Questions related to Ceramic Materials
Hope you are doing well!
What are the best books in Materials Science and Engineering (Basics and Advanced)? Moreover, what are the best skills (or materials topic related) that materials scientists have to develop and to acquire?
Thanks in advance
I want to Create Surfaces/sets from wireframe 2D Sketch in .Iges format to do a 2D analysis of a Ceramic material. I am using ANSYS Workbench to create a mesh for my geometry. The .jpg file is attached. The .iges file imported from a different source where the sketch had been created in wireframe 2D, contains splines and lines, the closed splines and lines represent the crystals and the rest is the matrix. The crystals had been indicated with C and matrix with M in the image respectively.
Could you provide some information on how should two surfaces/sets can be generated in ANSYS so that meshing can be done afterward?
I'm currently doing some DTA analysis on two phases of the same ceramic material, one is fully crystalline and the other fully amorphous.
When I work with the crystalline one I have a melting peak, with a clear area I can integrate if I want to.
But when I'm working with the amorphous one, I don't have a peak anymore but more like a transition, with no distinct area (similar to a reversed glass transition in a way).
Why don't I have a proper melting peak on my amorphous material ?
The same heating rates have been used, with really closed mass for the samples.
Thank you for your help,
For different purposes, molten metals will be in contact with a ceramic material. For example a furnace nozzle guides the melt flow to the mold is usually made from a thermo-chemical resistant ceramic.
- However, in the case of Mg metal, chemical reactions and temperature drop are very fast.
- Beside, mechanical strength and elongation must be high enough to suffer mechanical shocks.
- Moreover, machinability and density of a ceramic material must be good enough to form in the desired shape.
I will highly appreciate if you let me know your answers and reasons in this regard.
I have synthesized a titanium-based ceramic material (Titanium Carbide) by high-temperature synthesis. But I am getting Oxide peaks while performing XRD analysis. Is there any way to remove the unwanted oxides from my sample? If so how to do it. Kindly enlighten me
For O1s, there are two peaks, 529.6ev and 533.3ev.
529.6ev can be corresponding to Zr-O. But 532.3ev, I don't know how to explain it.
Consult relevant literature, there are two explanations.
The first, It may be Si-O, but there is no Si element in my material.
The second, It may also be chemically adsorbed oxygen, but is this possible in ceramics materials?
I am puzzled by the analysis, hope I can get an answer about it.
Consider a small tube made of polymer or ceramic (inner diameter of about 3mm, outer diameter of about 1cm, and 5cm length), inside which a high-gas pressure should be generated in a short time (few microseconds). How can we measure the maximum gas pressure that the tube can withstand before it breaks or deforms, even before starting the actual experiment?
My goal is to create a layer of Lead Zirconate Titanate, or other piezoelectric material, deposited on the surface of a PFTE Teflon tube. What are some good methods to accomplish this task?
Why does a Cole-Cole plot display a downward slope?
After plotting the E'' vs E', there is a particular composite that has the opposite trend of others. Attached is the image. Thank you
I am investigating the corrosion resistance of ceramic coating (deposited by PVD process) on Stainless steel samples using Gamry Instrument with parameters OCP (77.78 mV conducting before tafel curve), then scan rate = 1 mV/s, Potential = -0.5 to 0.5 Vs OCP in 0.5M NaCl environment. During starting of tafel curve, there is overloading error within 3-5 minutes and also coating was seen peeled off at the point of contact/interface between solution and Coating having area .022 cm2.
Kindly suggest the best possible solutions to overcome this problem.
In the (electro-) conducting materials, as I know, there is an energy gap between the valence band (VB) and the conduction band (CB) that can be brought to or near-to the Fermi level by doping (p-type or n-type dopant).
But ( My question is ), If I want to design a (semi- or super-) conductor's materials (inorganic or polymeric) , Which properties would I look for? and, also, Which characterizations would I consider for the properties' investigations? What are the requirements for the materials' property (with regard to its band structure) to achieve the considered structure-property relationships (or requirements ) for the preparation of the conducting materials?
Good afternoon everyone, I want to make a calculation of the optical properties of a perovskite-type ceramic material, but I present the following questions that I would like to help me clarify:
1. In order to do the calculation of the optical properties, I must first do the minimization calculation?
2. My great doubt is referring to some INCAR parameters when I am going to calculate the optical properties, they are: IBRION =? ISIF =? LORBIT =? LREAL =? LWAVE =? NSW =? PREC =? 3. Can I calculate the optical properties with PAW-GGA?
I appreciate your attention and I look forward to your comments
I came across an article that uses heat treatments to determine whether or not the surface charge introduced by contact electrification on a ceramic material is due to electron-transfer mechanism or ion-transfer mechanism. I was wondering if ions can be removed using heat or what other method can be used.
On a synthetic graphite tube production line, this type of defect, similar to scales or the beginnings of cracks (cf. photos), appears regularly, including on unimpregnated tubes, just out of the oven (on the photos, these are tubes that have been impregnated and then brushed with traces of resin at the bottom of the scale). We noticed that our graphite had an abnormally high Fe content (a supplier problem). Do you think that these defects can come from a cast iron inclusion (the carbon of the graphite + Fe) formed locally during the graphitization process? Can such an inclusion at this scale (0.5-2mm) lead to surface flaking? If not, do you have any ideas on the origin of these defects?
Thank you very much for your answers and time,
A french materials engineering trainee in need of knowledge
I want to make slurry for aqueous tape casting of alumina (500 nm avg. particle size) using PVA binder and PEG plasticizer, but I am not being able to optimize the contents.
1. In what quantity range (wt% or vol%) should I use alumina to get high relative density?
2. In what range (wt% or vol% w.r.t total composition or w.r.t alumina) should I use PVA binder? Should the PVA added be in solid granules form or aqueous solution, and hence will that quantity represent binder active matter or binder solution?
3. Should PEG added be in aqueous solution form?
4. Is optically high grade PET film ok as substrate for tape casting? Can the tape be detached from this substrate easily? (I could not be able to detach yet).
Thank you so much~
I'm working with a dielectric ceramic material. I plotted tangent loss V's frequency and it doesn't show any peak which corresponds to the relaxation mechanism. What does this mean? How to interpret the data?
I am trying to calculate the theoretical density of my ceramics materials. I use the formula below to calculate the theoretical density: Theoretical density = (Molecular weight x No. of molecules per unit cell) / (Volume of unit cell x Avogardo's number). The issue is how to calculate the Z number? I found that the value of Z even changes as the original materials is doped. please see the attached image of PDF infor for LaFeO3 and La0.8Ca0.2FeO3. The value of Z change from 4 to 2. So, my question is how to exactly calculate the Z value? And why does the value of Z change?
I will be very appreciated if someone could help me out.
Thanks in advance!
I am conducting research into additive manufacturing metal matrix composites at the university of Wolverhampton (UK) but I am struggling to locate this information. any help would be appreciated. if you have written a paper that includes this information that would be a bonus also.
For a PbO-SiO2 glass, PbO is a network modifier for up to 30-40%, but it becomes a network former at higher concentration. Why?
- Is it related to oxidation state change of Pb, from 2 to 4, and vice-versa? Pb (II) oxide has distorted tetrahedral coordination and Pb(IV) oxide has distorted octahedral coordination.
- is the bridge-breaking by low PbO content likened with alkaline earth metal ions? Then what mechanism can be attributed to its bridge formation at higher concentration in Pb-silicate glass, and what is the exact nature of coordination change at this stage?
- If the glass in not simple Pb- silicate, but rather Pb- alkali/alkaline earth(aluminosilicate), than what is the compositional role in this "role-change" of PbO?
It's something I've seen as trial and error, but to make it a little more technical I haven't seen a route for this process. Does anyone have ideas for this route?
I'm talking about the case of rotational reometers.
The term of bending strength and flexural strength are interchangeably used to measure the strength of ceramic materials. I am aware about the bending strength. Ceramic materials are brittle in nature and lack of plasticity. Hence, bending strength is difficult to count preciously in ceramic materials. However, there are numerous papers measured bending strength of several ceramic materials.
Flexural strength is another frequent used strength measurement for ceramics.
1-What are the main differences between these terms?
2- Why these strengths are important to measure separately?
3-are these strengths can be related to other strengths such as compressive strength of ceramics?
4- is there any difference in the relationship of porosity, microstructure features, density and other parameters relation with bending strength and flexural strength separately?
Thank you very much for your kind contribution and assistance.
Ceramic materials like Chromium oxide and Aluminium oxide have high melting point. The combustion flame can reach up to 3000 centigrade. However, The velocity of particle may not allow ceramic powder to melt completely.
But I want to know can we coat these materials by optimizing process parameters like flow rate of fuel gas, air and powder feeder?
Essentially every published review paper on the MAX phases includes Sc2InC in its listings of 'known MAX phases'. However, most of these reviews either: 1) specifically do not reference Sc2InC, while all other phases are referenced, or 2) point the reader in the direction of an earlier review paper.
This paper-trail can be tracked back to the seemingly original source - L. E. Toth, W. Jeitschko and C. M. Yen, The superconducting behavior of several complex carbides and nitrides, Journal of the Less-Common Metals, 10 (1966) 29-32. However this source refers only to Sc2InC as a "personal communication" between W. Jeitschko and E. Parthe. As far as I am aware there are no further reports on the physical synthesis of this phase.
Does anybody know if the origins of this phase go back any further, what the personal communication entailed, or if a publication or any other report has in fact been published regarding this phase which has slipped through my review of the literature?
Thank you in advance.
I would like to know that which ceramic material (oxide, carbide, nitride etc.) is non-toxic to humans and possess best Anti-bacterical and Anti-viral properties?
Thank you in advance.
With best regards
I am working on ballistic simulation. The first issue is how can i control hourglass for ceramic materials. Because if hourglass exceeded 10% of internal energy, the simulation will be invalid.
Type 4 or Type 6 , which is better for ceramic ?
And the second question ,if sliding energy is negative but still under control , does it matter for simulation results?
Thank you for your attention and look forward for the answers
Can anyone suggest an "accurate" lab technique for measuring thermal conductivity (TC) of molten nitrate salt-based nanofluids, doped with Al2O3 metal oxide nanoparticles at various volume fractions (ranging between 0.5% to 5%). The main issue here is to measure fluids/salts TC at high temperatures (ranging from 250-500 ºC). Also for this type of testing what would be the best fit for the sensors insulation?
Can anyone share a complete poling process of pyroelectric ceramic materials including equipment name and source?
I have never done that before but I need to purchase equipment to perform a polling process. After polling, what type of test should I do to see that the polling was successful and what equipment I need?
It will be helpful if anyone can give a list of processes and equipment requirements.
Difference between Pyrolysis, Carbonization, Graphitization in Composites?- Clear and Specific
Don't copy the sentences from internet sources please.
Dear researchers ;
I find difficulties to calculate the weight contents (mass%) of kaolin, talc, and alumina corresponding to the ratio of MgO:SiO2:Al2O3. Could you help me please ?
Thanks for any answers !
To measure flexural strength of CAD CAM ceramic materials,is it necessary to prepare the samples as crowns on prepared teeth or can we just use blocks of predetermined dimensions. There are studies which have used the latter method. I am curious to know if it makes any difference in the results in using the above two methods of preparing the specimens. Kindly suggest.
Dears, I am looking for an efficient software (preferably free) to carefully analysis the porosity, phase composition percentage , clearly distinguish between phases, grain size for EACH ELEMENT, grain size distribution and other parameters related to the microstructure analysis to related them to hardness, fracture toughness and strength of advanced ceramics materials? Thank you very much for your kind cooperation in advance. Yours sincerely, Zhwan
In my case, after successive doping in my sample (bulk), one of the peaks starts splitting into two. what could be the reason behind this?
Is this caused by strain in structure ?
plz give answer with reference...
I calculated activation energies for intermediate stage of sintering for alumina+tetragonal zirconia composite and alumina+cubic zirconia composite via non-isothermal CHR method in microwave hybrid sintering, and compared them. The particle sizes of both as-received zirconia were same. A+tZ shows slightly higher activation energy as compared to A+cZ, but the densification of A+tZ is also higher. Can someone please guide? Because if densification is higher, then the activation energy for sintering should be lower, but that's not the case here. Is some unusual factor of sintering kinetics involved here?
Please list down the best best Scientists/Researcher in the field of Solid State Electrolyte/Solid-state batteries for Li/Na-ion batteries.
For refractory brick we measure the refractoriness with Orton cone (standard cone)
What should be the PCE value (theoritical) for the refractory having following chemical analysis.
Al2O3 : 74%
Fe2O3 : 0.6%
Na2O + K2O : 0.25%
In my ceramic sample which is highly fragile and porous, structure is destroyed on doing FESEM during placing on the stab holder, even charging of the sample take place even at low magnification.
Why we don't put the rogowoski current sensor in a metallic enclosure? Because for a metallic case (grounded), the sheath thickness will be small as compared to a floating ceramic enclosure.
I am need of a good electrical insulator, which can resist temperature up to around 1200-1400 degree centigrade.
I know Teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) which has a melting point of 327 degree C.
Actually I need a insulator which can resist high temperature, it should be electrical insulator and moreover should have adhesive property like that of araldite.
When indented by a Vickers diamond pyramid, a crack is formed as shown in the figure. What is the distance from the corner need to measure, 1 or 2?
We use Vickers indentation method for estimation of the fracture toughness. We use the following formula, Fig. 1. The calculation requires the average length of cracks. If there is only one 8 μm crack (Fig. 2), then we take the average 8 μm? Or (8+0+0+0)/4 = 2 μm?
As, Titanium Nitride has a complex structure and it is also transition metal nitride, literature says it is a ceramic material but it still has high electrical conductivity like metals.... Why is that?
and also can you please help me in helping precisely finding the band gap of TiN? Does it have a band gap as it behaves like metal?
Ceramic coating is provided on the metal to improve its wear resistance. There are many ceramic materials are available and seems not easy to choose best one which can fulfill our requirement. What criteria should we use to select the best material?
This question is to those who are experts in metals and metallic coatings.
For a particular application, I have to add very small quantities(ppm/micro gram level) of an inorganic ceramic material into metallic parts (steel,brass etc.) during their formation.Is this possible?If not, any other way to mix the ceramic particles with something and give a permanent layer coating outside?Like thermal spray or galvanization.
While fitting Cole-Cole plot to equivalent circuit model using C, R, Q; different circuit models are changing with different temperature range. The sample has grains and grain-boundaries
Q= constant phase element.
Actually I was working on a piezoelectric project and I kept the 99.9% pure bismuth oxide powder at 800 C for 4 hours. When I opened the furnace, the bismuth oxide got sintered and took the form of the crucible. I almost placed 100 g of Bi2O3 in the furnace and now the weight of the solid sintered product is roughly the same. I would like to know if there is any way by which I could recover the powdered Bi2O3 without contaminating it?
I could make almost 10 batches with this amount so I don't want to discard it.
P.s. I have planetary ball mill (with Zr medium) and mortar and pestle.
I need your help to obtain thermal stress in a ceramic material.
I usually work with metalic materials but in this case I need to develop an analysis using a ceramic material under temprature changes.
I want to know how to define a ceramic material in Abaqus.
I have measured total conductivity (electrical + ionic) of a ceria-based oxide by impedance analyzer in two ways:
1. By keeping the temperature constant at a time (like 400, 500, 600 700 °C etc.) and changed the frequency from 1 KHz to 10 MHz
2. By keeping the frequency constant at a time (like 1, 10, 100, 500, 1000 KHz etc.) and changed the temperature from 300 to1000 °C.
Is total conductivity measured by both methods would be similar for the data taken at the same frequency and temperature (for example at a frequency of 10 MHz and temperature of 1000 °C) or it would be different? Please explain.
The production of components and assemblies in the nuclear area employs fusion welding and in the solid state as a method of manufacture in the various metallic materials. With the increasing use of new ceramic polymer materials and composites new bonding techniques need to be developed.
I want to increase ionic conductivity of oxygen ions in a ceramic disk made by powder metallurgy route. Which materials can be added in the ceramic powder and in what % that can increase ionic conductivity of O+ ions. Your valuable suggestions are invited. Thanks in advance.
Currently we are mixing fiber in water but the fiber are getting coagulated and are forming small chunks as shown in picture 1 and picture 3. The fiber is not completely dispersed. What should be done to form a uniform dispersed slurry of the fiber without forming chunks?
I'm using GULP to test an interatomic potential for a ceramic material. I'm interested in describing how the volume of the unit cell changes with temperature. I've used GULP to minimize de Free-energy of the system at different temperatures and I can find a reasonable change in the volume. However, when using a NPT molecular dynamics using stochastic integration of the equations of motion the system reaches equilibrium at a smaller volume. Is this a common phenomenon in MD?
I am trying to exfoliate Ti3AlC2 with the method of Li/HCl. Ti3AlC2 (>=98%) was purchased, and has been characterized by XRD. Since the HCl itself is not enough to exfoliate Ti3AlC2, i added 12M HCl to Ti3AlC2 directly, and stirred for several hours. For a couple of hours, even half of the day, nothing happend, Ti3AlC2 in the solution just sank, and the supernatant was clear. However, after maybe 2 days(start from the moment i mixed them), i caught sight of the solution, it has turned to pink(i am not sure about the exactly color, a little bit purple or red ?), and the supernatant was still clear. Next, i collected some to do UV-Vis, results hasn't come out yet. Is there anyone know what such solution is? Ti2CTx (T=OH, F, O) ? If so, can i make a conclusion that i can wash the Ti3AlC2(remove the impurities) in this way?
i have prepared calcium phosphate ceramic material, which contain both nano(below 1 micron)and micron(5-10micron) size particles. but i need only micron size particles, how to separate micronsize particles?. i tried to use 5 micron seive but still smaller particles are present in my ceramic material.
Hi Dr. :
I am Ph.D and investigate the high impact of ceramic composite plates.
I have several problems in LS-DYNA and must consult with you.
I study high velocity impact with Al2O3/6061-T6 Al composite plate which ceramics use MAT_110 JH-2 model of ANSYS/LS-DYNA software.
The thickness of ceramics was 11 mm and Al was 1mm by using 0.30 AP bullet.
I had once changed the value of A B C M N T FS HEL PHEL D1 D2 K1 K2 K3…etc in LS-DYNA, but the residual velocity didn't always decrease, the initial velocity was 868 m/s, the residual velocity was approximately 700 m/s.
And how does the ceramic model simulate the crack phenomenon ?
I am using ceramic membranes of 100 and 200 nm pore size for separation of oil from produced water of 500 ppm oil. There are many methods in literature. I want the simplest method using NaOH solution.
Lanthanum modification at the A-site for PbZrTiO3 shows decrease in grain size and transition temperature
Fracture toughness is one of most important mechanical property for ceramic materials. What's the major different between normal toughness and fracture toughness? And how to conduct fracture toughness testing?
I have 25mm thickness ceramic based micron size particle material. Apart from I want to do correct reconstruction of the material from X-Ray Computerized Tomography Microscope(XT-400). which one is standard procedure to monitor? Give me the suggestions please?
As a kind of ceramic materials, alumina (Al2O3) is really hard to etch. Many thanks to those who can show me detailed info. of etching alumina.
We are planning to work on modeling of advanced ceramic materials (Thin Solid Films) for energy related applications. What is your suggestion about suitable software for starting up ?