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Publications related to Carnivores (10,000)
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Article
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The Atlas Leopard or Barbary Leopard (Panthera pardus panthera Schreber, 1777) from North Africa. By: Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Abdallah Mohammad Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa. Abstract: The Atlas Leopard, Barbary Leopard or North African Leopard (Panthera pardus panthera Schreber, 1777) from...
Conference Paper
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Over the last two decades, research on the Acheulean multiplied in the African continent and Near East, increasing our knowledge and stimulating new debates. The chronostratigraphic framework in which Acheulean emerges and develops has been improved and lithic analyses reveal the complex scenario of its origin and the diversity and variability of t...
Article
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Background Laurasiatheria contains taxa with diverse diets, while the molecular basis and evolutionary history underlying their dietary diversification are less clear. Results In this study, we used the recently developed molecular phyloecological approach to examine the adaptive evolution of digestive system-related genes across both carnivorous...
Article
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Background Habitat loss and fragmentation in the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO) ecological corridor have negative impacts on the movement and distribution of mammalian species that are of great ecological and evolutionary importance. Part of the SMO ecological corridor that is located in the state of Hidalgo is less studied despite being a potential d...
Article
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Background Relative to temperate regions, little is known about bobcats ( Lynx rufus ) in the Sonoran Desert portion of their range, in part due to the difficulty of sampling an elusive carnivore in harsh desert environments. Here, we quantify habitat selection and evaluate diet of bobcats at Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, USA, using multi...
Article
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Addressed here is the biogeographical‐vexing question of why the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is the only large mammal on the big island of Tierra del Fuego, answered by comparing alternative colonisation hypotheses. A multidisciplinary examination was conducted into the archaeological, ecological, evolutionary, geographical, genomic, glacial and zoolog...
Article
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Monitoring carnivore populations requires sensitive and trustworthy assessment methods to make reasonable and effective management decisions. The Eurasian fish otter Lutra lutra experienced a dramatic population decline throughout Europe during the twentieth century but is currently recovering in both distribution range and population size. In Aust...
Article
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This paper reviews significant issues related to the fossil hominins from the Altai Mountains of Siberia (Russia), namely Denisovans, Neanderthals, and early modern humans. Uncritical acceptance of the recovered information by some authors has resulted in unreliable chronologies of the Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifact assemblages and the anima...
Cover Page
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Cover page of following book by Do Linh San et al. (2022): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352560208_Small_Carnivores_Evolution_Ecology_Behaviour_and_Conservation
Article
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The paleontological site of Trlica near Pljevlja in Montenegro, contains aboundant and diverse fossil mammal remains. It is the earliest Pleistocene site throughout a considerable area of the central part of the Balkan Peninsula from the river Danube in the north to the Adriatic Sea in the south. In addition to field reports and reviews with faunal...
Book
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This book focuses on the 232 species of the mammalian Order Carnivora with an average body mass < 21.5 kg. Small carnivores inhabit virtually all of the Earth's ecosystems, adopting terrestrial, semi-fossorial, (semi-)arboreal or (semi-)aquatic lifestyles. They occupy multiple trophic levels and therefore play important roles in the regulation of e...
Article
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Bay snook (Petenia splendida) is a carnivorous cichlid species with excellent economic value in Southeast Mexico. Although this species presents an excellent potential for commercial aquaculture, the information about its nutritional, physiological, and reproductive metabolic pathways is meager. The current study focuses on the expression of glucos...
Article
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Many animals have flexible morphological traits that allow them to succeed in differing circumstances with differing diets available to them. For brachyuran crabs, claw height and gut size are diet-specific and largely reflect foraging strategies, while abdomen width reflects relative levels of fecundity. However, the link between claw size and die...
Article
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Aim Functional trait‐based approach links the zooplankton community to the marine ecosystem functioning. It provides a comprehensive insight into the diversity of zooplankton ecological strategies but has rarely been used to characterize the zooplankton community in estuarine ecosystem. Here, we investigated the seasonality of mesozooplankton funct...
Chapter
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This Appendix lists the 232 small carnivore species (< 21.5 kg) that are currently recognized by the IUCN (2021). For each species, it provides alternative scientific and common names (when relevant), average body mass, global distribution, number of countries where species are native or have been introduced, as well as information on conservation...
Article
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The Turkestan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellina Blyth, 1847) is a rare and understudied subspecies of the Eurasian lynx occupying the mountains of Central and South Asia. This elusive felid’s northwestern range includes the Tien Shan and Zhetisu Alatau mountains in the border region of Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. As the first step to co...
Article
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Reconciling conflicts between wildlife conservation and other human activities is a pervasive, multifaceted issue. Large carnivores, such as the African lion Panthera leo are often the focus of such conflicts as they have significant ecological and cultural value but impose severe social and financial costs on the communities that live alongside th...
Technical Report
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This report acknowledges the importance of connectivity in this region and aims to inform proposed development plans in view of securing wildlife movements in the Bandhavgarh – Sanjay corridor. The report provides baseline information on the ecological and related aspects within the corridor. We thus attempt to understand how large carnivores n...
Preprint
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The gut microbiome provides vital functions for mammalian hosts, yet research on the variability and function of the microbiome across adult lifespans and multiple generations is limited in large mammalian carnivores. Here we use 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing to profile the taxonomic composition, genomic diversity, and metabolic function...
Article
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At least 29% of the world’s terrestrial ecosystems have been significantly modified by human activity (Ellis 2011). Total livestock biomass is 15 times greater than that of wild mammals (Bar-On et al. 2018). Crops such as maize, soybean, rice, and wheat cover 23% of available agricultural land (Ritchie and Roser 2013). Even where land is not farmed...
Article
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Mammalian carnivores with generalist feeding behaviour should trace and exploit new and predictable food resources quicker and more easily than more specialised species. On the other hand, if the new food resource is spatially and temporally predictable, interference or exploitation competition should arise among members of the carnivore guild, wit...
Thesis
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Copepods play a central role in the biological carbon pump and the functioning of the global oceans. Their remarkable taxonomic diversity raises questions on the mechanisms enabling species coexistence and the role of this high diversity in community functioning. Copepod diversity can be divided into multiple facets that include a wide array of mor...
Article
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Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used worldwide for the control of rodent pests and are the main method of control of rat pest populations in agricultural areas. The main aim of this review is to discuss the risk of ARs to non-target wildlife in oil palm areas in Southeast Asia, mainly Indonesia and Malaysia. We discussed AR use in oil palm are...
Article
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US Corn Belt landscapes are heavily anthropogenic, consisting of a vast agricultural matrix with embedded urban areas. Little non-agricultural vegetated land remains in this region. Vegetation and vegetated areas in urban settings may thus be key to supporting this region’s wildlife. We sought to assess relationships between mesopredator (mid-sized...
Article
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Understanding habitat selection of top predators is critical to predict their impacts on ecological communities and interactions with humans, particularly in recovering populations. We analyzed habitat selection in a recovering population of bobcats ( Lynx rufus ) in south-central Indiana using a Random Forest model. We predicted that bobcats would...
Article
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Context Human-modified landscapes can structure species’ distributions and supplant traditional biotic range-limiting processes. Understanding the direction and scale of these processes is necessary to enhance species conservation efforts. Objectives We investigated how the distribution of a prairie-obligate carnivore, swift fox (Vulpes velox), is...
Article
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Carnivore diet studies insight on the health of the forest. The diet and prey preference of tigers of Parsa National Park (PNP) was studied from Nov-2019 to Feb-2020. The ratio of scat sample analyzed per tiger was 3.5 scats per tiger. The scat analysis identified 10 prey species and 81 prey items in the tiger’s diet. Spotted deer was the frequentl...
Article
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Biomechanics The snap traps of the (in)famous carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) exhibit different snapping and reopening mechanics during their hunting cycle. The intrinsic biomechanics underlying leaf movement in these plants serve as promising concept generators for the development of versatile biomimetic compliant systems for e.g., s...
Article
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The northern Pacific Ocean is one of the most sensitive areas globally to climate change. Copepods typically account for between 60% and 90% of mesozooplankton in the open ocean. Because copepods are a key link in marine food webs, their response to environmental changes is an important topic in marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning relatio...
Article
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The arrival of a new carnivore can have important effects on local communities. While several effects of introduced alien species have been well documented, few studies have reported the ecological consequences of an expanding native species. Golden jackals (Canis aureus) are rapidly expanding their distribution in Europe, far beyond their historic...
Article
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Removal of apex predators can have far-reaching effects on the organization and structure of ecosystems. This occurs because apex predators can exert strong suppressive effects on their prey and competitors and perturbation of these interactions can shift the balance of interactions between dyads of species at lower trophic levels and trigger troph...
Poster
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As Germanys largest carnivore, gray seals seem to fill in the role as apex predator. They share the habitat with two other top predators – harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Whereas harbour seals are present in stable numbers in the German Wadden Sea and adjacent waters, the gray seal population is still recover...
Article
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algae and rises up from the seamount summit at 60-70 m to 17 m depth. The benthic community is mainly composed by coralline algae and sponges. Fish biomass at Davis coralline hill is dominated by carnivores, mainly top predators such as nurse sharks and large groupers. The relatively shallow reef top presents higher species richness, abundance and...
Chapter
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This Appendix provides a detailed (but non-exhaustive) list of the main small carnivoran taxa (n = 72) that have been – to date – the subject of discussions as to whether they should be attributed species or subspecies level.
Article
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The ecology and evolution of reproductive timing and synchrony has been a topic of great interest in evolutionary ecology for decades. Originally motivated by questions related to behavioural and reproductive adaptation to environmental conditions, the topic has acquired new relevance in the face of climate change. However, there has been relativel...
Article
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Pleistocene large carnivores from the Pampean Region have been studied almost always based on bone remains. Here we report the first coprolite of a large carnivore from the Late Pleistocene of the Pampean Region, Argentina. The coprolite was found associated with megafauna bone remains and it shows the typical shape and size of a carnivorous mammal...
Article
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Estudio biológico y pesquero de Pseudopimelodus schultzi (Dahl, 1955) en la cuenca media y baja del río Atrato, Chocó Biological study and fishing Pseudopimelodus schultzi (Dahl, 1955) in the basin middle and lower Atrato river, Chocó Resumen Objetivo: Se estimaron algunos aspectos biológicos y pesqueros de Pseudopimelodus schultzi en la cuenca med...
Article
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Context Anthropogenic structures have considerable effects on ecosystems, disrupting natural population processes and representing a serious risk in terms of vehicle collisions. The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a mesocarnivore species whose range is expanding in Europe. Roadkills are one of the main human-induced mortalities in Italy to the spec...
Article
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Those who claim to be committed to the moral equality of animals don’t always act as if they think all animals are equal. For instance, many animal liberationists spend hundreds, if not thousands, of dollars each year on food, toys, and medical care for their companion animals. Surely, more animals would be helped if the money spent on companion an...
Article
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In temperate estuaries, rainfall causes environmental fluctuations, such as salinity and suspended particulate matter (SPM), and can affect zooplankton distribution patterns. This study focused on the effect of temporary freshwater inflow on the composition of major zooplankton species and changes in their ecological status in the Seomjin River est...
Article
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Coral reef fish populations are declining due to multiple factors including habitat destruction, overfishing, and climate change. While these can include seasonal impact, seasonal changes can also be a confounding factor, so that seasonal monitoring is essential for detecting true temporal changes in fish community abundance and composition. Howeve...
Article
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Largehead hairtail ( Trichiurus japonicus ) is one of the most commercially important fishes in the western North Pacific. To identify the dietary changes across ontogeny and seasons, we investigated its stomach contents and stable isotope signatures (δ ¹³ C and δ ¹⁵ N) in the South Sea of Korea. The index of relative importance revealed that the d...
Article
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Does the return of large carnivores affect voting behavior? We study this question through the lens of wolf attacks on livestock. Sustained environmental conservation has allowed the wolf ( Canis lupus) to make an impressive and unforeseen comeback across Central Europe in recent years. While lauded by conservationists, local residents often see th...
Article
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(1) Background: Taenia crassiceps is a cosmopolitan tapeworm endemic to the northern hemisphere with an indirect lifecycle. Its definitive hosts are carnivores, and its intermediate hosts are rodents and rabbits. Nonhuman primates in zoos appear to be highly susceptible to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. The aim of this study was to confirm the presen...
Conference Paper
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The Neogene marine sequence of the Dwarka Basin, western India, harbours a rich haul of diverse molluscan fossils like bivalves and gastropods. The early Miocene succession (i.e., Nandana Member within Gaj Formation) hosts a siliciclastic shell bed and is faunistically dominated in terms of abundance by the turritelline gastropods (constituting ~96...
Conference Paper
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The Kutch Basin, western India is well known for its near-continuous Cenozoic marine sedimentary succession which hosts huge haul of marine molluscan fauna, especially gastropods and bivalves. Herein, a preliminary study to document the molluscan diversity of the middle Eocene (Harudi and Fulra Limestone formations) and early Oligocene (Maniyara Fo...
Article
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The attribution of mental states ( MS ) to other species typically follows a scala naturae pattern. However, “simple” mental states, including emotions, sensing, and feelings are attributed to a wider range of animals as compared to the so-called “higher” cognitive abilities. We propose that such attributions are based on the perceptual quality ( i...
Article
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This study aimed at revealing the cause of infanticide among zoo collections and proffer strategies to mitigate its occurrence. Three zoos in Nigeria were studied using empirical data from 20-year Veterinary retrospective records and circumstances surrounding the occurrence. A total of 17 infanticide cases were reported from three zoos in Nigeria;...
Article
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Although most prey have multiple predator species, few studies have quantified how prey respond to the temporal niches of multiple predators which pose different levels of danger. For example, intraspecific variation in diel activity allows white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to reduce fawn activity overlap with coyotes (Canis latrans) but f...
Article
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Identifying efficient biodiversity indicators is a key pillar of the global conservation strategy. Top predators have been proposed as reliable biodiversity signposts, but their role is controversial. Here, we verified their performance by a meta‐analysis of published studies and found solid support for their efficacy as biodiversity indicators. As...
Article
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Stomach content of the sleeper fish, Bostrychus africanus from the New Calabar river, Nigeria, was studied over a period of three months. The study was conducted to provide information on the likely nutritional requirement for the fish, if it is to be cultured. Analysis using Index of relative importance (IRI) showed that crab parts was the most im...
Article
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Carnivorous sponges (family Cladorhizidae) use small invertebrates as their main source of nutrients. We discovered a novel iridovirus (carnivorous sponge-associated iridovirus, CaSpA-IV) in Chondrocladia grandis and Cladorhiza oxeata specimens collected in the Arctic and Atlantic oceans at depths of 537–852 m. The sequenced viral genome (~190,000...
Article
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The field of plant-inspired robotics is based on principles underlying the movements and attachment and adaptability strategies of plants, which together with their materials systems serve as concept generators. The transference of the functions and underlying structural principles of plants thus enables the development of novel life-like technical...
Article
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In the face of an accelerating extinction crisis, scientists must draw insights from successful conservation interventions to uncover promising strategies for reversing broader declines. Here, we synthesize cases of recovery from a list of 362 species of large carnivores, ecologically important species that function as terminal consumers in many ec...
Preprint
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Large carnivores strongly shape ecological interactions within their respective ecosystems, but experience significant conflicts with human across their range due to their specific ecological resource requirements. The tiger (Panthera tigris) typifies the challenges faced by the large carnivore communities globally. India retains majority of the gl...
Article
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The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent signaling pathway regulates diverse cellular processes. Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent phosphatase acting in fungi mainly through Crz1, a zinc finger transcription factor. Although the likely involvement of Ca2+ in fungal carnivorism has been documented, how Crz1 functions in nematode-trapping fungi remains unknown...
Article
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Misiam is a modern wildebeest-dominated accumulation situated in a steep ravine covered with dense vegetation at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania). It is interpreted here as a leopard lair to which carcasses have been transported for several years. Felid-specific bone damage patterns, felid-typical skeletal part profiles, taxonomic specialization and the ph...
Article
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Larval didymozoids (Trematoda: Digenea) were discovered parasitizing the hemocoel of the heteropod Firoloida desmares-tia (redia mean intensity = 13) and the chaetognaths Flaccisagitta enflata and Flaccisagitta hexaptera (metacercaria mean intensity = 1) during a 2014-2016 systematic study of parasites of zooplankton collected in the central and so...
Technical Report
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The Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population is being monitored annually using non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS) and recovery of dead individuals. DNA extracted from faeces, urine, hair, and tissue is used to identify the species, sex, and individual from which each sample originated. These data have been compiled in the Scandinavian large carn...
Article
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Pastoralists and wildlife co-exist in the Somali Regional State competing for habitat, food and water resources. A questionnaire survey conducted among 198 pastoralists, captured information on their perception of wildlife against the backdrop of wildlife population decrease, illegal wildlife trade and lack of quantitative and qualitative data in t...
Article
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Cichlid fishes of the tribe Tropheini are a striking case of adaptive radiation, exemplifying multiple trophic transitions between herbivory and carnivory occurring in sympatry with other established cichlid lineages. Tropheini evolved highly specialized eco-morphologies to exploit similar trophic niches in different ways repeatedly and rapidly. To...
Article
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Protected areas serve an important role in wildlife conservation, yet most wildlife occur outside these areas, subject to varying degrees of human disturbance. In the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, American black bears (Ursus americanus), a highly mobile, opportunistic species, are common despite an extensive outdoor recreation industry with the pote...