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Catalyst - Science topic

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Hi everyone, I would like to understand if there is a way to form heptyl acetate and heptyl heptanoate without the use of a reflux system (using only traditional glassware), and using a sulfuric acid catalyst. so far using the volume of 1.54ml heptanol, 7.44ml of heptanoic acid, and 3ml of acetic acid is not working. The heptanol smell is very much present.
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I wish to know in detail about the Carbon balance for Perhydro Dibenzyltoluene dehydrogenation using Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. ? The inlet to the reactor is Perhydro Dibenzyltoluene (H18 DBT) and outlet products from the reactor might be H0DBT, H6DBT, H12 DBT, H18DBT and Hydrogen gas. How to identify the percentage composition of each.? Does I need to go for chromatography. ? Is there any alternative method to do that. Does anyone have prior experience in dealing with the Perhydro Dibenzyltoluene dehydrogenation and the analysis of its products? Thanks
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Dear Joao G.R. Poco, I agree with abovementioned should work best
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In order to increase it applicability as a catalyst support for heterogeneous photocatalysis [photoelectrocatalysis]
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Investigate the decrease in solubility of Polyoxo tungstate with decreasing pH and catalyst quality. Perhaps you will find a better option.
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I am synthesizing biodiesel from castor oil over polystyrene nanoparticles as catalyst. Two different phases are separated in the separating funnel.but when i try to separate them, the upper layer (biodiesel )comes first mixed with glycerol not the lower layer (glycerol). Please tell the reason behind this. Is this due to FFA content present in the oil
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Respected sir
The image 1 shows two different layers of biodiesel and glycerol.
In image 2, washing of biodiesel is shown. Here, successfully the lower denser layer of water comes first followed by biodiesel. No diffficulty
In image 3, I could not identify is the biodiesel formed or is it the soap formation that took place. and there can be seen 3 layers.Please explain.
Thanks
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I am confused between the meaning of loaded and supported catalysts. Are these two terms same or different?
Please clarify my doubt.
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I have used 0.04 g of catalyst in the reaction, which is equal to 0.02 mol%. How can I calculate TON and TOF for this heterogeneous catalyst
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thanks alot
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Does anyone know where to buy Hispec Pt/C catalyst?
I have asked fuel cell store, alfa asear and thermo scientific. The product was no loner available. So can anyone please tell me where can we buy Hispec Pt/C catalyst?
Thanks for your help
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Hi Li Li,
You may make an inquiry at Alfa Chemistry, they offer kinds of good-quality catalysts.
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I am using a catalyst for HER in acidic conditions (0.5M H2SO4, Ag/AgCl, and Graphite). After 20-30 minutes of reaction at a constant potential, the current starts to decrease and half of the activity will be lost in 1 hour. but when I replaced the electrolyte its current and activity regained the original. Is it normal, which means the activity loss is due to electrolytes? In the case of CV, it is much more stable.
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Thanks
Ram Murthy
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In terms of limitation of glassy carbon electrode.
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Yes, you can use. But make sure that after coating with your catalyst, the electrode surface isn't too thick. If so, then gas molecule formed on to the surface may get trapped and therefore, your electrode efficiency may degrade eventually.
Regards.
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‏What are the basic conditions to prepare heterogeneous catalyst by Incipient wetness impregnation method .ex.Pt/zeolite catalyst? thanks in advance
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Hi guys,
I'm dealing with the synthesis of 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)ethene follows the method in the reported paper. In which they used tin powder and concentrated HCl as reagents.
But I only obtained very low yield of desired product, the crude NMR shows the conversion was only 26%. I wonder if there is a procedure to activate Tin powder before using it in reaction?
Please check the attached for the original paper.
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Dear Van-Sieu Luc, I have performed many McMurry Reactions however we used actvated Zn dust to reduce TiCl4 to Ti(0). Prior to reaction, we have purified commercial Zn dust as follows: Zn dust was quickly washed with distilled water containing few drops of conc. HCl (0.5-1% HCl can be used/ I think it's in Vogel's Practical Organic Chemistry book) to remove the oxide coatings in any. Then thoroughly washed with distilled water to make acid free and finally with acetone and dried under vaccum. It can be stored. This Zn dust can be used for reduction of TiCl4 to Ti (0) in anhydrous dimethoxymethane solvent under reflux under inert atmosphere for 4-5 hours. We used 0.025 gm atom of Zinc for reduction of 0.0126 moles of TiCl4 and this insitu generated Ti(0) was used for McMurry coupling of 0.003 mole of beta chloro-alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Yields varied in between 50-92 %. You are welcome to go through the paper "STEREOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS OF 1,6-DICHLORO-1,3,5-HEXATRIENE DERIVATIVES BY MCMURRY COUPLING
OF beta-CHLOROACRYLALDEHYDE DERIVATIVES" Susmita Gupta, Gandhi K. Kar and Jayanta K. Ray, SYNTHETIC COMMUNICATIONS, 30( 13), 2393-2399 (2000).
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Please anyone who have experience about ILS unit please help me
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I wanna know about what ratio and why we should take in CO2 hydrogenation to methanol production
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I'm working on a DFT study of the catalytic properties of transition-metal-ion-doped crystalline cellulose coating in a gas reaction. I modeled it using a complex of a cellobiose and a metal ion with the reactant gas at the pre-reaction complex. But, my supervisor said that my model was too far from the real condition and did not meaningful as the solid coating was modeled in the gas phase. How to make a better one? Do you have any literature about it? Thanks
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That's a pretty major question whenever it comes to modelling catalysts that should be "real" to whatever extent and there are several approaches to it, especially when you have a large molecule like cellulose involved:
1) Brute force DFT incl. transition states of a system with realistic sizes is probably unrealistic due to the expensiveness of the resulting calculation.
2) Embedding procedures would allow for the calculation time to shrink while keeping the result somewhat relevant, so you would still have a giant system but only the catalytically relevant system would be expensive DFT while the rest would be MM or semiempirical.
[3) Periodic boundary conditions can help, but since you wrote about crystalline cellulose, I assume you are already doing that, right?]
4) You can also calculate it for a model system which is not cellulose, but has enough resemblance in the reaction zone so you get a result which could be considered acceptable.
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During transesterification, my solution become solidified when in the presence of basic catalyst (provided with heat and stirring). But on the other hand the solution is normal in acidic catalyst or in the absence of catalyst. What is the reason behind the solution getting solidified?
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Hi Syed,
Your system probably contains water, and the solid is the potassium salt of the acid.
If you add an acid to your solution, assuming it is anhydrous, transesterification can occur.
If your system contains nothing more than your ester, MeOH, and water, the water has no noticeable effect. If the ester contains acids, hydrolysis and re-esterification may occur, as you will see later.
But if your system is not anhydrous and you add acid, the transesterification and hydrolysis can be parallel processes. If the protonated form of the acid is soluble in MeOH, then, at best, the acid will be re-esterified by the MeOH, even if there is some (minimal) water. The rate of this cannot be estimated. In this case, the transesterification is virtual because hydrolysis and consecutive esterification occur.
As for the separatory funnel effect, KOH is a very strong base. When the water touches your solution, hydrolysis starts. Usually, the esters can be extracted (removing the residual acid) with saturated NaHCO3. Somebodies can recommend Na2CO3, but in practice (real life), Na2CO3 solution starts to hydrolyze esters, and if you are not working very fast, a significant amount of ester is lost. So, NaHCO3 is a more failsafe solution.
If you want to remove the base under anhydrous conditions, you can use a strong ion-exchanger (H+). BUT! Wash the activated ion-exchanger to neutral with water and then dehydrate it with MeOH. All ion-exchangers contain impurities and disintegration products, so the first thing is their removal. The ion-exchanger organic impurities are UV active. Water content is a little more complicated, though 5-6 washes with MeOH is enough. Fortunately, the strong H+ ion-exchangers are more stable at moderately high temperatures than the anion-exchanger.
Alternatively, you may add CO2 (dry ice powder) to your KOH reaction mixture because K2CO3 and KHCO3 are insoluble in MeOH, and cooling reduces the reaction rates.
In the end, I would prefer NaOMe. It is soluble in MeOH, and if you see precipitation again, your solution will surely contain water.
Good luck!
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As I know, in dry impregnation method, predetermined amount of solution containing salts is absorbed by support powder (for example g-alumina). It is reported that the solution volume should be equal to the support pore volume. But, I am not sure how we could determine the exact volume of solution. could anyone help me about the issue?
thanks,
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Based on personal experience to calculate the pore volume experimentally in a powder that is granulated through a binder (for example, active alumina adsorbent), first remove the moisture from the sample in the oven at a temperature of about 150 °C for about two hours. Then pour a certain amount of granules in a round bottom container and after adding every 3 drops of water to the container by sampler or buret, shake the container and continue this until the sample does'nt stick to the container.The amount of water consumed is calculated per gram of granules you consume.
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I need to know the complete calculation how much mol percentage of palladium is left after recycling my catalyst do that I can understand how much metal has leached from the prepared catslyst
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ICP AES gives the concent of Pd in the catalyst, which is a absolute content value. (0.658-0.358)/0.658*100% of Pd was leaching.
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I am looking for useful proposals for doctoral research in the field of internal combustion engines (thermal engineering).
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Hello dear Hiba Arous,
Internal combustion engines are heat engines whose heat transfer plays a very important role in their performance and efficiency. In an internal combustion engine, the cooling system is responsible for dissipating excess engine heat. The cooling system of an internal combustion engine consists of many components, one of which is the cooling passage of the cylinder block and the cylinder head. Therefore, you can focus on the effects of the new design of the cooling inlet and outlet position on the engine body temperature distribution and pump power.
Although this is not related to my field of expertise, I recommend it based on my experience working with internal combustion engines.
Good luck!
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Hi everyone,
I am doing ORR reaction in KOH, but mostly time catalyst ink was peel off from the surface of GC electrode, while ink was prepared in nafion solution, water and ethanol. Kindly give suggestion ?
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Dear Ashish, Kindly clean the RRDE shaft with cleaner, sometimes it happens when shaft is not clean.
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I am eager to know whether the composition of heterogenous catalysts have any effect on the yield of biodiesel obtained through transesterification reaction? Is there any need to optimize and subsequently design customized catalyst giving higher yield?
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Raihan Arfin came across this link and I felt it might be the perfect one to go ahead with please go thru and have a look it clearly shows about a review of heterogeneous calcium oxide based catalyst from waste for biodiesel synthesis its a good technical paper and I personally liked it
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I have trouble with foam formation during preparing catalyst slurry in milling step in an industrial scale milling apparatus. do you know how I can solve this problem?
Thanks,
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Dear Alireza Hadi,
I don't know which surfactants are used in TWC catalysts, but only these can cause foaming. May be that acetic acid increase the foaming caused by these surfactants, but acetic acid alone cannot cause foaming.
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Dear All,
I have a question to my dear polymer experts...
Is there any internal donors use in Avant Z501 and Z509 catalyst (for pipe grade and film grade)., (as in Avant Zn for PP, they use phthalate, diether, succinate etc as internal donors) I tried to find out, but I could not
Can you guys please help me? If uses, what are the ineternal donors
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Dear Jousheed
I am a researcher in the field of ZN catalysts
Z-501 catalyst is a build-up and high active catalyst
And I'm looking for a way to make the Z-509 catalyst
If you want we can share our information
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Heterogeneous catalysts (CaO, MgO, ZnO) have been shown to be less effective in low methanol and oil mole ratios. So, what is the best mole ratio for a heterogeneous catalyst in transesterification?
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For CaO catalyst the best methanol/oil ratio is 12 (molar ratio).
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I am using Pt /Co catalyst for HER reaction in acidic medium.
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Hope Graphite rod...
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The aim of this dissertation is to advance research on green hydrogen production by synthesis, characterization, and modeling of promising earth-abundant semiconductor CuFeO2 and MoN catalyst.
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I am looking for a postdoc position in the same area. Please, let me take the position post.
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Hello, everyone. I need to find the electrostatic potential for my catalyst, but I didn't find the facet in TEM analysis. Is there any other way to determine the facet of a catalyst other than TEM? Thanks
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Dear Zhaoxi Sun, Many people used the catalysts with specific facets to calculate the electrostatic potential in most of the publications. My question is that if I didn't find the facet via HRTEM, can I use the facet according to XRD data? Reference: "Noble-metal-free Ni2P modified step-scheme SnNb2O6-CdS-diethylenetriamine for photocatalytic hydrogen production under broadband light irradiation"
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Hello,
I'm looking for any additive to reduce the decomposition point of a dye. Any suggestions?
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I understand you want to increase thermal stability. I am an analytical chemist. It's not about my field. However, I can say this. No matter how many stages of degradation occur, each stage gives you a chance to intervene. The solvent affects the stability. The chromophores, double bonds, aromatic groups carried by the dye reduce the wavelength, and substitute groups such as tert-butyl sec-butly, isopropyl and methyl increase the thermal stability. Removing water from the environment can be beneficial when working with anhydrous dyes.
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I have been reading a lot of papers on either side of the spectrum but have been finding it difficult how to understand which is which.
Can someone post a review or book or any piece of the written document as to how we can differentiate the two of them concerning photocatalytic reactions?
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The type-II heterojunction is the conventional mechanism which describes that, upon irradiation electrons of both the semiconductors (in the photocatalyst) get excited to the CB leaving holes in the VB. Then the lifetimes of these photogenerated electrons and holes are extended because of the shifting of electrons in the CB of the semiconductor with a more negative CB band edge to the CB of the semiconductor with less negative CB band edge and similarly holes will shift towards less positive VB. So, this prevents the recombination of electrons and holes.
In the Z-scheme mechanism, there are donor and acceptor terms involved.
Basically, in this mechanism, photogenerated electrons in the CB of the semiconductor with less CB band edge recombine with the holes in the VB of the semiconductor with less positive VB band edge. Thus, unwanted electrons and holes recombine and this enhances the lifetime of strong photogenerated electrons (in the CB of semiconductor with more negative VB band edge) and holes (in the VB of semiconductor with more positive VB band edge) which will subsequently take part in the photocatalysis.
This is the basic difference.
Yu et al. have explained these mechanisms in detail in their paper. (10.1016/j.chempr.2020.06.010)
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Does anyone know how we could reduce the nitric acid content in the catalyst slurry (because of NOx release during drying step) without viscosity increment. Does the acid replacement work? If so, what kind of acids do you suggest?
Thanks,
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Without the exact composition of the slurry, the carrier used and the treatment conditions nobody can give You the information You are asking for.
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I need help to be able to model a GTL Fischer Tropsch Reactor in Aspen Plus using a cobalt catalyst, using a Langmuir-HinshelWood form for the rate equation.
I am very confused on how to start to model the ASF distribution in Aspen Plus . I saw a video on which someone was individually inputting each of the possible reactions but that doesn't seem right. Is there an easier way to model this?
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Biodiesel production heterogeneous catalyst
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CaO is used for transesterification. TiO2 is a well-known photocatalyst, maybe their combination can be useful.
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Hi, everyone! I have a question about Aspen HYSYS / Unisim Design: What's rate units means? I work with heterogeneous catalytic reactions in a plug flow reactor (PFR), and most of these reactions are specified with kg,catalyst instead of volume. And these simulation softwares have cubic meter (m³) in rate units.
My question is: This cubic meter it's about what? Cubic meter of the reactor? Cubic meter of the catalyst? I need to know that information for units conversion (kg,catalyst to volume).
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André Oliveira , you can also check out their materials in this link (https://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~ceng403/hysys/pfex.htm). I believe it would be of help to you. Regards
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Hello all,
Can anyone help me with how one calculates the p-band center and what is the significance of it. For photocatalysis applications it is observed that p-band theory is helpful in explaining the behavior of catalyst.
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I am doing experiments about oxidation process from limonene to limonene glycol, but the product are some limonene oxide (which I don’t want). These are the chemicals I have:
-Catalyst: CuY (zeolite Y supported by Copper); Cu/Fe spinel mixture.
- Solvent: dimethyl formanmit.
- TBHP and H2O2
- Method: Use reflux condense.
Can you give me some condition to improve the process (other chemicals, temperature, time…)?
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I think if you use H2O2 35 % the water is sufficient to form diol, to increase the formation of diol you can realize the reaction in presence of acid, for example a solid acid like NAFION, more easy to remove after the reaction
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I oxidize limonene in a 3-neck round flask, the main neck is connected to the condenser, I heat the limonene, catalyst (CuY or CuO/Y) at 60-70 Celsius Degree for 4, 6, 8, 10 hours. All of the samples (gas chromatography method) show high conversion rate but really low selectivity. Can anyone tell me how to increase it?
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I will try it and see the result. Thank you, Mr. Yurii V Geletii
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I would like to buy commercial catalysts to use in a Fischer Tropsch reaction but haven't had any good luck. Does anyone know of commercial suppliers of catalysts for this reaction?
Thanks
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Dear Aroldo José Romero-Anaya many thanks for posting this interesting technical question on RG. I'm not a proven specialist in heterogeneous catalysis, and I'm not going to name yet another commercial supplier. According to the rather instructive Wikipedia entry at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer–Tropsch_process the Fischer-Tropsch reaction is best catalyzed by molybdenum carbide as well as by cobalt-, iron- and ruthenium-based catalysts. My suggestion would be to first decide which metal(s) you want to employ (after reading one or two reslevant review articles) and than search for commercial suppliers of the indvidual catalysts.
Good luck with your work!
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I oxidize limonene in a 3-neck round flask, the main neck is connected to the condenser, I heat the limonene, catalyst (CuY or CuO/Y) at 60-70 Celsius Degree for 4, 6, 8, 10 hours. All of the samples (gas chromatography method) show high conversion rate but really low selectivity. Can anyone tell me how to increase it?
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Hi, Tran Khanh,
To increase the selectivity of limonene oxidation, is it possible for you to protect, before, the endocyclic double bond?
Safia
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In biodiesel production through transesterification, various of heterogeneous catalysts could be utilized. However, each heterogeneous catalysts are showed different yield. My question is What are the factors of heterogeneous catalyst that affect their activation during transesterification?
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Hello Viraj,
thank you for posting this very interesting technical question on RG. We work in the field of synthetic inorganic chemistry, so that I would not call myself a proven expert in the field of heterogeneous catalysis and transesterification. However, I can suggest to you two very instructive review articles which will certainly help you in your analysis. Thus please have a look at the following references:
Heterogeneous catalysis for sustainable biodiesel production via esterification and transesterification
Fortunately this paper has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG, so that you can freely download it as pdf file.
The other paper can also be accessed as public full text as it has been published Open Access:
Application of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Microalgal Oil—A Review
(Please see the attached pdf file)
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work!
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I am trying to optimise the kinetics of light weight hydrides using different catalysts.
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Hello Pawan,
thank you for sharing this very interesting technical qestion with the RG community. Previous studies in this field have shown that the transition metals Ni, Fe, Rh, and Pd have the best possible catalytic activity in this context. For more detailed information please have a look at the following relevant literature reference:
Catalytic Tuning of Sorption Kinetics of Lightweight Hydrides: A Review of the Materials and Mechanism
The full text of the Open Access article is freely available on the internet (please see the attached pdf file).
Good luck with your work!
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Graphitic carbon nitride synthesis
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During the synthesis of g-C3N4, your carbon and nitrogen precursor (urea or melamine) resulted in the condensation, dehydration and polymerization reactions simultaneously. These reactions resulted in huge weight loss in your product. However, the material is lightweight and contains a high specific volume. This could be the main reason for the yield difference in high g-C3N4 catalysts to low g-C3N4 catalysts.
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Trying to know the best catalyst for sulfonamide synthesis
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Hello Melford,
thank you for sharing this interesting chemical question with the RG community. There is a vast body of literature regarding the synthesis of sulfonamides available, and there are different synthetic routes and various catalysts known. Thus the choice of the "best" catalyst depends on the indiciofual synthetic route (e.g. starting with sulfonyl chlorides). In other words, there is no general answer to your question. I suggest that you use RG directly as a valuable source of information. For example, search the "Publications" section for terms like "catalyst for sulfonamide synthesis". This will provide you with many relevant literature references which have been posted by RG members, some of them even as public full texts:
Good luck with your work and best wishes!
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How to introduce a catalyst to stoic, Gibbs and Equil reactors?
Good morning, I am simulating a process in Aspen Plus and I need to introduce catalysts to the Stoic, Gibbs and Equil reactors. I can't find a way to do it. Please, could you help me?
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Can you add the reference you mentioned so we can get into the details and maybe help you a bit more?
Regards,
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I am doing acetilization of cyclohexanone with methanol with molar ratio1:4. The weight of catalyst, zsm-5 is 0.04g. How to calculate the reactant to catalyst ratio?
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Check this Web application https://youtu.be/GTJP15sB1Tw
Its fast, accurate and free.
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Hi everyone I want to test the electrocatalytic activity (Overall potential at 10 mA/cm2 and long-term stability) of my Bifunctional electrodes in a two-electrode system which means that I have to take both anode and cathode of the same materials. I am a bit confused about the setup and how will I assemble my experimental setup (Potentiostat) to measure these parameters? Expert answers will be highly appreciated.
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Hi, Noe Arjona Thank you very much for the information. Sure please I will.
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I am currently working with an experiment producing biodiesel from a heterogeneous catalyst. After the reaction I have to recover the catalyst after the reaction is over. I hope to use the centrifugal method to bind the catalyst to the surface of the centrifugal tube as a Pellet. However, I can not take the bound catalyst superficially.
How i can recovered this heterogeneous catalyst?
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After the last reaction analysis is complete. Dilute it with methanol and wash it, centrifuge again, the catalyst will be better recovered.
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Novel 2D MBenes: 2D transition metal borides are the very promising catalyst for electrochemical ammonia NH3 synthesis
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Dear Ali Behrad Vakylabad thank you for sharing this very interesting chemical question with the RG community. We work in organometallic chemistry, so the I'm not an expert in this field. However, for a first overview I can suggest to you the following relevant literature reference:
Novel 2D MBenes—Synthesis, Structure, and Biotechnological Potential
Fortunately this article has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG, so that you can freely download it as pdf file. Moreover, you can also contact the corresponding author directly via RG at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Agnieszka-Jastrzebska-4.
Good luck with your research!
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I can not seem to find much research about the topic, so if anyone has done some research on the topic I would greatly appreciate advice. Thank you.
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Excuse me,please, but it is more or less basic knowledge.
look for instance
:Heinrich Remy: Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie. Band I und II, Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig, 12. und 13. Aufl. Leipzig 1973
BUT a small correction of my previous text: PH of the metal solution should be lower then 2.
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In transesterification some of heterogeneous catalyst such as BaO, SrO, MgO, and CaO shows different biodiesel yields. In general, BaO and SrO show high activity than MgO and CaO. My question is how these compounds do have different catalytic activity?
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Dear Viraj Miyuranga . See the following useful link: http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?st11020
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We need to characterize a few ceramic composite materials using chemisorption to find out the percentage of active metal surface area.
We are also looking for other methods that would help us find the active metal content reliably. It would be of great help to know if there are other techniques that could help us understand our catalyst better.
Thanks
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As I understand...you need to do BET analysis. Any group working on polymeric sensors will be capable of such studies. In my knowledge, IIT Delhi and DRDE, Gwalior should be capable of this.
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Our research group cannot find suppliers of TiCl4 locally and our access to school laboratory is very limited due to pandemic. We are looking for ways on how to synthesize TiO2-rGO composite for our study using simple equipment only. Would you please help us in this?
For your reference, here is the original method:
SYNTHESIS OF TiO2@rGO COMPOSITES
The TiO2-rGO composite will be synthesized via the typical chemical method. Reduced graphene oxide (0.1 g) and 260 mL of 0.1 M titanium chloride (TiCl4) aqueous solution will be subjected to magnetic stirring for 0.5 hours at 80˚C. The mass ratio of TiO2 to rGO is based on the results of several studies indicating that the optimum concentration for the latter is 2 wt % 13,14. Slowly, 260 mL of 0.4M NaOH will be added under constant stirring for 3 h. The mixture will be washed with deionized water and ethanol five times; the former is for adjusting the pH to 7 while the latter is for better dispersion of the molecules. The formed product will be recovered using filter papers. Finally, it will be dried at 80˚C for 4 h.
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Hi, Magnetic stirrer and RB flask are enough to reach out TiO2-RGO composite (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1004954118308759)
If you want methodology in a detail, kindly let me know.
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I want to prepare a catalyst for biodiesel.
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Hello everyone,
My PhD research includes degradation and stability study of fuel cell Pt/C catalysts for ORR. This is a new area of research, both for me (I'm coming from TEM background) and my lab, which is why I'm learning most experimental procedures and parameters from papers rather than more experienced colleagues.
Unfortunately, it seems to me that there's no agreement in electrochemical community regarding said procedures/parameters and here I would like to specify what causes my confusion:
- regarding CV and LSV procedures, from what I've already read and from my experimental data, it seems that scan speed influences ECSA data (extracted from H2 adsorption region on cyclic voltammograms) and activity data (extracted from linear scan voltammograms). Yet, I see different papers publishing data obtained with different parameters, which for me makes the results virtually impossible to compare. Additionally, some procedures include the so called electrochemical cleaning and stabilisation of the working electrode by performing 40-100 CV scans with higher speeds (100-200 mV/s), yet some papers seem to omit it. With LSV some procedures call for background subtraction of LSV data obtained from the measurement performed in N2 saturated electrolyte but again, not all papers include that step (yet both approached seem to be acceptable for publication).
Regarding accelerated degradation testing, the procedures seem to be a lot more all over the place:
-different scan speeds
100-500 mV/s, and from my experimental data I already see that scan speed influences degradation rate,
-different approaches to experiment
continuous scan vs 'sample and hold' (square wave) scan,
-different potential ranges
lower limit being 0,4 - 0,6 V, higher 0,9 - 1,2 V for operating condition testing, start-stop testing seems to be consistant 1 - 1,5 V,
-different "atmosphere" of electrolyte
O2 saturated, deoxygenated and "as prepared" electrolyte, all of those seem to be leading to publishable results.
So to sum up my stream of consciousness:
I'm not looking for specific experimental parameters (although getting some suggestion on those would be more than great) but rather some insight on the general consensus in electrochemical community regarding said parameters and why discrepancies in them seem to be widely accepted. Also, if someone feels like they have more spare time than they can utilise, I would be more than willing to participate in an internship in a unit focused on degradation/stability study of catalysts.
Thank you and have a great day,
Szymon
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Hi,
Very good points Szymon! To me also it seems sometimes impossible to compare the results in electrocatalysis due to different measurement and calculation procedures.
Talking about degradation tests, I am not sure about ORR, but in water splitting electrocatalysis the reason why different procedures are all accepted may be that these tests are usually performed in much harsher conditions that is required for industrial applications and they all pass the criteria defined for them to be called "stable".
I suggest reading this paper which is in water splitting electrocatalysis but can be a help for you too!
"Anantharaj, S., et al. "Precision and correctness in the evaluation of electrocatalytic water splitting: revisiting activity parameters with a critical assessment." Energy & Environmental Science 11.4 (2018): 744-771."
Good luck!
Arash
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How to calculate TON and TOF for Graphite Oxide catalyst?
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Dear Lenida Kyndiah thank you for posting this important question on RG. It is certainly of broad interest to many other RG members as well. My suggestion is to use RG directly as a valuable source of information. For example, you can check the "Questions" section of RG to find closely related question. In this context it might be helpful reading the answers given to the following questions which have been asked earlier on RG:
How do I calculate TON and TOF?
(15 answers)
and
Hello, How to calculate the TOF(Turnover frequency ) and the amount of the catalyst active sites? Thank you!
(34 answers)
These are just two typical examples. Good luck with your work!
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How to determine the catalyst amounts of organic polymer? (Porous organic polymer, PIM, etc)
I just want to know how to defined their molecular weight except of GPC. (Since it's insoluble to organic solvents.)
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Dear Tai Yong Lee, these references are just simple examples in support of my previous answer. Worth to mention is that the effect of catalyst concentration is well seen in coordination polymerization such as Ziegler-Natta and in step-growth (polycondensation) polymerizations. Have a nice reading. My Regards
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Dears
I am doing some experiments in aldol condensation reaction and I noticed that the activity of the spent catalyst is higher than the fresh one.
Any suggestion regarding this finding will be appreciated
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Dear Noor Aljammal many thanks for posting this very interesting technical question on RG. Please note that we are synthetic inorganic chemists (organolanthanide chemistry), so that I am not a proven expert in either organic synthesis ot heterogeneous catalysis. However, to the best of my knowledge, aldol condensation reactions are often heterogeneously catalyzed by different metal oxides such as MgO or ZrO2. Since you are talking about a spent catalyst, it appears clear that you are using a heterogeneous one. However, unfortunately you did not further specify in more detail the nature of your particular catalyst. As you certainly know, the success of heterogeneous catalysis largely depends on many different factors such as preparation and pre-treatment of the catalyst, particle and pore sizes, surface area, pore size distribution, and of course other reaction conditions such as solvent and temperature. Thus all I can do right now is to suggest to you two potentially useful literature references in which the acitivties of freshly prepared and spend aldol condensation catalysts has been studied in detail. One possible reason for the higher activity of the spent catalyst could be the presence of more OH ions on the surface after the first reaction. Thus please havve a look at the two articles in the attachment.
I hope this helps answering your question. Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Dear colleagues,
I am trying to synthesize the ABO3 perovskite structure by using nitrate precursors via sol-gel method. Previously, everything seemed fine but recently the activity during the redox experiments is near zero even for the same catalyst system that worked fine previously. Just trying to figure out what could go wrong. Any comments or suggestions would be much appreciated.
Thanks in advance.
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It is necessary to carefully analyze the conditions of synthesis and measurements (!!!) and find out what and when has changed. Only you can do this yourself. Therefore, it is very important to carefully record all conditions of experiments.
Examples. One of my colleagues (it was a long time ago) almost went crazy trying to understand why the effect he discovered periodically disappears. As a result of the brainstorming of his colleagues, it turned out that the effect was detectable only from 9 to 11. Everything turned out to be simple - at this time his experimental table was illuminated by the sun's rays, but not at other times and on cloudy days. A similar situation was with the seasonal switching on of heating (the experimental setup was located too close to the heating radiator). But the funniest case was with TG. The results of experiments on two different setups often did not match. Then it turned out that one of them was located not far from the workplace of a very corpus person, who often passed nearby.
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CO-NH bond breaking without catalyst.
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Manish Ramchandani Manish Ramchandani yes, the reaction rate depends on the reactants. However, most of the amides follow this hydrolysis reaction.
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I have Co/Al2O3 catalysts and carbon is deposited on the surface by decomposition of light hydrocarbon on the surface of catalysts, therefore the catalysts are containing cobalt carbides and some deposited carbon on the surface. By increasing the decomposition temperature, the content of carbon on the surface of the catalyst increased and the G and D bands were observed, while for the other samples (with lower gas decomposition temperature) there is not any G and D bands, while the 2D band with lower intensity and broader was observed in these samples. According to our XRD analysis, for the samples prepared at lower decomposition temeprature (No.1, 2, 3, 4) without G and D band and with only weak 2D band at 2670 cm-1, we have some cobalt carbides species, while for those with G, D and 2D bands (No. 5, 6) there was not any peak belong to cobalt carbides in XRD spectrum. I would like to know your opinion about the band at 2670 cm-1 in these Raman spectrums.
Thanks in advance.
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For defect-free graphene or nanotubes, you can have a 2D mode without a D-mode because the D-mode is symmetry-forbidden without defects while the 2D-mode is symmetry-allowed both for defected and undefected material.
However, if a G mode is absent, I would be very careful to claim something is a 2D mode.
In the case of your spectra, it is hard to tell what kind of physics is going on for spectra 1-4. That feature is not really a sharp peak as you would expect from a regular Raman process.
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Scientist-entrepreneur Javier Garcia Martinez recalls combining an academic role at the University of Alicante, Spain, while getting a catalyst start-up called Rive Technology off the ground.
The experience, he says, taught him that a so-called barrier between academia and other sectors is no more than a state of mind. “To me, it feels all part of the same thing. It’s our own mindset that puts different activities in different silos,” he tells Julie Gould. Martinez adds: “I was studying, discovering better catalysts, you know, in my academic lab, also in my company, and at the same time talking to customers, to investors, to raise money, and to put that into a commercial plan.
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I previously taught at 4 different universities while conducting my own clinical research so as to avoid a potential conflict of interest involving these two roles. So I was very careful in this regard.
Now being retired, I am free to be me!!
Rich
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1. How does oxygen concentration/saturation in electrolyte plays an important role in ORR reaction?
2. What will happen if the oxygen concentration/saturation is less in electrolyte?
is the onset potential of ORR activity or current density may fall down? if yes means why?
please attach any related literature...
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Oxygen saturation means the concentration of oxygen in solution at given pressure of O2 in the gas phase. This is called a solubility of oxygen. "how exactly the oxygen concentration can affect the ORR activity?" I would expect an increase of the reaction rate with an increase of oxygen pressure in the gas phase.
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Catalyst turns carbon dioxide into gasoline 1,000 times more efficiently by Andrew Myers , Stanford University
"We can create gasoline, basically," said Cargnello, who is an assistant professor of chemical engineering. "To capture as much carbon as possible, you want the longest chain hydrocarbons. Chains with eight to 12 carbon atoms would be the ideal...................... https://phys-org.cdn.ampproject.org/c/s/phys.org/news/2022-02-catalyst-carbon-dioxide-gasoline-efficiently.amp
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The problem with CO2 is its increase in the atmosphere. In that respect, there will be no increase. There are processes as we all know that use renewable energy sources to produce hydrogen. In the meantime, gasoline will be used in diverse applications. So we should congratulate and encourage this type of study.
👍
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We are using the Nafion binder for the preparation of catalysts inks for electrochemical studies. In which way the Nafion can protect the catalysts layer from the electrode surface? what will be the mechanism taking place there?
… Read more
Answer this question
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Thank you Bezzi Hamza
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How the Sabatier principle can define the facile path of determining the best catalyst for a specific catalytic reaction.
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Could anyone give me an example of a real catalyst developed by help of the Sabatier Principle? I cannot, sorry.
This Principle is only one of many aspects You should have in mind developing catalysts.To predict the activity of heterogeneous catalysts for a given reaction, above all You need a lot of experience for the given catalytic system.
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What is the behavior of furfural in contact with weak acidic catalyst?
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Furfural is a neutral compd. However exposure to whether it may get oxidized o furoic acid slowly.Hence it may act as a weak acid.
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when pH,amount of catalyst and concentration of the dye are considered
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Here some ideas:
In catalysis when you analyze the rate dependence (rate(x,y,z, ...)) an initial point would be to carry an adequate experimental design of the testing experiments. Surface response methodology (using Box-Behnken, central composite, etc. designs) is/are the most utilized way to do it.
Another point is that normally the treatment of light (intensity, as well as more complex issues related to the rate of photon absooprtion) would need to be considered (mostly to provide results with general validity).
Finally, using (and validating) a reaction mechanism would provide you some ideas about pseudo-order(s) of reactions. This is likely the more complex point and some ideas about mechanisms based on light-included methodology (as well as ideas from spectrocopy to support them) can be found in:
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I am working on water splitting applications. I have taken 1 by 1 cm piece of Ni foam and deposited 0.0056 g of my catalyst. Now, in next step, i have to convert my observed current values to current density. therefore, I have to divide by geometric surface area.
my question is that, how I will calculate GSA of 1 by 1 Ni foam where I have deposited 0.0056 g of catalyst.
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Years ago, I have with my colleagues a trial for determination of foam's GSA system and it was complicated. Now, I found the EUROPEAN PATENT [EP 2 764 916 B1] presenting in section [0024] and beyond related sections a simple procedure for GSA determination of Ni foam coating. Hope it helpful.
Best regards
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Good morning.
Does anyone know how oxygen activation occurs on CeO2 catalysts by platinum addition? I have read articles that mention that this occurs, however they do not explain how or why it happens. thanks.
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Dear Ximena Ortiz many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question on RG. I'm actually not a specialist in this field, but I just came across the following potentially useful article which migth help you in your analysis:
In Situ Raman Observation of Oxygen Activation and Reaction at Platinum–Ceria Interfaces during CO Oxidation
Unfortunately this paper has not yet been posted as public full text on RG. However, two of the authors have RG profiles. Thus you can easily contact one of them via RG and request the full text. Normally, authors respond quite rapidly to such full text request. Perhaps they can also help you directly with your question as they are expert in this field of research.
I hope this helpy. Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Different pH of water entering in an Aeration Tank is mixed as CO2 is utilized as a catalyst. The amount of CO2 as catalyst is unknown.
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Please elaborate, how to design an experiment for better yield optimization with minimum experiments. I have four variables, mole ratio, temp, time, catalyst loading, and sometimes instead of a cat. loading I use microwave watt power
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Yes, you can use L9 (34). But you should notice that you should use Pulled Error for response of variable parameter.
I draw your attention to following article:
Good luck!
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Dear Experts, In order to apply carbon dots (CDs) for the removal of analytes, why do we need to encapsulate these nanodots with other materials? Is it possible to use CDs as a lone adsorbent? Thanks in advance for your valuable comments.
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Considering the fluorescence origin, CDs were encapsulated in silica matrices by reacting a silane precursor with surface hydroxy groups that do not contribute to the emission process. It enables CDs in the uniform dispersion in silica to preserve their narrow emission in the solid state by avoiding aggregation.
To enhance the optical properties, stability and to preserve emissions
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Methanol synthesis
Copper-based catalysts (Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts)
Performance of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts (Activity, selectivity and stability)
Price of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts
Low Pressure process of Methanol Synthesis
Methanol synthesis From Natural Gas
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In terms of the methanol synthesis process and catalyst background, I suggest another two older sources. These are
* The Catalyst Handbook 2nd Edition (1989; edited by M V Twigg and copyright M V Twigg) [ISBN 1 874545 35 9] - see Chapter 9 p441 "Methanol Synthesis";
* "Ammonia. Methanol, Hydrogen, Carbon Monoxide - Modern Production Technologies" by Max Appl - published by Nitrogen journal (copyright 1997 CRU Publishing Ltd) [ISBN 1 873387 26 1] - see Chapter 3 "Methanol".
For recent process and catalyst information, I suggest looking at the web sites, literature, conference/journal papers and patents for the following companies.
* Process licensors: Johnson Matthey; Haldor Topsoe; Air Liquide Lurgi; Methanol Casale.
* Catalyst suppliers: Johnson Matthey; Haldor Topsoe; Clariant.
These comprise the major companies involved in each area but there are others.
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Hello I want to know about what is flexible catalyst?
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Dear Sahar Talebipour you aksed "And I have another question about flexible catalyst, what does it mean? Flexible?" Please find an answer to this question in the following link. It is outlined here that certain innovative ceramics can be designed to being flexible, malleable and thin as paper:
Technology | Flexible Ceramics, “Flexiramics” are Thin as Paper
In this context please also have a look at the following relevant research article:
Flexible-structured systems made of ceramic fibers containing Pt-NaY zeolite used as CO oxidation catalysts
Fortunately this article is freely accessible as public full text on RG.
Good luck with your research and please stay safe and healthy!
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I want to use Ru-al2o3-Zeolite catalyst in pellet form to perform the reaction in the flow reactor. Please suggest me ideal pressure to pelletize it and the ideal size of the pellet.
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What is the flow reactor design? If I assume it is a section of cylindrical tube with some means of catalyst grid or other support, then the size of the pellets relative to the flow reactor diameter should be considered. If there are less than ~10 pellet diameters (for cylindrical pellets calculate the equivalent diameter, d(eq)) across the reactor diameter, then there can be wall effects that impact gas flow through the catalyst bed and so the apparent performance of the catalyst. I suggest finding a text that describes this in more detail as I'm working from memory!
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I have been convinced by the concept of direct desulfurization of crudes. The commercial development in this technology will help ridding off the require the of mutilpe reactors with different ranges of Catalytic beds in the modern petroleum refinery.
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Ahh Bugs replacing refinery process again. A 50+ year old dream that will probably come true some day - but probably not in my lifetime.
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Hi all,
I have prepared Pd supported heterogenous catalyst by liquid media assisted reduction method. From the XPS it was observed that the surface is composed of both Pd+2 (as the major species, ~65%) as well as Pd(0). However, in XRD, the Pd+2 peak is not prominent and the intensity is very less compared to the Pd(0) peak intensity, although Pd+2 % is very high. Why it is so?
Thanks in advance...
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In addition to the excellent answers provided by Gerhard Martens and Yuri Mirgorod I would also examine what is measured by XPS and XRD in terns of penetration gap and the type of catalyst (I worked with such catalysts in my Ph.D when dinosaurs ruled the earth with both XRD and XPS - indeed the 7th ESCA/XPS system in the world...). In XPS you're looking at maybe the top surface 10 - 15 atomic layers only which is invariably fully oxidized and thus Pd2+ will show strongly from the shift in eV. You'll only start to 'see' the bulk if you (for example) argon ion etch the system. With XRD (dependent on the sample and element) you'll have a great deal more penetration (perhaps, in theory, up to a micron or more). In this latter case you'll see more of the bulk Pd0 metal. In XRD you can distinguish the lattice spacing of Pd from PdO (as Gerhard Martens states) and not the oxidation states. One other technique that would be extremely valuable to you is TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction). If you have the ability to reduce the system (by hydrogen) in your XPS set up then you'll easily be able to remove the oxide and see the Pd metal reflections only.
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Please suggest a method to determine this practically. Please avoid mentioning the publications having the final results. The guidelines or procedure for measurement is required. Any related discussion or fruitful comments are warmly welcomed.
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It can be calculated from UV data of photocatalyst as well as DRS data of photocatalyst. While using UV data Tauce's equation is used. While in other case kubelka munk equation is ised
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I have done hot filtration test for the catalyst to show leaching and I found no reaction after filtration. So, is it still necessary to perform ICP analysis of the catalyst??
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Dear Loveneesh Kumar thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with the RG community. According to the relevant literature reference cited below, a "hot filtration test alone cannot prove that the reaction occurs heterogeneously":
Synthesis, catalytic activity, and leaching studies of a heterogeneous Pd-catalyst including an immobilized bis(oxazoline) ligand
Fortunately this article has been posted by the authors as public full text on RG, so that you can freely download it as pdf file.
It might also be worth a try to check the answers given to the following closely related questions which have been asked earlier on RG:
How might I measure the leaching of heterogeneous catalyst using simple techniques?
(4 answers)
and
What is the best technique to test the heterogeneity of a reaction in catalysis?
(58 answers)
Good luck with your work and please stay safe and healthy!
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Microsoft excel sheet required.
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In rigid polyol synthesis to neutralize KOH (catalyst) finally we are adding disodium acid pyrophosphate. But it unable to completely neutralize KOH. Why?
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Dear Narayanan Subramanian thanks for sharing this interesting chemical problem with other RG members. I'm not really familiar with rigid polyol synthesis, but I know that disodium pyrophosphate is only slightly acidic. My suggestion would be to add some phosphoric acid in order to neutralize the remaining 10% of KOH. It might be worth a try. Good luck with your work and best wishes!
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in oil refineries which the catalyst as Co&Mo&W on Al2O3 supported
and what perfect mechanize to this reaction(hydrodesulfurization)
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