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Carbonization - Science method

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Article
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Natural aggregate (NA) can be replaced by recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) in the construction industry, which can solve the problem of construction waste disposal and reduce the gap between demand and supply. Various methods that were used to pretreat the RCA from the published research can be divided into the removal of adhered mortar, polymer i...
Article
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The exploration of new materials as well as methods and sources of their production is a constantly growing trend in both scientific and industrial directions. One such method is carbonization, which has attracted a lot of attention over the past decades. Carbonization is the process of preparation of 3D carbonaceous materials with unique propertie...
Article
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The problem addressed is the contamination of the Yarinacocha Lagoon water by heavy metals and poor use of agricultural residues. It was manufactured activated carbon from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) pod husks and determined its adsorbent effect in removing polluting metals from the waters of the Yarinacocha Lagoon. The response surface methodology...
Article
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The treatment of the highly contaminated process water produced during the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of waste activated sludge is of major concern for the full-scale implementation of the HTC process. So far, no satisfying treatment strategies have been elaborated and the biodegradability under aerobic conditions has hardly been studied. To...
Article
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Low-cost walnut shell-based carbons with high microporosity were prepared by simple one-step carbonization with chemical activation using KOH, exhibiting the promising potential to be a very good CO2 and H2 adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of the obtained carbons were characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption isotherms, X-ray powder diffracti...
Article
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Purpose: The charring tissue formation in the ablated lesion during the microwave ablation (MWA) of tumors would induce various unwanted inflammatory responses. This paper aimed to deliver appropriate thermal dose for effective ablations while preventing tissue carbonization by optimizing the treatment protocol during MWA with the set combinations...
Article
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Background: To assess the effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using an internally-cooled wet (ICW) electrode in ex vivo bovine liver and evaluate the feasibility of the ICW electrode for benign thyroid nodules. Methods: We developed an 18-gauge ICW electrode with a microhole at the distal tip for tissue infusion of chilled (0 - 4 °C) isoton...
Article
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The conversion of poly (hexamethylene adipamide) or polyamide 66 precursor fiber to carbon fibers was accomplished through thermal stabilization and carbonization processes. Thermal stabilization was conducted of cupric chloride (CuCl 2 )–ethanol-impregnated polyamide 66 (PA66) fibers in the air. To determine the influence of heating rate on the fi...
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Three-dimensional (3D) ordered porous carbon is generally believed to be a promising electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorbing material. However, most research works targeted performance improvement of 3D ordered porous carbon, and the specific attenuation mechanism is still ambiguous. Therefore, in this work, a novel ultra-light egg-derived porous carb...
Article
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Surgical face masks waste is a source of microplastics (polymer fibres) and inorganic and organic compounds potentially hazardous for aquatic organisms during degradation in water. The monthly use of face masks in the world is about 129 billion for 7.8 billion people. Therefore, in this contribution the utilization of hazardous surgical face masks...
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Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is the fibrous lignocellulosic residue left over after crushing sugarcane to extract juice for sugar and ethanol production. In this review, a concise overview of existing thermochemical technologies for the production of biochar from SCB and its potential applications is presented and discussed. Some of the technologies use...
Article
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Civil construction is associated with several environmental impacts, such as CO2emissions during cement production and waste generation. In this context, aiming to contribute to the sustainable development of the sector, this article aims to study the effect of replacing cement by marble and granite waste (MGW) in different water/cement ratios (w/c...
Article
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This paper explores carbon capture and storage (CCS) through carbide lime waste (CLW), a by-product of acetylene production, under different conditions. This process is specifically designed to provide an onsite waste management solution for several industries that can easily be integrated into existing systems. In addition, the effect of the carbo...
Article
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Macroalgae, with short growth cycles, and high CO2 fixation capacity, are third-generation biomass mainstays that play an essential role as a global carbon sink. Macroalgal biochar plays a crucial role in soil improvement, pollutant adsorption, electrodes, and capacitors, and it has already contributed to both ecological and economic fields. Howeve...
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The production of cement is responsible for about 8% of man-made CO2-emissions. CO2-fixation by mineral carbonation in Ca- and Mg-rich raw materials such as cement-based concrete in various stages of its lifetime and magnesium silicate-based rocks (e.g. olivine) can provide a significant and long-lasting sink of CO2. Carbonated material can be used...
Article
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Carbonation of cement-based materials may lead to durability problems, so that it is necessary to find a way to reduce the effect of carbonation on concrete durability. This study investigated the effects of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on the durability of carbonated cement-based materials. Two dosages of CNFs were used to prepare cement pastes an...
Article
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Many types of sustainably-prepared functional biochar catalysts are needed to transform biomass substrates into platform chemicals. In this work, weak-acid biochar catalysts were prepared by mix ball-milled (10 min, isothermal, room temperature) cherry blossom tree leaf biomass (BM) with humic acid (H) prior to carbonization of samples for 1 h unde...
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Binderless poplar/bismuth oxide wood alloy is prepared using the warm-press forming technology. The effect of the forming temperatures on color changes and mechanical properties of the poplar/bismuth oxide wood alloy is studied. The results show that the surface color of the specimen gradually darkened as the forming temperature increased. There is...
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This study investigated the valorisation of Delonix regia stem wastes for thermal energy and material recovery. Using a retort heated carbonization reactor, the waste biomass was thermochemically converted to biochar via the carbonization method. The proximate analyses of the stem feedstock was determined, and the result showed that it is made up o...
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An Fe ³⁺ -impregnation method was improved to disperse Fe ³⁺ in wood powder more homogeneously, and the wood powder was carbonized at various temperatures. The obtained iron-loaded charcoal samples were analyzed using Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy to understand the effects of the improved method on the reduction of Fe ³⁺ and graphitization. G′(2...
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Construction sludge generated from underground and pile construction works frequently appears in a liquid state. For its utilization as a construction geomaterial, it can be improved by mixing in cement or lime. The target strength can be achieved relatively easily by adjusting the amount of cement or lime added to the sludge. However, this type of...
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Developing novel techniques to convert lignin into sustainable chemicals and functional materials is a critical route toward the high-value utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin-derived carbon materials hold great promise for applications in energy and chemical engineering, catalysis and environmental remediation. In this review, the state...
Article
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Hydrochar has potential applications in soil improvement and heavy metal remediation. Hydrochar would undergo the process of aging when introduced into the soil, altering its properties. However, recent studies have focused mainly on the artificial aging of hydrochar, which could not reveal the cumulative effect of multiple environmental factors. T...
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Durability is an important aspect of reliability of concrete structures. In order to establish the carbonation model of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber concrete including the influences of PVA fiber length and volume content, a series of accelerated carbonation experiments were carried out on the normal concrete specimens and PVA fiber concrete speci...
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The electroreduction reaction of CO 2 (ECO 2 RR) requires high-performance catalysts to convert CO 2 into useful chemicals. Transition metal-based atomically dispersed catalysts are promising for the high selectivity and activity in ECO 2 RR. This work presents a series of atomically dispersed Co, Fe bimetallic catalysts by carbonizing the Fe-intro...
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The Coca-Cola company utilizes PVC label films for its product packaging, which may be due to their high physicochemical durability. However, these films are less recycled in comparison with other plastics due to their release of chlorine-based chemicals, leading to environmental pollution on a global scale. In this study, Coca-Cola PVC label films...
Chapter
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Lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer after cellulose. It has high molecular weight and poor dispersity, which lowers its compatibility with other polymeric materials. Accordingly, it is hard to integrate lignin into polymer-based applications in its native form. Recently, lignin valorization, which aims to boost lignin value and react...
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As cheap and renewable sources, the exploitation of biomass resources was of great value in phase change energy storage. In this study, hemp stems were converted into biochars with three-dimensional multi-level anisotropic pores through a temperature-controlled charring process, which were used as supports for polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) to form...
Conference Paper
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Resumo O bioconcreto de bambu (BCB) é um material compósito, onde os agregados são partículas de bambu incorporados a uma matriz cimentícia, que se mostra como uma atrativa alternativa para o setor da construção devido sua menor pegada de carbono e eficiência energética quando aplicado em edificações. Contudo, se faz necessário avaliar o comportame...
Article
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In the present study, crystalline cellulose biomass material was converted into carbon nanoparticles via carbonization to activated carbon with micropores of various sizes. This was subsequently subjected to aqueous counter collision (ACC) to produce hydrophobic porous functional particles. Initially, raw crystalline cellulose material was carboniz...
Article
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Porous carbon materials (specific area over 2400 m2 g−1) were obtained from birch wood chips, the waste of its thermochemical processing water-insoluble lignocellulosic pyrolysis tar, and their mixture, by thermochemical activation with NaOH at 800 °C. Raw materials were carbonized by two methods: pyrolysis (500 °C) and hydrothermal (250 °C) treatm...
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This review deals with the simulation and optimization of the dry- and wet-torrefaction processes of lignocellulosic biomass. The torrefaction pretreatment regards the production of enhanced biofuels and other materials. Dry torrefaction is a mild pyrolytic treatment method under an oxidative or non-oxidative atmosphere and can improve lignocellulo...
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Activated Carbon Sequence (AC) was prepared based on the date seeds that are widely found in Iraq nature. Activated carbon preparation process done by dual-step heating & chemical activations with KOH and ZnCl2 and investigated for the adsorption of vital bacteria from river water. The impact of different preparation conditions, such as temperature...
Article
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Nanocarbons with single‐metal atoms (M‐SAs) have displayed considerable potential in various fields of application due to high free energy of M‐SAs and strong metal‐support interaction. However, the uniform dispersion of M‐SAs within the whole carbon matrix still remains a great challenge. Herein, Ni‐SAs are uniformly dispersed within hierarchicall...
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This paper explores whether economic globalization is (de)carbonizing the MENA region. Based on a comprehensive econometric analysis including ARDL and NARDL models for a panel of 17 MENA countries over the 1980–2018 period, it reveals the existence of asymmetric long-term impacts of economic globalization on CO2 emissions. As economic globalizatio...
Article
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Carbon aerogels have attracted increasing interest as electrode material and conductive template for supercapacitors due to their unique porous structure and strong electrical conductivity. However, the satisfactory strategy for fabricating carbon aerogels with excellent electrochemical performance remains to be explored. Herein, polyimide aerogels...
Article
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In this study, the effect of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of waste PVC was investigated in the presence of acidic hydrochar. The hydrochar was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of pineapple waste at 250 °C and at 1 h in the presence of citric acid. Hydrochar was acidic, stable, and porous and contained acidic functional groups. Hydrochar wa...
Article
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Passive solar‐driven interfacial evaporation is an environmental‐friendly approach for seawater desalination. However, non‐volatile salts usually precipitate on the evaporator surface during evaporation, significantly reducing the evaporation rate and blocking the evaporator. Although several strategies have been proposed for this issue, they are u...
Article
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Carbon dioxide and combustion products are among the main waste streams deriving from the energy sector. Efficient and cost-effective methods of solid waste valorization and carbon capture, storage and utilization are needed in the transition period towards carbon neutrality in light of the recent scenarios forecasting energy demand and energy supp...
Article
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Concrete durability degradation problems have received considerable attention in both research field and concrete industry during recent decades. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, various numerical models have been put forward aiming at widely concerned scientific issues involved in the entire life cycle of concrete structures: ionic...
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The low deposition time efficiency and small thickness limit the expansion of polydopamine (PDA) application to fiber-reinforced high-temperature ceramic composites. In this work, the electric field-assisted polymerization (EFAP) route was developed to improve the deposition time efficiency of PDA coating and overcome the thickness limitation. Carb...
Article
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The corn straw hydrochar was prepared by a two-step method of hydrothermal carbonization and chemical activation. Hydrochar (HC) is a promising adsorbent due to its porous and abundant carbon structure. Chemical activation can improve the HC surface structure and properties and enhance the HC adsorption capacity. In this study, different concentrat...
Article
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The properties of the carbon materials obtained as the final product of coal tar pitch carbonization process are a consequence of the type of chemical and physical phenomena occurring through the process. A new simplified approach for modeling of the primary carbonization is presented to provide the semi-quantitative knowledge about the process use...
Article
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Porous carbon materials derived from waste biomass have received broad interest in supercapacitor research due to their high specific surface area, good electrical conductivity, and excellent electrochemical performance. In this work, Momordica grosvenori shell-derived porous carbons (MGCs) were synthesized by high-temperature carbonization and sub...
Preprint
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CO2 mineralization via aqueous Mg/Ca/Na-carbonate (MgCO3/CaCO3/Na2CO3) formation represents a huge opportunity for the utilization of captured CO2. However, large-scale mineralization is hindered by slow kinetics due to the highly hydrated character of the cations in aqueous solutions (Mg2+ in particular). Reaction conditions can be optimized to ac...
Article
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Surface carbonization, or charring, of wood is a one-sided modification method primarily intended for protection of exterior cladding boards. The heavily degraded surface acts as a barrier layer shielding the interior from environmental stresses, and as such acts as an organic coating. To test the durability of surfaces created in this manner, unmo...
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The need to mitigate the CO2 emissions deriving from the cement industry becomes imperative as the climate crisis advances. An effective strategy to achieve this is increasing the replacement level of cement clinkers by waste-derived supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). In this study, the use of mechanochemically activated biomass ash for h...
Article
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Aim. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of the two modes of 940 nm diode lasers on gingival depigmentation. Methods. Twenty patients (11 females and 9 males) participated in this study; they were free of any systemic or local condition and randomly assembled into two groups: continuous wave (CW) and pulsed groups, in contact modes. The di...
Article
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Pore structure and composition of cement paste are the main two factors in controlling the sulfate attack on concrete, but the influence of carbonization on pore structure and composition is often ignored in sulfate attack. Therefore, will the damage performance of concrete partially exposed to sulfate solution be different avoiding the alterations...
Article
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The application of transition metal oxides/hydroxides in energy storage has long been studied by researchers. In this paper, the core-shell CNFs@Ni(OH)2/NiO composite electrodes were prepared by calcining carbon nanofibers (CNFs) coated with Ni(OH)2 under an N2 atmosphere, in which NiO was generated by the thermal decomposition of Ni(OH)2. After lo...
Article
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In this work, the properties of concrete modified with dosages of natural pozzolans (NP) in substitution of cement or superfine aggregates were evaluated. Proportions of 20/80 pozzolan/cement or pozzolan/superfine aggregates were selected for the additions of quarry and tuff pozzolans. Pozzolanic activity, durability, compressive strength, characte...
Conference Paper
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Biomass carbonization, particularly (charcoal making), serves as a source of livelihood in rural areas, especially in developing countries. Charcoal is also used as a reducing agent during the pyro-metallurgical extraction of iron from its ores. In the conventional method of biomass carbonization; the release of lots of smoke that contains harmful...
Article
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Desalinated sea sand concrete (DSSC) is increasingly used to mitigate the shortage of natural river sand. However, one major concern lies in the corrosion risks of reinforcing steel embedded in DSSC under combined chloride and carbon dioxide attacks. To understand the corrosion mechanism, the corrosion process of steel reinforcement embedded in the...
Article
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The addition of protein-based additives (e.g. milk, egg white, animal blood) into lime mortars can improve mortar properties such as workability, strengths and durability. With the intent to understand how and why proteinaceous additives improve lime mortar properties, it could be useful to start from the basic building blocks of proteins amino aci...
Preprint
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Microbiological weathering of coarse residue deposit (CRD) kimberlite produced by the Venetia Diamond Mine, Limpopo, South Africa enhanced mineral carbonation relative to untreated material. Cultures of photosynthetically enriched biofilm produced maximal carbonation conditions when mixed with kimberlite and incubated under near surface conditions....