my broshure "Nitration, a liitle practial guide for studetns"
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I have performed a reaction in solution of NHS-activated molecule and an amine compound (APTMS, to be precise). The solvent was DMF. After the reaction was done, I took a drop of the mixture and casted it on gold substrate and measured with IR spectroscopy.
What the spectrum showed me is the complete disappearance of the carbonyl (C=O) band and an appearance of amide I and II bands, as it's supposed to happen. But if NHS goes out of this reaction unchanged (from NHS-ester to NHS, that is), I am still supposed to see its contribution of carbonyl group in the spectrum. Does anyone know about the stability of NHS in DMF, e.g. whether it can disintegrate or if it comes to ring opening? What would be the products in any of the cases?
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NHS should be stable in DMF. No decomposition to be expected. Last time I used IR is 15 years ago or so, so I cannot tell what the peaks of the CO-N-CO function of NHS are and how intense they are. What if you measure just NHS itself in the same concentration as you applied in your reaction?
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I was successful at the first attempt to synthesize but then with excessive washing, it appears I decomposed it. Further attempts at synthesizing have been less fruitful and I am unsure if there is something I'm missing. I used this recipe: H3TATB (50 mg) and AlCl3 6H2O (200 mg) were dissolved in 10 ml DEF or DMF, then 1.0 ml trifluoroacetic acid was added. The mixture was heated up at 135 °C in an oven for 2 days until white precipitate formed. The white precipitate was centrifuged and washed with fresh DMF for several times. 
Then before BET measurements: The precipitate was washed twice with fresh DMF and then three times by acetone.
Any suggestions would be great!
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Hi Briana,
I believe your MOF may be collapsing upon activation before your BET measurement. This can happen when DMF quickly evaporates from the pores. If this is the issue, you must not let your MOF dry when DMF is still present. Perform repeated solvent exchanges with DMF 3x, then acetone 3x. Simply washing with the acetone will not remove all the DMF, it must soak for some time. Once all DMF is removed, the MOF can then safely be dried/activated from the acetone. 
See the following for more detailed information and exact procedures.
Good Luck!
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Can we use Potassium Nitrate in Hummers method instead of sodium nitrate? How does the cation effect synthesis process?
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You won't know until you try it!  However, Potassium is a larger atom than Sodium so it might have an effect on your end product and the efficiency of the reaction.
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Hi.
How can i synthesis of 1-Thioglycerol by linear formula (HSCH2CH(OH)CH2OH)?
I attached structure of this molecule.
Thanks a lot
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