Science topic

Ceramics - Science topic

Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
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Does the Calcination temperature required for preparation of ceramic sample change with whether ( India- summer temp 30-40deg, winter temp-5-10deg)?
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Thomas Breuer
Thanks a lot.
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I want to make a biocomposite using chitosan and hydroxyapatite. How can I proceed to make samples to characterize mechanical properties?
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Good day, Gagan Bansal! Hope you are doing well.
I suppose you should follow the next methodology:
Best of luck in your research!
Yours sincerely,
M. Sc. Vadym Chibrikov
Department of Microstructure and Mechanics of Biomaterials
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences
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What methods can produce the superhydrophobic lotus leaf solution for ceramic tiles?
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The surface of the lotus leaf contains peculiar spikes several micrometers in size, consisting of hydrophobic substances (wax, etc.). Thanks to such an amazing surface structure, the water that falls on the leaves does not spread, but "sits" on the spikes in the form of spherical drops.
Thus, although the spikes are coated with a hydrophobic substance, the lotus effect is created by the surface morphology. If you dissolve the wax in hexane, you will get a hydrophobic solution. It will not be badly combined with ceramics. Such a solution can be obtained without the surface of the lotus, using wax from the store.
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I am getting extremely less value of piezoelectric coefficient d33 of Li doped KNN ceramic as reported in literature at MPB . What could be the reason?
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Piezoelectric coefficient
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I want to develop a chitosan matrix-based composite with ceramic powder reinforcement.
how should I proceed? what is the best method for composite development,
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Good day, Gagan Bansal!
As far as I can understand, the most cited researches at that field declare casting method to be the mainstream one. Here is the basic procedure:
"500 mg chitosan powders was dissolved in 25 mL 2% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution upon stirring at 200rpm for 3 h. After that, the chitosan suspension was poured into a plastic dish that was placed in a fume hood at room temperature to evaporate water and acetic acid. The as-prepared composite film was dried under vacuum at 40°C until their weight was equilibrated." Apart from methodology, given here, I suppose prolonged stirring to positively affect composite structure (homogeneity).
Procedure cited from:
Best of luck in your research!
Yours sincerely,
M. Sc. Vadym Chibrikov
Department of Microstructure and Mechanics of Biomaterials
Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences
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Does the produced charged species after each test will affect the following test if I didn't change the solution and repeat the experiment for several times?
Based on your experience, how many test did you repeat for each sample typically?
How should I calculate the equivalent weight(EW) if I deposit some ceramic coating (thickness-several microns) on the surface of SS304?
FYI: MULTIPORT™ corrosion cell kit: a working electrode, a graphite counter electrode, and a saturated Ag/AgCl reference electrode.
I really appreciate your opinions and suggestions!
Thanks!
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Dear Dr. Da Cao ,
the impedance technique is considered a non-destructive test and therefore repeatable over time even not necessarily changing the solution but following the trend of corrosion or the protective power of an inhibitor or coating over time. Personally I have made successive measurements passing from variations in hours up to reach even tens of days; it really depends on the system you want to study. However, if the conditions made the resistance of an ionic solution vary (that depends on the ionic concentration, type of ions, temperature, and the geometry of the area in which current is carried ...) you should visualize it in the measure and possibly take it into account.
As for the answer on the equivalent weight, I abstain because I have some doubts and I would not want to mislead you.
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Hi all,
I wish to know about a common problem faced by most of the researchers who are dealing with ceramic materials that my ceramic powder is sticking with the balls after the operation. can someone suggest me to get some resolution to this problem?
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Ok I understood the method and i will give it a try.
Thank you very much Vipul Sharma for your answering.
All greetings and respect.
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I want to find out about Reactive Silica in Ceramic tile waste. Which test do we need to conduct?
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Sunil, you could try to use but you will see that the hardened product will be not stable under water, because leaching of alkaline ions and I don’t know if could be solved this limit. Parallel you will have efflorescence by air exposure reacting with humidity of the air (AAM aren’t stable like GP because aren’t mineral polymers but still hydraulic materials so Na+ ions migrate to the surface and carbonate absorbing CO2).
I know AAM but industrially cannot be used safely. While Geopolymerization process is much more balanced and can be used for industrial applications.
But you don’t have to trust me, feel free to do all AAM you want. I’m just saying that AAM and GP are different technologies and have different mix designs and processing. Of course for newcomers is easier to do an AAM because the method of mixing is the same used for Portland base concrete. To know geopolymerization you must open your mind, forgetting what is working for Portland because the reaction is completely different even if the final fresh and hardened results are still a concrete material. Lot of caos has been created by false GP papers that have been published but without 0% of GP technology inside. GP can be obtained in acid medium or thanks acid/base reactions too, the alkaline way is just the most cheap so it’s preferable for the main applications. But it’s a question of costs and field of work. Check on www.geopolymer.org there are lot of correct scientific papers to understand better what I’m saying.
Best
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Hi All, I am using MgO crucibles to sinter Li-containing ceramics to ~1200C. I wanted to clean up the crucibles used but cannot find a good protocol yet. I'm using sandpaper to wipe the ceramic remains off and clean the inside with ethanol. But I'm not sure it will be enough. Could anybody share some experiences? Thank you!
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Good day! You should definitely look through the current link:
If you have found current answer as useful, please, do not forget to reccommend it. That will help other researches to find the best answer, according to their purposes. Best of luck in your research!
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Hi! I'm looking for a phase diagram handbook for ceramic oxides. Do you have any title to suggest?
Many thanks in advice.
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Dear all, I suggest the following book:
Phase Diagrams in Advanced Ceramics (1995), Alper A.M., Kostorz G., Herman H.
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I want to bond carbon nanofibers and any other ceramic nanofibers, for example, silica nanofibers. How can I do it? Is there any straightforward method to do it?
any suggestions and references would be really helpful.
Thank you.
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This is no easy question. It depends on the porosity in your mat, matrix viscosity, impregnation conditions (temperature, pressure, etc ), surface treatment, if any...
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Both chemicals are imp. for ceramic dye formation.
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These compounds are not soluble in water. (If you need a solution for analytical purposes you can dissolve them in HCl - concentrated HCl for the tin oxide case.)
However, you can purchase colloidal tin oxide from several suppliers, and you can prepare colloidal nickel hydroxycarbonate (see e.g. )
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Dear researchers,
I'm working on multi-atomic inorganic compounds. So, visualization of atoms in a particular plane becomes difficult. As a result, it is difficult to calculate plannar density (PD) manually. So, please suggest me a way/software to calculate PD easily.
Thanks in advance.
Regards,
Lakshaman
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Hi!
I have found an unexpected metal-looking deposit on my (originally white) ceramic cups.
- I am wondering if anyone has experienced a similar phenomena during pyrolysis of organic residues?
- And what type of metal could theoretically behave this way?
The pyrolysis was operated at 800 deg C, and a residence time of 120 min. The substrate was sludge coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plants.
My current hypothesis: is that the deposited material is coming from the substrate. The known metals in the substrate are mainly Zn and Cu, of which I estimated that I had about 20 mg in the substrate before pyrolysis (possibly Al is also present but I did not measure). Based on the mass of Zn available am guessing it could be a Zn coating, but could I really expect Zn to behave this way ("evaporating" and depositing at 800 deg C)? I have been in contact with others who performed pyrolysis of similar substrate but they did not experience this type of metal-like deposit. The other explanation is that the metal-like deposit is actually somehow coming from my instrumentation, but it seems unlikely at present.
Regards
Ida Sylwan
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A layer of zinc sulfide would be quite possible, but there are many other compounds that can form such a layer. Ultimately, almost the entire periodic table can be present in your sample. As far as the layer thickness is concerned, I think it shouldn't be more than 1-2 microns. It is very difficult to get a reliable analysis with such thin layers.
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I am using PVD machine for gold plating on ceramic products. there are 20 sources of titanium, reactive gas N2 and Ar,
I am having trouble when vacuuming 2.0x10-2Pa , adding Ar and N2 gas and bombarding the titanium source, the vacuum is lost and cannot be coated (7.0x10-1 ~ 9.0x10-1) the more sources titanium open, the more vacuum is lost
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At least in the setups where I have had (or have seen other people have) this problem, tightening the target did not help and the membrane needed to be exchanged completely. In my current setup a description from the manufacturer was available, does anything like that exist in your case?
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I want to know that how we can check that dry particle size (0.8mm) is homogeneously mixed or not? How can we assess the homogeneity of dry particle size mixture. Lets say we have a mixture of SiC and ceramic stucco. The size of both 0.8mm range.
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Hello,
It is hard to calculate the homogeneity of the mixture powder even if the size of the particles is the same. It depends on the technique used for mixing those powders and the density of each particles. However you can have an idea during the observation-analysis on SEM/EDX.
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Hello.
I am looking for a bicrystal fabrication company.
My major is focusing on the exploration of grain boundary structure.
And thus for a model experiment I need metal*or ceramic** bicrystals.
Could you let me know about possible companies which grow bicrystals for my research.
I would appreciate your reply.
Sincerely,
Bo
*Cu, Ni, Au, etc
**SrTiO3, BaTiO3, sapphire (Al2O3), etc.
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Thank you for your comments. Bo
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Has anyone faced the problem of intensive arcing during plasma etching of ceramic substrate in PVD technology? What is a proper way to prepare ceramic/cermet surface before coating to reduce arcing?
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how low vacuum system can be the reason of arching? Can you explain the mechanism?
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Textured ceramic and its synthesis method
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Texture in ceramics can enhance their functional and structural properties. Current methods for texturation in dense ceramics employ plate-like particles or microplatelets as starting powders and processes that drive their orientation into specific directions. Using ultra-low magnetic fields combined with slip casting, it is possible to purposely orient magnetically responsive particles in any direction.
Textured porous ceramics with tunable grain dimensions and orientations are promising for filtering, biomedical or composite applications.
Also
Textured ceramics use a process called templated grain growth. Small crystal particles are oriented in a particle matrix and when the mixture is heated, the particles tend to induce the rest of the mixture to grow in a single direction. The result is very similar to the uniformity of single crystal.
In the lab, thin strips or tapes of the ceramic mixture are stacked on top of one another by hand, typically by a graduate student, and then heated to induce the grain growth. The process is tedious, even to make small samples for testing.
Sincerely
from refs.
(Porous textured ceramics with controlled grain size and orientation)
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Dear all
Hope you are doing well!
What are the best books in Materials Science and Engineering (Basics and Advanced)? Moreover, what are the best skills (or materials topic related) that materials scientists have to develop and to acquire?
Thanks in advance
^_^
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Dear all, following a list of interesting books. My Regards
- Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach, William D. Callister, David G. Rethwisch, 5th Edt (2015).
- Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 10e WileyPLUS NextGen Card with Loose-Leaf Print Companion Set, Callister Jr., William D., Rethwisch, David G. 10th Edt (2018).
- The Science and Engineering of Materials, Donald R. Askeland, Wendelin J. Wright. 7th Edt (2014).
- Materials Science and Engineering: A First Course, V. Raghavan, (2004).
- Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering, Willaim Smith, Javed Hashemi, 6th Edt (2019).
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what happened if we tried to re-sintering of produced powder (by means of grinding)that obtained from previously sintered ceramic compact based on zirconia ? is it accepted in ceramic community? i understood that in the previous sintering, there was necking and grain growth. so if we re-sintered the powder produced from it, i think that it will undergo to further grain growth and may affect the properties of zirconia through changing the existed tetragonal phase. is this true?
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Everything depends on the powder size and the associated surface area (the larger the powder surface, the more active the sintering). If you only roughly grind a sintered ZrO2 ceramic (particle size 50-100 microns), then you can no longer re-sinter this powder almost to the melting temperature. But if your particles are smaller than 1 micron, then you can get a new product from them without any problems at sintering temperatures from 1700-1800°C. Of course, a "fresh" nanoscale ZrO2 powder sinters better than finely ground microscale powder (already from 1200-1300°C), but this can also be explained by the particle size.
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Please note it's not a waste incineration but a postcombustion treatment of vapours of a ceramic kiln
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Dear Ada, thank you for your appreciation! I don't know much about the ceramic industry, but I do know that any chlorinated material is likely to produce dioxins by combustion within the referred temperature range. In fact, not only chlorinated materials, but halogenated. Most likely, inks can also generate dioxins, but it may depend on the ink type. I know that in the past the printing ink contained PCBs, now these recipes are banned, but many still circulate on the black market, just like pesticides...
I think you can find scientific articles in the topic that interests you. If you know what type of ink is applied you can find such information, possibly you know if they are halogenated. Regards!
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Dear Colleague,
I am searching for an electrically conductive adhesive for making good contact with ceramic pallet and copper wire.
Silver paint or silver paste doesn't have sufficient adhesive nature .
Can anyone please suggest such an adhesive which serves in cryogenic temperature?
Thanks and Regards
N Das
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Dear James Garry,
Silver loaded conductive paint doesn't have enough strength. That's why I search for some other conductive adhesive for better strength.
Basically, I need some conductive adhesive which can bear the stress of silver wires which are to be connected with a ceramic pallet.
Please recommend.
Thanks and Regards
N Das
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A question is if in a "normal soil" - never flooded the water pressure at zero or below.
May the soil water flows into the ceramic cup of a tensiometer?
I guess it is not possible because I do have always a hydraulic head inside the ceramic cup (if its filled of water).
Moreover, also in a situation where, momentaneously, water pressure is lower inside the ceramic cup (e.g after a strong rain in a dry period) than outside, it the pressure will be equilibrated quickly (i.e time response of tensiometer), and the hydraulic conductivity of the ceramic is too reduced to allow some identifiable flow.
Anyway - Maybe Im biased. If you do have any theoretical or practical ideas.
Please let me know.
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Dear Gaurav. Thank you for your time to my question.
What do the readings mean ? I supposed that in a traditional tensiometer is the result of suction from the soil (if it is not saturated) minus the height of the water column inside the tensiometer. For water to flow back into the tensiometer the soil suction should be replaced by pressure (as we do have a water column inside the tensiometer). I guess the field situation where it will occur is when I have a flooding event with a hydraulic head in the soil (positive tension). As I mentioned in my question... Im trying to learn.
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I have jaw milled an aluminosilicate glass and omitted ferrite impurities via HCl. After ball milling with either metal cup and balls or stabilized zirconia balls with ABS cup, there are lots of impurities that I can not omit completely. I have tried both ball milling and wet milling and neither of them worked. Is there any other way to mill the glass powder to under 1 micrometer without this much of impurities?
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I'd like to observe a phase transformation on dilatometer curves for loose powders.
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We always used a powder diffractometer with X-rays to see structural changes.
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Do you know of any commercially available carbon coated battery separator? It seems that the coating improves battery performance beyond today's ceramic coating, but it is not yet commercially available. I am wondering why.
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I am looking for a ceramic tile grinder that will give me a particle size of less than 600um for research purposes.
Thanks in advace
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Hi,
I don't have clean room and dust equipment in vacuum environment facility. So after doing precision grinding of my RB-SiC ceramic, it gets exposed to the cold atmospheric plasma process via oxygen (O2) fluid flow on the micro-grinding of RB-SiC ceramic at room temperature.
The hard-brittle layer be formed while and holding it to the substrate holder and fixture. And due to this, surface modification layer again forms which are supported as a effective improve the RB-SiC ceramic removal rate with hardness layer under the surface modification process produce C layer, SiO2 layer or Si-C-O compound through physicochemical reaction via oxygen at room temperature (To my knowledge).
How to further removal efficiency the hard-brittle layer?
Please suggest me something. Thanks.
Thank you for sharing and helping,
Best Regards,
Jiabin Xu (Jia-bin Xu)
Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT)
School of Mechatronics Engineering
Timestamp/ Time Line: 2022-04-07, Thursday, Night
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Evgeniy Popov Thank you very much for your discussion.
In order to obtain higher material removal rate and lower sub-surface damage, we study the surface modification process of SiC materials by plasma.
The material removal surface modification layer. Applied to lens grinding process.
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I am researching rare earth doped pervoskite ceramics. How can we convert from cm-1 to nm in Raman Spectroscopy for excitation 785 nm?
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Can anyone tell me how many power/area could I collect with a ceramic piezoelectric disc? Or where can I find it? I tried to seach it but I didn't find it. I need a paper or document with that information
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The energy you may convert from mechanical to electrical is given by the kopupling factor of that specific piezo material.
The electromechanical coupling factor k is indicating the effectiveness with which a piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, or converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
You may find some more details on my website:
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I am working on ceramic resins. I First mixed the ceramic with surfactant and a solvent. Ballmilled for 1 hours. To facilitate chemisoprtion i kept the solution in oven for 130 degree for 180 minutes. I found the white ceramic powder the turned brown in colour. I would like to know the reason for the outcome.
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neutral
based on the composition of material surface
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Hello everyone¡
Do you know any paper where I can find some information about moisture absorption of technical ceramics?
I am thinking in alumina, zirconia or titania. Do they have different moisture absorption behavior?
Thanks in advance¡¡
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I am considering water absorption, which in this case is dominated by porosity, I agree. Then, assuming that this is the main mechanism, a nanometric ceramic would absorbe more water than a micrometric ceramic, isn't it?
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i am researching into moringa seeds an locally made ceramic filter and optical density must be performed to see efficacy of the filter and moringa.
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Why American or European? You don't have a local standard in your country?
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For glueing ceramic.
I run apparatus with vacuum in roughly the 10^-7 mbarr range, and we would usually use araldite epoxy, as it has low vapour pressure and seems to work down to 10^-8 mbarr. It has a max temperature of 65 degrees, and the piece I need to use it on may get hotter than that. Any suggestions for a glue or epoxy with a higher max temperature that you have used in vacuum?
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Hi all,
I am trying to analyze SPS sintering data for ceramics. We sintered this sample at two different temperatures and two different pressure, each apart by 20ish. For example, we started with 1000C and 30mpa withholding of an hour, then increased to 1200C and 50mpa withholding of 25 minutes.
When we try graphing the displacement vs. temperature graph, we expected a positive stair-looking graph as we are calculating the displacement by subtracting the ram position from the starting ram position.
We do get a similar graph. However, we see a decrease in the displacement right when the temperature starts to increase after the hold at 1000. We looked at other values like the ram force and current, where we realized that all values that were increasing dropped sharply as soon as the temperature starts increasing after the hold. Does anyone know why this happens?
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Perhaps you have reached full compaction already at 1000°C? Show graphs and give at least an approximate composition of ceramics.
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Hi¡ We are working with Lithium Cobalt Oxide ceramics, and I would like to know the sintering temperatures of these kind of materials. We are starting with 900 ºC, but any ideas about lowering or increasing this temperature are welcome¡ Thanks¡
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See, for example,
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We want to measure real-time complex dielectric properties of LTCC ceramic pellets at temperatures above 500 degree Celsius. Is it possible to measure the complex dielectric permittivitty of ceramic pellets at elevated temperature above 500 degree Celsius using an LCR meter?
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yes you can
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Hello everyone. I usually use vycor frit fitted Ag/AgCl reference electrode for all my electrochemical experiments. Now I would like to try ceramic frit instead of vycor glass frit, because of it's availability and cost effectiveness. But I am not sure about it's usability, stability and performance under severe electrochemical conditions like very high/low pH, or high/low potential, etc. Could anyone please suggest anything on advantage/disadvantages of using ceramic frit instead of vycor glass frit? Thank you in advance.
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Mohammed Hussein j. H. Al'Atia Thank you very much Sir, your response being helpful. Thank you.
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Hello, I am doing research in ceramic 3D printing using stereolithography (SLA) method. I was wondering if there is any feature of photopolymer resin that make it not able or not safe to go through firing /sintering process. Thanks!
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I have not heard about a photopolymer resin that is not safe to go through the heating post-processing. However, SLA uses formulations with a high amount of organic materials, and therefore, the debinding must have adequate heating rates to avoid cracks.
The following paper presents an extensive list of photopolymers that have successfully been used in works related to ceramic vat photopolymerization (SLA and DLP).
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Hello I want to know about what is flexible catalyst?
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Dear Sahar Talebipour you aksed "And I have another question about flexible catalyst, what does it mean? Flexible?" Please find an answer to this question in the following link. It is outlined here that certain innovative ceramics can be designed to being flexible, malleable and thin as paper:
Technology | Flexible Ceramics, “Flexiramics” are Thin as Paper
In this context please also have a look at the following relevant research article:
Flexible-structured systems made of ceramic fibers containing Pt-NaY zeolite used as CO oxidation catalysts
Fortunately this article is freely accessible as public full text on RG.
Good luck with your research and please stay safe and healthy!
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Dear all,
I am investigating the corrosion properties of SS having Ceramic thin layer over it, however it shows different ocp value and tafel curve, when tested the same samples at different location keeping all the parameters constant.
how it can be overcome, so that repeatability can be maintained to the best.
Thank you
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Several factors can play roles in such a case. Even if your thin film is homogenous (in terms of thickness, structure, and composition), you may consider two more factors: 1. if the SS substrate has a uniform roughness (if not, it can cause roughness variation on the thin film top surface that ends up to different electrochemical responses) and 2. how large is the area that you measure on your sample? if it is too small, then it is possible to get scattered OCP and Tafel behaviour.
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I want to know the estimated cost for ceramic membrane plant for municipal water and sea water. And also the comparison cost analysis for ceramic and polymeric membrane technology for water treatment.
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In the available literature, a lot of Low frequency dielectric response data is being published on ferrite ceramics over the frequency range from 0.1Hz to 1MHz. Low frequency dielectric response is useful for which particular device applications?
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However Mohammed Hussein j. H. Al'Atia explained very nicely the importance of the study of dielectric response at a lower frequency. In addition to this, at a lower frequency, there is a sudden increment in a real part of the dielectric constant due to Maxwell - Wagner polarization. In this situation, the boundary charge comes into the picture which is responsible for this drastic change.
Further, you can find out whether your ferrite material is following the ideal debye behavior or not. From here you can extract this behavior is attributed to the distribution of various relaxation times (Either by grain, grain boundary, and surface inhomogeneity).
For how to do non-linear fitting, you may follow my published article-
Structural, thermal and dielectric studies of mixed spinel CoFe2O4
  • DOI:10.1016/j.matpr.2021.03.153
I will be happy to discuss further if you have any queries.
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Hello,
I've recently read many articles about fiber reinforced UHPC use in balistics. About 70-80 % of them say that adding fibers to UHPC increases ductility, but I think that this is not accurate because these materials don't behave in a way ductile materials like steel or termoplastics behave. They instead behave more like thermosetting plastics or ceramics. Wouldn't calling it tough be more accurate?
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Yes, but there is no yield strength on the curve so it can't be called ductile?
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Greetings,
I've been searching for days in databases to find the correlation between porosity in materials (for built environments like porcelain, ceramics, wood, etc.) and biofilm formation (index of bioburden). The findings will help me then understand the correlation between porous/non-porous materials and their cleanability properties.
Thanks
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Hi Ali, from my experience, I think both chemical and physical properties of a material surface can have impact on the biofilm formation. For example, the chemical properties can determine whether the surface is hydrophobic or hydrophilic as well as the degrees of adhesion whereas physical properties such as surface roughness, surface textures can also influence the biofilm formation.
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Dears
Hi
I am working on improving the twin wire arc spraying process. specifications of my available thermal sprayer:
Current Capacity: 200amps
wire diameter : 1.2 mm Aluminum 1xxx
Power : 8Kw Max
It seems that increasing the pressure is one of the parameters to improve the metal coating on ceramic substrate in the twin wire arc spraying method. I am looking to increase the air atomization pressure for more than 6 bar but it does not go more than 5 bar. Although the air back pressure of the arc spray machine is 8 bar before turning on the device.
Can you guide me?
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I am working on improving the twin wire arc spraying process. specifications of my available thermal sprayer:
Current Capacity: 200amps
wire diameter : 1.2 mm Aluminum 1xxx
Power : 8Kw Max
It seems that increasing the pressure is one of the parameters to improve the metal coating on ceramic substrate in the twin wire arc spraying method. I am looking to increase the air atomization pressure for more than 6 bar but it does not go more than 5 bar. Although the air back pressure of the arc spray machine is 8 bar before turning on the device.
Can you guide me?
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This material, I would like to use in the sintering process of ceramics. plz suggest me the solution.
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we found, the mixture of Al2O3 and Graphite powders exhibits high heat transfer rate to the green ceramics (inside the powders) during sintering process. Plz find my latest publication, the title is" use of powder bath sintering for hard ceramics". the DOI is https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2021.1948053.
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Hi
I am looking for sources which provide pH of ceramic Compounds; for oxides, nitrides, carbides and... . for example: TiN, TiC, SiC, ZrN, TiF3, ZrO2, Si3N4 and...
Does any one know about it?
please help me
thank you
best regards
Mostafa kargar
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Hello Mostafa,
thanks for posting this interesting technical question. I my opinion there is no answer to this question, because the pH value specifies the acidity or basicity of compounds in aqueous solution.However, typical for the ceramic materials
mentioned in your question is that they are practically insoluble in water. Thus I see no chance of determining the pH of these materials. If you make a slurry of such materials in water the pH will most likely not change.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work!
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I am working on binder for ceramic slip. I have commercial ball milled slip with added sodium lignosulfonate and STPP having pH=10, I am adding just a drop of 10% PVA (MW: 1,25,000, degree of hydrolysis 88%) solution in 100 g slip , my slip becomes too viscous and finally turns in non stir-able consistency. Any sugessions? As PVA is reported as binder in many literatures.
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Your problem is that in an alkaline environment, the PVA solution will polymerize. If you certainly want to have an alkaline solution, you will have to replace PVA with methylcellulose, which does not polymerize in an alkaline medium.
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Hi. We would like to evaluate different ceramics for use as crucibles for holding molten metal - mostly cast irons and steels. The ceramic crucibles will undergo wear during service, due to the movement of the molten metal against the crucible walls due to induction mixing, and also there will be ceramic-on-ceramic wear in the molten metal environment.
Are there any standardized wear tests (ASTM, ISO...) that we could use?
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The destruction of crucibles with molten metal occurs, in most cases, not due to the effect of the molten metal on the crucible material, but due to the dissolution of the crucible material by molten slag. In ferrous metallurgy, it is slag, not metal, that destroys refractory materials, and it is better to call this interaction the word "corrosion" and not the word "wear". In addition to the purely physical dissolution of the refractory in the slag melt, a chemical reaction can occur between the slag and the refractory, which accelerates the destruction of the refractory.
High-temperature corrosion of refractories depends on many factors, the main of which are the composition of the refractory and slag, the temperature and speed of the slag melt relative to the refractory.
Of course, the processes of destruction of refractory by slag in ferrous metallurgy have been thoroughly studied and there is a lot of literature on this topic. The main publications date back to the first half of the 20th century.
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Could you provide a selection principle of resin species in order to increase cured depth for DLP ceramic slurrry? For example, the ratio of HDDA and PEGDA or any other resins.
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Hi Maohang, you could take UV spectra from different formulations and compare the absorption at the wavelength your 3D-printer uses to select for the formulation with the lowest absorption. Besides the resins you should also consider the other components of your formulation.
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Assuming that bulk production of ceramic fibers is not a problem. What could possibly be the benefits of the replacement?
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What are the uses of this product in powder or fiber? The topic needs more clarification
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The total slurry contained 50 wt% Alumina (D50 = 0.5 um, 11 m2/g surface area), 50 wt% DI water. Powder was dispersed using NH4PMA aqueous solution. PVA aqueous solution was used as binder (20 wt% active matter w.r.t Al2O3), PEG-300 was used as plasticizer (20 wt% w.r.t Al2O3, 1:1 binder to plasticizer ratio). After mixing and debubbling, the slurry seemed good, and a good tape (~450 um thickness) without cracks was obtained after tape casting.
Debinding of single tape (40 mm x 40 mm x 450 um) at 1 C/min, 600 C, 2 h holding gave debinded tape without cracks, which could be sintered too without cracks.
Problem:
I did lamination of 9 tapes via thermocompression using uniaxial warm-press. The temp. used was 80 C, and 15 MPa was the maximum pressure that could be applied.
I also tried with increasing number of tapes up to 15, and for those i used temp of 100 C so that a higher pressure could be applied, and the max. pressure that could be applied was 40 MPa, with change in dimesnions of the pressed tapes. I even tried only two layers pressed at 100 C, 40 MPa.
But: Every time debinding of laminated samples resulted in cracks. I tried with 1 C/min, 0.5 C/min, and 0.3 C/min heating rates up to 600 C. I also tried with giving steps, for example using 0.3 C/min heating rate and holding at 100 C for 2 h, at 300 C for 6 h, at 500 C for 4 h. But the samples always cracked. Please find attached the TG/DTA data of a single tape.
Please guide me how to achieve debinding without cracks. I'll appreciate your kind help.
Thank you.
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Dear Muhammad,
the reason for your problem is quite clear: lamination creates obstacles to the removal of the evaporated binder. When PVA evaporates, pressure builds up that ruptures the material.
To begin with, you can try replacing the aqueous solution of PVA with an aqueous solution of methylcellulose, the evaporation of which occurs in a wider temperature range and does not create such a high vapor pressure.
If replacing PVA with methylcellulose does not help, then I see no other solution to the problem other than replacing the water-soluble binder with a water-insoluble binder. The new binder must not evaporate, but must be removed by another mechanism, such as melting or oxidation with atmospheric oxygen.
In ceramics, wax-based binders are often used, the removal of which does not cause an increase in pressure in the material. There is also an old technology in which a solution of rubber in gasoline is used as a binder. Rubber does not evaporate as intensely as PVA and does not generate such high vapor pressure. Of course, the use of paraffins or rubber as binders completely changes and complicates the technology of forming a ceramic tape, but there may simply not be another solution.
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  • I am fabricating ceramic-polymer composite by solvent mixing method.
  • During synthesis process ultra-sonication (bath Sonicator) treatment is given to ceramic filled polymer (mixed solution) for homogeneous dispersion of ceramic in polymer matrix.
  • As per the literature the dispersion quality is checked by AFM, SEM, or TEM after the fabrication of material. Also I found that zeta potential also gives the dispersion quality, but 'zetacizer' or 'zeta potential analyzer' equipment's are much more expensive.
  • Is there any other feasible method is available, which helps to check the dispersion quality during synthesis process? So that we can give the right and proper time, for sonication treatment.
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Theoretically, light transmission and light dispersion should depend on the distribution of the particles in the polymer. If your polymer matrix is translucent, you can try to implement the quality control using an optical device (measurement of the luminous intensity of transmitted light or the reflection / refractive index).
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I need to validate the safety of use of dental materials.
I have been able to access Safety data sheets but require scientific validation of their biocompatibilty
Manufacturer and supplier websites do not seem to provde these as readily accessible downloads
Any indormation is greatly appreciated
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X-ray diffraction peaks of my ceramic powder in low angle (2 theta= 3 - 70) start at high intensity. I tried a different slit on the incident light side, but it was the same. I really appreciate it if you can suggest to me any solution about that. You'll find the attachment below.
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Mustafa Tuncer , agree with Prof Dalibor Matýsek the step is a typical fixed anti-scatter knife artifact... If your sample size is 25 in diameter, the Div. Slit is 2mm (goniometer rad 250mm) or 1.15 deg because the artifact happened to be until 30 2theta, or your beam mask is too big, or the beam is slant... If you have a fluorescence sample, check the beam profile...
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Cast iron is metal, not ceramic. But it is brittle, and quite strong. What can be additives that can be added to increase its strength, corrosion resistance and high temperature stability so that it can be used in place of hard ceramics in structural application? on can it not be qualified as a ceramic even if its microstructure is predominantly intermetallic?
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Dear Sumit Bhowmick
Higher alloying elements like, Cr, Ni, Mo and/ or Al can improve both corrosion, wear and heat resistance due to carbides, intermetallic compounds and austenite formation, Otherwise addition higher percentage of most pervious element decrease toughness of cast iron.
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I want to fuse solid Sodium Hydroxide with a solid aluminosilicate in a muffle furnace at 550 degrees Celsius for 1.5 hours. However, the Al2O3 crucibles I tried the fusion on often crack, even when the furnace is opened at around 200 degrees celcius. I have learned that NaOH reacts with many ceramics and metals. Also, I have to fuse large quantities of material in a very short space of time and having to wait for the furnace to cool down naturally without opening the door will slow the process down significantly. Can anybody recommend a material I can use for the crucibles which does not react with NaOH and has high resistance to thermal shock?
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Dear Tshidzani Mavhungu many thanks for your kind response and explanation. In the end, I would just go ahead and try different crucible materials on a small scale. I think that in this case quick experiments are worth more than any speculation. My personal suggestion would be to start with the cheapest and most easily available material, e.g. stainless steel. In the case that stainless steel is not sufficient, you can proceed with nickel or Inconel 600. when you found a metrial that works on a small scale, you can then proceed scaling up the reaction. I wish you good success!
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Hello all,
I am assigning my XPS peak and associated binging energies to the the potential compound. In HR O1s spectra, I have a satellite peak at 535.35 eV. My sample is a bulk ceramic coating (TiAlN) and I didn't find any Ti/Al oxide peak close to this binding energy. Does anyone know what could this be?
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Alireza Hemmati , your peak at 533.26 eV represents the adsorbed O2 element present in theTiAlN surface layer,you can emiminate such type of adsorbed layer from your samples through Ar+ etching.
for Ar+ etching ,follow
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Hello everyone,
I do not know the dynamic viscosity of my material (ZrB2-SiC). It's ceramic.
Is there any way to calculate it numerically?
If you know about it, please comment. Thank You.
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I hope that paper could help you
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Hello every one. I am synthesizing ceramic microfiltration supports with kaolin clay. After mixing kaolin clay (pure kaolin clay with some trace metals) and water, the mixture is put in a mold and the pressure is applied. It dries a day in room temperature and then calcinated up to 1000 C, but after calcination they are not strong enough and break easily. Could anyone help me?
Thank you
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Add pore-forming agents and Increase the firing temperature, will provide appropriate strength with high porosity.
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I am working on piezo material (PZT) and facing the problem of stoichiometry control due to lead loss during solid-state synthesis. how do minimize it?
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In preparation time you can control the lead loss due to evaporation if you follow some techniques. These are
  1. fired the sample in pellet form,
  2. big size pellet,
  3. slow heating rate and using stepping method and closed type crucible and
  4. sample remove from furnish after cooling and achieving the room temperature.
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I am working on the evaluation of Structural, Mechanical & Optical properties of Zirconia-based dental ceramics to use as dental implants/crowns in the field of dentistry. As we know, Tetragonal Zirconia ceramics is the best candidate due to its very good Structural & Mechanical properties (e.g., Flexural/Bending strength, Fracture toughness, Modulus & Hardness); however, it has very limited/low translucency. A good translucency is required for aesthetic purposes.
As I am working on improving translucency of the Tetragonal Zirconia Ceramic, I want to know, how much (on an average) translucency (Please tell in terms of "% Transmittance" value) is required to satisfy aesthetic requirement (To match appearance with other existing tooths) such that use of any veneering material (for e.g., Porcelain) is avoided. Please share a reference, if possible.
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50%
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How can I reduce the temperature of calcinaton the Perofskit ceramic PZT dope in site cationic (Sr) and site Anionic (F) preparation when temperature of calnation is very high
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Thank you very much Dear prof. Abhinay Sreeram
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I came across an article that uses heat treatments to determine whether or not the surface charge introduced by contact electrification on a ceramic material is due to electron-transfer mechanism or ion-transfer mechanism. I was wondering if ions can be removed using heat or what other method can be used.
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Hi Serena Armiento,
Yes, it can, this be the ions transfer through the ceramic structure.
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Dear fellow researchers,
are you aware of open-source or commercially available software to estimate the failure probability of ceramics and generally of brittle materials, once given the state of stress and strain from a FEM solver? I'm dealing with ANSYS, but so far could not find a valid answer inside its users' community. Several plug-in post-processing tools are available for high-cycle and (a bit less) for low-cycle fatigue of metal materials. I also found clever stuff for creep on polymers. Very little on ceramics.
I would love if any of you could help me with some references. Thanks a lot in advance.
Best regards
Maurizio Sciancalepore
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@Maurizio Sciancalepore , To do research it does not require any designation or doctoral degree. Sir, experience is far greater than a degree or designation.
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why sponge-like ceramic membranes are more efficient in dissipating the stresses compared to finger-like membranes?
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I am currently doing applied research to develop a recoating mechanism similar to that used in DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering) processes. I am searching for the best abrasion resistant material that can withstand being exposed to Ti-6Al-4V powder.
Any insight would be appreciated!
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The Laser Cused Ti-6Al-4V is competitive with traditional materials. Laser Cused Ti-6Al-4V displays superior strength and hardness as a result of a martensitic microstructure, and a poorer performance in ductility.
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Hello all , Thanks in advance for reading my questions.
I purchased 3d printed filaments from these people https://worldoflilliputs.com/product/10-meter-ceramic-trial-pack/
the name they given for material is ceramic ( i am doing research in bioimplants i thought to use it ) but it is polymer. I started searching for literature nothing found , ceramic original composition , orginal 3d printing are poping up instead of this polymer. what sort of keywords need to be used to search for it . I enquired with the suppliers regarding combination of filament , they didnt responded. so I went on to EDX analysis , (I attach those as well) I couldnt able to understand how to think about the materail please do help .
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Dear Ranganath Lolla, please find interesting documents in the following google search link, with the keyword I understood from the question. My Regards
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Hello everyone,
Normally, metals have a higher coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) than ceramics. I would like to know how the higher CTE of hydroxyapatite than titanium would be explained?
CTE (hydroxyapatite)≈ 14.6×10-6 °C-1
CTE (Ti64)≈ 8.6×10-6 °C-1
Thank you.
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There are also more illustrative examples of the difference in CTE of mineral and metallic materials:
The CTE of tungsten is about 5x10-6K-1, and the CTE of cristobalite (high-temperature crystalline modification of silicon dioxide) is almost 10 times higher (50x10-6K-1). It is interesting that the same silicon dioxide, but in the form of quartz glass, has a 100 times lower CTE (0.5x10-6K-1).
Unfortunately, there is no single simple explanation for the difference in CTE of different substances; you just have to take it for granted.
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Hello Everyone,
Is there any method available to find the thermal conductivity of molten liquid (Ceramic) ?
Any leads would be appreciated.
Thank You.
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In the case of fuel fired or electrically heated furnaces, a metallic muffle may be used to ensure a constant temperature zone within the heated chamber. The metal evens out temperature gradients. How can a constant temperature zone be obtained in a microwave oven for the sintering of ceramic bodies?
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Ceramic powder can conduct heat, but the ceramics I am used to such as alumina don't get hot with microwaves, so they would suck heat out of what you wanted to heat up. I have no experience of sintering ceramics in a microwave. I think I have read that it is done. I think that you could probably select or design a ceramic powder that did get hot and would spread the heat about. Some of my ceramic mugs get hot in the microwave.
You would need to match the heating rate with the conduction of the powder so that conduction happened fast enough to even out the uneven heating from the microwaves. Ceramic powder will change the pattern of microwaves in the oven. The wavelength is much smaller in ceramic. In alumina it is 1/3.1 of the value in air.
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We have coated certain ceramic thin films on stainless steel as potential corrosion-resistant coatings. The corrosion test will be performed in 98% sulfuric acid at elevated temperatures. But I have coated my substrate on one side. However opposite side is uncoated. As the whole sample will be dipped inside the sulfuric acid solution, the backside (stainless steel) will be also exposed to Sulfuric acid. So, what type of material I should use to protect the backside of my sample from the harsh acid environment which will not compromise the validity of the corrosion rate. Will epoxy or magic work?
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Dear Nisar
Try black tar epoxy to cost the otherside of the sample.In fact you can coat the allsides of the sample with the black tar epoxy as well for such a harsh medium.
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Currently, we are using alumina crucibles (%99.7 purity / alsint) to melt silicate glass samples.
We can not remove the remaining glass from crucible with physical approach.
I would like to know, is it possible to clear the crucible with any chemical substance
or how can I remove residual glass from alumina crucible after casting?
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You could use HF acid, but it is very dangerous to use without protective clothes. My advice is to buy a new crucibles which are not expensive.
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I am presently proposing to work on cementation of ceramic veneers on discoloured teeth with 2 types of resin cements having the same shade. My question are 1) what sort of shade of choice 2 light cure and nx3 nexus resin cements will be able to mask the underlying tooth color if the emax veneer is not more than 0.5mm in thickness.