Science topic

Cellular Communication - Science topic

Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Questions related to Cellular Communication
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I have a single cell data on mouse lung at homeostasis and at 4 different time points after injury. I've read a couple of review papers on different packages available for cell-cell interaction- cellphonedb and cellchat being the most popular ones. Others being SingeCellSignalR, iTALK and NicheNet. All have their pros and cons and I'm confused about which one would be the right one to choose and how to visually represent the cell-cell communication in the time series data
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Comparison of methods and resources for cell-cell communication inference from single-cell RNA-Seq data
Daniel Dimitrov, Dénes Türei, [...], and Julio Saez-Rodriguez
Check if this paper helps you.
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Hello
I am doing research on T cell interactions with epithelial cells and am looking to see if the interaction is MHC mediated. There was another post on research gate but it is from 2014 https://www.researchgate.net/post/What-is-the-best-way-to-block-MHC-class-I-and-II-in-in-vitro-assays-of-T-cell-function.
I think this is the pan Class II blocker ( https://www.bdbiosciences.com/en-us/products/reagents/flow-cytometry-reagents/research-reagents/single-color-antibodies-ruo/buv496-mouse-anti-human-hla-dr-dp-dq.741157) mentioned in the above post, but is any antibody clone that is Tu39 with/without a flurophore able to block binding?
This antibody I found was cited in literature as a CD4 blocking antibody https://www.biolegend.com/en-us/products/pacific-blue-anti-human-cd4-antibody-3662?GroupID=BLG5901 so similarly would any OKT4 clone for anti-CD4 work for blocking?
Thank you for your assistance!
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thank you!
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I am currently working on a study to estimate the traffic volume distribution of urban areas by utilizing mobile phone location records. Please, can anyone help me to find an open access dataset for the desired task? Your contribution in this regard is highly appreciated!
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Hi,
You can check that...
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For my simulations I get a sum rate of X b/s. If my total energy consumption is Y mW, how should i calculate energy efficiency(EE). Is the following formula correct?
EE=Y/X
Thanks
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The energy efficiency is the ratio of the useful energy to the total input energy.
So, one would innovate an energy efficiency for your problem. In fact in the rf wireless communication system the energy picked up by the receivers from the transmitted energy is a very small fraction because of the broadcast nature of the the communication channels.
I think you do not intend the this type of energy efficiency.
I may think that you can define an other type of energy efficacy which can be defined as follows:
Energy efficiency = The energy consumed in case of ideal transmission channels to the energy consumed under real channel to transmit the same bit rate with the same bit error rate.
I think it will be a meaningful definition.
However, one can define what is called the energy consumption to transmit one bit and this is not an energy efficiency. It is just an energy consumption rate in joule per bit.
Best wishes
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Hello
I am going through some digital communication literature, where some research papers have used the following formula to calculate the sum rate
Sum_rate=Summation (log2(1+SINR(i)) eq.1
My confusion is as follows:
1. Why is bandwidth(B) not included i.e. B.log2(1+SINR)
2. What will be the units (e.g. bps/Kbps/Mbps etc) if eq.1 is used.
Thanks
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That sum rate expression is measured in bit/s/Hz. If you multiply with the bandwidth, you get it in bit/s.
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I want to parse signals coming from 4G/5G towers to extract only the ID of the tower and the transmission time (on simplex communication: only downlink). Are these packets (or frames) sent on a regular time interval ?
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You can down load the several software like net monitor in your mobile and you can check the network health ' data rate (TX and rx) tower id, RSSI ' signal to noise ratio etc in stationary as well as in state of mobility .G-net is also useful for primary investigation respective to the different channel ( BCCH' TCH ETC).
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Please guide me about the difference between SINR threshold and Minimum discernable signal.
From my search I have come across the following.
1) A signal can be decoded if the SINR of the received signal is higher than the SINR threshold. Does it mean that we should not be concerned about the minimum required power, and that if the received signal satisfies the SINR threshold, it will be successfully decoded?
2) I also have come across the idea of minimum discernable level. For instance -70 db is considered acceptable for some types of communication.
Which of the two I should follow. As in the first case, I get very low transmit powers and still satisfy the SINR threshold, while the transmit powers in the 2nd case are way too high compared to the first case.
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Dear Gul Lakhta ,
There is something basic which you you would like to consider. From the point view of the signals, the interference signal acts in a similar way to noise. When it is added to the symbol signal it will cause that it may be falsely detected if its value is increases such that the combined signal will be located in the neighboring decision regions of the adjacent symbols in the constellation diagram. So the interference and noise have the same effect in the symbol error.
Therefore one speaks not only from S/N ratio but also from the S/(N+I).
The noise has Gaussian amplitude distribution while the interference may not have such distribution because of the nature of the interference.
The interference signal sources are normally known and then they can be subtracted from the composite signal. If after interference cancellation there will be residual interference it will be treated as a noise concerning its effect on the symbol error. In the sense that it will set the S/I +N minimum level to achieve specific bit error rate. You see if N=0 then S/I will set this minimum.
Hope I could answer satisfactorily you question.
Best wishes
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Please help me with the following formulation.
I want to calculate transmit power that can satisfy a given SINR threshold on the receiver side.
My formulation is as follows:
SINR=Received_Power/(Interference+Noise) Eq. 1
If SINR Threshold (SINR_th) is known, we can get the Required_Received_Power and thus the "Required_Transmit_Power" power as follows:
SINR_th=Required_Received_Power/(Interference+Noise) Eq. 2
We know that
Received_Power=Transmit_Power/Pathloss; Eq. 3
OR
Required_Received_Power=Required_Transmit_Power/Pathloss; Eq. 4
Substituing "Required_Received_Power" in Eq.2 with the right hand side of Eq.4, we get
SINR_th=(Required_Transmit_Power/Pathloss)/(Interference+Noise) Eq. 5
OR
Required_Transmit_Power=SINR_th x (Interference+Noise) x Pathloss Eq. 6
Please advise whether this formulation is correct or not as I am getting wrong results.
Thank you!!!
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Muhammad Hamza El-Saba Thank you very much for your answer.
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How do we represent zero interference on db scale?
I am using the following formula for calculating the Received_Power_TH (TH stands for threshold). Received_Power_TH is the power of the received signal required for successful decoding. I am using the following formulation.
SINR=Received_Power - Interference - Noise Or
The Recieved_Power that satisfies the SINR_TH (or in other words the minimum Received_Power required for successful decoding) is given as follows
SINR_TH=Received_Power_TH - Interference - Noise Or
Received_Power_TH =SINR_TH + Interference + Noise
However, i get the following results which seem counter intuitive.
Assuming SINR=25, Interference=-50, Noise= -95
Received_Power_Th =25-50-95=-120
Now if we do not have any interference e.g. in a case when there is only one node transmitting, we get the following
Received_Power_TH=25-95=-70
This result seems counter intuitive as Received_Power_TH for successful reception in case of no interference should drop below the value we get when we have interference whereas in this case the Received_Power_TH is equal to -120 in case of interference and it increases to -70 when there is no interference.
Many thanks
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Zero is equal to -infinity in dB scale, since log10(0) = -infinity.
An issue with your computations is that the interference and noise power should be added together in linear scale when computing the SINR, not dB scale. So if the interference is -50 dBm and the noise is -95 dBm, the interference+noise is 10^(-5)+10^(-9.5) mW, which you can then convert to dBm as 10*log10( 10^(-5)+10^(-9.5) ).
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Does anyone know a way to block cell:cell communication during innate immune signalling (IIS) in cell culture? Possibly by blocking release of IIS-induced signalling factors, eg IFNs, ISGs, proinflammatory cytokines etc, or by blocking their binding and recognition to surrounding cells?
As an overview, detection of intracellular pathogens stimulates innate immune paths within the cell, which ultimately leads to release of IIS signalling molecules to warn surrounding cells of infection. This stimulates innate immune paths in the surrounding cells, making it difficult to differentiate between the infected and warned cells.
I'm attempting to break this link so I can study the pathway at the single cell level. All of the cells in the culture will be infected with the pathogen, and I will be screening compounds that modulate the intracellular paths, so I can't just remove uninfected cells. The actual cell type is flexible, but importantly the assay cannot kill the cell as it needs to survive for multiple screening rounds.
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The blockage of cell to cell communication in innate immune signalling is 60% achieved by blocking their binding and recognition to surrounding cells.
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Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is deemed as the promising and revolutionizing technology for future wireless communication systems.
As the kind of impedance metasurface, each element of IRS is composed of configurable electromagnetic (EM) internals and can reflect the incident EM wave with the desired phase shift. Thus, the IRS is able to intelligently change the propagation environment and significantly enhance the quality and coverage of wireless communications. So, do you see any chance that network operators will deploy the IRS in their networks?
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Yes, IRS can be deployed to enhance security in communication networks to either replace legacy security solutions or supplement them.
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If the range of transmission power without IRS is too high, and the BS has at most 40 dBm. How can we have high range transmission of power?
where IRS is the intelligent reflective surfaces, and BS is the base station
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IRS or no IRS, isn't this a standard problem of propagation loss? You have to know the sensitivity of the receiver, the noise power at the receiver, the gain of the receive antenna, the range to the transmitter, the terrain characteristics, and consequent signal loss along the path, and the transmit power and transmit antenna gain.
Now, without IRS involved, you can compute the signal to noise ratio at the receiver, and determine if communications are possible, using a given type of modulation. There will be different marginal SNR requirements, depending on type of modulation you want to use. Shannon's equation can be used, to predict the maximum possible channel capacity, along a single propagation path, with a given channel bandwidth and SNR.
I'd say that using IRS, at either or both ends, is much the same as changing transmit and/or receive antenna gain.
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IRS can create higher beamforming gain with the help of an “intelligent” reflector. But, this brings other practical issues.
How does BS/AP synchronize with the reflector about the amplitude and phase?
where IRS is the intelligent reflective surfaces, BS is the base station and AP is the access point.
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The basic algorithms for phase configuration and channel estimation are described in our tutorial article: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2102.00742.pdf
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which means another IRS receives the signal from the first one and sends the signal toward another one and so on.
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Welcome!
As far as I understand the IRS is one hop network component. If the path from the source to destination has low transmission coefficient such as deep fading of massive blocking then one can use one ore two IRSs to convey the signal to the intended receiver or destinations.
Incase of more that one IRS all of them receive their incident waves from the intial source such as the base station. I think multi hops may cause excessive delay.
Best wishes.
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where IRS is intelligent reflective surfaces.
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An IRS is a new type of relay, with specific characteristics, benefits, and drawbacks. This is discussed in our recent magazine article: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2006.03377.pdf
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where IRS is intelligent reflective surfaces, ISI is inter symbol interference which is a main cause that can reduce efficiency of the system due to multi
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The increase in a delay spread caused by an IRS is rather small, so ISI isn't really the problem. However, when an IRS is tuning the propagation environment for one communication link, it can accidentally cause interference to other communication links (in the same or different bands).
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Is it possible to mention the areas in which IRS have been used? And how much benefit have you achieved or will be achieved when using it?
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welcome!
I think the IRS technology for controlling the the wireless transmission parameters will undergo tremendous research to apply them in the the 6G mobile communication networks.
I think I wrote about this before for answering one your questions on this topic.
To be aware of the challenges and difficulties with the introduction of such devices please follow the paper in the link: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03020450/document
Best wishes
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Intelligent reflective surfaces (IRS)
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Dear Abbas,
See below some stuff that can be of interest regarding your question:
Which is the best reading in reconfigurable intelligent surfaces?
IEEE Communications Society Emerging Technology Initiative (ETI), “ Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces ”.
Best Readings in Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces ...
What is the physical principle of an IRS?
The physical principle of an IRS is that the surface is composed of atoms, each of which acts as an “intelligent” scatterer: a small antenna that receives and re-radiates without amplification, but with a controllable phase-shift. Typically, an atom is implemented as a small patch antenna terminated with an adjustable impedance.
Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces: On Use Cases and Path ...
When is a transformation called an isometric transformation?
If there is no change in size or shape, then the transformation is called an isometric transformation. If the size of the object changes then the transformation is called a size transformation. Each transformation has a unique set of characteristics or rules that define the movement.
16.Transformation Geometry (SC)
When does a reflecting surface have a beam width?
“Mirrors” exist only in textbooks, when a plane wave is impinging onto an infinitely large conducting plate (none of which exist in practice). Irrespective of how the IRS is constructed, if it is viewed from far enough away, its radiated field will have a beam width that is inversely proportional to its size measured in wavelengths.
Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces: On Use Cases and Path ...
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The researcher, scientist, or engineer who uses mathematical optimization, or more generally, computational mathematics. This includes, naturally, those working directly in optimization and operations research, and also many others who use optimization, in fields like computer science, economics, finance, statistics, data mining, and many fields of science and engineering. The primary focus is on the latter group, the potential users of convex optimization, and not the (less numerous) experts in the field of convex optimization.
An intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) comprises an array of IRS units, each of which can independently incur some change to the incident signal. The change, in general, may be about the phase, amplitude, frequency, or even polarization.
To date, in most studies, the change is considered as a phase shift only to the incident signal, so that an IRS consumes no transmit power. In essence, an IRS intelligently configures the wireless environment to help the transmissions between the sender and receiver, when direct communications have bad qualities. Example places to put IRSs are walls, building facades, and ceilings,
Therefore, the optimization algorithm solves the achievable problems by optimizing the phase shifts by considering both continuous phase shifts (CPSs) and discrete phase shifts (DPSs).
How can benefit from Convex Optimization when using intelligent reflective surfaces in wireless communications?
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Dear Abbas,
I will recommend the article https://arxiv.org/pdf/2104.01421.pdf
I hope it will be worth reading about your problem.
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In essence, Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces (IRS) intelligently configures the wireless environment to help the transmissions between the sender and receiver, when direct communications have bad qualities. Example places to put IRSs are walls, building facades, and ceilings. But, is it possible to benefit from the use of the Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces (IRS) for satellite communications?
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Yes, you can use the technology at any frequency band and for many different use cases. The main question is what kind of problem the addition of an IRS will solve. One possibility is to deal with Doppler effects: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2006.06991.pdf
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The intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) aided wireless communication system, where the IRS has emerged as the revolutionizing solution to enhance wireless communications by intelligently changing the propagation environment.
One of the aims of the wireless communication system with IRS is to minimize the transmit power while guaranteeing the qualities of both primary and secondary transmissions. As in communication between a multiple antenna Base Station (BS) and a single antenna user, assisted by an Intelligent Reflecting Surface (IRS); and Due to the large number of elements in IRS, acquiring Channel State Information (CSI) requires many radio-frequency chains and considerable training overhead.
Therefore, what is a new method based on the Optimization to optimize the problem of beamforming at the BS and IRS without CSI, by minimizing the transmit power, subject to a minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)?
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The Fifth Generation (5G) mobile communication standard promises to provide enhanced mobile broadband, massive connectivity and ultra-low latency through various technological advances, including massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), millimeter wave (mmWave) communications, and network densification. However, these technologies consume a lot of power and struggle to provide the users with guaranteed quality of service (QoS) in harsh propagation environments.
For example, the network’s total energy consumption scales linearly with the numbers of base stations (BS)s and the active antennas at each BS, while communication at mmWave bands suffers from high path/penetration losses. These limitations have resulted in the need for green and sustainable future cellular networks with control over the propagation environment.
Therefore, can Intelligent Reflecting Surface (IRS) be designed for 1 to 6 GHz bands as well? Or is it only suitable for high-frequency bands such as millimeter waves?
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The frequency of 5 G is about 30 GHz, hence 1 mm wavelength. The wavelength for 1 to 6 GHz is 30 to 5 cm. The size of an IRS shall be much larger than the wavelength to be efficient. Therefore the size of the antennas for a 10 times lower frequency should be at least 10 times larger.
Therefore, it is possible but....
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There is a set of problems found in smart reflective surfaces, including:
1. the secrecy rate maximization (SRM) problem is formulated, which is a non-convex problem with multiple coupled variables.
2. The nonconvexity problem of maximizing the weighted sum rate (WSR) of all users when the BSs and the users are equipped with multiple antennas, which enhances the spectral efficiency by exploiting the spatial multiplexing gain.
3. The optimization problem of maximizing the weighted sum rate (WSR) of information receivers (IRs), the transmit precoding (TPC) matrices of the base station (BS) and the passive phase shift matrix of the IRS jointly.
4. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) grows linearly with the number of array elements N when using Massive MIMO receivers and half-duplex relays.
5. properly altering the signal propagation via tuning a large number of passive reflecting units.
6. the secrecy rate of the intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted Guassian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel
7. maximize the spectral efficiency of an IRS-assisted point-to-point multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system
8. enhancing its secrecy rate for an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted Guassian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel (WTC).
What parameters can be used when improving the performance of intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) by optimization algorithms?
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welcome!
It is so that the the signal path from the base station shows multipath effects such as fading to the user site.
The addition of the IRS will introduce an alternative path where the signal will be recieved by the IRS phase shifted and amplitude changed and directed to the the site of the user equipment. So the signal path through the IRS must has better transmission properties which means higher signal to noise plus interference at the user site.
So, Accordingly one has to maximize the signal to noise plus interference ratio.
Best wishes
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One of the most important modern systems used in wireless communications is the intelligence reflective surfaces. Are there filters used with these surfaces?
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Adding to the respected colleagues, the IRS are made of a two dimensional array of sub wavelength patches provided by pin or varactor diodes such that one can phase shift and control the amplitude of the reflected wave from each patch.
One can control the phase shift by changing the diode bias. The diode is sufficient to change the phase shift from 0 to pi.
Where you want to insert the filter and why?
For more information please refer to the presentation in the link:https://www.ltu.se/cms_fs/1.203003!/file/Emad%20Ibrahim.pdf
Best wishes
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Can new optimization algorithms be designed to work infinitely to get the best results, they search the entire search area in a spherical manner and are concerned with all static and dynamic particles and possess all physical and topological properties to achieve the best possible solution?
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I am able to generate Rayleigh coefficients as per the following code (function) in python using H=(1/sqrt(2))*(randn(N)+randn(N)*1i)
def RAYLEIGH(d, etaa, num_symbols):
// Input arguments (Distance, pathloss exponent and samples required (depends on data if fast fading)//
c=1/(d**etaa);
h1 = np.sqrt(c); //(Pathloss is multiplied with Rayleigh coefficient)
h = h1*((np.random.randn(num_symbols)+1j*np.random.randn(num_symbols))/np.sqrt(2));
g = (np.absolute(h))**2; // Magnitude
return h.tolist(), g.tolist(); // Return as a list
How to generate the Rician Coefficients given d (distance), etaa (path loss exponent) on the same lines.
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You can create the channel directly with Matlab using the "comm.RicianChannel" then apply this filter to your signal
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In the Random Access procedure which is performed by MAC layer it selects preambles from set A and B with equal probablility for each set.As there is only 64 number of preambles why it has to be divided into two groups.is there any significance for each group?
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Group A: When the UL data quantity is relatively small and UE is in Poor Coverage.
GroupB: When the UL data quantity is relatively large and UE is in good coverage.
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If not then how hypothetically or in theory MItochondrial Exchange between organisms that are taxonomically separated as far as kingdoms will go in terms of their physiological and biochemical interactions?
Say we transfer a mitochondrion from a fungal cell/plant cell to a Mamillian cell line will it still be functional in the new cytoplasm? How the different host cells interact with it?
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Hi Kartik,
Mitochondria physically and functionally interact with other organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum and endosomes. These interactions involve the release of mitochondrial components within extracellular vesicles as part of a larger array of transport mechanisms that shuttle ions and metabolites across cytoplasmic organelles. The intercellular mitochondrial transfer between organisms that are taxonomically separated as far as kingdoms may disrupt proper mitochondrial interaction which is vital for the proper functioning of lysosomes. Here is an interesting study (Todkar et al. 2019) on this topic:
Kind regards.
Chris
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Basically, This project I have started few months ago and planned to coculture 3T3 cells so that I can understand the cell - cell communication. If they is another way to find out how mutant and wild types cells are communicating each other it would be really helpful for giving my project a good start.
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You may infect one genotype of cells with eGFP or GFP and than coculture
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Could you please suggest me some papers, textbooks and basic tools for learning in silico methods? Primarily, I want to research about cancer metabolism, drug resistance, and epigenetics. For example, how can I work on and understand "possible" protein-protein interactions, non-coding RNA targets and cell to cell communication?
Thank you in advance
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Dear Abhijeet Singh thank you for your answer but actually I had tried to explain why I want to learn. I am researching on cancer drug resistance and this resistance can be due to epigenetics changes in cell. Hence, these topics are relatively close to each other as to me. I have written all them down because I thought maybe there could be specific tools or databases which I do not know about these. Wish you good work!
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What is the maximum speed of user at which GSM link can perform?
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The highest speed of the user during the communication session is determined by the maximum allowed doppler shift variations as the Doppler shift causes fast fading in the channel. This fast fading can be equalized up to some extent and so one has to limit speed of the vehicles to make the distortion affordable and the quality of service acceptable.
Best wishes
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Small cell networks are a promising approach to meet the higher data rate demands of cellular users. How many small cell base stations would be required to provide coverage in the typical urban areas of say 4000x4000?
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Dear Muhammad,
Adding to Albert the distance will be much smaller than the cells in 4G. It may be down to 100 meters and less such that one gets a very high data rate at small power while using Mimo in the base stations.Such that one has Hyper-Dense Small Cell Networks.
For more information please follow the paper:
Best wishes
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In thinking about stem cell interactions with tissues as a possible cause of cancer, the basic idea of DNA damage is relevant on the opposite side of the metabolism. DNA is involved in producing the molecules that interact in the tissue system, and regulating the cells in the tissue, but it is interesting to wonder which side of the metabolism causes cancer. Is it the DNA or the cell interactions?
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Thank you.
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The UAVs used in the military services can stay aloft for almost 45 hours based on the payload. What about the UAV used in cellular communications? For instance, the UAVs used in emergency services (earthquake) for cellular communications.
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Hello Muhammad-Karam,
For emergency relief operations one interesting option (off-the-shelf) which combines the rapid deployment and flexibility of drones with ample hover time and lots of available power for airborne equipment are tethered drones.
Regards,
Guillermo
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I want to know if there is any noise in the estimation of a cell (especially cancer cell) about number and type of neighbor cells. I also want to know what factors are involved in the amount of noise? Does the phenotypic behavior of cells (i.e., being quiscent, prolifertive, apoptotic, and necrotic) influence the amount of noise? 
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Please have a look at the following PDF attachment.
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Hi all,
I want to co-culture cancer cells and transfected Jurkat cells, and want to examine their interaction. I wonder what is the best way to culture them. Should I plate cancer cells a day before and then add Jurkat on top of cancer cells, or I should plate both cells together at the same time when I trypsinize cancer cells? After mixing the cells, how long do I need to spin down the culture to force interaction of the cells?
Thank you for your comments and suggestions!
Best.
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That sounds like a great experiment.
Have you considered using a temperature controlled flow chamber or something similar?
There are probably a lot of different chambers out there now but basically the setup is a closed chamber in which the bottom is a cover-slip onto which adhesion cells have been cultured (the cover slips are treated with poly-D lysine and ECM to allow adhesion). Since the chamber is a flow chamber, solutions can be injected and the excess flows out the exit. As such, suspension cells (like Jurkat cells) can be injected into the chamber. Once the suspension cells are in the chamber, the chamber is sealed (turn the stopcock) and the suspension cells can then interact with the adhesion cells...
Now, because the adhesion cells are cultured onto a glass cover-slip, you can have this chamber on an inverted microscope and you can observe what is happening inside the chamber. Also, because, the chamber is temperature controlled, the cells are kept at physiologic temperature and able to go through their normal processes.
So, you have a way to:
1: force contact between the Jurkat cells and the adhesion cells
2: observe the interaction
3: fluorescently label the different markers you might be interested in...
You could capture live 3D images over time of the cells interacting.
If you think this might work for you, I'd be happy to go through the details with you. Just send me a message.
Good luck!
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I'm working on cellular radiations and I have SRM-3006 to measure field strength. I'm asking for more accurate meter?
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To measure the field strength you can use circular coil whose winding can have an air core or even ferrite core. The emf induced in the coil will e= N dphi/dt,
phi is the magnetic flux= B A , B is the magnetic induction and A is the cross section area of the coil. B=mu Hwith mu is permeability of the core medium and H is the magnetic field. The electric field E= H zw, zw is is the wave impedance which is a Eucharistic of the medium.
Best wishes
Best wishes
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A possible answer in A. Tugui, D. Danciulescu, M.-S. Subtirelu (2019, The Biological as a Double Limit for Artificial Intelligence: Review and Futuristic Debate. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS COMMUNICATIONS & CONTROL, 14(2), 253-271, April 2019 https://doi.org/10.15837/ijccc.2019.2.3536).
Biocomputing—The invisible hand of AI?
"Fascinated by the secrets of medicine, in an informal discussion in 2014, we asked the famous surgeon I. Lascar, a professor at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest, what the secret was to a successful operation. Among the syntheses and content-related explanations, Professor Lascar pointed out that surgery is assisted, besides a number of strictly scientific factors, by a so-called invisible hand that contributes to the success of an operation and which all physicians rely on. In this context, the success of biocomputing research and development as part of the bio computer could be the catalyst for leaping to a level of AI that surprises us in terms of intelligent performance and behavior. Current achievements, such as the design of the biological transducer; the monitoring, programming, and behavioral control of the live cell (via logical operations AND, OR, and NOT); and technological challenges such as the decoding of live cell communication and the future development of a natural language of living cells (N2LC) used in biocomputing could turn biocomputing into the invisible hand of biological systems stretched towards artificial systems, especially AI."
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Ok, I see. I have misunderstood the intention you had.
Normally on researchgate under "questions" people ask a question and state a problem. For instance PhD students get blocked in one aspect of their research and they ask for input, which usually unblocks them, mostly because they have the answer close, but views from third parties help.
There is room for posting one's paper on the personal researcher's page, under research, publications, etc...
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Hi !
I'd like to know if hypoxic cells communicate with the surroundings cells (that are also hypoxic or not hypoxic). I mean I assume they release signals that could lead to angiogenesis or other mechanisms but I'd like to know if there is a cooperative effect with the other cells of the region to sayto them : "let's all reduce our metabolism so that we all burn off less oxygen and nutrients, so that we will live longer".
And would you know if that behavior changes for tumor cells ?
And if you know articles about that topic, could you please give me the reference ?
Or even if they don't emit signals, do cells release molecules that can have an effect on the sourrounding cells metabolism ?
Thank you
Joseph
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actually we want to justify mechanism how graphene nano vehicle interacts with cell wall of bacteria
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Good answer
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Is there any computational method or data base with the help of which one could predict if two interacting cell surface proteins are located on separate cells or are located on the same cell surface?
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i think, you maybe can use classification or clustering method to distigwish seprated cell.
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I have a idea to reduce call drops in busy state. To implement my idea in real time process what i need t do. I attached current using call transition state.
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? Same link, why repeat? 🤔
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1) How to Reduce the mobile radiation without affecting the effective mobile communication ??
2) How to Reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR) of bio-tissue of electromagnetic radiation found in cellular communication ??
** I want to start in this field but I do not know how to start and I want help. I want to participate with researchers in this field .
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The link given by Dr Arvind Singh is extremely relevant
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1) How can I Reduce the mobile radiation without affecting the effective mobile communication ? .
2)How can I Reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR) of bio-tissue of electromagnetic radiation found in cellular communication ?
**I want to start in this field but I do not know how to start and I want help
**I want to participate with researchers in this field
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Dear Omniea,
welcome,
May be the major effort must be directed to reduce the radio frequency dose incident on the body of a human. This can be accomplished by reducing the power of the source of such radiation. This a matter of the communication system design issues. I do not know whether you are a communication engineer of which is your specialization. There are some methods to reduce the radiated power from the base stations while keeping the achieved data rate constant. The most effective method is using MIMO systems.
The other solution may be to decrease the area covered by every base sations. this will reduce much the power radiated since the distance is proportional to square root of the power.
May be one of the most serious sources are the mobile terminals themselves as most of them are handheld. especially when one makes a talk.
There are some precautions that one uses to reduce his subjection to the rf radiation as to communicate hand free through blue tooth devices.
The other issue is the biological effects of such radiation on human tissues. There are many studies on such biological effects of the rf radiation on the human body.
Best wishes
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Hello people,
I would like to stain EVs and see whether, once stained, they are captured by cells or they interact with cell surface.
I was looking to the manifacturer's instructions and I wasn't able to find any information on how to stain EVs.
Does anyone have experience on these kind of staining or articles to suggest in order I can have an idea on the workflow?
Thank you all!
Have a nice day.
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Hi Nicolò,
There's a nature protocol showing you how to stain EVs with PKH dyes.
Hope this helps!
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We are supplementing RPMI meida with human plasma instead of serum for culture of human breast cancer cells.
When PRMI is supplemented with 10% human plasma, the media looks fine, however once cells are added into this media a gel forms.
This seems to be a reproducible phenomenon with plasma from different donors.
Do you think its concentration dependent? or are the coagulation factors somehow clumping our cells?
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Salma,
In my opinion, Yes. The coagulation factors in the plasma may act as mediators that stimulate the breast cancer cells or macrophages or other cancer cells in culture together with RPMI media and may promote growth and invasion by expression of various cytokines. These cytokines may also cause expression of tissue factor and other thromboplastic substances that may tend to form a gel.
Iqbal
This suggests that coagulation factors act as novel mediators that stimulate macrophages towards the M2 phenotype and promote GC cell growth and invasion. This newly found relationship between coagulation factors and macrophages could help to understand the role of the coagulation cascade and inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment, and facilitate further development of new therapeutic strategies for GC that target coagulation factors and macrophages. Gastric cancer cells can activate TAM to promote HUVEC secretion of coagulation factors and this interaction mediates migration and invasion of GC. However, the role of the specific coagulation factors and their mechanism of action require elucidation in further studies.
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What is the simplest, quickest, and/or cheapest way of finding out whether a molecule is involved in a novel quorum sensing / cell-cell signaling / signal transduction pathway?
Most literature explains assays that build on systems that have already been established, involving AHLs, AI-2, DKPs, DSFs, HAQs, etc., but our suspected signal molecule is not similar to those. It might be involved in cessation of cell growth, and we sort of have growth curves at different concentrations of the compound.
Outside of forward and reverse genetics, which would be especially difficult for our organism, an Archaeal methanogen, I’ve seen the most plausible options in this paper:
Affinity chromatography and photo-affinity labeling don’t seem simple or quick or cheap, though.
I’d appreciate any suggestions.
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Dear Elisa,
It is always difficult to go from growth experiments to the identification of an active compound, especially if your model organism is hard and slow to grow, you lack a fast and simple assay for the activity, and if you are not based in a biochemical lab. However, there are some simple experiments that you can do to narrow down the nature of your active compound.
I would suggest that you try some simple growth addition experiments to demonstrate that the effect is real, and that cells are responding to this compound in a dosage-dependent manner. The easiest experiment is to add some filter-sterilised (FS) culture supernatant from cultures in which you see cell death or growth-inhibition to a fresh culture - you would expect to be able to inhibit the growth of this or see cell death occurring earlier than if you did not add FS culture supernatant.
If this works, then there are some simple tests you can do : test FS culture supernatants from cultures grown in different media, grown for different lengths of time, and grown to different cell densities. Try fractionating your FS culture supernatant using dialysis membrane or filters (with different pore sizes) to see if you can put a size limit on the active compound; try heat inactivating the compound, and precipitating or extracting it with alcohol, phenol, ammonium sulphate, etc.
The aim of all of this is to produce a semi-purified concentrated extract that you could then consider fractionating by HPLC and then identifying the compound by mass spectroscopy (if you had access tho this type of analytical equipment). Being able to demonstrate that you have a semi-purified extract plus a simple phenotype you can assay activity with would be a good end-point for a project where you could not do any further biochemical analyses.
Regards, Andrew.
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I‘m investigating the epithiel cell interaction with bacteria. So I co-cultured the gram + ,gram - with epithiel cell. The bacteria were stained with SYTO9 or hexidium iodide separately. The staining time were 15 minutes and wash with PBS for 3 times to remove remaining dye. After co-culture, I utilized 4% PFA for fixation.The final step was mounting. However, can’t observe the fluorescent light of of bacteria under confocal microscope and phase contrast microscope. While I can see the bacter is under bright light field. And the stained bacteria also can be found and emit fluorescents.
I‘m wondering is there any step I made wrong?
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Hi. There are a couple different problems. First, the nucleic acid stains, by binding to the nucleic acids, will affect the nucleic acid functionality. Thus it is not a good choice to use them for tracking purposed due to viability issues. Also, nucleic acid dyes do not bind covalently to the nucleic acids, and thus will have an off-rate leading to loss over time.
Instead, I recommend you use CFDA SE or the CellTracker dyes, which bind covalently to proteins (and thus are retained long term). in the bacteria and haven't been shown to be disruptive to cell function. Example paper for CFDA SE usage: Pubmed ID 11010903. Example paper for use of CellTracker Orange CMTMR: 10802143.
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Can anyone help me this question?
Normally, in cell culture, we add FBS in RPMI media. However, in case that we add our materials containing electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions into the cell solution. There is possibility that proteins in medium will be absorbed. How can we know that the ONLY nanoparticles were taken up or as a clusters (nanomaterials + proteins absorbed)
Thank you very much
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Hello Thanh,
I suggest to focus on method(s) to detect/identify the NP on the sample, which I think is the main objective. if NP were adsorbed successfully then there are various assays for total protein such as BCA, lowrey, UV.
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I want to calculate cross signal overlap between two signal located at +f and ant -f. image of one signal distort the other signal. so how to calculate this distortion.
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Is the signal is power or amplitudes?Is x1 symmetrical around the frequency -f and X2 symmetrical around f?You need only to show this symmetry to extend the plot to left of -f and to the right of = +f. Then you can make use full of this symmetry to find out the distortion.
You have also to define the term distortion? What is the overlap interval?
Then the signal will be distorted only in the overlap distortion interval,
so the distorted signal can be expressed by for example
X1 distorted= X1(f) + X2i(f) where X2i(f) is the image of X2 in the overlap frequency interval.
Best wishes
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I have suspension cells. I incubate cells with my fluorescence tagged nanoparticles, and then I will run the flow. The problem is that it seems impossible to separate nanoparticles that haven't been taken up into the cells with the suspension cells. Also, some of my nanoparticles can bind to the cell surface receptors, and some of them will be taken up by the cells. How can I only get the information of the fluorescence tagged nanoparticles interacted with the cells instead of the free fluorescence tagged nanoparticles. Thank you!
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If you incubate the nanoparticles with your cells at 4 degrees you will get minimal internalization (as this mainly an energy dependent mechanism). Also make the steps Julie Joseph recommended, centrifugation (300 RCF, 5 min) and wash with PBS/BSA 1% at 4 degrees. The gating/threshold should eliminate free nanoparticles. Analysis of the binding at 4 degrees vs. the binding + internalization at 37 degrees will give you an estimate of the internalized portion. Depending on your fluorophore, you will need to be careful of pH causing a quenching or shift in the fluorescence of the nanoparticle, this can be beneficial as it helps to identify that the nanoparticle has entered an endosome/lysosome.
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hello everybody,I have a question about FACs assay.
I am working on cell-cell interaction, I have some modifies cells which can interact together in presence of co factor, but the problem is that the co factor itself make the peak kinda shifted!?
foe example I have a two cell population and stained them with different dye(DiO and DiI) on FACs results we should see three population the green one the red one and the mix population (yellow) but after the co factor every peak shifted ( for a blank or control sample), then I can not say my cells interacted or not?
I will be thankful if anybody has or had experience before share with me.
thank you.
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Hi Samaneh. The shift in fluorescence can be attributed to changes in background fluorescence but these shifts are not that dramatic. If two cells are interacting, despite shift in autofluorescence after addition of cofactor (if that is a nonfluorescent molecule by nature), you will see double positive cells on the top right corner of dot plot. Did you see double positive cells after cofactor? And secondly, to avoid the issue, you can take unstained cells with cofactor as control rather than unstained cells. It will be a better blank/control for your flow cytometric data.
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how to predict homophilic and heterophilic interactions for cell adhesion molecule. Is there a software that predict homophilic or heterophilic interaction from protein sequence ?
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Bioedit or Dnamana may can.
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Hello,
there is a lot of data, opinions and the like available about Biophotons. Many papers reveal, that organic matter may emit photons and it is argued that cells communicate by this.
If this is so, than there should be evidence that cells also ABSORB biophotons which other cells emitted.
How has this been proved?
Lothar
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Dear Lothar,
I send you a link (google Scholar) :
and
and
I tried to find newer articles investigating this further.... (see above in your answer) ( citation/Lothar dixit)
2009 is better than eighties
JRG
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I am trying to establish the interaction between two proteins using immunoprecipitation. I always use an asynchronous population to transfect my protein of interest. I want to clarify if the interaction is cell cycle phase specific.
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We frequently do a double-thymidine synchronization and transfect 4 hours after releasing from the first thymidine treatment, then add thymidine again about 3 hours after transfection. This works well in HeLa cells.
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How does a CoMP scheduler work? Also what are the differences with conventional schedulers and its advantages?
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CoMP scheduling can be divided into two types - Centralized and Distributed based on the method of coordinating the eNBs. Usually the attached eNB acts as a master node in Centralized scheduling and other nodes in the eNB set serves as slave. Master ( or central) node performs the scheduling process. On the other hand, each eNB in the set performs the scheduling process in distributed scheduling approach according to the CSI feedback from their cooperating eNBs. Conventional schedulers do not coordinate with other eNBs.
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My question regards the real necessity to have subframe (3GPP Rel. 12) or slot (3GPP Rel. 13) aligned transmissions in the unlicensed band.
According to TR 36.889: "Channel reservation refers to the transmission of signals, by an LAA node, after gaining channel access via a successful LBT operation, so that other nodes that receive the transmitted signal with energy above a certain threshold sense the channel to be occupied." This signal is transmitted until the next subframe or slot boundary is reached so that transmissions are aligned.
The channel reservation signal defined by the 3GPP standard adds an overhead to LTE-LAA transmissions that impact on its performance. If there were no necessity for any kind of time alignment to the PCell the SCell performance could be increased.
Therefore, my question is, what would be the possible implications to all LTE layers if the transmissions were not aligned at all? 
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I am still trying to understand if the time alignment to PCell's time frame structure is really necessary. It seems there could be non-time aligned transmissions by the SCell as long as it transmits the necessary signals (RS, PSS, SSS, BCH, etc.).
Does anyone know if there is some kind of limitation to non-aligned transmissions?
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Hi Everybody,
Wish somebody help me to understand the following situation: Consider the MD simulation of two interacting molecule (first one on the left and the second one on the right) in a unit cell: The second molecule is interacting with the right side of the first one. Then, the second molecule start to get far from the first one and to get out of the unit cell, lets say the right-hand face of unit cell. Under the PBCs it has to enter from the the left-hand face and it interacts with the first molecule from the left side of the first molecule, while before getting out the cell it was interacting with the right side of the first molecule. I wonder if such simulation is correct...? I mean before getting out of cell the second one was interacting with the first one from its left side and if it interfaces the cell wall, it interact with the first molecule from its right side. There is a jump and I don't know how to deal with that during the simulation..  
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It depends on the range of the interaction and the size of the system. In case of long range electrostatic interactions, a particle will strongly interact with more particles within the unit cell and in the neighboring cells and it would be very expensive to compute these interaction directly. Thats why ewald sum methods are used. 
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In-order for my system to calculate the outage probability, I have to get the number/probability of those SNRs that are below the SNRthreshold. So I am asking if there is a formula to calculate the SNRthreshold or I just have to assume a value?
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Dear Khaled,
This question is interesting! 
Adding to the colleagues above, there are formulas to estimate the outage probability for for wireless communication channels including the cellular communications.
It is so that the mobile Rayleigh or Rician radio channel is characterized by rapidly changing channel characteristics. As typically a certain minimum  or threshold signal level is needed for acceptable communication performance, the received signal will experience periods of sufficient signal strength for "non-fade intervals"and insufficient signal strength for "fades". During fades lower than the threshold the user experiences a signal outage.
Assuming a base station is radiating an average  Paverage wireless power at a distance r at the a receiver site with a power sensitivity of Ps. the power ps is the minimum receive power required to detect the revived signal without error. This power  is limited by the noise and interference at the receiver site. So, if Pavearge is greater or equal to Ps the received signal will be received with the acceptable level of error.
Unfortunately, the received power at the receiver is subjected to statistical variations because of multipath effect. These leads to the decrease of the received signal power below the threshold level causing outage of the reception.
The outage potability depends on on the time the received signal lasts below the threshold for specific total reception time.
One method to decrease the outage probability is to increase the fading margin when planning the link budget.
There are some fading models according to the wireless channel propagation such as Rayleigh, Rice Nakagami and others. These models give the probability distribution function of the fading signal amplitudes  and therefore one can calculate the outage probability  if the signal threshold is known. As pointed before, the threshold is calculated from the link budget and radio planning.
It is so that formally:
The outage probability Pout= Integral p(x) dx for x greater than xthreshold to infinity, where x is the received signal amlitude, p(x) is the probability distribution function of the signal amplitudes due to fading.
Best wishes
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I am working to reduce the inter-cell interference in the cell edge users. So i need to include an efficient approach for co-variance matrix estimation in IRC receiver. Most of the existing works seem to be working on assumptions at some point.
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You can take the received signal from a transmission block and form a sample covariance matrix. That one should converge to the covariance matrix that you are looking for as the number of samples in a transmission block goes to infinity.
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Can any body please suggest some latest papers on Multi User Uplink in wifi.
Thanks.
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Which one is more promising, network-assisted D2D or without network D2D communication? It's generally said that in D2D communication the two devices communicate directly using highly directional antennas keeping the out-of-band emission very low. Finally, is it related to cooperative diversity in any way?
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 Dr. Mahmoud Would you please help me to fin a matlab code for D2D IEEE papers?
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Taking into consideration :
-properties of doubly terminated filters, to  help minimise factors such as group delay.
-derivation of two port parameters as well as the input impedance to aid in synthesizing of  the transfer function and analysis of  the filter response.
-the realization of a power transfer function of an elliptic filter given filter specifications.
And lastly with the use of a relevant frequency transformation, a new power transfer function is to be  attained that is suitable for waveguide transmissions and has a pair of transmission zeros at infinity and reflection zeros at the origin.
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N/A
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Hai,
In some articles (e.g: Spotfi Localization), I found that they extracted the time of arrival using MUSIC algorithm. What is the process.
Say I got a 1 D vectors samples received in 5 arrays at 2.437 MHz with half-wavelength spacing. How can I find the ToA.
1 D Vector = 42.03 + 131.44i,  -17.13 - 37.40i, 71.78 + 119.89i, -23.83 - 31.39i, 97.39 + 102.58i
Thanks
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To apply MUSIC, you need a matrix of observations. Best is a sequence of observations (temporal snapshots) from your 5 element array. The more the better.
If you only have one observation (single snapshot), the only thing you can do is spatial smoothing, which will convert your 5x1 vector into a 3x3 (Hankel) matrix. On this one you can apply MUSIC.
In your case, the 3x3 matrix has singular values 300, 120, and 0.7. This means you either have severe multipath (like, 2 dominating paths) or a very bad SNR or some other problem with the data.
Root MUSIC [*] says your dominant spatial frequency is around -3.03 rad=3.25 rad which for 2.437 MHz converts to a delay of 3.25/2/pi/2.437 MHz = 0.2125µs. Does that make any sense to you? Second one would chip in at 0.0075µs.
[*] Using Matlabs rootmusic command.
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A signal is transmitted by the transmitter and multiple rays arrive at the receiver as a result of reflections (from the flat obstacles), diffraction (from the edges of obstacles) and scattering.
How do I find the number of clusters in this condition?
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The following document may help you:
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I have modeled proportional fair (PF), round robin (RR) and best CQI (BCQI) scheduler. I have calculated the fairness of the schedulers using the users throughput. Now, I want to compute the latency of the schedulers.
How can I calculate the latency? 
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hi
It's a difficult question, where are you Implement the algorithms. for example if you implement the algorithms in the C/C++ you must use time.h and sample header files to compute latency time.
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Small cells are the only means of communication in areas where terrestrial media cannot be engineered however, different means of backhaul communication can be made available aggt a communication node which becomes the hub for the EPC. Ahead of the hub small cells are created with mutually exclusive zones in such a manner that they allow intercell communication of the UE and with negligible interference from neighbouring cells
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Dear Sanjeev,
The frequency allocation of femto cells in a domain of Macrocell and adjacent neighboring femto cells can be accomplished according to cooperative self organization among the femto cells.  where all he resources are common to all cells.
Any femtocell senses the empty radio blocks, after which it divides the empty resource blocks with its neighboring femto cells by cooperation with them.  Cooperation needs signals transmitted to the cooperation center of the femtocells.
Best wishes
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Is there any mathematical demonstration for advantage of the chaotic spreading sequence compared with the gold or other spreading sequences?
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 Dear Majid,
Hamza gave a satisfactory answer to your question. However i would like to make clear that the main features of the spreading code sequences are their auto correlation and cross correlation in addition to ease of generation. The ideal spreading sequences must have zero cross correlation and a maximum auto correlation. In the literature, you can find in the literature performance comparison within the scope of the multiple access techniques in wireless communication systems such as in code division multiple access where the signals are distinguished by their spreading code.
In the given link you can find numerical comparisons between specific chaotic sequences and the conventional spreading sequences which show the better performance of the chaotic ones: http://www.ijcee.org/papers/156.pdf
wish you success
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What is the meaning of multi-resolution beamforming codebook in hybrid precoding and how can I design it in mmWave?
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If you consider the hybrid precoding in mmWave, the precoding includes digital and analog precoding. I am not sure which kind of precoding that you are talking about. 
Actually, beamforming codebook is the set of beams, and each beam is considered as one direction of the spatial range. In conventional antenna structure, the codebook is regarded as the digital precoding, and analog beams are always fixed to cover the cell. So usually, we talk the resolution as "high resolution" or "low resolution" with the different antenna set.
Here,if you consider the multi-resolution, I think it is the joint design of digital and analog beams. Both of them could make the coopearation optimization, and make 
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For example, between neurones there are electrical signals, but these electrical signals there are in all type of cells, like the smooth muscle cells. In tissue engineering, the scaffold is use to make a support for the celular proliferation, normally this material is insulating. But, what would happen if the scaffold is make with a conductive material? the cellular comunication will be better? (without electrical stimulation in vitro, that's another topic).
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Hi dear Gopinathan, thanks for your answer. Im going to download your paper.
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I am a PhD student in computer science . The object of my thesis is "solving optimization problems in cellular networks". It consists of resolving optimization problems that exist in radio mobile networks using bio-inspired algorithm called "metheuristics". Any comments regarding this?
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What way do the cells pack in the space sheet? How many cells communicate with others?
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Dear experts, I am a computer scientist and I know that there is some schemes to perform location-updates/page of mobile users within a cellular network. I would like to know if these schemes are standard (i.e. in all generations) or are specific to each generation ?
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Dear Moiz,
sorry, i am not an expert in this field,with my little knowledge i can  say the schemes are valid for that particular generation and of course  there will be backward compatibility with the new generation with a truncation error in the data.
with regards
vasanth 
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What are the possible ways of basolateral-to-apical signal transitions for polarized epithelial cells in culture?
I suppose, cytoskeleton is one of the sensing mechanisms, with basolateral anchoring influencing cell shape and behaviour at the apical side.
However, I am now looking for the mechanism regulating protein phosphorylation, which is probably different from the cytoskeleton arrangement.
Particularly, in my experiment changing basolateral conditions result in variations of apical protein activity, which is most likely regulated by phosphorylation. What are the possible basolateral signals and/or sensors, influencing protein kinase activity towards apical proteins and mechanisms underlying these effects? How is protein kinase targeted to the apical cell side?
Many thanks
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See also the following and please up-vote my answers if you find them to be useful:
Emergence of an Apical Epithelial Cell Surface In Vivo