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Channels - Science topic

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I am using Nakagami channel for my work and I need outdated channel which is in Rayleigh case
h_cap = rho*h + sqrt(1-rho^2)*w where w is awgn with zero mean and same variance as h. but what will be w in case of nakagami. How to write matlab code for that.
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Dear
You can benefit from this valuable Link about your topic:
I hope it will be helpful...
Best wishes....
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I am following this procedure for PDMS channel and SU8 covered microchip using APTES 99% and oxygen plasma treatment. Both the chip and the PDMS channel are activated first by the plasma and afterwards the PDMS is dipped in APTES. After the attachment white particles are clogging the channel. I wonder if anyone else encountered it and how it can be avoided?
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Yes I have used food coloring, it is not completely blocked but some of the electrodes loss their electrochemical signal.
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EEGLAB has the option to SUM/Compare ERP components or data channels for different datasets. In the case of components, I would like to compute the average of different components from different subjects that correspond to my cluster, and I can't do that with the above option. Is there a way to do that?
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Hi good evening
Can I average channel ERP data for one subject. For Example P300 latency for C3, C4,Cz for subject 1 on same plot??
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Hi,
I tried to implement the channel model in[1] in Matlab.
The channel model has N antennas at the base station and 2N UEs.
The channel vector is given by a product of the rayleigh fading and path loss model.
I read through multiple paper and the fading is given like
Fading = (randn(nTx, nUsers) + 1i*randn(nTx, nUsers))/sqrt(2); so each user would have an N*1 channel vector.
Later in the implementation, I need to do user clustering and calculate the channel correlation between two users and select pairs that have a high correlation coefficient.
However, as N increases and the fading is given completely random, the correlation between two users is extremely low. I don't know how could the author and other papers realize this, could anyone help me with this?
Many thanks
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In MIMO system, diversity is the used term, phase and amplitude what making beam forming possible, at any way by converting radiation equating of phased array antenna to Z domain, it can adjust position of zero crossing point by algebra linear equation. After that set diversity of system.
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Hi all,
I am growing some large (1mm) organoids in hydrogel. I am planning to stain the organoids for 3 markers + nuclei and image them by confocal covering all 4 channels of UV, green, red and far red. I would like to use the UV channel for staining the nuclei. I am using a clearing agent (RapiClear) clearing the tissue before the imaging in order to be able to see deep inside the structures. The problem is that when I use DAPI, after clearing, the DAPI seems to fade and is not detectable anymore by confocal. Does anybody have experience with SYTOX blue from Thermofisher for staining the nuclei for confocal? Is it stable after clearing the tissue?
Thanks a lot in advance!
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Hello Mostafa, I am using SYTOX blue for staining formalin fixed-paraffin embedded lung tissues immunofluorescent staining also pancreas tissues and it works very well in both tissues. I have very good quality nuclear staining. If you have further questions I would be happy to help!
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I would like to plot the IPF image in such a way that {hkl} planes are within 10° to surface. However, I am unable to plot it using the Mambo program in HKL CHANNEL 5. Can I plot it in there, or should I have to use MTEX in Matlab?
For example, Figure. 13 in Materials Science & Engineering A 736 (2018) 276–287.
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Dear Researchers
As well as Please guide me for the name of your favorite book on open channel flow for your research and academic activities
Cheers
Narges
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Dear Narges Raeisi
Open Channel Hydraulics, River Hydraulic Structures and Fluvial Geomorphology. Radecki-Pawlik, Artur, Stefano Pagliara, and Jan Hradecky. new book in 2017.
I am reading it and it seems well.
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According to my knowledge, the channel estimation is to analyze the channel realization based on the pilot signal, and the channel prediction is to obtain it based on past channel realizations.
Therefore, the channel prediction can be utilized when the pilot signal is contaminated. In other words, the channel prediction is only deserved in the situation when the pilot signals are crashed so that the channel estimation doesn’t work.
Did I understand right? Thank you for your valuable responses in advance.
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I would describe it somewhat differently. In my vocabulary, channel estimation refers to the general concept of utilizing received signals to estimate the channel response. The estimation could be based on pilots, pilots+data or only data (the latter two are known as semi-blind and blind estimation).
Since the channel is changing over time, we need to estimate the channel repeatedly in a wireless system. Normally, we are only trying to estimate the current channel response, but one could also try to estimate future channel responses. This is what we call channel prediction. To succeed, you need an accurate model of the time variations. A Kalman filter is one method that can be used to predict future channels.
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hi
i want to know more about 5G and LTE channel parameters like (path loss, carrier frequence, max transmission power) etc.
thanks
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Ananya Hegde thank you so much, ill check it out
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Dear all,
Recently I’ve been having a lot of issues with super high autofluorescence during live cell imaging (of what seems to be mitochondria). I have added a photo of what I mean. the problems are in the 488 and 561 channels (image was taken on a spinning disc confocal of live cells). The 640 channel does not have this problem…
I used to follow the exact same protocol and did not encounter this problem before. I have already tried the following:
· use new medium + new FCS and P/S
· thaw fresh cells (tried it in HEK293T and Hela-R19)
· use different well chambers I was wondering whether anybody has encountered this, and if so what a possible solution could be.
Thanks in advance, Jelle
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Hi Jelle Schipper . Is your medium phenol red -free? Phenol red can quench the signal of some fluorescent dyes when used during live cell imaging. In addition, it is autofluorescent and can influence signal-to-noise ratio, especially if your fluorescent signal is weak.
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Hello Everyone,
Recently when I am working with GMO by RT-PCR using r-Biopharm kit, I didnot get the NOS results in CY5 channel even in positive control. Even though I repeated twice, I did not get the NOS. So, I felt there might be some issue with CY5 channel in our RT-PCR. In this regard, I would like to request you all that are there any other alternative channel for CY5 or can some one please clarify why I am not getting NOS in CY5?
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If you are using Cy5 as an internal control fluorophore, you can choose another one in the same channel. An alternative is Quasar 670. Also, check your per-analytical procedures and confirm your cycling conditions if they are set as suggested by the kit. I hope this helps.
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Hi,
My project is to record raw brain signals using the emotive epoc 14 channels. what i wanted to do is show a participant an image for a particular time(such as 1 min) and record his brain signal of that time to a separate csv file of that particular time. I want to repeat the process of a different image. after 1 min, the second picture will appear on the screen and the brain signal of the second photo will save in a different csv file for that time. Finally i want to repeat the process 10 times with 10 photos and will generate 10 csv file of raw EEG signals.
As i am new to the node-red and emotive epoc. it would be great full if someone guides me how to creat the flow or any tuttorial how to do it.
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Dear Md. , I had worked on EMOTIV+ 14 channels and presented some paper on BCI, yet I think it is very difficult to work on such a device. Your data will be somewhat noise other than working with other mobile EEG devices like OPENBCI for example, which I am using it now. Good luck.
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The defect is usually observed on the edges of hot-rolled heavy channels (180 mm and above in size) made of structural steel grades.
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It is a manufacturing deficiency, and caused by the processing technology and equipments.
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Recently, there are various neural simulation software (eg: NEURON, NEST, etc.).
Is it possible to predict the effects of drugs by using them?
For example, for a compound that is known to activate/inactivate a certain channel in a screening assay, can I predict how the compound affect neurons using the above simulation software?
Thank you.
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sorry for my delay in response. ell you have many applications such as BRIAN which is based on Python (a specialized library of Python), there is NEST also a good and very commonly used simulation app, GENESIS is also a simulation app yet not very famous like the others. You can also build your own functions using MATLAB, For me, I used BRAIN and it is good and easy to learn. Good luck and if you have other questions please do not hesitate to ask.
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I have created a channel gain 'h' using pd=('Nakagami', 'm', 1,'omega',2); %m is shape parameter, omega is the variance.
h=random(pd,28,2); %where 28 is the total number of users in the network.
Additionally, I have created another channel gain matrix named h*, just by replacing the number '1' with '4'. In short, I have created the two-channels having shape parameters m=1 &4. My question is "What would be the impact of these shape parametrs on the fading channel 'h' "? Does it mean that having high 'm' will result in strong faded channel, or user will receive a strong signal?
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Hi,
I don't know if you already get the answer or not, but I believe the 'm' can be adjusted, such that the Nakagami-m distribution will be able to approach Rician distribution. This, I believe, will also be able to take us to Rayleigh distribution as well. I guess the paper entitled "A New Statistical Model of the Complex Nakagami-m Fading Gain" can give a better view for the relation between the distributions. In terms of fading channel, it can be utilized when we are not sure whether the transmission will be in LoS or NLoS scenario.
Hope it can be helpful.
Have a nice day.
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I want to simulate 3D open channel flow with variable bed slope of channel, how to add the variable slope in mesh at Geometry.
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You need to generate a 2D geometry and extrude it along the width direction in software eg. Solidworks, AUTO CAD, and ANSYS design moduler. For generating mesh Ansys mesh will automatically generate it. or you can use GMsh also for it.
Note: As per my knowledge inclination is related to geometry not to mesh. If your geometry is inclined (slope of bed) then your mesh will generate with respect to it.
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We are performing Melting Curve Analysis after Taqman based qPCR. For instance, we detect two different targets in FAM channel and differentiate them by their melting peaks. We observe that some targets produce a melting peak, but others do not. What could be the cause?
We are always using the same MasterMix and thermal protocol, and amplicon sizes are similar.
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Exactly! Yes, we are using asymmetric PCR and an enzyme without 5'-3' exonuclease activity.
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I have a situation in a T-Junction Microfluidic device. I am generating water droplets in oil medium using 2D simulation. I have fixed the velocity parameter of both liquids and increase the width of the main channel (Horizontal long channel where oil is passed) ONLY. I see a decrease in average flow pressure in the device with increasing width of the main channel. How do you justify?
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More so, it has to do with the velocity of the fluid which can also translate to the force on the fluid per unit of distance or width. of the channels. Assuming the flow rate is fixed, the pressure will be higher for a smaller width and lower when the width is increased. (knowing that Pressure is mainly force per unit area)
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I have an eeg.edf recording of 20 channels that I opened in Matlab as a timetable. How can I calculate the mean amplitude value for each channel using a function?
Thank you.
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You can convert your edf file to mat file by these code in Matlab 2020:
clc;clear all;close all
tt = edfread('FileName.edf');
timeList = tt.(tt.Properties.DimensionNames{2});
Data=cell2mat(timeList);
save('FileName.mat','Data') %%% save your data in .mat file in current Folder
If you want to calculate the mean amplitude value for each channel you can use mean function in matlab :
example: Data has 20 channels and 1000 samples, so it is 20*1000.
for i=1:20
Mean_Amp(i)=mean( Data(i,:) )
end
Mean_Amp should have 20 values according to each Channels.
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I opened the edf file in Matlab as a timetable. What would be the easy way to plot all of the channels (20) on the same figure?
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You can use EEGlab toolbox to see whole channels and do pre processing in Matlab.
Both you can load edf file in EEGlab or change the edf to .mat then load it to EEGlab and plot all the channel in the same figure by using this way:
plot tab , channel data (scroll).
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Hello everyone
I am new to Emotiv and I want to use EEGLAB 2019.0 to analysis 32 channel of emotiv epoc flex (https://www.emotiv.com/epoc-flex/). How can I do raw data preprocessing ,ex: set channel location and import event file? Because I only have spherical coordinates (Theta and Phi).
When I import eeg data inside of eeglab, I can’ t choose file because this is a .CSV file.
Has anyone used EEGLAB to analyze 32-channels emotiv? Thank you!
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You can either import the data as CSV format, or open the data in Matlab first, save it as MAT file and reopen it in EEGLAB as MATLAB format or variable.
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In all the papers and books that I read, only the DC channel gain of the VLC system is studied without any further justification. How can we know for sure that the channel doesn't affect the frequency of the light? What would the spectrum of the channel look like with an LED modulated in OOK?
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The PD peak gain may be detected with just DC to measure the line loss as baseband frequency response is not usually the limiting factor except in extreme cases then using "eye patterns"
But the minimum signal for high speed is often >5% of peak to prevent reverse saturation. Thus there may be two Signal/Noise or SNR ratios for a 1,0 logic levels. The choice of levels for OOK depends on the SNR for each levels with noise and path loss and speed effects from Tx modulation methods and diode capacitance at 0V.
Jahid is overlooking that 630 nm to >1 um Red to IR is certainly the carrier like RF that has a loss factor [dB/km] and the photodiode, PD is the baseband detector to convert wavelength power to current.
If we can use "RG", then we can use OOK because those familiar will understand. But in all technical presentations, all abbrev.'s are defined first to avoid errors.
Generally, open loop DC gain and unity gain BW are both needed for baseband transimpedance amplifiers (TIA) to find the product of DC gain and unity gain fmax to get a gain-bandwidth (GBW) specification.
Unless it is a video broadband uncompensated amplifier, it will have an internal integrator cap that creates this GBW with very high gain and common Op Amp breakpoints are 10 Hz as a LPF..
Once does not really need DC gain for some bandband protocols such as bi-phase, FM, PSK, but OOK needs sufficient transitions to restore DC or actual DC coupling.
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According to described in [1] and other similar researches approach, the interference factor (IF) between two IEEE 802.11n devices (Wi-Fi routers) can be obtained via OFDM spectral masks overlapping consideration. In this case, the maximum IF will be when devices share the same channel (CCI - co-channel interference).
However, classical recommendation in Wi-Fi planning is to use several non-overlapping channels (e.g. 1, 6, 11) and therefore to avoid ACI (adjacent channel interference). Additionally, we know that CCI is not kind of "pure" electromagnetic interference, there are specialized mechanisms like NAV (Network Allocation Vector) and CW (Contention Window) that influence resource sharing.
Moreover, I did several measurements with two 802.11n routers which were communicating with their stations and CCI case showed better results than ACI with one channel difference (see the attachment).
I'll be appreciated, if anybody knows and can share some relevant research about CCI IFs!
References:
1. Mi, P. and Wang, X., 2012, June. Improved channel assignment for WLANs by exploiting partially overlapped channels with novel CIR-based user number estimation. In 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (pp. 6591-6595). IEEE.
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hi,
Adjacent channel interference (ACI) occurs when transmissions are sent on an adjacent or partially overlapping channel. The channel bleeds over on an overlapping channel, which adds noise and interference. As a result, ACI is worse than CCI.The common types of interference include adjacent channel Interference (ACI), co-channel Interference (CCI), Electromagnetic Interference(EMI), ICI (Inter Carrier Interference), ISI (Inter Symbol Interference), light Interference, Sound Interference etc.
for more info:
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Hello,
How can I plot the Power Spectrum for all channels of my signal(EEG)?
I want to find the correlation matrix in MATLAB. I've really got baffled.
Thanks in advance for your answer,
Neda
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For a given CNN (say a WideResNet). If I train the network using RGB images (which has 3 channels) comparing with grayscale image (which has only 1 channel). Is the only difference in the first convolutional layers. So is it the case that the total parameters are not much different, just that the 1st conv layer has 3 times more parameters for RGB than grayscale, and all of the following layers have the same number of parameters for both cases?
In term of memory usage, the memory usage caused by activation maps are the same just that the memory usage caused by input image (*batch_size) are different?
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As a general rule a convolutional layer will use
parameter # = (# layer) * (filter_height)(filter_size)(filter_depth)*(# channels)
So for a single 3x3 conv on a grayscale image: 27 parameters
But for a single 3x3 conv on an RGB image: 243 parameters
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We are trying to establish morphostratigraphy and paleoclimate history. So we need paleo channel positions for that. Can we use satellite data to infer paleo channel positions ?
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Positive Vsb increases the depletion width near the channel region which eventually increase the threshold voltage. What effect does this have on the two capacitances Cox and Cdep?
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Techopedia Explains Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) A metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is most commonly used for amplifying or switching electronic signals by varying current through them.Dec 15, 2016
What is a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field ...
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I have been trying to simulate a few classes of power amplifiers such as
  • Class A
  • Class AB
  • Class B
  • Class E
  • Class F
I have developed the models for the classes using Advanced design system (ADS) Keysight software for RF design.
However, I am confused about how to simulate the spectral of the power amplifier at certain carrier frequencies such as 2 GHz and a bandwidth of 5 MHz.
I would like to seek your kind help with how the simulation of the spectral can be achieved. I have conducted Single Tone and Two-Tone Simulations for the models with this point in doubt.
Thank you in advance.
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I have a question. How can I for example make an index in pymol or VMD based on coordinates? Is it possible? I have a molecular system that looks like that. I want to have each channel in a different color. In the beginning, my approach was to make a selection by index atom number, for example, indicating index 1-129000 will make a selection for the first channel, etc. But I discovered that a person who made this system constructed it piece by piece and for example, in the first 1-129000 I have molecule selection from 5 different channels so I must do this probably by coordinates. If you have any advice I would be very grateful.
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“index” selects atoms based on their internal PyMOL object atom indices starting with one as the first number, index 1-10000 therefore just selects the first 10'000 atoms. Pymol allows very differentiated selections (see https://pymolwiki.org/index.php/Selection_Algebra). I would have to see the coordinate file to suggest the best way to achieve the selection you desire. For example, if you want to select the green entities surrounding a particular one of the red splotches in your image, you could identify an atom in the center of that splotch and use the "within" selection to select all green entities within a specified distance of that atom, expanding this selection with "byres" or "by chain" from individual atoms to entire residues or chains.
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I am preparing emulsions with pure Dodecane in Water with 1% Tween 20, i.e. oil in water. Unfortunately, Dodecane wets the outlet channel. With a fresh microfluidic chip, within the first hour, wetting starts to happen. Due to this I am able to use a microfluidic chip only for a single experiment, and I cannot perform experiments that take time.
Is there a way to reduce this wetting of the channel by Dodecane?
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First, a description of the required parameters.
Wetting angle (contact angle) - the angle that is formed by tangents to the interfacial surfaces that limit the wetting liquid and has a vertex at the line of separation of three phases.
Control of wetting processes - modification of the surface of the solid phase by adsorption of surfactants. For example, hydrophilization of the lyophobic surface of surfactant coal, when they are adsorbed by hydrocarbon groups on coal, and the hydrophilic groups "look" outward. Control of the introduction of surfactants into the liquid phase.
Wetting depends on the nature of the solid surface, and you forgot to write it down.
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If a hydraulic jump is formed in a rectangular channel/flume , then does the location of the jump depends upon the channel l/flume length or does it depend only upon the upstream and downstream depths of the channel , inlet Froude's no. and bed slope and NOT on the channel length?
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Subham Pal, the important parameters are explained by other scholars. To study the real length of a hydraulic jump I would consider enough length to ensure the jump is formed not due to phenomena, particularly for free flow. This manuscript would be helpful:
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Customer reviews on social media play a critical role in the decision making (i.e., pre-purchase) stage in the customer journey. Therefore, it is critical for a brand to measure customers' perception of the quality of the reviews available across the brand's social media platforms, such as reviews on the brand's Facebook page. The following study has developed and empirically validated a construct called 'Social Communications' (SOCM) that brand managers and researchers could use to measure the quality of a brand's customer reviews. They define 'Social Communications' as the customer’s evaluative judgment of peer user endorsements of a brand across any channels. The four items for measuring the construct are (replace XYZ with the brand's name):
  • SOCM1: Customer reviews of XYZ across all channels are accurate.
  • SOCM2: Customer reviews across XYZ’s channels make me feel confident to buy from XYZ.
  • SOCM3: Online posts by other customers make me feel confident to buy from XYZ.
  • SOCM4: Customer reviews of XYZ across all channels are trustworthy.
Review the article for further details (open/free access): Syed Mahmudur Rahman, Jamie Carlson, Siegfried P. Gudergan, Martin Wetzels, Dhruv Grewal. (2022). Perceived Omnichannel Customer Experience (OCX): Concept, measurement, and impact. Journal of Retailing, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2022.03.003
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Thanks Kim Viljoen . This construct (social communication) is one of the nine first-order dimensions in the newly developed 36-items OCX scale in this JR paper. We had to keep the number of items per dimension limited to 4 to manage the total number of items in the scale, and to achieve good model fit. Because OCX is a reflective-formative model, future studies could expand any dimension if their study focuses on exploring that dimension further.
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I made microchannel on silicon wafer by fiber laser, but some substance was formed above the channel surface. I suppose this as silicon dioxide, and want to remove this from silicon channel.
But I can't use HF.
Then how can I successfully remove sio2 from si wafer? I don't want silicon wafer to be etched out as far as possible.
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Dear Sangguk Kwon,
Here it is:
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is used to remove native silicon dioxide from wafers. Since it acts quickly, one needs to only expose the wafer for a short time (“dip”). HF is a dangerous chemical and protective gear must be worn when using it, in particular, neoprene or thick nitrile gloves and eye protection must be worn.
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Hello all,
I am looking for a simple test case to validate model for perfect gas with heating, preferable flow in a channel. Does there exist any analytical or reference solution for such case
Any appropriate reference would be really helpful. (I am operating in laminar regime )
Thanks
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Maybe thermal Couette flows.?
Several are present in our article below.
Pierre.
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Hi everyone, I am a postdoc at Mount Sinai and I have recently applied the RNAScope protocol to human fetal brain FFPE tissue. I want to quantify the nuclear RNAs for two genes involved in neurodevelopment across the tissue starting from the top of the cortical plate, which contains mature neurons that have completed migration, and then go deeper into the tissue, where there are progenitor cells that are migrating and differentiating into neurons. I imaged multiple tiles in an automated fashion with the Zeiss Axioimager Z2 epifluorescence microscope using a 63x 1.4 NA oil objective. Every tile was imaged in 40 200 nm z-stacks across 3 channels (Cy5, Cy3, DAPI). There are a total of 230 tiles. I would like to open these tiles individually so I can analyze the data. When I try to open on FiJi, I see the entire dataset with all the tiles, and the options to go through the channels and z-stacks, but it's not clear how I can extract the individual tiles. The dataset is very big, about 213 GB. Any advice will be appreciated. Thanks!
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Actually you can just easily export the tiles from the Zeiss Zen software.
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Dear respected colleagues
I need a good research paper that comparing the concepts of heat transfer in both conventional channels and micro-channels.
Thanks
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I'm doing a reserch about heat and mass trasfer so, I tried to do the same research that has been by someone.
The research about vortex generator in a blocked channel for heat transfer enhancement.
The resercher used ((2D Desgin, using the hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) combining with Gaussian Process.
in Gaussian method are obtained by solving energy equation followed by the flow field using Navier–Stokes solver.
The flow is considered to be two dimensional, steady state, laminar and incompressible with constant fluid properties. Body forces and viscous dissipation are ignored. Also there is a negligible radiation heat transfer since there is no considerable temperature gradient.
The thermal properties of the fluid are assumed to be constant, and the buoyancy effects are negligible.))
I tried the same thing but the result was difference. I think I made a mistake in somewhere but I could not find it.
need some help.
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Muhammed Sipahi Analytical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, are not conceivable. As a result, it is important to simplify the equations and solve them iteratively. To mimic a gas or liquid movement in a certain environment, the user must first decide which simplifications to utilize.
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I am simulating an open channel flow in a 2d rectangular channel using ANSYS FLUENT. I intend to incorporate a tail-gate at the end of the channel so that , I can create and control a hydraulic jump by raising and lower the tail gate as and when required.
If I am not wrong then , simulating such a tail gate in ansys fluent needs an UDF that can change the boundary condition ,at the channel end, from wall to pressure outlet.
This would also mean that the UDF should include this fact too that the tail gate will rise or lower over a definite time and definite rate(velocity) i.e the boundary condition would change from wall to pressure outlet not instantly rather over a definite time( no. of time steps).
Of course the wall(tail-gate) material is specified as steel.
I need to run the calculations (for simulating the flow) for few time steps with a particular position of the tail gate and then stop the calculation. Make changes in the UDF to specify the next position of the tail gate and re-run the calculation and so on.
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Yes, you can write down a dynamic mesh code so that a rigid body object, like a wall, may be moved. But changing the boundary condition type after moving the wall, that's a far different story.
As I said before, I think there is no UDF macro which can alter the BC type during the simulation.
You can run your calculation just before the moment that the BC is physically changing to pressure outlet one, then pause it, save it, change the BC to pressure-outlet manaully, then resume the rest of the simulation.
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Are there appropriate satellite imagery
What are tools for channel erosion and deposition assessment
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Do remember river channels are 3-dimensional. Satellite imagery is 2-dimensional, although some imagery can differentiate between shallow and deep water. The 3rd dimension, depth, is critical to channel morphology. Others have already mentioned that channel bed presents problems for sat. imagery. True, surface morphology largely reflects current movements at depth and consequently bed form, but there are issues in extrapolating them.
kind regards
George Strachan
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I am new to Emotiv and I want to use EEGLAB 2019.0 to analysis 32 channel of emotiv epoc flex (https://www.emotiv.com/epoc-flex/). How can I do to do raw data preprocessing ,ex: import Raw Data, import event file/ marker, and set channel location?
For import raw data, I have .CSV file and .EDF file. Which one I select it to import to processing?
For import marker, I cann't import marker file because it is .CSV file.
For channel location, I only have spherical coordinates (Theta and Phi). Can it default the channel as same as NeuroScan 32 channels?
I download the musemonitor3.2 but it deesn't work.
Has anyone used EEGLAB to analyze 32-channels emotiv?
Thank you!
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I have watch this video but I can't sure other channel location details, for example, FP1, FP2.
I found a Cap_coords_all file, I select 64-chan to set channel location. Because its electrodes like my setting. I notices 16-chan coordinates were different Tom Martin. So I can't sure the file correctness.
Thank you.
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The pores of zeolite are divided into one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional. In order to easily distinguish the channels in different directions, they are represented by the a-, b-, and c-axis, respectively. Zeolites will show diffraction fringes in TEM characterization and some type of lattice in electron diffraction. Does the blank sandwiched in black lines in diffraction fringe represent the channels of zeolites? If yes, how to determine if the channel is along the a-, b-, or c-axis? If not, what on earth does it stands for, or what information can be obtained from the diffraction fringe?
It will be very appreciated if you can share your experience.
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This other paper could be also interesting for you:
Best,
Fran
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want help in the scientific interpretation (the elasticity of the exchange rate of bank loans) which effect of the rise of the exchange rate channel by one unit generates an increase of the bank loans by 5.46 units, under the use of the svar model?
Waiting for your opinion, accept my regards
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thank you for replying Yes, I need this study, please
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Hello! I'm interested in building or joining existing research collaborations, but the channel our research office directs us to (researchconnect) seems better suited for hard sciences. Are there similar platforms or outlets for social sciences?
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Dear Caitlin Blaser Mapitsa,
In my opinion, this science portal, the Research Gate web platform, is also an excellent platform for the development of scientific cooperation in the field of social sciences. The Research Gate portal is an internet platform that facilitates the development of scientific cooperation on a local, regional, as well as international and global scale. The possibilities of developing cooperation through the RG portal concern various fields of science and scientific disciplines, including various research topics developed within the social sciences. I invite you to research cooperation.
Best regards,
Dariusz
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I have been conducting a heat transfer experiment in a rectangular channel with modifications on the inner surfaces of the channel to enhance heat transfer. In order to validate my experiment, I have to compare experimental values in smooth channel case with the predicted values by Dittus-Bolter and Blasius equations. So,what is the maximum allowable error between the experimental and correlations values?
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Should not exceed 10% of the theoretical value
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I've been confused about how to setting the trigger channel and threshold in the nanocellect program. I have the GFP positive and negative cell which I've confirmed by the confocal, the positive one looks bright green under the confocal. But when I try to sort the cell by using the Wolf nanocellet, it couldn't separate the positive and the negative cells.
So I need to know that, when I first flow the negative sample into the nanocellect what trigger channel should I use? and also the threshold, what number should I set?
And when I flow the GFP positive sample in, should I use the same trigger channel as in the negative one?
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using fitting methods
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Dear Researchers,
While simulating a shadowed fading channel I meet following problem:
I derive the formula for ASER which is in the form of infinite series and contains Meijer-G function (z in Meijer-G = some constant(based on channel parameters)/SNR).
If I simulate the system for 12 to 27 dB SNR, the simulation values perfectly matches with the theoretical values. [I add only 50 terms as I check after it, the term didn't contribute more than 10^(-10)].
But for lower values of SNR i.e., <12dB approx, the theoretical value of ASER suddenly reduces and become 0.
For reference, see fig attached showing vertical lines below 12dB SNR.
The reason I found till now is that this happens due to Meijer-G function, but why?
Did I miss something? For example any condition which restrict not to go below a certain value in Meijer-G.
Do anyone face this issue?
Or any suggestions.
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Though, I have checked the conditions, but I think i have to recheck. There is definitely something missing.
Thanks again.
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Are they both different or same in case of small channel devices.
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Dear Amit Das ,
The depletion layer depth is comprises the region where the doping ion concentration is greater than the majority carrier concentration. Where the inversion region as I defined it before in one of your questions is the width of the region from the surface of the substrate till inversion minority concentration reaches the intrinsic concentration. Consequently, the inversion layer thickness is appreciably less than the depletion region width.
I would like that you follow the book in the link:
Best wishes
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I have an EEG dataset that contains 62 databases of 27 subjects, recorded from 32 channels.
how can I compute coherence or correlation of channels (in whole of dataset)?
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Use the ' conv(A,B) ' in MATLAB to calculate the Cross-correlation. A and B are two different signals. Use the ' Y=fft(A,n) ' command to calculate the FFT of a signal. The A is the signal in the time-domain and the Y is the same signal in the frequency-domain. The n is the number of points we want to calculate the FFT.
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I am quantifying plant metabolites using HPLC, The solvents in channel A is 0.4% phosphoric acid in water and in channel B it is acetonitrile. after performing the experiment which solvents I should use to wash the column.
Answers will be highly appreciated
Thank you
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Dear Muhammad,
Yes, absolutely. After washing with 70% water, 15% MeOH and 15 acetonitrile, then wash the column slowly over to 100% methanol and wash for at least 15 minutes. Wash the column over to 100% acetonitrile and wash for at least 15 minutes.
Regards
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I've taken fluorescence microscopy images with 4 channels (DAPI, FITC, Cy3, and Cy5 - Cy5 pseudocolored white) and now I can't figure out how to separate them for analysis on ImageJ or Photoshop. A quick google search indicates that because the images are RGB, the white channel is forever shown on all channels and can't be separated out. Is there any way to get around this? Thanks in advance!
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Hi Marisa Adhikusuma Jeffries . I agree with J. Ramirez-Franco . You won’t be able to split an RGB image into 4 channels. You have to save your data as a .tif or the format associated with your imaging system.
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protein data bank file(pdb)
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I think according to a certain equation
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What are the areas in fading channels like TWDP,Rayleigh fading Channel,Nakagami fading Channels?? ....Is pursuing research in this area are limited?Is there is a chance of publishing many papers in this area?
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Wireless channels contain many propagation paths, with different amplitudes and phases. When a device moves around over distances proportional to the wavelength, the phases are changes rapidly and the paths might add constructively or destructively. If one models this statistically, you get a fading distribution.
Depending on the amplitude mix of the paths, different kinds of fading distribution appears. If all paths are equally strong, you will get Rayleigh fading. If one path is much stronger than the others, while the remaining ones are equally strong, you will get Rician fading.
If the fading doesn't match any of those categories, then the Nakagami distribution is a popular one that allows for fine-tuning a distribution to fit with measurements.
It can be of interest to evaluate the performance of communication systems in different fading scenarios, but one should avoid designing algorithms that are too reliant on a particular fading scenario because the distribution can change rapidly in practice. We talked about this in my podcast: https://ma-mimo.ellintech.se/2022/01/19/episode-25-what-models-are-useful/
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This has been our problem since it is our first time to undergo molecular docking. We are looking the Nav1.5 channel’s sequence from punlished articles yet we still want to know the exact method on how to determine these.
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The first thing to do is to learn what is experimentally known. Usually, I would search UniProt directly with the sequence. Since I could not find Nav1.5 directly in UniProt, my go-to place for protein sequences and associated information, I did a general Google search to find alternative names.
From GeneCards I learned that the gene name is SCN5A. With this name I searched UniProt: https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q14524 is the record for the human homolog, https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q14524 which not only gave me the sequence and location of the transmembrane segments, but showed me that an EM structure is available in the PDB: ( https://www.rcsb.org/structure/7DTC )
You can look at this structure using a molecule viewer, e.g. PyMOL. If you color the structure by secondary structure, the loop/turn segments will stand out (green in the attached image) and are indicated in the same color in the sequence line.
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I have found two kinds of formulas to calculate the capacity of the AWGN channel with binary input. The first well-known formula is log (1+SNR) bits per channel use, the second one is half the first one, i.e. 1/2 log (1+SNR) bits per channel use. I have one interpretation, which the first formula is for the complex-valued AWGN channel, and the second formula is for the real-valued AWGN channel.
Can you confirm my interpretation or have you another interpretation?
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This is an interesting question. It sounds reasonable that when a band-limited channel is used to transmit a real signal, the channel capacity (CC) is half compared to transmitting a complex signal. However, we should be careful to remember that the Fourier transform (FT) of a real (baseband) signal is symmetrical around DC (i.e. f=0), but the FT of a complex (baseband) signal is unsymmetrical in general. Thus, when an RF channel is used, the spectrum of a real (baseband) signal is symmetrical about the RF carrier frequency. As a result, it is possible to transmit only half of the signal spectrum, by using the so-called single-side band (SSB) transmission. On the other hand, in order to transmit a complex signal, full spectrum has to be transmitted since its spectrum is unsymmetrical. Thus, when a SSB transmitted is used to transmit a real signal, the channel capacity is the same as to transmit a complex signal.
Summary:
(1) When the double-side band (DSB) transmission is used for transmission of both real and complex signals, the channel capacity is half for the real signal.
(2) However, when SSB is used for transmission of real signals while DSB has to be used for transmission of complex signals, the channel capacity is the same for both real signals and complex signals.
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hello, can anyone give the reason for selecting the green channel from the color image for binarize that image, why not red and blue channels are used for Binarization.
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I've seen different formulas for pixel brightness. It is a matter of taste. One might argue that green wavelengths are right in the middle of the visible spectrum or that cones have their maximum sensitivity at that range.
Regards,
Joachim
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In many research articles, it has been considered that in the NOMA scheme, power allocation should be in reverse order of the user's channel gains i.e. the power allocation ratio to the users with the stronger channel is less than that of a user with a weaker channel. But practically, it is true or false?
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Hi, Ambrish,
In terms of the answer on Feb. 4, here are some of my considerations.
Adding two rates in your case means a sum rate.
The achievable rate pair of the NOMA or Broadcast channel is
r1 ≤ log(1 + αP|h1|^2/N0),
r2 ≤ log(1 + (1 − α)P|h2|^2/( αP|h2| ^2 + N0),
where h1 and h2 are the channels.
See (5) in [1] for more details, and [2, Chapter 6.2.2, pp. 279].
When you mentioned the different channel conditions, do you mean the channels could have different relations and values? It may be the topic of symmetric and asymmetric channels. For example, in the suggested paper, Figure 2, the channel |h1| = 10 |h2|, the asymmetric channel is considered.
[1] Qi, Yue, Xinliang Zhang, and Mojtaba Vaezi. "Over-the-Air Implementation of NOMA: New Experiments and Future Directions." IEEE Access 9 (2021): 135828-135844. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=9552864
[2] D. Tse and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005.
I hope the discussion can make the topic clearer.
Best,
Yue
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Also please name your favorite book of Open Channel Flow/Hydraulics you follow for your research and academic activities.
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I would recommend the following book:
Chaudhry M. H. (2008). Open-channel flow, 2nd Ed., Springer, Berlin, 523.
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For example, I see HEMT structures such as AlGaN Barrier / GaN Channel / GaN Buffer. What is the role of a buffer layer? Is it primarily used for heat conduction (heat sink)?
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High quality channel and barrier layer;
High breakdown voltage.
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It is known that for optimal RIS control, perfect CSI of all the links between BS and MS through the RIS is required. Therefore, channel estimation and corresponding message feedback methods will be needed at the BS/MS.
Few studies suggest a two-stage channel estimation approach for RIS-aided MIMO channels, using iterative re-weighted method for estimating channel parameters sequentially.
Will this be a good way to go about it, or there is/are better methods.
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If there is no specific channel structure, then you will have to transmit pilots using N different RIS configurations, in order to excite all dimensions of the channel.
However, if there is some channel structure (e.g., spatial sparsity) one might be able to reduce the pilot signaling.
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Hi!
I have some old EEG with 22 channels collected according to the 10-20 international system.
In my EEG data, other signals are collected
· ECG: channel number 20
· EMG: channel number 21
· SLI: channel number 22
I have channel location file for 19 electrodes (EEG)
I need channels location info to plot 2D maps for the EMG, ECG, and SLI.
Where can I find a 22 channels electrode location file .CED ?
Kind regards
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Thank you, Pedro and Lucas
Done
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Hello,
I have 19 EEG channels and use ICA for EEG artifact removal.
Which criteria can be used to remove or accept EEG channels using EEGLAB?
Thanks
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Dear Pedro Morais,
Thanks for your reply
Most of artefact removal techniques use visually interpretation. I am looking for statistical criteria
Kind regards
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Hi friends,
I am recording TRPV4 channel with patch clamp at present. It could be nightmare to me. Originally, the extracellular solution used contained calclium --1.8mM. However, the current desensitized very quickly and even entirely disappear with several minutes. Then, we change to calcium-free solution which pose a too big challenge to achieve a whole cell recording.
I also tried to replace calcium with barium but not very helpful.
I want to learn about some comment and suggestion to recording TRPV4 channel.
Many thanks
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Try to follow the methods in this article by Sánchez et al. (2014)
TRPV4 channels activity in bovine articular chondrocytes: Regulation by obesity-associated mediators.
PMID: 25459300 / DOI: 10.1016/j.ceca.2014.10.006
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Hello Everyone,
I am having trouble with baseline removal when creating an epoch containing 1 trial. After creating the epoch, a window pops up that reads "remove mean of each data channel", rather than the window that allows you to specify the time window for baseline removal. I am also unable to later remove baseline by going to "tools" --> "remove baseline".  How may I baseline correct this segment using a window of -200 to 0 (rather than the default -1000 to 0)? Is there a way to change the default settings of the baseline removal in eeglab?
Thank you!
Best,
Ariel
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Thank you Joao and Nik for your replies.
I was able to baseline correct from the command line/Matlab space, as you suggested Nik. I used the following code, which saves a new dataset with the applied baseline correction:
pop_saveset(pop_rmbase(EEG, [-200, 0]), 'filepath', 'C:\Users\s15aa\Downloads\eeglab_current\eeglab2021.1\EEG Epochs and Baseline Correction\PSVTR08_hard_baseline_corrected')
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Let us say that we have a estimated channel at the BS, denoted by H_e, and actual channel, denoted by H_a. How can we calculate spectral efficiency of a SU-mMIMO system using this information?
More specifically, I have a BS equipped with 64 transmit antennas and a UE equipped with 1 receive antenna.
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You said mMIMO in the question (= MU-MIMO) and the mentioned SU-MIMO in the text. Which setup do you have in mind?
For MU-MIMO, I would recommend my book: massivemimobook.com
For SU-MIMO, I would recommend the paper "Capacity and power allocation for fading MIMO channels with channel estimation error" by You and Goldsmith.
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Hello, I would like to model a communication channel, but considering in my scenarios Reconfigurable Intelligent surfaces. Does anyone have any ideas?
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I don't know if you find the required codes but i suggest you to use this one in:
I already use it and find it very suitable, also i implement simple one following work in: An analytical framework for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces
placement in a mobile user environment
So, I can give you a hand for implementing it again
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I am looking for literature discussing the designs of paper-based microfluidic devices, especially the one that highlights the flow rate, channel widths, etc. If there is any, list down their titles.
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Hi,
MATLAB/SIMULINK along with c2000 embededd coder support package provides interface for only 2 DAC channels. How to access all four DAC channels of F28379D.
Thank you.
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The alphafold 2 uses channels in pairwise representation for protein residues. But why are they used? Shouldn't there be only one value, not a cannel array?
The pairwise representation has shape (r,r,c). Why is it like that? Shouldn't it be (r,r)
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I have got the reason. Here the channels represents various features.
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Hi all,
I am trying to compare the conductance analysis from a few channel currents that I have analysed and I am trying to understand the effect of mutations I am studying on.
I always fit my conductance data with the Boltzmann exponential, from which I use the V50 and slope factor values to determine the voltage dependence properties of the current and hence be able to compare my data. Whilst for me, V50 comparisons are super easy and understandable, I always end up confusing myself with slope factor comparisons. I try to think of it as "if the slope is high (the shallow curve) there is lower voltage sensitivity as with a given change in membrane potential, there is very little change in conductance" and "if the slope is low (curve is steeper) there is higher voltage sensitivity as with any given change in membrane potential, there is larger change in conductance".
Does that make sense? or am I confusing myself yet again.
Thanks everyone for your advice.
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It is said that the Fermi-Dirac distribution would be
better to be used
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As a Masters Project I'll be working on analysis of EEG data. So I have EEG data which when loaded in Matlab shows 32*384*80. Can anyone explain what is channels, epochs in EEG data?
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I see. In this case, I'd say each epoch represents a time-window of 384 data points in time. Depending of your system's sampling frequency, this will amount to a specific time duration. For example, for a 256 Hz sampling frequency, 384 data points would represent a total of 1.5 s (384 data points/256 data points/s). Please note that I am only exemplifying with an arbitrary sampling frequency, and you should apply the original value used for data recording to get how much time each epoch lasts in your case.
In any case, the epoch would represent a time window of a specific duration. If each epoch contains the sime type of information (e.g., a given response to a specific stimulus), you could average them to obtain a mean response of a given stimulus, for example. There are all sorts of different types of analysis you could do, but these would largely depend on what is it you are interested in, your experimental design etc.
I hope to have answered something in the lines of what you were looking for :)
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Dear All.
I am working in LAA WiFi coexistence scenario. For my work, I need to calculate the Latency/Delay in a different way.
From my understanding, the way current solution is calculating the delay is that it is monitoring the time between the packet was first transmitted and last seen from the receiver's perspective. It is done in the FlowMonitor class where you calculate all the delay into delaysum and calculate the average delay.
Now, what I want to do is that, for every received packets, I want to set a timer when the packet is being generated and add with the individual delay values and calculate the avg delay. Now, as I am talking about the LAA-WiFi coexistence, I cannot make a solution that only works for Wi-Fi. So I have to solve this problem from the base, I mean, the Packet class.
Did anyone work in this problem before? Need some expert suggestions. And Thank you in advance for your kind assistance.
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When I looked at my samples using confocal, they show multicolors. However, when I process they show only 1 color. If LUT is selected, it does not show an image similar to I obtained while doing experiments. I am doing only a single channel. If someone assists me that would be great. I am using ImageJ for analysis.
Thanks
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You can assign pseudo color to your channels.
- Open the image
- Click on the tab Image
- Click on Color
- Click Channels Tool (a pop-up window will open)
- Click More>> on the pop-up window
- You can select each of the channel and assign a color that you want
Hope this helps and good luck!
@Sathya Srinivasan
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I want to know why is it that when a sudden change in an open channel (say by a structure such as a regulator or a gate opening or closing), the resulting negative and positive surge waves have different water surface profiles such that:
The positive surge waves changes faster and thus has a steeper profile than that of a negative surge. Why is that?
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I think
Ali Mahdavi
is correct. A simple description is that the velocity increases with height, so the taller parts of the surge continually overtake the lower parts, continually steepening the front and leaving the back to fall gradually further behind.
I think this increase in speed with amplitude is necessary for the creation of a shock wave.
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I have acquired images with green, red and dapi channels. I want to calculate intensity of each cell for green and red channels. Please suggest me the steps to create an ROI in one channel and paste it to other channel so that I can get integrated densities of both the colours using Image J.
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You may also go to Analyze Set Measurements and tick the box next to "Limit to Threshold." Then use Image Adjust Threshold to highlight the region you wish to examine, and Analyze Measure will provide you intensity data just in the area you've highlighted.