Science topic

Cerebral Cortex - Science topic

The thin layer of gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemisphere that develops from the telencephalon and folds into gyri. It reaches its highest development in man and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
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Publications related to Cerebral Cortex (10,000)
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This article presents the basics of physical culture hygiene. The concept and essence of hygiene, its role and place in physical culture and sports practice are revealed. I pay special attention to the hygienic regulation of physical health during physical education. Sanitary and hygienic norms and requirements for physical culture and sports facil...
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Wolfram syndrome 1 ( WFS1 ) gene mutations can be dominantly or recessively inherited, and the onset of the clinical picture is highly heterogeneity in both appearance and degree of severity. Different types of WFS1 mutations have been identified. Autosomal recessive mutations in the WFS1 gene will underlie Wolfram syndrome 1 (WS1), a rare and seve...
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The thalamus is the main gateway for sensory information from the periphery to the mammalian cerebral cortex. A major conundrum has been the discrepancy between the thalamus’s central role as the primary feedforward projection system into the neocortex and the sparseness of thalamocortical synapses. Here we use new methods, combining genetic tools...
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The stability and flexibility of the functional parcellation of the cerebral cortex is fundamental to how familiar and novel information is both represented and stored. We leveraged new advances in Ca2+ sensors and microscopy to understand the dynamics of functional segmentation in the dorsal cerebral cortex. We performed wide-field Ca2+ imaging in...
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PurposeComparison of the performance of high-resolution susceptibility weighted imaging with standard MR sequences and MR venography to identify cortical vein clots.MethodsA retrospective review of 51 consecutive cases of cerebral venous thrombosis and 27 controls was performed with independent analysis of all MR sequences. Reference standard was o...
Presentation
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“Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia. "That attacks the brain’s nerve cells, or neurons, especially in the cerebral cortex, resulting in loss of memory, thinking and language skills, and behavioral changes."
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Alzheimer's disease is one of the leading causes of dementia today. This neurodegenerative disorder results in the progressive decline of cognitive ability and memory. The biochemical processes that characterize this disease include the formation of βamyloid plaques, the development of neurofibrillary tangles, and the loss of cholinergic neurons in...
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This article reviewed brain mechanism of the lower urinary tract (LUT). Among autonomic nervous systems, LUT is unique in terms of afferent pathophysiology; bladder sensation is perceived soon after the storage phase and throughout the voiding phase. Within the brain, this is measured in experimental animals by the firing of single neurons and in h...
Preprint
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Association fibers connect different areas of the cerebral cortex over long distances and integrate information to achieve higher brain functions, particularly in humans. Prototyped association fibers are developed to the respective tangential direction throughout the cerebral hemispheres in the subplate layer during the fetal period. However, the...
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The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is the most aggressive and recurrent of all odontogenic cysts which have a specific and unique entity both histopathologically and behaviorally. Decompression of a large OKC as a primary treatment permits preservation of vital structures and regeneration of bone with least morbidity. A 21-year-old woman reported wit...
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Recently, a population of “immature” neurons generated prenatally, retaining immaturity for long periods and finally integrating in adult circuits has been described in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, comparative studies revealed differences in occurrence/rate of different forms of neurogenic plasticity across mammals, the “immature” neurons prevail...
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The hyperdirect pathway (HDP) represents the main glutamatergic input to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), through which the motor and prefrontal cerebral cortex can modulate basal ganglia activity. Further, direct activation of the motor HDP is thought to be an important component of therapeutic deep brain stimulation (DBS), mediating the disruption...
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It has been consistently found that exposure to ambient air pollution, such as particulate matter (PM), results in cognitive impairments and mental disorders. This study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of curcumin, a polyphenol compound, on the neurobehavioral deficits and to identify the role of oxidative stress in dusty...
Preprint
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DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), neuroinflammation, and vascular alterations in the brain are all associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains unclear how these neuropathological changes relate to each other and act synergistically to promote neurodegeneration. Here we reveal cerebrovascular defects caused by abrogating the BRCA...
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Object This study measured cerebral blood oxygen changes in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The aim was to investigate the effect of music intervention on pain relief in MPS patients. Materials and methods A total of 15 patients with MPS participated in this study. A self-controlled...
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Multi-infarct dementia (MID) is described as a chronic progressive decline in cortical cognitive function due to the occurrence of multiple infarcts in the cerebral vascularization throughout the gray and white matter. Current therapies of MID mostly focus only on slowing down MID progression and symptomatic medications. A novel therapy which is ab...
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Background and Hypothesis: Gyrification, or convolution, of the cerebral cortex is a promising transdiagnostic marker for early neurodevelopment. Previous studies have related differences in sulcogyral shape to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, but the physical mechanisms underlying these differences remain poorly under...
Preprint
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Understanding the circuits that access and read out information in the cerebral cortex to guide behavior remains a challenge for systems-level neuroscience. Recent optogenetic experiments targeting specific cell classes in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) have shown that mice are sensitive to optically-induced increases in V1 spiking, but are relat...
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Introduction Information transmission and representation in both natural and artificial networks is dependent on connectivity between units. Biological neurons, in addition, modulate synaptic dynamics and post-synaptic membrane properties, but how these relate to information transmission in a population of neurons is still poorly understood. A rece...
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Serum antibodies directed against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are found in patients with acquired CNS demyelinating syndromes that are distinct from multiple sclerosis and aquaporin-4-seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Based on an extensive literature review and a structured consensus process, we propose diagnostic c...
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Maternal immune activation reportedly causes dysregulation of the cell cycle in stem cells, and impairment of higher cortical function in rodents. Furthermore, in humans’ maternal immune activation during the first to second trimester of pregnancy is strongly correlated with increased incidence of autism spectrum disorder in the offspring. Here, we...
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A characteristic feature of human cognition is our ability to ‘multi-task’ – performing two or more tasks in parallel – particularly when one task is well-learned. How the brain supports this capacity remains poorly understood. Most past studies have focussed on identifying the areas of the brain – typically the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – tha...
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The cellular basis of cerebral cortex functional architecture remains not well understood. A major challenge is to monitor and decipher neural network dynamics across broad cortical areas yet with projection-neuron-type resolution in real time during behavior. Combining genetic targeting and wide-field imaging, we monitored activity dynamics of sub...
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Jordan Davis,1 ErinMarie O Kimbrough,1 Muhamad Alhaj Moustafa,1 Liuyan Jiang,2 Vivek Gupta,3 Ephraim Parent,3 Han W Tun1 1Division of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 3Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USACorrespondence: Han W Tun, Divisi...
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Gastrodin is the active ingredient in Gastrodia elata. Our previous studies demonstrated that gastrodin ameliorated cerebral ischemia–reperfusion and hypoperfusion injury and improved cognitive deficit in Alzheimer’s disease. This study aims to examine the effects of gastrodin on REM sleep deprivation in rats. Gastrodin (100 and 150 mg/kg) was oral...
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Background Increased neurofilament levels in biofluids are commonly used as a proxy for neurodegeneration in several neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of neurofilaments in the cerebral cortex of Parkinson’s disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) donors, and its ass...
Preprint
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Although classically Rapid-Eye Movement (REM) sleep is thought to generate desynchronized activity similar to wakefulness, it was found that some brain regions can express Slow Wave activity (SWA), a pattern which is normally typical of slow-wave sleep. To investigate possible underlying mechanisms, we analyze experimental recordings and introduce...
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Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) is a group of focal developmental malformations of the cerebral cortex cytoarchitecture. FCD usually manifests as medically intractable epilepsy, especially in young children. Live patients are diagnosed by radiological examination such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomograp...
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During fear learning, defensive behaviors like freezing need to be finely balanced in the presence or absence of threat-predicting cues (conditioned stimulus, CS). Nevertheless, the circuits underlying such balancing are largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the ventral tail striatum (vTS) in auditory-cued fear learning of male mice. In...
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Acute caffeine intake has been found to increase working memory (WM)-related brain activity in healthy adults without improving behavioral performances. The impact of daily caffeine intake—a ritual shared by 80% of the population worldwide—and of its discontinuation on working memory and its neural correlates remained unknown. In this double-blind,...
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Background: Aging and dementia involve the disruption of brain molecular pathways leading to the alterations in tissue composition and gross morphology of the brain. Phenotypic and biomarker overlap between various etiologies of dementia supports a need for new modes of information to more accurately distinguish these disorders. Brain mechanical p...
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Sex differences emerge early in infancy. A number of earlier studies have investigated the resting-state network of infant sleep states, and there have been many studies using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine the effects of infant language learning on changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin levels. However, studies exam...
Preprint
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During fear learning, associations between an aversive stimulus (the US), and a sensory cue (CS) are formed at specific brain synapses. Nevertheless, how US information is transmitted to brain areas involved in value processing, like the amygdala, is still elusive. Using optogenetics, in-vivo Ca ²⁺ imaging, and circuit tracing, we investigate the r...
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Cognitive control is a key factor in insight generation. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the generation of insight for different cognitive control remain poorly understood. This study developed a parametric fMRI design, wherein hints for solving Chinese idiom riddles were gradually provided in a stepwise manner (from the first hin...
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Despite having more direct information with functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS), little is known about how the brain’s neurochemical mechanisms influence mental health and decision-making. In this study, we examined whether baseline glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and lactate concentrations were related to general anxiety and depression and...
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We report a case of neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) caused by middle cerebral artery infarction involving the right insular cortex. Hyperactivity of the insular cortex, which regulates sympathetic function, can cause NPE. The NPE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dyspneic patients with insular cortex infarction. Cerebral infarc...
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Background: Cone-beam Computed Tomography is a useful diagnostic tools for the detection of odontogenic peripheral cysts and granulomas. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the accuracy of CBCT for diagnosing periapical cyst and granuloma. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2017 to November 201...
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In Parkinson’s disease (PD), reduced cerebral cortical thickness may reflect network-based degeneration. This study performed cognitive assessment and brain MRI in 30 PD participants and 41 controls at baseline and 18 months later. We hypothesized that cerebral cortical thickness and volume, as well as change in these metrics, would differ between...
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For decades, the Barker hypothesis and thrifty phenotype hypothesis have driven researchers to explore the development of metabolic syndrome through fetal programming. In this short review, we provide peer-reviewed support for the fetal programming of neural genetic activity and behavior in multiple neural regions: the prefrontal cortex, the cerebr...
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From the evolutionary point of view, the priority problem for an individual is not longevity, but adaptation to the environment associated with the need for survival, food supply, and reproduction. We see two main vectors in the evolution of mammals. One is a short lifespan and numerous offspring ensuring reproductive success (r-strategy). The othe...
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Neurons in the cerebral cortex form excitatory and inhibitory circuits with specific laminar locations. The mechanisms underlying the development of these spatially specific circuits is not fully understood. To test if postsynaptic N -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors on excitatory neurons are required for the development of specific circuits to...
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Despite great progress in uncovering the complex connectivity patterns of the human brain over the last two decades, the field of connectomics still experiences a bias in its viewpoint of the cerebral cortex. Due to a lack of information regarding exact end points of fiber tracts inside cortical grey matter, the cortex is commonly reduced to a sing...
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Subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) is associated with structural and functional changes in the cerebral cortex affecting major brain networks. While recent studies have shown that the intrinsic cerebral connectivity networks can be mapped onto the cerebellum, and the cortex and cerebellum are interconnected via the cortico-basal...
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Absence seizures are brief episodes of impaired consciousness, behavioral arrest, and unresponsiveness, with yet-unknown neuronal mechanisms. Here we report that an awake female rat model recapitulates the behavioral, electroencephalographic, and cortical functional magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of human absence seizures. Neuronally, s...
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Background Impaired cerebrovasoreactivity is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). We aimed to clarify the association between cerebrovascular reactivity and stroke in patients with CADASIL.Methods We retrospectively recruited...
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Background: The aim of this study was to review current database for the management of childhood epilepsy, presenting and comparing the different types of treatment, focusing[1] on the ones with the best efficacy. Original articles related to the subject were obtained from SciELO, PubMed and BVS database using descriptors from “Health Sciences Desc...
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Astrocytes play critical roles in regulating neuronal synaptogenesis, maintaining blood–brain barrier integrity, and recycling neurotransmitters. Increasing numbers of studies have suggested astrocyte heterogeneity in morphology, gene profile, and function. However, metabolic phenotype of astrocytes in different brain regions have not been explored...
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Patients affected by diabetes mellitus (DM) show diabetic encephalopathy with an increased risk of cognitive deficits, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, but the mechanisms are not fully explored. In the male animal models of DM, the development of cognitive impairment seems to be the result of the concomitance of different processes such as neuroin...
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Introduction Protein O-linked mannose β1,2- N -acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (POMGNT1) is crucial for the elongation of O-mannosyl glycans. Mutations in POMGNT1 cause muscle-eye-brain (MEB) disease, one of the main features of which is anatomical aberrations in the brain. A growing number of studies have shown that defects in POMGNT1 affect neuro...
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Natural language comprehension is thought to involve the integration of low-level sensory representations into a hierarchy of increasingly high-level representations. To investigate whether in the human brain the same pathways are used to integrate both written and spoken language, we tested whether brain representations of this hierarchy are share...
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Treatment planning for dental implants in the anterior mandible is often complicated by the presence of vascular structures. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence, location and morphology of the mandibular lingual foramen (LF) through cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and contribute to its anatomical knowledge in an Indian...
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Background and objectives Cortical structural changes in major depressive disorder (MDD) are usually studied using a voxel-based morphometry approach to delineate the cortical gray matter volume. Among cortical structures, gyrification patterns are considered a relatively stable indicator. In this study, we investigated differences in gyrification...
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We conducted this study to investigate the scope of the MRI neuroimaging manifestations in COVID-19-associated encephalitis. From January 2020 to September 2021, patients with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19-associated encephalitis, as well as concomitant abnormal imaging findings on brain MRI, were included. Two board-certified neuro-radiologists r...
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There is controversy around the mechanisms that guided the change in brain shape during the evolution of modern humans. It has long been held that different cortical areas evolved independently from each other to develop their unique functional specializations. However, some recent studies suggest that high integration between different cortical ar...
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Alveolar bone exostoses (ABE) are benign localized convex outgrowths of buccal or lingual bone from the cortical plate, often known as buttress bone development. Our review and case series shows ABE following orthodontic treatment. If self-remission fails after orthodontic forces are removed, we have shown surgical methods to correct ABE
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Cerebral cortex has been hypothesized to operate close to a critical phase transition. This hypothesis offers an explanation of the observed complexity of brain dynamics and is important because of potential computational advantages near criticality. However, in the awake state, when cortex most needs computation, experimental evidence for critical...
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Background Soluble Amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is the most common age-associated neurodegenerative diseases with obvious neuropathological changes and functional decline in both cortical and subcortical regions. Melatonin is ubiquitously distributed and multifunct...
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Early regional patterning and laminar position of cortical projection neurons is determined by activation and deactivation of transcriptional factors (TFs) and RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that regulate spatiotemporal framework of neurogenetic processes (proliferation, migration, aggregation, postmigratory differentiation, molecular identity acquisi...
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Humans perceive the external world by integrating information from different modalities, obtained through the sensory organs. However, the aforementioned mechanism is still unclear and has been a subject of widespread interest in the fields of psychology and brain science. A model using two reservoir computing systems, i.e., a type of recurrent neu...
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Introduction Interest in identifying the clinical implications of the neuropathophysiological background of schizophrenia is rising, including changes in cortical gyrification that may be due to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Inpatients with schizophrenia can show abnormal gyrification of cortical regions correlated with the symptom severity. M...
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Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of CAG repeats on exon 1 of the huntingtin (htt) gene. This mutation results in the expression of an aberrant protein, mutant HTT, which sets in place a cascade of events that eventually leads to neuronal death within the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. MicroRNAs (...
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Behavioural feedback is critical for learning in the cerebral cortex. However, such feedback is often not readily available. How the cerebral cortex learns efficiently despite the sparse nature of feedback remains unclear. Inspired by recent deep learning algorithms, we introduce a systems-level computational model of cerebro-cerebellar interaction...