Science method

Case-Control Studies - Science method

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
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Publications related to Case-Control Studies (10,000)
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Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has made an important contribution to the prevention and control of the epidemic. This review aimed to evaluate the efficacy and explore the mechanisms of TCM for COVID-19. We systematically searched 7 databases from their inception up to July 21, 2021, to...
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Background Homicide is a major cause of death and contributes to health disparities in the United States. This burden overwhelmingly affects people from racial and ethnic minority populations as homicide occurs more often in neighborhoods with high proportions of racial and ethnic minority residents. Research has identified that environmental facto...
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Background There is strong evidence that vascular dysfunction is considered one of the possible causes of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). This work aimed at assessing the arterial function and serum lipids in MS patients and correlating them with clinical and radiological findings. Results This case–cont...
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Background Centenarians are used as a model of healthy ageing and longevity. Diet is a factor known to affect mortality in middle aged adults and elderly. However, it is unknown whether diet has an impact on survival to 100 + years. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the evidence on (i) the association between dietary patterns in...
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Background: The goal of this study was to assess short-term outcomes in single compartment osteoarthritis patients associated with the coronal tibiofemoral subluxation (CTFS) of the knee joint after Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (OUKA), and to establish the potential impact of the degree of CTFS on operative outcomes. Methods: Data p...
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Background PEEP selection in severe COVID-19 patients under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is challenging as no study has assessed the alveolar recruitability in this setting. The aim of the study was to compare lung recruitability and the impact of PEEP on lung aeration in moderate and severe ARDS patients with or without ECMO, using c...
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Objective Constantly high glycemia levels might influence outcomes in the management of patients undergoing surgery for diabetic foot infections (DFI). In our center for DFI, we performed a case–control study using a multivariate Cox regression model. Patients developing a new DFI could participate in the study several times. Results Among 1013 di...
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Background The purpose of this study was to clarify the prognostic value of Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) on the mortality of patients with sepsis. Methods Publications published up to January 2021 were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library. Data from eligible cohort and case–control studies were extracted for the meta-analysis. Multivariat...
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Background In-person mass gathering events (MGE) are returning after a period of restrictions, yet few prospective scientific evaluations of their safety are available. Methods Prospective observational study, including both attendees of the French Intensive Care Society (FICS) annual meeting held in Paris between June the 9th and June the 11th, 2...
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Background The burden of post-coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 symptoms has been increasing and is of great concern in patients with pre-existing chronic medical conditions.This study aimed to delineate the post-COVID-19 neuropsychiatric symptoms among migraine patients compared to the non-migraine control group. Methods Two groups, each of 204 COVI...
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Background This prospective case-control study was conducted from June 2018 to October 2019 in a tertiary referral hospital to investigate the correlation between otitis media with effusion (OME) and serum vitamin D level in children. The study population included 50 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and OME (group A) who underwent adenotons...
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Background The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has produced remarkable effects on the sleep quality and mental status of the general population and more dramatic effects on patients with chronic illness. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), already suffering from disordered sleep, might be more susceptible to the effect of the pandemic...
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A case–control study (80 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus [HBV] infection and 96 controls) was performed to evaluate the association of an IL12A gene variant (rs582537 A/C/G) with HBV infection. Allele G showed a significantly lower frequency in patients compared to controls (31.2 vs . 46.9%; probability [ p ] = 0.009; corrected p [ pc ] = 0...
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Background Defining the relationship between a headache and stroke is essential. The current diagnostic criteria of the ICHD-3 for acute headache attributed to ischemic stroke are based primarily on the opinion of experts rather than on published clinical evidence based on extensive case-control studies in patients with first-ever stroke. Diagnosti...
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Background One reason that asthma remains poorly controlled in children is poor inhaler technique. Guidelines recommend checking inhaler technique at each clinical visit. However, they do not specify how best to train children to mastery of correct inhaler technique. Many children are simply shown how to use inhalers which results in less than 50%...
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Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic disorder characterised by enhanced hepatic fat deposition and inflammation. Efforts to manage NAFLD are limited by the poorly characterised pathological processes and the lack of precise non-invasive markers, thus, proving the need to further study the involved cytokines, which, in...
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Purpose Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the dose–response relationship between maternal vitamin D status and adverse birth outcomes remains unclear. Focusing on prospective observational studies, we aimed to explore the dose–response relationship of vitamin D status...
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Purpose: Prior research suggested the increased likelihood of brain cancer diagnosis following certain psychiatric diagnoses. This association may result from detection bias or suggest an early sign for brain cancer. This study investigated whether psychiatric illness may be an early manifestation of brain cancer while considering potential effect...
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To examine the association between common comorbidities, eGFR and loci involved in the hyperuricaemia-gout transition. This study was conducted in people with gout from the UK Biobank. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and ischaemic heart di...
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Purpose Whole-grain intake assessed through self-reported methods has been suggested to be inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in epidemiological studies. However, few studies have evaluated the association between whole-grain intake and MetS risk using objective biomarkers of whole-grain intake. The aim of this study was t...
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Research on biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is ongoing. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of serum and synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) as biomarkers for PsA and their relation to disease activity indices. This case–control study involved 156 pso...
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Introduction This study aimed to evaluate the phonatory function of recovered COVID-19 survivors. The universal outbreak of COVID-19 led to the occurrence of otolaryngological manifestations that raised concerns about the assessment of the phonatory function in recovering patients. Methods This is a prospective, cross-sectional, case-controlled st...
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Science-based evidence on the association of total homocysteine (Hcy) with body mass index (BMI), as well as obesity and elevated Hcy levels, in the general population has been conflicted .The primary goals of this case control study is to evaluate the relationship between Hcy concentration and obesity in Gezira state in Sudan. A total of 221 parti...
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Background To evaluate the stiffness of the tunica albuginea (TA), we used a new noninvasive diagnostic technique called shear wave elastography (SWE). We determined whether SWE values are correlated with the degree of penile curvature, the time of disease onset, and pain severity experienced by patients during erection. This study analyzed the ela...
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Background Neonatal sepsis is a serious infection occurring within the first 28 days of life. It is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. Red cell distribution width (RDW) is estimated within the standard CBC profile and considered a simple tool for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis without additional cost. Our aim in this study is to inve...
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A case-control study was carried out in Al- Sader Medical City in AL-Najaf Governorate, Iraq, during period from 1/9/2021 to 1/3/2022. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) Antigen Rapid Test Cassette (Feces) has been used to diagnosis all patients infected with H. pylori. All patients with duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been diagnosed by a phys...
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Objective: Salivary dysfunction is one of the extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis B virus infection. Although the pathophysiology is not fully understood, it has been linked with immune complex sequelae and liver dysfunction. Unstimulated salivary flow rate is an accurate measure of salivary gland functionality. The objective of the study was...
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Background The implementation of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and further completion axillary lymph node dissection (cALND) after positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) on early invasive breast cancer patients should be cautiously tailored. Identifying predictors for SLN and non-sentinel lymph node (nSLN) metastases can help surgeons make better...
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We have recently reported a global review of vaccine effectiveness (VE) data evaluating almost 80 real-world studies [1]. At the time of data extraction (10th February 2022), the vast majority of studies were limited to two-dose primary vaccination schedules and were predominantly conducted before the emergence of the Omicron variants. To address g...
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Purpose Metformin has demonstrated a chemoprotective effect in breast cancer but there is limited evidence on the effect of cumulative exposure to metformin and the risk of hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR + /HER2-) breast cancer. This study assessed this risk with dose and intensity of metformin i...
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Background: Various reports suggested that pre-existing medical illnesses, including hypertension and other demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors, could pose an increased risk of disease severity and mortality among COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess the relation of hypertension and other factors to the severity of COVID-19 pneu...
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Introduction: Recurrent miscarriage is the most common pregnancy problem and is often defined as two or more recurrent miscarriages before the twentieth week of pregnancy. The complement system with the mechanism of lysis of bacteria and extracellular pathogens focuses on the elimination of these foreign agents and can be effective in regulating no...
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Background The burden of psychiatric illness following a head injury may have implications on the disease prognosis. The present study evaluated the association of depression and anxiety with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods A case-control study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan, from 2nd July 2021 and 30th January 2022, including individual...
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The aim of this study was to analyze the psychophysiological response of a Crohn’s Disease patient in an ultra-endurance event. The psychophysiological responses of a Crohn’s Disease and non-Crohn’s Disease participant were analysed before during and after an 8 h ultra-endurance running event. Results showed how Crohn’s patient presented a similar...
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Background: Digital dermatitis (DD) is a contagious bovine foot disease causing painful lesions, lameness, and reduced animal welfare. Previous studies indicate a complex aetiology of the disease. The aim of this study was to compare DD negative and DD positive herds to identify factors associated with DD in Norwegian dairy herds by analysing data...
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Background Early detection could significantly improve the prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD). In-invitro diagnostic technique may provide a solution when sufficient biomarkers could be identified. Pertinent associations between blood-based aberrant DNA methylation and smoking, the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and CHD have been robustly...
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Objective This study aims to evaluate neonatal and children growth outcomes of cryotransfer of embryos developed from frozen gametes [double frozen transfer (DFT)]. Methods This nested case-control study included 6,705 women who had a singleton live birth after embryo transfer at the Center for Reproductive Medicine, Shandong University, from 2008...
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Epidemiological data on depression and anxiety in Guatemala is lacking. Using 2016 National Disability Survey data, we explored the sociodemographics of people with anxiety and/or depression and its heightened burden on access to key services. The survey (n = 13,073) used the Washington Group Extended Set to estimate disability prevalence, includin...
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Background Medication adherence is suboptimal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and impacts outcomes. DMARD-free remission (DFR) is a sustainable and achievable outcome in a minority of RA patients. Different factors have been associated with DFR, although persistence in therapy (PT), a component of the adherence construct, has never been exami...
Preprint
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Background Description of risk factors of severe acute COVID-19 outcomes with the consideration of vaccination status in the era of the Omicron variant of concern are limited. Objectives To examine the association of age, sex, underlying medical conditions, and COVID-19 vaccination with hospitalization, intensive-care unit (ICU) admission, or deat...
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Vitiligo is the most common depigmenting disease characterized by achromic macules due to selective loss of melanocytes. The pathogenesis remains poorly elucidated, and multiple hypotheses exist regarding its pathogenesis. Evidence suggests that stress on melanocytes can result in activation of the immune system, and involvement of both activated c...
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Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy was reported to be associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. We investigated whether this association is consistent with a causal interpretation by accounting for familial (shared genetic and environmental) factors using family-based, quasi-experimental designs. Methods We incl...
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Background: The burden and duration of persistent symptoms after non-severe COVID-19 remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess post-infection symptom trajectories in home-isolated COVID-19 cases compared to age- and time-period matched seronegative controls, and investigate immunological correlates of long COVID. Methods: A prospective case-co...
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Celiac disease is an immune-mediated, chronic, inflammatory, and systemic illness which could affect the eye. The aim of this study is to look for possible signs of retinal involvement in celiac disease that could be utilized as biomarkers for this disease. Sixty-six patients with celiac disease and sixty-six sex-matched healthy subjects were enrol...
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Diagnosing chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIE) in cats and differentiation from intestinal lymphoma (IL) using currently available diagnostics is challenging. Intestinally expressed S100/calgranulins, measured in fecal samples, appear to be useful non-invasive biomarkers for canine CIE but have not been evaluated in cats. We hypothesized S100/...
Preprint
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There are a few studies on the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the gut microbiota but no community-based cross-sectional study. In the Iwaki Health Promotion Project (Hirosaki, Japan), we surveyed medical information and lifestyle and analyzed the gut microbiota using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique or...
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Background. Clinical laboratory diagnosis and prognosis for diabetes mellitus is performed using blood as a major specimen; however, saliva may represent as an alternative noninvasive specimen of choice. This study aims to evaluate salivary biochemical parameters in diabetic and healthy individuals to substantiate saliva’s role in the diagnosis and...
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Aim: The pathogenesis of acute diverticulitis (AD) remains incompletely understood, despite it being one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the colonic microbiome in the pathogenesis of AD. Method: A prospective case-control study was performed, comparing the microbiome...
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Background Although several clinical studies have analysed the relationship between the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apelin-13 in venous blood and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), no definitive conclusions have been reached. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between apelin-13 levels and VEGF levels and ROP...
Research
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by the uncontrolled formation of antibodies, overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines with a genetic background that is poorly understood. This case-control study comprised 80 SLE patients, SLE patients who met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteri...
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The phenome of E-cadherin gene methylation and the expression of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) gene are associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In order to determine whether cooperative LMP-1 expression or methylation of E-cadherin could serve as the potential molecule biomarker target for diagnosis and therapy of NPC, a case-control st...
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Enhanced oxidative stress-generated nucleoside damage may contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease mortality in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) but the association has never been investigated. We investigated the associations between oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA (8-oxodG) and RNA (8-oxoGuo), respectively, and three measure...
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Introduction: Remnants or the regrowth of adenoid tissue after adenoidectomy may present with clinical symptoms that could warrant a revision surgery. Aim and Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of revision adenoidectomy in our centre. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study conducted i...
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Introduction Cognitive impairment in chronic diseases such as psoriasis is an increasing clinical challenge. Objective To assess the frequency and extent of difficulties in cognitive functioning in people with psoriasis compared to healthy people. Patients and methods The systematic review was carried out on the 23rd July, 2021 by two trained psy...
Article
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Numerous studies report an association between coffee or caffeine consumption and pregnancy loss; however, the nature and strength of this relationship have not been clearly established. Based on recent studies, our meta-analysis aimed to test whether a dose–response relationship between coffee or caffeine consumption and pregnancy loss exists. We...
Preprint
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Background : The lack of knowledge of the biochemical processes in the treatment process of Lutuku constitutes a real problem. The study compares the enzymatic activity of transaminases in consumers of native Lutuku alcohol and non-consumers. Methods : This is a case-control study involving 40 Lutuku-consuming and healthy subjects. The enzymatic ac...